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1

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

Reese, E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kimbrough, R.D. [Inst. for Evaluating Health Risks, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01

2

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

1993-01-01

3

Gasoline containing exhaust emission reducing additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust hydrocarbon emissions from an internal combustion engine being operated on gasoline containing a cyclopentadienyl manganese antiknock are reduced by the addition of an exhaust emission reducing amount of a polyester of a polymerized carboxylic acid to the gasoline.

Niebylski

1981-01-01

4

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

2010-07-01

5

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

2013-07-01

6

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

2011-07-01

7

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

2014-07-01

8

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

2010-07-01

9

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

2011-07-01

10

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

2010-07-01

11

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

2014-07-01

12

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

2011-07-01

13

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

2011-07-01

14

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

2012-07-01

15

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

2012-07-01

16

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

2013-07-01

17

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

2014-07-01

18

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

2010-07-01

19

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

2013-07-01

20

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

2012-07-01

21

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

2013-07-01

22

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

2014-07-01

23

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

2012-07-01

24

Toxicity of gasoline aqueous-leachate through sand-clay columns  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to understand the effect clay type and clay concentration may exert on the toxicity of the percolating water around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank. This situation in the laboratory was simulated using sand-clay columns. The experiment was conducted with two types of clays (kaolinite and illite) and three clay concentrations (0, 5 or 10%). The gasoline (0, 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8 mL) was injected through a hole in the middle of the column. After 24 hours of gasoline injection 100 mL of deionized water was added to the column and the leachate was tested for toxicity (EC[sub 50]) using the marine luminescent bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum). Leachate from the pure sand column was less toxic than the control but was more toxic than from the columns with clay. The addition of clay significantly reduced both the toxicity and the hydraulic conductivity. The toxicity increased significantly with the increase in gasoline concentration up to 0.5 mL but decreased with 0.8 mL gasoline. Using the concentrations of clay and the gasoline and the hydraulic conductivity a regression equation (R[sup 2] = 0.77) was calculated to predict the toxicity of the gasoline aqueous leachate. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Gupta, G.; Li, Y. (Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne (United States))

1993-05-01

25

Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world’s largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile

R. H. McKee; G. W. Trimmer; F. T. Whitman; C. S. Nessel; C. R. Mackerer; R. Hagemann; R. A. J. Priston; A. J. Riley; G. Cruzan; B. J. Simpson; J. H. Urbanus

2000-01-01

26

Means of reducing the lead in automobile gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a discussion in six chapters of the effects of lead compounds in gasoline on various forms of life, world developments in controlling pollutants emitted in automobile exhaust, the refining methods used to produce gasoline, and means of reducing and eventually eliminating the lead content of gasoline.

Not Available

1986-01-01

27

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

2012-07-01

28

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

2014-07-01

29

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

2013-07-01

30

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

2011-07-01

31

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

2011-07-01

33

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

2010-07-01

34

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

2010-07-01

35

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

2014-07-01

36

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

2013-07-01

37

Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit.  

PubMed

Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world's largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile fraction of formulated gasoline and the material with which humans are most likely to come in contact. The study was of standard design. Exposures were by inhalation at target concentrations of 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 mg/m(3). The highest exposure concentration was approximately 50% of the lower explosive limit and several orders of magnitude above anticipated exposure during refueling. There were no treatment-related clinical or systemic effects in the parental animals, and no microscopic changes other than hyaline droplet nephropathy in the kidneys of the male rats. None of the reproductive parameters were affected, and there were no deleterious effects on offspring survival and growth. The potential for endocrine modulation was also assessed by analysis of sperm count and quality as well as time to onset of developmental landmarks. No toxicologically important differences were found. Therefore, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in this study was > or =20 000 mg/m(3). The only systemic effects, in the kidneys of the male rats, were consistent with an alpha-2 u-globulin-mediated process. This is a male rat-specific effect and not relevant to human health risk assessment. PMID:10908837

McKee, R H; Trimmer, G W; Whitman, F T; Nessel, C S; Mackerer, C R; Hagemann, R; Priston, R A; Riley, A J; Cruzan, G; Simpson, B J; Urbanus, J H

2000-01-01

38

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Gasoline-vapor condensate (BGVC) or condensed vapors from gasoline blended with methyl t-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME) diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via inhalation on gestation days (GD) 5-20 for 6h/day at levels of 0 (control filtered air), 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). These exposure durations and levels substantially exceed typical consumer exposure during refueling (<1-7mg/m(3), 5min). Dose responsive maternal effects were reduced maternal body weight and/or weight change, and/or reduced food consumption. No significant malformations were seen in any study. Developmental effects occurred at 20,000mg/m(3) of G/TAME (reduced fetal body weight, increased incidence of stunted fetuses), G/TBA (reduced fetal body weight, increased skeletal variants) and G/DIPE (reduced fetal weight) resulting in developmental NOAEL of 10,000mg/m(3) for these materials. Developmental NOAELs for other materials were 20,000mg/m(3) as no developmental toxicity was induced in those studies. Developmental NOAELs were equal to or greater than the concurrent maternal NOAELs which ranged from 2000 to 20,000mg/m(3). There were no clear cut differences in developmental toxicity between vapors of gasoline and gasoline blended with the ether or alcohol oxygenates. PMID:24845242

Roberts, Linda G; Gray, Thomas M; Trimmer, Gary W; Parker, Robert M; Murray, F Jay; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

2014-11-01

39

Reproductive and developmental toxicity of the components of gasoline.  

PubMed Central

The reproductive, developmental, and postnatal toxicity of 14 select chemicals and mixtures that are components of gasoline has been reviewed. The majority of experimental analyses have been performed as either variations of the accepted segment 2 protocol or as traditional teratology studies. Specific deficiencies in the present database have been identified and are most obvious in the evaluation of reproductive and postnatal effects. It is recommended that future studies address the continuing need for assessment in multiple species and over a range of dosages with specific emphasis on the impact of route of administration on the results obtained. PMID:8020438

Skalko, R G

1993-01-01

40

Development of a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for a gasoline surrogate for gasoline HCCI combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of 48 species and 67 reactions is developed and validated for a gasoline surrogate fuel. The surrogate fuel is modeled as a blend of iso-octane, n-heptane, and toluene. The mechanism reduction is performed using sensitivity analysis, investigation of species concentrations, and consideration of the main reaction path. Comparison between ignition delay times calculated using

Kyeonghyeon Lee; Yongrae Kim; Kyoungdoug Min

2010-01-01

41

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

42

Toxicity of prolonged exposure to ethanol and gasoline autoengine exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

A comparative chronic inhalation exposure study was performed to investigate the potential health effects of gasoline and ethanol engine exhaust fumes. Test atmospheres of gasoline and ethanol exhaust were given to Wistar rats and Balb C mice housed in inhalation chambers for a period of 5 weeks. Gas concentration and physical parameters were continually monitored during the exposure period. Several biological parameters were assessed after the exposure including pulmonary function, mutagenicity, and hematological, biochemical, and morphological examinations. The results demonstrated that the chronic toxicity of the gasoline-fueled engine is significantly higher than that of the ethanol engine.

Massad, E.; Saldiva, P.H.; Saldiva, C.D.; Caldeira, M.P.; Cardoso, L.M.; de Morais, A.M.; Calheiros, D.F.; da Silva, R.; Boehm, G.M.

1986-08-01

43

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention

Joe Mauderly; JeanClare Seagrave; Jacob McDonald; Andrew Gigliotti; Kristen Nikula; Steven Seilkop; Michael Gurevich

2002-01-01

44

Impact of Unleaded Gasoline in Reducing Emissions in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country c oncerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diese l as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasol ine. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are

S. Halim Hamid

2001-01-01

45

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: subchronic inhalation toxicity.  

PubMed

Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone. PMID:25020274

Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M

2014-11-01

46

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

47

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

48

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25

49

Hydrocarbon conversion process. [production of gasoline blending stock using etherated gasoline to reduce emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is given for producing gasoline blending stock which comprises (a) feeding an alcohol and a light hydrocarbon mixture containing at least tertiary olefins, linear olefins and isobutane to an etheration zone, (b) reacting the alcohol with the tertiary olefins in the etheration zone to obtain an ether and unreacted linear olefins and isobutane, (c) separating the ether from

R. H. Kozlowski; R. P. Sieg; J. W. Scott

1975-01-01

50

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal anomalies. Exposure to 20,000mg/m(3) of BGVC produced slight reductions in maternal body weight/gain and decreased fetal body weight. G/MTBE exposure did not produce statistically significant maternal or developmental effects; however, two uncommon ventral wall closure defects occurred: gastroschisis (1 fetus at 10,000mg/m(3)) and ectopia cordis (1 fetus at 2000mg/m(3); 2 fetuses/1 litter at 10,000mg/m(3)). A second study (G/MTBE-2) evaluated similar exposure levels on GD 5-16 and an additional group exposed to 30,000mg/m(3) from GD 5-10. An increased incidence of cleft palate was observed at 30,000mg/m(3) G/MTBE. No ectopia cordis occurred in the replicate study, but a single observation of gastroschisis was observed at 30,000mg/m(3). The no observed adverse effect levels for maternal/developmental toxicity in the BGVC study were 10,000/2000mg/m(3), 20,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE study, and 10,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE-2 study. PMID:24979735

Roberts, L G; Gray, T M; Marr, M C; Tyl, R W; Trimmer, G W; Hoffman, G M; Murray, F J; Clark, C R; Schreiner, C A

2014-11-01

51

United States experience with gasoline additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

History, benefits and problems associated with gasoline additives in the United States were reviewed. To reduce air toxics and ozone in highly air-polluted areas of the country, oxygenates will continue to be added to gasoline until an alternative is sought and approved by the Congress of the United States. In near future, the use of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE)

Farhad Nadim; Peter Zack; George E. Hoag; Shili Liu

2001-01-01

52

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: reproductive toxicity assessment.  

PubMed

Vapor condensates of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline-blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for reproductive toxicity in rats at target concentrations of 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3), 6h/day, 7days/week. BGVC and G/MTBE were assessed over two generations, the others for one generation. BGVC and G/MTBE F1 offspring were evaluated for neuropathology and changes in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein content. No neurotoxicity was observed. Male kidney weight was increased consistent with light hydrocarbon nephropathy. In adult rats, decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight were seen. Spleen weight decreased in adults and pups exposed to G/TBA. No pathological changes to reproductive organs occurred in any study. Decreased food consumption was seen in G/TAME lactating females. Transient decreases in G/TAME offspring weights were observed during lactation. Except for a minor increase in time to mating in G/TBA which did not affect other reproductive parameters, there were no adverse reproductive findings. The NOAEL for reproductive and offspring parameters was 20,000mg/m(3) for all vapor condensates except for lower offspring NOAELs of 10,000mg/m(3) for G/TBA and 2000mg/m(3) for G/TAME. PMID:24813181

Gray, Thomas M; Steup, David; Roberts, Linda G; O'Callaghan, James P; Hoffman, Gary; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

2014-11-01

53

Abstract--Transportation electrification is viewed as one of the most viable ways of reducing CO2 emissions and gasoline  

E-print Network

emissions and gasoline dependency. However, how to manage the dramatically increasing Plug-in Hybrid as a viable solution to increase fuel economy and to reduce emissions of vehicles so that a higher level

Zhang, Hongwei

54

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15

55

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: an approach to minimize environmental pollution risk.  

PubMed

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations. PMID:16930589

Paixão, J F; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B L; Carvalho, G C; Silveira, J S C; Rebouças, M; Matias, G R A; Rodrigues, I L P

2007-03-01

56

Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

Lim, Shinling

57

Gasoline conservation: a procedure for measuring and reducing the driving of college students  

PubMed Central

The study sought to motivate college students to reduce the number of miles they drove each day and thus save gasoline. Students in two psychology classes were divided by class into two groups. The experimental group was offered various combinations of prizes such as cash, a tour of a mental-health facility, car servicing, and a university parking sticker for reducing driving. The value of the prize received was scaled in terms of per cent reduction in driving. The contrast group received no inducements. The condition in which the experimental group's mileage reduction was reinforced was counterbalanced by two baseline conditions. Several special recording procedures were used to reduce and detect the possibility of subjects altering their odometers, the source of the driving data. Experimental subjects reduced their average daily mileage by 20% relative to the initial baseline; the contrast group did not change. During the one-month reinforcement condition, the 12 experimental subjects saved some 170 gallons (worth $102) of gasoline. PMID:16795548

Foxx, R. M.; Hake, D. F.

1977-01-01

58

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

59

Reduced chemistry for a gasoline surrogate valid at engine-relevant conditions  

E-print Network

A detailed mechanism for the four-component gasoline surrogate developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has shown good agreement with experiments in engine-relevant conditions. However, with 1388 species and 5933 reversible reactions, this detailed mechanism is far too large to use in practical engine simulations. Therefore, reduction of the detailed mechanism was performed using a multi-stage approach consisting of the DRGEPSA method, unimportant reaction elimination, isomer lumping, and analytic QSS reduction based on CSP analysis. A new greedy sensitivity analysis algorithm was developed and demonstrated to be capable of removing more species for the same error limit compared to the conventional sensitivity analysis used in DRG-based skeletal reduction methods. Using this new greedy algorithm, several skeletal and reduced mechanisms were developed at varying levels of complexity and for different target condition ranges. The final skeletal and reduced mechanisms consisted of 213 and 148 species,...

Niemeyer, Kyle E

2014-01-01

60

Humic substances reduce bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The role of humic substances in the aquatic environment on the availability and toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants is reviewed. Organic contaminants associated with humics appear to be essentially unavailable for uptake by amphipods, daphnids, and fish. Acute toxicity of these compounds is also diminished proportionally. Since the affinity of organic solutes for binding to humics is related to their hydrophobicity, the effect of humics is significant only for compounds with octanol-water partition coefficients >10/sup 4/. In most cases, association of toxic metals with humics reduces the uptake and toxic effects of the contaminants. However, complex interactions among the toxicants, humic ligands, other transition metals and major cations in solution, and the carrier proteins on biological membranes make it difficult to generalize and predict any reduction in accumulation and toxicity of metals. Humic substances may have secondary effects on uptake and accumulation of toxicants by biota through their role in altering the transport and fate of pollutants.

McCarthy, J.F.

1987-01-01

61

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01

62

Reduce toxic hazards using passive mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of the Risk Management Program Rule promulgated under Section 112(r) of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments is to prevent the accidental release of those chemicals that pose the greatest threat to the public and the environment, and to encourage emergency preparedness to mitigate the severity of such releases. The Rule requires facility owners to identify, evaluate, and communicate to the public any potential worst-case scenarios that could involve accidental releases of toxic and flammable substances. A worst-case scenario is defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, DC) as: {hor_ellipsis}the release of the largest quantity of a regulated substance from a vessel or process line failure that results in the greatest distance to an endpoint. When designing systems to store or process hazardous materials, passive-mitigation methods--those that function without human, mechanical, or energy input--should be considered. Such systems contain or limit a potential release of hazardous materials. And, because they have no mechanical requirements, passive-mitigation techniques are considered more reliable than active methods, such as emergency-shutdown and water-spray systems. Passive mitigation should also be considered when defining potential release scenarios and modeling hazard zones.

Flamberg, S.A.; Torti, K.S.; Myers, P.M. [ERM-Four Elements, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-07-01

63

Reducing industrial toxic wastes and discharges: The role of POTWs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intended for use by elected and appointed local officials, the guidebook makes recommendations as to how publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) can promote hazardous waste minimization. The guide suggests that POTWs can significantly reduce their toxic discharges to the sewer (without transferral of same pollutants to another media) by developing programs which combine features of three options - educational programs that

S. Sherry; J. Corbett; T. Eulo

1988-01-01

64

In Vitro Relative Toxicity Screening of Combined Particulate and semivolatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine technology modifications designed to reduce engine emissions are likely to alter the physicochemical characteristics of the emissions. These changes may alter the biological effects of the emissions, but these effects cannot currently be predicted from the physical and chemical properties. Rapid in vitro toxicity screening techniques to compare the biological effects of emission samples would be useful as preliminary

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Steven K. Seilkop

2003-01-01

65

Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments  

SciTech Connect

A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture{trademark} condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox{reg_sign} Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products.

Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Quebec (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Siron, R. [INRS-Oceanologie, Rimovski, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

66

Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of

Shing Tet Leong; S Muttamara; Preecha Laortanakul

2002-01-01

67

Selected ebselen analogs reduce mechlorethamine toxicity in vitro.  

PubMed

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant. The lack of an effective antidote makes SM a continued threat to both military and civilian settings. A surrogate agent, namely mechlorethamine (HN2), was used here to mimic the toxicity of SM, and the main objective of this study was to demonstrate if selected organoselenium analogs could protect cultured A-431 skin cells from HN2 toxicity. Test compounds included ebselen (EB-1) and three related organoselenium analogs (EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4). In the absence of test compound, a reproducible and robust cell death was observed in the cells following incubation with HN2 (25?µM, 24 or 48?h) while cells treated with test compound alone (15, 30 or 60?µM) for similar periods of time were generally not affected. When incubated in the presence of both HN2 and test compound for 24 or 48?h, it was found that EB-1, EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4 could spare the cells from death, with the EB-4 compound being the most effective at reducing HN2 toxicity. Light microscopy confirmed these findings. The organoseleniums were also examined for their effects on reducing lipid peroxidation in the A-431 skin cells. Among the test compounds, EB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation by HN2 to the greatest extent. These studies, taken together, validate that the organoselenium antioxidants tested here may serve a purpose in the discovery of medical countermeasures to vesicants. PMID:23734969

Pino, Maria A; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Billack, Blase

2014-03-01

68

Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

2009-07-01

69

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845...

2014-07-01

70

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845...

2011-07-01

71

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845...

2013-07-01

72

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845...

2012-07-01

73

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845...

2010-07-01

74

Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption  

E-print Network

for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucksCost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b

Michalek, Jeremy J.

75

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NOX , and toxics emissions performance standards to which the gasoline is subject. ...appropriate for the gasoline. (2) Per-gallon values for toxic emissions performance reduction...NOX , and toxic emissions performance reduction...with a batch of gasoline (in percent...

2014-07-01

76

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NOX , and toxics emissions performance standards to which the gasoline is subject. ...appropriate for the gasoline. (2) Per-gallon values for toxic emissions performance reduction...NOX , and toxic emissions performance reduction...with a batch of gasoline (in percent...

2013-07-01

77

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NOX , and toxics emissions performance standards to which the gasoline is subject. ...appropriate for the gasoline. (2) Per-gallon values for toxic emissions performance reduction...NOX , and toxic emissions performance reduction...with a batch of gasoline (in percent...

2012-07-01

78

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NOX , and toxics emissions performance standards to which the gasoline is subject. ...appropriate for the gasoline. (2) Per-gallon values for toxic emissions performance reduction...NOX , and toxic emissions performance reduction...with a batch of gasoline (in percent...

2010-07-01

79

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NOX , and toxics emissions performance standards to which the gasoline is subject. ...appropriate for the gasoline. (2) Per-gallon values for toxic emissions performance reduction...NOX , and toxic emissions performance reduction...with a batch of gasoline (in percent...

2011-07-01

80

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Axial Thruster and ACS Thruster Combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

81

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

82

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

83

RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

84

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...gasoline is, with regard to such gasoline, exempt from the independent...oxygenate blender of California gasoline that elects to meet any benzene...oxygen content, or toxics emission reduction standard specified...shall, with regard to such gasoline that is produced or...

2014-07-01

85

Unusual lipid structures selectively reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B  

SciTech Connect

Ribbon-like structures result when amphotericin B interacts with lipid in an aqueous environment. At high ratios of amphotericin to lipid these structures, which are lipid-stabilized amphotericin aggregates, become prevalent resulting in a dramatic attenuation of amphotericin-mediated mammalian cell, but not fungal cell, toxicity. Studies utilizing freeze-etch electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, {sup 31}P NMR, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy revealed that this toxicity attenuation is related to the macromolecular structure of the complexes in a definable fashion. It is likely that amphotericin in this specific form will have a much improved therapeutic utility.

Janoff, A.S.; Boni, L.T.; Popescu, M.C.; Minchey, S.R.; Cullis, P.R.; Madden, T.D.; Taraschi, T.; Gruner, S.M.; Shyamsunder, E.; Tate, M.W.; Mendelsohn, R.; Bonner, D. (Liposome Company, Inc., Princeton, NJ (USA))

1988-08-01

86

Ammonium reduces chromium toxicity in the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of ammonium (NH4 (+)) on Cr toxicity to the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris. We followed an array of cellular functions and biomolecules in C. vulgaris cells exposed to 50 or 100 ?M Cr at three different initial NH4 (+) concentrations (0.5, 3, and 10 mM). The results showed that Cr strongly inhibited cell yield of C. vulgaris, but 10 mM NH4 (+) could decrease by more than two-fold Cr toxicity on cell yield compared to exposure to 0.5 mM NH4 (+). Cr toxicity on gene transcripts and cellular substructure was also much lower at high than at low NH4 (+). Our results suggest that this protecting effect of NH4 (+) on intracellular Cr toxicity could be due to several factors, such as enhance uptake of phosphorus, increase in C and N assimilation efficiency, and increase transcription of photosynthesis-related genes. PMID:25421561

Liu, Jingqing; Sun, Zhengqi; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Bai, Xiaocui; Qian, Haifeng

2015-04-01

87

Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

Campbell, Brian

2010-01-01

88

Mutagenicity and in vivo toxicity of combined particulate and semivolatile organic fractions of gasoline and diesel engine emissions.  

PubMed

Exposure to engine emissions is associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the relative effects of emissions produced by different operating conditions, fuels, or technologies. Rapid screening techniques are needed to compare the biological effects of emissions with different characteristics. Here, we examined a set of engine emission samples using conventional bioassays. The samples included combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound fractions of emissions collected from normal- and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles collected at 72 degrees F, and from normal-emitter groups collected at 30 degrees F. The relative potency of the samples was determined by statistical analysis of the dose-response curves. All samples induced bacterial mutagenicity, with a 10-fold range of potency among the samples. Responses to intratracheal instillation in rats indicated generally parallel rankings of the samples by multiple endpoints reflecting cytotoxic, inflammatory, and lung parenchymal changes, allowing selection of a more limited set of parameters for future studies. The parameters selected to assess oxidative stress and macrophage function yielded little useful information. Responses to instillation indicated little difference in potency per unit of combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound mass between normal-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles, or between emissions collected at different temperatures. However, equivalent masses of emissions from high-emitter vehicles of both types were more potent than those from normal-emitters. While preliminary in terms of assessing contributions of different emissions to health hazards, the results indicate that a subset of this panel of assays will be useful in providing rapid, cost-effective feedback on the biological impact of modified technology. PMID:12441366

Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob D; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Nikula, Kristen J; Seilkop, Steven K; Gurevich, Michael; Mauderly, Joe L

2002-12-01

89

Dissolved organic carbon reduces uranium bioavailability and toxicity. 2. Uranium[VI] speciation and toxicity to three tropical freshwater organisms.  

PubMed

The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the toxicity of uranium (U) to three Australian tropical freshwater species, the Northern Trout Gudgeon (Mogurnda mogurnda), green hydra (Hydra viridissima) and unicellular green alga (Chlorella sp.) was assessed. Exposures were conducted in synthetic soft water without DOC and with DOC added in the form of standard Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). Organisms were exposed to a range of U concentrations at a range of DOC concentrations (0-20 mg L(-1)). U toxicity was up to 20 times less in water containing 20 mg L(-1) DOC, relative to DOC-free test waters. U toxicity was also assessed using natural water from a tropical Australian billabong containing 10 mg L(-1) DOC. U toxicity was up to ten times less in the billabong water, relative to DOC--free test waters. SRFA was twice as effective at reducing U toxicity as the billabong water at equivalent DOC concentrations. Geochemical speciation modeling confirmed the decreased U toxicity that resulted from both DOC sources was primarily due to a decrease in the free uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) through complexation with DOC. A predictive model is presented for each of the organisms that can be used to predict U toxicity at a given U and DOC concentration. PMID:21351800

Trenfield, Melanie A; Ng, Jack C; Noller, Barry N; Markich, Scott J; Dam, Rick A van

2011-04-01

90

Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

Louv, Richard

2006-01-01

91

Electric car Gasoline car  

E-print Network

ENAC/ Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares of an electric vehicle? Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares preference survey with choice situation contexts involving gasoline cars (Renault and competitors

92

Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

2014-01-01

93

Reduce Toxic Exposures: Get Involved and Take Action!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing concern about the connection between many chemical exposures and learning and other developmental disabilities (LDD). National and local groups are developing new programs around the country that are making this connection--and taking action with regard to policy, education and research efforts. They are working towards reducing

Exceptional Parent, 2006

2006-01-01

94

Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.  

PubMed

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed. PMID:25644031

Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

2015-04-28

95

AUTOMOTIVE GASOLINE  

E-print Network

eum, the manufacturer, and the time of year. What happens to automotive gasoline when it enters the environment? q Small amounts of the chemicals present in gasoline evaporate into the air when you fill the gas tank in your car or when gasoline is accidentally spilled onto surfaces and soils or into surface waters. q Other chemicals in gasoline dissolve in water after spills to surface waters or underground storage tank leaks into the groundwater. q In surface releases, most chemicals in gasoline will probably evaporate; others may dissolve and be carried away by water; a few will probably stick to soil. q The chemicals that evaporate are broken down by sunlight and other chemicals in the air. q The chemicals that dissolve in water also break down quickly by natural processes. How might I be exposed to automotive gasoline? q Breathing vapors at a service station when filling the car's fuel tank is the most likely way to be exposed. q Working at a service station. q Using equip

Automotivegasoline Summary Exposure

96

Dissolved organic carbon reduces the toxicity of aluminum to three tropical freshwater organisms.  

PubMed

The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the toxicity of aluminum (Al) at pH 5 (relevant to acid mine drainage conditions), to the tropical green hydra (Hydra viridissima), green alga (Chlorella sp.), and cladoceran (Moinodaphnia macleayi) was assessed. Two DOC sources, a natural in situ DOC in soft billabong water (SBW) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) standard, were compared. The order of sensitivity of the test organisms to dissolved Al (0.1 µm fraction) was Hydra viridissima > Moinodaphnia macleayi > Chlorella sp. with DOC reducing dissolved Al toxicity most for Hydra viridissima. However, colloidal or precipitated Al may contribute indirectly to the toxicity for M. macleayi and Chlorella sp. The toxicity of dissolved Al was up to six times lower in test waters containing 10 mg L(-1) DOC (in the form of SRFA), relative to toxicity observed at 1 mg L(-1) DOC. In contrast, the toxicity of Al was up to two times lower in SBW containing 10 mg L(-1) DOC, relative to water containing 1 mg L(-1) DOC. The increased ability of SRFA in reducing Al toxicity was linked to its greater affinity for complexing Al compared with the in situ DOC. This has important implications for studies that use commercial standards of humic substances to predict Al toxicity in local environments. Speciation modeling demonstrated that Al(3+) and AlOH(2+) provided a strong relationship with toxicity. An empirical relationship is provided for each organism that can be used to predict Al toxicity at a given Al and DOC concentration. PMID:22105345

Trenfield, Melanie A; Markich, Scott J; Ng, Jack C; Noller, Barry; van Dam, Rick A

2012-02-01

97

40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

2012-07-01

98

40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

2011-07-01

99

40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

2013-07-01

100

40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

2014-07-01

101

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

2014-07-01

102

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

2012-07-01

103

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

2011-07-01

104

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

2013-07-01

105

40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

2010-07-01

106

Attenuating the toxicity of cisplatin by using selenosulfate with reduced risk of selenium toxicity as compared with selenite  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported that high doses of sodium selenite can reduce side effects of cisplatin (CDDP) without compromising its antitumor activity, thus substantially enhancing the cure rate in tumor-bearing mice. However, the toxicity of selenite at high doses should be a concern. The present study revealed that selenosulfate had much lower toxicity, but possessed equal efficacy in selenium (Se) utilization, as compared with selenite at similar doses when used for the intervention of CDDP. In addition, Se accumulation in whole blood and kidney of mice treated with selenosulfate was highly correlated with the survival rate of mice treated with CDDP (both r > 0.96 and both p < 0.05), suggesting that whole blood Se is a potential clinical biomarker to predict host tolerance to CDDP. In either Se-deficient or -sufficient mice bearing solid tumors of hepatoma 22 (H22), selenosulfate did not disturb the therapeutic effect of CDDP on tumors but effectively attenuated the toxicity of CDDP. Furthermore, in a highly malignant cancer model, with Se-sufficient mice bearing ascitic H22 cells, 8 or 10 mg/kg CDDP alone only achieved a null or 25% cure rate, whereas coadministration of selenosulfate with the above two doses of CDDP achieved cure rates of 87.5% or 75%. These results together argue for consideration of selenosulfate as an agent to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP.

Zhang Jinsong [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)], E-mail: zjszyzzc@mail.hf.ah.cn; Peng Dungeng; Lu Hongjuan; Liu Qingliang [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)

2008-02-01

107

Nanosized titanium dioxide reduces copper toxicity-the role of organic material and the crystalline phase.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) are expected to interact with natural substances and other chemicals in the environment, however little is known about their combined effects. Therefore, this study assessed the toxicity of copper (Cu) in combination with varying crystalline phases (anatase, rutile, and the mixture) of nTiO2 and differing organic materials on Daphnia magna. The nanoparticles reduced the Cu-toxicity depending on the product (0.3- to 2-fold higher 48-h EC50). This decrease in toxicity coincided with a lowered Cu-concentration in the water column, which was driven by the adsorption of Cu to nTiO2-depending on available surface area and structure-and their subsequent sedimentation. In the presence of organic material and nTiO2, the Cu-toxicity was further reduced (up to 7-fold higher 48-h EC50). This observation can be explained by a reduced Cu-bioavailability as a result of complexation and adsorption by the organic material and nTiO2, respectively. Thus, the crystalline phase composition, which is determining the surface area and structure of nTiO2, seems to be of major importance for the toxicity reduction of heavy metals, while the influence of the organic materials was mainly driven by the quantity and quality of humic substances. PMID:25556663

Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Senn, Lilli; Schilde, Carsten; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

2015-02-01

108

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF A REDUCED VOLUME MARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST METHOD USING AMPHIPOD AMPELISCA ABDITA  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has standardized methods for performing acute marine amphipod sediment toxicity tests. A test design reducing sediment volume from 200 to 50 ml and overlying water from 600 to 150 ml was recently proposed. An interlaboratory comparison wa...

109

Reduced toxicity of fumonisin B1 in corn grits by single-screw extrusion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extrusion cooking under conditions of high heat and pressure reduces the concentration of fumonisins in corn-based products; however, the toxicity of heretofore uncharacterized fumonisin reactions products in extruded materials has not been determined. Uncontaminated corn grits, grits spiked with 3...

110

INCREASED TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT 'SALMO GAIRDNERI' RESULTING FROM REDUCED CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The median lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow-through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6-8.6 mg/L, the fo...

111

Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more effi...

112

A Community-Based Initiative to Reduce Children's Exposure to Toxics in Household Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design/methodology/approach--The program model was based on the…

Blackman, Anne Berlin; Luskin, Jack

2006-01-01

113

Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD. PMID:23807847

Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

2013-01-01

114

Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

115

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-print Network

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

116

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? (a)(1) A refinery...TBase = Baseline toxics value. Vi = Volume of gasoline batch i produced or...

2013-07-01

117

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? (a)(1) A refinery...TBase = Baseline toxics value. Vi = Volume of gasoline batch i produced or...

2014-07-01

118

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? (a)(1) A refinery...TBase = Baseline toxics value. Vi = Volume of gasoline batch i produced or...

2012-07-01

119

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? (a)(1) A refinery...TBase = Baseline toxics value. Vi = Volume of gasoline batch i produced or...

2011-07-01

120

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80...baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? (a)(1) A refinery...TBase = Baseline toxics value. Vi = Volume of gasoline batch i produced or...

2010-07-01

121

40 CFR 80.1334 - What are the requirements for early compliance with the gasoline benzene program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...toxics air pollutants emissions performance requirements...apply to the reformulated gasoline produced by the refinery...average exhaust toxics emissions requirements specified...apply to conventional gasoline produced by the...

2014-07-01

122

Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in regulating the response of plants to Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined possible involvement of NO in the alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl in tobacco plants. Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of NO accumulation and Cd concentration in tobacco plants after the addition of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP), or a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the solution containing NaCl and Cd. NO accumulation in tobacco roots was enhanced when plants were exposed to Cd, but reduced in the treatments of NaCl or l-NAME. NO production was not enhanced even when SNP (NO donor) was added to the solution containing Cd and NaCl. Root number was reduced in plants exposed to Cd, and increased by the addition of NaCl and reduced by the addition of SNP. Addition of NaCl or l-NAME to the Cd-containing solution reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues, with l-NAME having a more dramatic effect. It can be concluded that alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl contributed to reduction of NO accumulation in plants. PMID:25194697

Zhang, Binglin; Shang, Shenghua; Jabben, Zahra; Zhang, Guoping

2014-12-01

123

Humic acids reduce the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to fish  

SciTech Connect

The effects of dissolved humic materials (DHM) on the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were studied in single-treatment evaluations in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight (UV-A = 140.2 {+-} 2.6 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, UV-B = 6.40 {+-} 0.21 {micro}W/cm{sup 2})(mean {+-} SE). Five concentrations of fluoranthene and five concentrations of DHM were achieved. The presence of DHM reduced the acute photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene. Regression analysis revealed that median lethal times (LT50) were directly related to DHM concentration and inversely related to fluoranthene water concentration. The presence of DHM also reduced fluoranthene bioaccumulation, and LT50 values were inversely related to fluoranthene body residues. These findings demonstrate that (1) the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene is dependent on body residue and (2) site-specific environmental parameters that affect uptake and/or elimination can determine the rates of mortality due to photoinduced toxicity.

Weinstein, J.E.; Oris, J.T.

1999-09-01

124

A novel MINLP-based representation of the original complex model for predicting gasoline emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) requirements as a measure to reduce emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles in certain geographic areas. As part of this effort, the EPA developed empirical models for predicting emissions as a function of gasoline properties and established statutory baseline emissions from a representative set of gasolines. All reformulated gasoline requires certification via this

Kevin C. Furman; Ioannis P. Androulakis

2008-01-01

125

Metal tolerating methylotrophic bacteria reduces nickel and cadmium toxicity and promotes plant growth of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of plants with microorganisms may reduce the toxicity of heavy metals to plants in contaminated soils. In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacteria Methylobacterium oryzae strain CBMB20 and Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 from rice reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cd in tomato and promote plant growth under gnotobiotic and pot culture experiments. The

M. Madhaiyan; S. Poonguzhali; Tongmin Sa

2007-01-01

126

Salidroside protects Caenorhabditis elegans neurons from polyglutamine-mediated toxicity by reducing oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of Huntington's disease and other polyQ disorders. Therefore, strategies aiming at restoring dysfunction and reducing stresses mediated by polyQ toxicity are of therapeutic interest for proteotoxicity diseases. Salidroside, a glycoside from Rhodiola rosea, has been shown to have a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant activity. Using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans models, we show here that salidroside is able to reduce neuronal death and behavioral dysfunction mediated by polyQ expressed in ASH neurons, but the neuroprotective effect is not associated with prevention of polyQ aggregation per se. Further experiments reveal that the neuroprotective effect of salidroside in C. elegans models involves its antioxidant capabilities, including decrease of ROS levels and paraquat-induced mortality, increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate that salidroside exerts its neuroprotective function against polyQ toxicity via oxidative stress pathways. PMID:24918543

Xiao, Lingyun; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Ju; Yang, Fan; Huang, Aizhen; Deng, Jingjing; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Hu, Minghua; Huang, Zebo

2014-01-01

127

A nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of indomethacin eye drops and enhances its corneal permeability.  

PubMed

Indomethacin (IMC) has been shown to reduce post-operative inflammation and to decrease intraocular irritation after cataract extraction and in cystoid macular edema; however, the clinical use of its most commonly used eye drops is limited due to topical side-effects that include burning sensation, irritation and epithelial keratitis. It is known that decreasing direct cell stimulation and reducing the amount applied via increasing bioavailability are useful for improving these issues. In this study, we designed ophthalmic formulations containing 0.5% IMC nanoparticles using zirconia beads and Bead Smash 12 (IMCnano eye drops; particle size 76 ± 59 nm, mean ± S.D.), and investigated the corneal toxicity of these IMCnano eye drops. IMCnano eye drops are tolerated better by a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T) than commercially available NDSAIDs preparations (IMC, pranoprofen, diclofenac, bromfenac and nepafenac eye drops), and corneal wound healing in rat eyes with debrided corneal epithelium instilled with IMCnano eye drops is significantly better than that of eyes instilled with commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the accumulation of IMC in HCE-T cells treated with the IMCnano eye drops for 30 min was 19.9% that of the accumulation from commercially available IMC eye drops. On the other hand, the corneal penetration of IMC from IMCnano eye drops was significantly greater than in the case of the commercially available IMC eye drops in both in vivo and in vitro studies using rabbit corneas. Taken together, we hypothesize that a nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of IMC eye drops, probably because the accumulation of IMC from IMCnano eye drops in the eye is lower than that from commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the nanoparticle formulation may allow a decrease in the amount of IMC used due to the increase in bioavailability, resulting in reduced drug toxicity. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing less toxic eye drops. PMID:24598350

Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

2014-05-01

128

Efficacy of AdiDetox™ in reducing the toxicity of fumonisin B1 in rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new mycotoxin inactivator (AdiDetox™) in reducing the toxic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in the diet of rats. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley growing rats (125?g?±?1?g BW) were assigned to eight dietary treatments for seven days. The experiment had a 2?×?4 factorial arrangement with two levels of FB1 (0?mg and 15?mg of FB1/kg feed) and four levels of AdiDetox™ (0?g, 1?g, 2?g and 5?g /kg feed) in the diet. No significant differences were observed in the growth performance among treatments (P?>?0.05), though low levels of sphingosine (So) and sphinganine (Sa) were detected in the liver. However, So and Sa and the Sa/So ratio in kidneys were higher in rats receiving the FB1 diets (P?reduced the toxic effects of FB1, leading to a significant decrease in the Sa content and in the Sa/So ratio in kidneys. In conclusion, the results suggest that AdiDetox™ can effectively reduce toxicity of FB1 in growing rats. PMID:25660482

Denli, Muzaffer; Blandon, Juan C; Salado, Silvia; Guynot, Maria E; Casas, Josefina; Pérez, Jose F

2015-04-01

129

Annexin A5 Directly Interacts with Amyloidogenic Proteins and Reduces Their Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding is a central mechanism for the development of neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The accumulation of misfolded ?-synuclein protein inclusions in the Lewy bodies of Parkinson’s disease is thought to play a key role in pathogenesis and disease progression. Similarly, the misfolding of the ?-cell hormone human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) into toxic oligomers plays a central role in the induction of ?-cell apoptosis in the context of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we show that annexin A5 plays a role in interacting with and reducing the toxicity of the amyloidogenic proteins, h-IAPP and ?-synuclein. We find that annexin A5 is coexpressed in human ?-cells and that exogenous annexin A5 reduces the level of h-IAPP-induced apoptosis in human islets by ~50% and in rodent ?-cells by ~90%. Experiments with transgenic expression of ?-synuclein in Caenorhabditis elegans show that annexin A5 reduces ?-synuclein inclusions in vivo. Using thioflavin T fluorescence, electron microscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance, we provide evidence that substoichiometric amounts of annexin A5 inhibit h-IAPP and ?-synuclein misfolding and fibril formation. We conclude that annexin A5 might act as a molecular safeguard against the formation of toxic amyloid aggregates. PMID:19810772

Bedrood, Sahar; Jayasinghe, Sajith; Sieburth, Derek; Chen, Min; Erbel, Saskia; Butler, Peter C.; Langen, Ralf; Ritzel, Robert A.

2015-01-01

130

A polymeric colchicinoid prodrug with reduced toxicity and improved efficacy for vascular disruption in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Colchicinoids are very potent tubulin-binding compounds, which interfere with microtubule formation, giving them strong cytotoxic properties, such as cell mitosis inhibition and induction of microcytoskeleton depolymerization. While this makes them promising vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) in cancer therapy, their dose-limiting toxicity has prevented any clinical application for this purpose. Therefore, colchicinoids are considered attractive lead molecules for the development of novel vascular disrupting nanomedicine. In a previous study, a polymeric colchicinoid prodrug that showed favorable hydrolysis characteristics at physiological conditions was developed. In the current study, this polymeric colchicinoid prodrug was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its toxicity and vascular disrupting potential. Cell viability studies with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as an in vitro measure for colchicine activity, reflected the degradation kinetics of the prodrug accordingly. Upon intravenous treatment, in vivo, of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice with colchicine or with the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug, apparent vascular disruption and consequent tumor necrosis was observed for the prodrug but not for free colchicine at an equivalent dose. Moreover, a five-times-higher dose of the prodrug was well tolerated, indicating reduced toxicity. These findings demonstrate that the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug has a substantially improved efficacy/toxicity ratio compared with that of colchicine, making it a promising VDA for cancer therapy. PMID:22114500

Crielaard, Bart J; van der Wal, Steffen; Lammers, Twan; Le, Huong Thu; Hennink, Wim E; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Storm, Gert; Fens, Marcel HAM

2011-01-01

131

(Poly)phenols protect from ?-synuclein toxicity by reducing oxidative stress and promoting autophagy.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement neurodegenerative disorder and is associated with the aggregation of ?-synuclein (?Syn) and oxidative stress, hallmarks of the disease. Although the precise molecular events underlying ?Syn aggregation are still unclear, oxidative stress is known to contribute to this process. Therefore, agents that either prevent oxidative stress or inhibit ?Syn toxicity are expected to constitute potential drug leads for PD. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies provided evidence that (poly)phenols, pure or in extracts, might protect against neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress in the brain. In this study, we analyzed, for the first time, a (poly)phenol-enriched fraction (PEF) from leaves of Corema album, and used in vitro and cellular models to evaluate its effects on ?Syn toxicity and aggregation. Interestingly, the PEF promoted the formation of non-toxic ?Syn species in vitro, and inhibited its toxicity and aggregation in cells, by promoting the autophagic flux and reducing oxidative stress. Thus, C. album (poly)phenols appear as promising cytoprotective compounds, modulating central events in the pathogenesis of PD, such as ?Syn aggregation and the impairment of autophagy. Ultimately, the understanding of the molecular effects of (poly)phenols will open novel opportunities for the exploitation of their beneficial effects and for drug development. PMID:25432533

Macedo, Diana; Tavares, Lucélia; McDougall, Gordon J; Vicente Miranda, Hugo; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Tenreiro, Sandra; Outeiro, Tiago F; Santos, Cláudia N

2015-03-15

132

High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury. PMID:22558569

Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M.; Al-Dekheil, Ali; Babkr, Ali; Farahna, Mohammed; Mousa, Hassan M.

2010-01-01

133

Quercetin protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatorenal toxicity by reducing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

High or toxic doses of acetaminophen (APAP), a mild analgesic and antipyretic drug, can cause life-threatening hepatic and renal dysfunction. This study is designed to investigate the potential protective role of quercetin to attenuate the hepatorenal toxicity induced by a high single oral dose (3g/kg) of APAP in rats. Three main groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used: quercetin, APAP and quercetin plus APAP-receiving animals. Corresponding control animals were also used. Interestingly, oral supplementation of quercetin (15mg/kg/day) prior to APAP intoxication dramatically reduced APAP-induced hepatorenal toxicity as evidenced by measuring serum lipid profile, total protein, urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP, G-GT and liver tissue content of TC and TG. Quercetin treatment markedly prevented the generation of TBARS and PCC with substantial improvement in terms of GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in both liver and kidney homogenates. The relationship between quercetin and NO levels which is still a matter of debate, was also investigated. NO levels in serum, liver and kidney tissues were significantly inhibited in quercetin pre-treated animals. Furthermore, quercetin administration significantly inhibited the reduction of liver and kidney contents of ATP parcels associated with this hepatorenal toxicity. These results suggest that the protective role of quercetin in the prevention of APAP-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats was associated with the decrease of oxidative and nitrosative stress in hepatic and renal tissues as well as its capacity to improve the mitochondrial energy production. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25547049

El-Shafey, Mostafa M; Abd-Allah, Gamil M; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Mariee, Amr D

2015-03-01

134

Recombinant Human Arginase Toxicity in Mice Is Reduced by Citrulline Supplementation1  

PubMed Central

Human recombinant arginase I cobalt coupled to polyethylene glycol 5000 (HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000) achieved potent in vitro depletion of arginine from tissue culture medium and cytotoxicity to many cancer cell lines. The recombinant enzyme also produced tumor growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma xenografts. Although these results were promising, the therapeutic index was narrow. Toxicities were seen in normal cells in tissue culture. In vivo normal tissue injury occurred at doses twice the effective dose. The current study was conducted to define, in greater detail, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacodynamics, and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of twice-weekly intraperitoneal HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000 in Balb/c mice. Animal weight and survival were monitored, serum arginine levels measured, and complete blood cell counts, chemistries, necropsies, and histologies were performed. In addition, methods to ameliorate the HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000 adverse effects were tested. Supplemental l-citrulline was given concurrently with the arginase drug. The HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000 MTD in mice was 5 mg/kg twice weekly, and DLTs included weight loss and marrow necrosis. No other organ damage or changes in blood cell counts or chemistries were observed. Arginase reduced serum arginine levels from 60 µM to 4 to 6 µM. Supplemental l-citrulline given per os or daily subcutaneously reduced and delayed toxicities, and l-citrulline given twice daily subcutaneously completely prevented animal toxicities. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize that HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000, particularly with supplemental l-citrulline, may be an attractive therapeutic agent for argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient tumors. PMID:22348173

Mauldin, Jeremy P; Zeinali, Ideen; Kleypas, Keri; Woo, Jung Hee; Blackwood, Rebecca S; Jo, Chan-Hee; Stone, Everett M; Georgiou, George; Frankel, Arthur E

2012-01-01

135

Allo-SCT for AML and MDS with treosulfan compared with BU-based regimens: reduced toxicity vs reduced intensity.  

PubMed

Allo-SCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) results in lower non-relapse mortality (NRM), but higher relapse rate than myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in AML/myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Novel regimens with intensive anti-leukemic activity, but with limited toxicity will be of benefit. In all, 85 patients with AML/MDS, not eligible for MAC, were given fludarabine-treosulfan conditioning (FT). Outcomes were compared with those in patients given fludarabine-BU RIC (FB2, n=106) or reduced-toxicity (RTC) conditioning (FB4, fludarabine and myeloablative BU dose, n=85). The 5-year NRM was 29%, 20% and 18% after FT, FB2 and FB4, respectively (P=NS). Multivariate analysis (MVA) identified comorbidity score (HCT-CI) >2 and advanced disease as adverse factors with no independent impact of regimen. The 5-year relapse rate was 36%, 47% and 40%, respectively (P=0.17). MVA identified advanced disease as the major adverse factor, while FT had significantly lower relapse rate (hazard ratio 0.6, P=0.03). The 5-year survival (OS) was 37% with advanced disease. HCT-CI >2 and age ? 50 were found as adverse factors. The 5-year OS was 46%, 44% and 50% after FT, FB2 and FB4 in early-intermediate-stage disease (P=NS) and 33%, 9% and 28% in advanced disease, respectively (P=0.02). FT is an RTC regimen with intensive anti-leukemia effect in MAC non-eligible patients. PMID:22327135

Shimoni, A; Shem-Tov, N; Volchek, Y; Danylesko, I; Yerushalmi, R; Nagler, A

2012-10-01

136

With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory  

E-print Network

Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational for the number of gallons of gasoline sold by a station for a thousand weeks. The pattern involves demands with the delivery and storage of the gasoline and we desire not to run out of gasoline or exceed the station

Reiter, Clifford A.

137

Promotion of ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.  

PubMed

The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

2015-01-01

138

Meeting the challenge of reformulated gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The need to include oxygenates in motor fuel in certain areas of the United States and the effect of government-mandated aromatics and endpoint reduction will dramatically change gasoline composition and processing technology. The refinery product that boils in the range of 350-450 F will be particularly difficult for a refiner to blend into gasoline if the gasoline endpoint or 90% point (T90) specifications are reduced. The UOP I-Forming process selectively cracks naphtha, kerosene, or both to generate high yields of isobutane. It can offer a cost-effective solution to some of the requirements of reformulated gasoline (RFG). Isobutane is used for the manufacture of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (after dehydrogenation to isobutene) or the production of gasoline alkylate. This article describes reformulated gasoline; the I-Forming process; and process variables.

Schmidt, R.J.; Gilsdorf, N.L. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States). Process and Systems Development Dept.); Bogdan, P.L. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1993-02-01

139

Structural mediation on polycation nanoparticles by sulfadiazine to enhance DNA transfection efficiency and reduce toxicity.  

PubMed

Reducing the toxicity while maintaining high transfection efficiency is an important issue for cationic polymers as gene carriers in clinical application. In this paper, a new zwitterionic copolymer, polycaprolactone-g-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methyacrylate-co-sulfadiazine methacrylate) (PC-SDZ) with unique pH-sensitivity, was designed and prepared. The incorporation of sulfadiazine into poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) chains successfully mediates the surface properties including compacter shell structure, lower density of positive charges, stronger proton buffer capability, and enhanced hydrophobicity, which lead to reduction in toxicity and enhancements in stability, cellular uptake, endosome escape, and transfection efficiency for the PC-SDZ2 nanoparticles (NPs)/DNA complexes. Excellent transfection efficiency at the optimal N/P ratio of 10 was observed for PC-SDZ2 NPs/DNA complexes, which was higher than that of the commercial reagent-branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by CCK8 measurement, and the results showed significant reduction in cytotoxicity even at high concentration of complexes after sulfadiazine modification. Therefore, this work may demonstrate a new way of structural mediation of cationic polymer carriers for gene delivery with high efficiency and low toxicity. PMID:25801088

Long, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Shangcong; Tang, Minjie; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongxin; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

2015-04-15

140

Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.  

PubMed

In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95?L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. PMID:23180692

Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

2013-03-01

141

Endogenous polyamines reduce the toxicity of soluble a? peptide aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Polyamines promote the formation of the A? peptide amyloid fibers that are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that polyamines interact with nonaggregated A? peptides, thereby reducing the peptide's hydrophobic surface. We characterized the associated conformational change through NMR titrations and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that even low concentrations of spermine, sperimidine, and putrescine fully protected SH-SY5Y (a neuronal cell model) against the most toxic conformational species of A?, even at an A? oligomer concentration that would otherwise kill half of the cells or even more. These observations lead us to conclude that polyamines interfere with the more toxic prefibrillar conformations and might protect cells by promoting the structural transition of A? toward its less toxic fibrillar state that we reported previously. Since polyamines are present in brain fluid at the concentrations where we observed all these effects, their activity needs to be taken into account in understanding the molecular processes related to the development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24750033

Luo, Jinghui; Mohammed, Inayathulla; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Hiruma, Yoshitaka; Gräslund, Astrid; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

2014-06-01

142

Benzene in Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TLV for gasoline as calculated by ACGIH guidelines places emphasis on aromatic hydrocarbon content. Because of its volatility, desirable front-end performance characteristics yet low TLV (10?ppm), benzene is the most important aromatic component in gasoline. Because of differences in processing, European gasolines often have higher benzene content than U.S. gasolines. This study of one company's U.S. and European gasolines

HOWARD E. RUNION

1975-01-01

143

Consumer Adjustment to a Gasoline Tax  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of how customers will respond to a tax based on miles per gallon indicates that the long-term effect on gasoline consumption could reduce crude oil imports by 27 percent. When demand elasticity of gasoline is broken down into the price elasticity of demand minus the price elasticity of demand for fuel mileage, it is learned that the short-term

Carol A Dahl

1979-01-01

144

Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an automated fiber placement machine and the successful fabrication of a carbon fiber plate with an integrated microvascular channel is demonstrated.

Poillucci, Richard

145

Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity – Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity. PMID:24073244

Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

2013-01-01

146

Reduced arsenic clearance and increased toxicity in aquaglyceroporin-9-null mice.  

PubMed

Expressed in liver, aquaglyceroporin-9 (AQP9) is permeated by glycerol, arsenite, and other small, neutral solutes. To evaluate a possible protective role, AQP9-null mice were evaluated for in vivo arsenic toxicity. After injection with NaAsO(2), AQP9-null mice suffer reduced survival rates (LD(50), 12 mg/kg) compared with WT mice (LD(50), 15 mg/kg). The highest tissue level of arsenic is in heart, with AQP9-null mice accumulating 10-20 times more arsenic than WT mice. Within hours after NaAsO(2) injection, AQP9-null mice sustain profound bradycardia, despite normal serum electrolytes. Increased arsenic levels are also present in liver, lung, spleen, and testis of AQP9-null mice. Arsenic levels in the feces and urine of AQP9-null mice are only approximately 10% of the WT levels, and reduced clearance of multiple arsenic species by the AQP9-null mice suggests that AQP9 is involved in the export of multiple forms of arsenic. Immunohistochemical staining of liver sections revealed that AQP9 is most abundant in basolateral membrane of hepatocytes adjacent to the sinusoids. AQP9 is not detected in heart or kidney by PCR or immunohistochemistry. We propose that AQP9 provides a route for excretion of arsenic by the liver, thereby providing partial protection of the whole animal from arsenic toxicity. PMID:19805235

Carbrey, Jennifer M; Song, Linhua; Zhou, Yao; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rojek, Aleksandra; Wang, Yiding; Liu, Yangjian; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Nielsen, Søren; Rosen, Barry P; Agre, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

2009-09-15

147

Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases.

Wang Hongmin [Medical Biotechnology Center, Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Room N352, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Monteiro, Mervyn J. [Medical Biotechnology Center, Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Room N352, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)]. E-mail: monteiro@umbi.umd.edu

2007-08-01

148

Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi Guangqing Chi a, , Arthur November 2010 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic crashes Traffic safety Age Gender Race Problem: Limited literature suggests that gasoline prices have substantial effects on reducing fatal crashes. However

Levinson, David M.

149

75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements...2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements...sulfur in their gasoline. The Tier 2 program...reduce new vehicle emissions, primarily...

2010-02-19

150

Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.  

PubMed

The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

2010-12-01

151

Docosahexaenoic acid reduces amyloid-? induced toxicity in cells of the neurovascular unit.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? peptides (A?) as perivascular deposits and senile plaques in the brain. The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with decreased amyloid deposition and reduced risk in AD in several epidemiological trials; however the exact underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to test whether DHA can exert a direct protective effect on the elements of the neurovascular unit, such as neurons, glial cells, brain endothelial cells, and pericytes, treated with A?42 (15 ?M). A dose-dependent high cellular toxicity was found in viability assays in all cell types and on acute hippocampal slices after treatment with A?42 small oligomers prepared in situ from an isopeptide precursor. The cell morphology also changed dramatically in all cell types. In brain endothelial cells, damaged barrier function and increased para- and transcellular permeability were observed after peptide treatment. The production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in pericytes and endothelial and glial cells. DHA (30 ?M) significantly decreased the A?42-induced toxic effects in all cell types measured by viability assays, and protected the barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. DHA also decreased the elevated rhodamine 123 accumulation in brain endothelial cells pre-treated with A?42 indicating an effect on efflux pump activity. These results indicate for the first time that DHA can protect not only neurons but also the other elements of the neurovascular unit from the toxic effects of A?42 and this effect may be beneficial in AD. PMID:23645098

Veszelka, Szilvia; Tóth, Andrea E; Walter, Fruzsina R; Datki, Zsolt; Mózes, Emese; Fülöp, Lívia; Bozsó, Zsolt; Hellinger, Eva; Vastag, Monika; Orsolits, Barbara; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Penke, Botond; Deli, Mária A

2013-01-01

152

Activity, reduced toxicity, and scale-up synthesis of amphotericin B-conjugated polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AMB) arabinogalactan (AG) conjugate was synthesized by the conjugation of AMB to oxidized AG by reductive amination. The conjugate was evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity and in vivo toxicity. Optimization of the conjugation process was investigated using large batches of 100 g, which are 20 times larger than previously reported for AMB-AG conjugation. The efficacy of AMB-AG conjugates was studied as a function of reaction conditions and time, aldehyde/reducing agent mole ratio, and purification procedure. The most potent AMB-AG conjugate having low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and high maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was obtained following reduction with NaBH4 at 1:2 mol ratio (AG units/NaBH4) at 25 °C for 24 h. AMB-AG conjugate prepared under these conditions demonstrated MIC of 0.5 mg/L (equiv of AMB) in Candida albicans, and an MTD of 60 mg/kg (equiv of AMB) in mice, while AMB clinical formulation (Fungizone) demonstrated high toxicity (MTD = 3 mg/kg). These findings confirm the simplicity and reproducibility of the conjugation allowing this method to be applied on larger scale production. PMID:24779556

Ickowicz, Diana E; Farber, Shimon; Sionov, Edward; Kagan, Sarah; Hoffman, Amnon; Polacheck, Itzhack; Domb, Abraham J

2014-06-01

153

Toxic Chemical Reduction Initiatives In response to the mandate of Executive Order 13514 and NIH's Environmental goal to reduce toxic  

E-print Network

acid, Urid Chromic acid Chromic acid baths Minimally used by chemists Alconox Base baths Modified SAF Fixative (Sodium Acetate Acetic Acid Formalin) Mercury cont'd B-5 mercury based fixatives which identified green alternatives that are less toxic and more environmentally friendly based

Baker, Chris I.

154

Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum).  

PubMed

There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50)=134 ?g L(-1)U at 20 mg CaCO(3 )L(-1) hardness, increasing to 547 ?g L(-1) U at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K=6.25 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness, decreasing to log K=5.64 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO(2)(2+), UO(2)OH(+), UO(2)(OH)(2)) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) and UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer), and consequently, less U bound to physiologically active cell surface sites. In the absence of a biotic ligand model for U, the results of this study (together with previous work) reinforce the need for a more flexible, hardness-dependent, U guideline for the protection of selected freshwater biota. PMID:23220392

Markich, Scott J

2013-01-15

155

Phytoestrogenic isoflavones daidzein and genistein reduce glucose-toxicity-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction in ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence suggests a reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis in populations with a high dietary intake of plant estrogen or phytoestrogen. The clinical benefit of phytoestrogens in cereals, vegetables and medicinal plants is attracting increasing attention for the general public. In the present study, we examined the effect of phytoestrogenic isoflavones daidzein and genistein on glucose toxicity-induced cardiac mechanical malfunction simulating diabetic cardiomyopathy. Adult rat ventricular myocytes were isolated and maintained for 24 hours in normal (NG, 5.5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 25.5 mM) medium in the absence or presence of isoflavones daidzein (50 microM) or genistein (20 microM). Cardiac contractile indices were evaluated using an IonOptix MyoCam system including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt), time-to-PS (TPS) and time-to-90% relengthening (TR90). Myocytes maintained in HG medium displayed altered mechanical function simulating in vivo diabetes including reduced PS, +/- dL/dt and prolonged TR90 associated with normal TPS compared to those from NG myocytes. Interestingly, these HG-induced mechanical dysfunctions were abolished by co-incubation of daidzein or genistein. However, daidzein but not genistein itself depressed PS in NG myocytes. Neither daidzein nor genistein affected any other mechanical parameters tested in NG myocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that the phytoestrogenic isoflavones daidzein and genistein may reduce glucose toxicity-induced cardiac mechanical dysfunction and thus possess therapeutic potential against diabetes-associated cardiac defects. PMID:15473131

Hintz, Kadon K; Ren, Jun

2004-05-01

156

Small bifunctional chelators that do not disaggregate amyloid ? fibrils exhibit reduced cellular toxicity.  

PubMed

Multifunctional metal chelators that can modulate the amyloid ? (A?) peptide aggregation and its interaction with metal ions such as copper and zinc hold considerable promise as therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, specific rather than systemic metal chelation by these compounds is needed in order to limit any side effects. Reported herein are two novel small bifunctional chelators, 2-[2-hydroxy-4-(diethylamino)phenyl]benzothiazole (L1) and 2-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)benzothiazole (L2), in which the metal-binding donor atoms are integrated within a molecular framework derived from the amyloid-binding fluorescent dye thioflavin T (ThT). The metal-binding properties of L1 and L2 were probed by pH spectrophotometric titrations to determine their pKa values and the corresponding metal complex stability constants, and the isolated metal complexes were structurally characterized. The amyloid-fibril-binding properties of L1 and L2 were investigated by fluorescence titrations and ThT competition assays. Interestingly, L1 and L2 do not lead to the formation of neurotoxic A?42 oligomers in the presence or absence of metal ions, as observed by native gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, L1 and L2 were able to reduce the cell toxicity of preformed A?42 oligomers and of the copper-stabilized A?42 oligomers. Given their ability to reduce the toxicity of soluble A?42 and Cu-A?42 species, L1 and L2 are promising lead compounds for the development of chemical agents that can control the neurotoxicity of soluble A?42 species in AD. PMID:25333939

Sharma, Anuj K; Kim, Jaekwang; Prior, John T; Hawco, Nicholas J; Rath, Nigam P; Kim, Jungsu; Mirica, Liviu M

2014-11-01

157

Comparative study of regulated and unregulated air pollutant emissions before and after conversion of automobiles from gasoline power to liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline dual-fuel retrofits.  

PubMed

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly being examined as an alternative to gasoline use in automobiles as interest grows in reducing air pollutant emissions. In this study, emissions of regulated (CO, THC, NO(x)) and unregulated air pollutants, including CO2, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and BTEX (acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), were measured before and after conversion of nine gasoline-powered automobiles to LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. The tests were conducted on a standard chassis dynamometer in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency FTP-75 test procedure, with the exception that all tests were conducted under hot-start driving conditions. The influences of LPG on air pollutant emission levels and carcinogenic potency were investigated and compared with gasoline. The results showed average emission factors of 0.14 g/km, 0.33 mg/km, 0.09 g/km, 0.44 g/km, and 197 g/km for CO, THC, NO(x), PM, and CO2, respectively, for LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. Paired-sample t-test results indicated that the emissions of CO (p = 0.03), THC (p = 0.04), and CO2 (p = 4.6 x 10(-8)) were significantly reduced with the retrofit in comparison with gasoline-powered automobiles. The reduction percentages were 71%, 89%, and 14% for CO, THC, and CO2, respectively. The average total PAH emission factor for LPG was 217 microg/km, which is significantly lower than gasoline (863 microg/km; p = 0.05). The PAH corresponding carcinogenicities (BaP(eq)) were calculated via toxic equivalencies based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Paired-sample t-test results fortotal BaP(eq) emissions showed no significant difference between gasoline (30.0 microg/km) and LPG (24.8 microg/km) at a confidence level of 95%. The discrepancy between PAH and BaP(eq) emissions resulted from the higher emission percentages of high molecular weight PAHs for LPG, which might be from lubricant oil. The average emission factors of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were 351, 4400, 324, and 1100 microg/ km, respectively, with LPG as fuel, which were all significantly lower than those for gasoline (95% confidence level). The average reduction percentages were 78%, 61%, 57%, and 58% for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, respectively. PMID:18200881

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Man-Ting; Peng, Chiung-Yu

2007-12-15

158

The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposure on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 24h LC50 for copper exposure, with 100?M Trolox elevating the LC50 by almost seven-fold (from 0.36 to 2.43?M). Copper exposure (0.2?M) for

Bruce A. O’Gara; Phillip M. Murray; Erik M. Hoyt; Tifany Leigh-Logan; Michael B. Smeaton

2006-01-01

159

Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. PMID:12953887

Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

2003-08-15

160

Does carbonation of steel slag particles reduce their toxicity? An in vitro approach.  

PubMed

Mineral carbonation can stabilize industrial residues and, in the steel industry, may contribute to simultaneously valorize CO2 emissions and slag. We hypothesized that, by restricting the leaching of metals of toxicological concern such as Cr and V, carbonation can suppress the toxicity of these materials. The cytotoxic activity (WST1 assay) of slag dusts collected from a stainless and a Linz-Donawitz (LD) steel plant, before and after carbonation, was examined in J774 macrophages. The release of Cr, V, Fe, Mn and Ni was measured after incubation in artificial lung fluids mimicking the extracellular and phagolysosomal milieu to which particles are confronted after inhalation. LD slag had the higher Fe, Mn and V content, and was more cytotoxic than stainless steel slag. The cytotoxic activity of LD but not of stainless dusts was reduced after carbonation. The cytotoxic activity of the dusts toward J774 macrophages necessitated a direct contact with the cells and was reduced in the presence of inhibitors of phagocytosis (cytochalasin D) or phagolysosome acidification (bafilomycin), pointing to a key role of metallic constituents released in phagolysosomes. This in vitro study supports a limited reduction of the cytotoxic activity of LD, but not of stainless, steel dusts upon carbonation. PMID:25735930

Ibouraadaten, Saloua; van den Brule, Sybille; Lison, Dominique

2015-06-01

161

Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.  

PubMed

Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity. PMID:17980956

Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

2008-05-30

162

An analysis of the health benefits associated with the use of MTBE reformulated gasoline and oxygenated fuels in reducing atmospheric concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

To assess the health benefits gained from the use of cleaner burning gasoline, an analysis was conducted of changes in the atmospheric concentration of eight VOCs: acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, POM, toluene, and xylenes resulting from the use of reformulated gasoline and oxyfuel containing the additive MTBE. Modeled ambient air concentrations of VOCs were used to assess three seasonally-based scenarios: baseline gasoline compared to (a) summer MTBE:RFG, (b) winter MTBE:RFG, and (c) MTBE oxyfuel. The model predicts that the addition of MTBE to RFG or oxyfuel will decrease acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and POM, but increase formaldehyde tailpipe emissions. The increased formaldehyde emissions, however, will be offset by the reduction of formaldehyde formation in the atmosphere from other VOCs. Using a range of plausible risk estimates, the analysis predicts a positive health benefit, i.e., a decline in cancer incidence associated with use of MTBE:RFG and MTBE oxyfuel. Using EPA cancer risk estimates, reduction in 1,3-butadiene exposure accounts for the greatest health benefit while reduction of benzene exposure accounts for the greatest health benefits based on alternative risk estimates. An analysis of microenvironment monitoring data indicates that most exposures to VOCs are significantly below levels of concern based on established margin-of-safety standards. The analysis does suggest, however, that health effects associated with short-term exposures to acetaldehyde and benzene may warrant further investigation. PMID:9463925

Spitzer, H L

1997-12-01

163

[Use of fish cell cultures for toxicity determination in order to reduce and replace the fish tests].  

PubMed

Dispersion of liver tissue from rainbow trout at 10 and 25 degrees C resultet in cells which were cultivated in vitro at 20 degrees C regularly. Using this method a cell line (R1) has been established useful for testing the toxicity of chemical substances and waste water. The toxicity of samples influenced the morphology, growth and the living duration of the cells. These parameters gave a clear answer about the toxicity of samples testet in 1-12 h. The tests on the vitality of cells (using trypan blue) and the release of LDH did not show an agreement with the cytotoxicity in all cases. From 106 samples of waste water were 53.8% cytotoxic but only 35% showed a toxicity for fish. 93.44% of 61 toxic samples of waste water showed cytotoxicity, only 60.65% of the samples were fish-toxic. According to the results obtained it is concluded that fish cell tissue cultures are useful tools for determination of the toxicity of chemical substances and waste water. Compared with the fish test the cytotoxicity test ist more sensitive and it reduces the material, time and money needed. PMID:4024776

Ahne, W

1985-05-01

164

Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.

1986-11-01

165

Opposing Influence of Intracellular and Membrane Thiols on the Toxicity of Reducible Polycations  

PubMed Central

Toxicity of polycations has been recognized since their first use in gene delivery. Bioreducible polycations attract attention because of their improved safety due to selective intracellular degradation by glutathione (GSH). Here we present a systematic study of the toxicity of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s (PAA). PAA with increasing content of disulfide bonds were synthesized by Michael addition. Toxicity of PAA was evaluated in two cell lines with different innate levels of intracellular GSH. Increasing the content of disulfide bonds decreased the toxicity of PAA, with more significant decrease observed in cells with high GSH. Depleting intracellular GSH by diethyl maleate resulted in increased toxicity of bioreducible PAA. In contrast, increasing the GSH concentrations by growing cells in hypoxic conditions resulted in further decreased toxicity compared with cells grown in normoxic conditions. The presence of exofacial plasma membrane thiols selectively increased toxicity of bioreducible PAA while having no effect on non-degradable controls. These results improve our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of polycation toxicity. They also shed light on the opposing effects of different cellular thiol pools on the toxicity of bioreducible polycations. PMID:23948163

Wu, Chao; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Jun; Oupický, David

2013-01-01

166

Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model  

PubMed Central

CUG repeat expansions in the 3? UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (?) and 2?-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with ? or 2?-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamics and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for ?-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. ? modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25303993

deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

2014-01-01

167

Amyloid ?-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of ?-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the ?-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of ?-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust ?-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid ?-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-? peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, ?2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, ?-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

2012-11-01

168

Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales. PMID:18754453

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

2010-01-01

169

Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals  

PubMed Central

The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62–98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64–68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them. PMID:24443641

Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

2013-01-01

170

Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

2013-03-01

171

Silicon attenuates cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L. by reducing cadmium uptake and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Solanum nigrum L. is considered to be a potential plant for restoring Cd-contaminated soils. Si could enhance plants tolerance to heavy metal; however, the mechanism of Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in S. nigrum was not clear. Three-week-old S. nigrum seedlings were grown in Hoagland solution containing 0 or 100 ?M Cd with or without 1 mM Si for 4 days. The results showed that the Cd concentration both in roots and shoots of Si-supplied plant was significantly reduced, especially in expanding and old leaves. The relative proportion of ethanol-extractable Cd, water-extractable Cd and NaCl-extractable Cd in roots was increased by adding Si, while the root-to-shoot Cd translocation was not decreased. Furthermore, in comparison with single Cd treatment, supplying Si could reduce H?O? accumulation and cell death in roots, and the electrolyte leakage and H?O? concentration in functional leaves. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) in functional leaves was markedly increased by Cd exposure, while the antioxidative enzyme activities in Cd plus Si treatment seedlings were significantly lower than that in Cd treatment alone, this decrease might be attributed to the reduction of Cd concentration and Cd-induced oxidative damages. These results demonstrate that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in S. nigrum is mainly due to the decrease of Cd uptake in roots and Cd distribution in expanding and old leaves, as well as lowering oxidative stress induced by Cd in plants. PMID:23608626

Liu, Jinguang; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao

2013-07-01

172

Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

2013-07-01

173

Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.  

PubMed

One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M?DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. PMID:23660235

Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

2013-07-01

174

Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish  

PubMed Central

A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a?ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln?LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln?LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

2013-01-01

175

Validation of the narcosis target lipid model for petroleum products: gasoline as a case study.  

PubMed

The narcosis target lipid model (NTLM) was used to predict the toxicity of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of six gasoline blending streams to algae (Pseudokirchnereilla subcapitata, formerly Selenastrum capricornutum), juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and water flea (Daphnia magna). Gasolines are comprised of hydrocarbons that on dissolution into the aqueous phase are expected to act via narcosis. Aquatic toxicity data were obtained using a lethal-loading test in which WAFs were prepared using different gasoline loadings. The compositions of the gasolines were determined by analysis of C3 to C13 hydrocarbons grouped in classes of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and olefins. A model was developed to compute the concentrations of hydrocarbon blocks in WAFs based on gasoline composition and loading. The model accounts for the volume change of the gasoline, which varies depending on loading and volatilization loss. The predicted aqueous composition of WAFs compared favorably to measurements, and the predicted aqueous concentrations of WAFs were used in the NTLM to predict the aquatic toxicity of the gasolines. For each gasoline loading and species, total toxic units (TUs) were computed with an assumption of additivity. The acute toxicity of gasolines was predicted to within a factor of two for algae and daphnids. Predicted TUs overestimated toxicity to trout because of experimental factors that were not considered in the model. This analysis demonstrates the importance of aliphatic hydrocarbon loss to headspace during WAF preparation and the contribution of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons test to the toxicity of gasolines in closed systems and loss of aliphatics to headspace during WAF preparation. Model calculations indicate that satisfactory toxicity predictions can be achieved by describing gasoline composition using a limited number of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon blocks with different octanol-water partition coefficients. PMID:16193769

McGrath, Joy A; Parkerton, Thomas F; Hellweger, Ferdi L; Di Toro, Dominic M

2005-09-01

176

Trigger-responsive, fast-degradable poly(?-amino ester)s for enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced toxicity.  

PubMed

Poly(?-amino ester)s (PBAEs) represent an important class of cationic gene delivery materials which, however, suffer from uncontrolled DNA release due in part to the slow degradation of their polyester backbone. Additionally, PBAEs with high molecular weight (MW) also show considerable toxicities. In this study, we designed and developed PBAEs with trigger-responsive domains built-in polymer backbones that can be rapidly cleaved upon external UV light triggering to promote intracellular DNA release as well as reduce material toxicity. Photo-responsive PBAEs were prepared via polyaddition of (2-nitro-1,3-phenylene)bis(methylene) diacrylate and a bifunctional amine. The nitrobenzene moiety was placed in each repeating unit of the PBAE to allow fast response to external UV irradiation, and thus the ester linkers were cleaved and the polymers were degraded within several minutes upon UV irradiation. Cationic PBAEs with high MWs were able to mediate effective intracellular gene delivery, while upon UV irradiation post-transfection, enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced material toxicity were observed, which collectively contributed to greatly improved transfection efficiencies in various mammalian cell types tested. This strategy allows precise manipulation of material toxicity and gene release profiles of PBAEs, and thus provides an effective design approach to address critical issues in non-viral gene delivery. PMID:24674461

Deng, Xiaojian; Zheng, Nan; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

2014-06-01

177

Gasoline combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combination of a gasoline internal combustion engine powered by a flammable gasoline fuel and having mixing chamber means wherein the fuel is admixed with air to form a combustible mixture for burning and operation of the engine; and means for introducing the air and fuel into the mixing chamber means to provide the combustible mixture. The

J. M. Curran; J. D. Weaver; R. A. Weaver

1987-01-01

178

Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

179

Gingko biloba extract and cobalt porphyrin additive to remove harmful components from cigarette smoke and reduce its toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette filters were modified with a combination of gingko biloba extract and cobalt porphyrin (CGC) to remove harmful components from the cigarette smoke and reduce its toxicity. Smoke analysis results indicated that CGC eliminated up to 32% of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 52% of N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 46% of N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 35% of 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), 31% of N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 30% of gas-phase free

Changguo Wang; Ya Dai; Guanglin Feng; Wenmin Yang; Rong He; Xuezheng Zhou; Lijun Zhu; Lanlan Tan

2011-01-01

180

Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

181

Poor elemental food quality reduces the toxicity of fluoxetine on Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

Most chemical contaminants released into the aquatic environment have been tested for their toxicity to aquatic organisms using standardized test protocols. The extent that results from such toxicity tests vary with the quality of food provided to the test organism remains largely unknown. Here, we determined whether the elemental food quality consumed by a common test organism, Daphnia magna, affects the toxicity of a pharmaceutical, fluoxetine. We found strong interactive effects of food quality and fluoxetine on daphnid survival, growth, and reproduction. Specifically, we found that D. magna fed phosphorus (P)- and nitrogen (N)-rich algal food experienced greater toxicity due to fluoxetine. For example, the 6-day LC(50) values for fluoxetine decreased from 0.33 to 0.15 mg L(-1) when food C:P ratios were increased from 100 to 800. One explanation for this result is that fluoxetine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, increases the activity of serotonin, whose production is linked to growth metabolism in D. magna. A regulatory role of serotonin for D. magna's growth and reproduction would be consistent with its mitogenic roles in other organisms, although this possibility would require further study. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate the need to consider elemental food quality in ecotoxicological testing protocols that are aimed at evaluating the risks of exposure to chemicals in the aquatic environment. PMID:18037510

Hansen, Laura K; Frost, Paul C; Larson, James H; Metcalfe, Chris D

2008-01-20

182

Reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for pediatric hematological malignancies  

PubMed Central

Conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens often cause severe regimen-related toxicity (RRT). Furthermore, many patients suffer from poor quality of life in accordance with the increase in long-term survivors. We therefore devised a reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning (RTMAC) regimen consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), fludarabine (FLU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) for pediatric hematological malignancies. A retrospective single-center analysis was performed on patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aged ?20 years, who had received an 8-Gy TBI/FLU/CY RTMAC regimen followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Thirty-one patients underwent first allo-HSCT after an RTMAC regimen. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), MDS (n = 4), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1) and acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (n = 2). While 3 patients showed early hematological relapse, the remaining 28 patients achieved engraftments. None of the patients developed grade 4 or 5 toxicities during the study period. The 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival were 80% [95% confidence interval: CI, 61–91%] and 71% [95% CI, 52–84%], respectively. Our RTMAC regimen would be less toxic and offers a high probability of survival for children with hematological malignancies. PMID:25373730

Hirabayashi, Koichi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Sakashita, Kazuo; Kurata, Takashi; Saito, Shoji; Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Koike, Kenichi

2014-01-01

183

NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins such  

E-print Network

NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins, warranting fish consumption advisories in all five Great Lakes. In addition, chemicals of emerging concern

184

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

185

Gasoline, Asbestos, and Dioxin  

SciTech Connect

New data on the health hazards of gasoline, chrysotile asbestos, and dioxin were presented at the annual conference of the Collegium Ramazzini, an international group of scientists dedicated to the study of issues of environmental and occupational health. Presented data highlighted the inconsistencies and gaps in the hypothesis linking accumulation of alpha-2[sub u]-globulin, a protein synthesized in the livers of male rats, and gasoline-induced carcinogenicity in the male rat kidney. Although the hypothesis explains some rat male kidney tumors caused by some chemicals, new data support the view that alternative mechanisms must be operating for gasoline.

Not Available

1994-02-01

186

State Gasoline Taxes  

E-print Network

BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS HUMANISTIC STUDIES Vol. III March 15, 192S No. 4 State Gasoline Taxes BY KDMUNI) IV LKAENKI), A. B., A, M. Instructor in Economics and Commerce The Unlvmity of Kansas PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY l... vast sums of money, Oregon was the first state to adopt a tax on gasoline to provide revenue for building and maintaining roads. Since this adoption in 1919, many states have passed laws provid ing for gasoline taxes until now forty-four states...

Learned, Edmund Philip

1925-03-15

187

A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 ?g L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 ?g L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides. PMID:24630450

Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

2014-08-01

188

Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as

Sara Safari Kish; Alimorad Rashidi; Hamid Reza Aghabozorg; Leila Moradi

2010-01-01

189

Gasoline engine choking arrangement  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

Armes, P.W.

1987-10-13

190

Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan  

SciTech Connect

The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

None

1980-06-01

191

Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing

Sen, Bisakha

2012-01-01

192

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes  

E-print Network

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes, reduc- ing automobile-related gasoline consumption has become a major U.S. public policy issue. Recently, many analysts have called for new or more stringent policies to discourage gasoline consumption

Boyer, Edmond

193

Fucoidan reduces the toxicities of chemotherapy for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFIRI) has become a standard regimen for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. Numerous studies have reported that long-term use of FOLFOX or FOLFIRI leads to better survival for these patients. Thus, control of the toxicity of these drugs may be crucial to prolonging survival. Fucoidan is one of the major sulfated polysaccharides of brown seaweeds and exhibits a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of fucoidan on suppressing the toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. A total of 20 patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer scheduled to undergo treatment with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI were randomly allocated into a fucoidan treatment group (n=10) and a control group without fucoidan treatment (n=10). Results showed that fucoidan regulated the occurrence of fatigue during chemotherapy. Chemotherapy with fucoidan was continued for a longer period than chemotherapy without fucoidan. Additionally, the survival of patients with fucoidan treatment was longer than that of patients without fucoidan, although the difference was not significant. Thus, fucoidan may enable the continuous administration of chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer, and as a result, the prognosis of such patients is prolonged. PMID:22866084

Ikeguchi, Masahide; Yamamoto, Manabu; Arai, Yosuke; Maeta, Yoshihiko; Ashida, Keigo; Katano, Kuniyuki; Miki, Yasunari; Kimura, Takayuki

2011-03-01

194

Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice.  

PubMed

Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell-derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell-deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Abrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

2011-10-01

195

The effect of adding dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol to unleaded gasoline on exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen containing additives are usually used to improve gasoline’s performance and reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effect of oxygen containing additives on gasoline blended fuels on exhaust emissions was investigated for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that CO and HC exhaust emissions are lower with the use of ethanol–gasoline and

Lan-bin Wen; Chen-Ying Xin; Shyue-Cheng Yang

2010-01-01

196

Application of an inverse neural network model for the identification of optimal amendment to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils  

E-print Network

to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils Nour HATTABa,b,c* , Mikael MOTELICA potentially be applied with a high level of success to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Before

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

The potential for low petroleum gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

1996-06-01

198

Alpha-tocopherol reduces doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats--histological and biochemical evidences.  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of alpha-tocopherol on doxorubicin-induced toxicity was studied in rats. alpha-Tocopherol (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally, daily for a period of 2 months along with/without doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg, i v weekly once for 8 weeks). Histology showed liver necrosis, heart myocyte degeneration, glomerular and tubular degeneration, cellular infiltration and desquammation of intestinal mucosa in doxorubicin treated animals. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels measured in terms of "TBA reactants" in all these organs. These changes were associated with elevated levels of serum enzymes such as transaminases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The pathological observations, were minimal in animals receiving both doxorubicin and alpha-tocopherol. The lipid peroxide levels were low with concomitant normal levels of serum and intestinal enzymes in those animals. PMID:2174831

Geetha, A; Sankar, R; Marar, T; Devi, C S

1990-04-01

199

Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults With Medulloblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4-103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11-63) for p-CSI. Results: p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2% vs 5.8%; P=.004), and less p-CSI patients had >5% weight loss compared with x-CSI (16% vs 64%; P=.004). p-CSI patients experienced less grade 2 nausea and vomiting compared with x-CSI (26% vs 71%; P=.004). Patients treated with x-CSI were more likely to have medical management of esophagitis than p-CSI patients (57% vs 5%, P<.001). p-CSI patients had a smaller reduction in peripheral white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets compared with x-CSI (white blood cells 46% vs 55%, P=.04; hemoglobin 88% vs 97%, P=.009; platelets 48% vs 65%, P=.05). Mean vertebral doses were significantly associated with reductions in blood counts. Conclusions: This report is the first analysis of clinical outcomes for adult medulloblastoma patients treated with p-CSI. Patients treated with p-CSI experienced less treatment-related morbidity including fewer acute gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities.

Brown, Aaron P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Groot, John F. de; Puduvalli, Vinay K. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crawford, Cody N.; Khan, Meena [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khatua, Soumen [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Mark R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-06-01

200

Reformulated gasoline study, executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of adopting alternative standards for reformulated gasoline (RFG) in New York State has been studied for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority). In addition to Federal RFG (EPA 1) and EPA II, California Air Resources Board RFG (CARB 2) and a modified Federal low sulfur RFG (LS-EPA II) were investigated. The effects of these alternative RFGs on petroleum refinery gasoline production costs, gasoline distribution costs, New York State air quality and the New York State economy were considered. New York has already adopted the California low emission vehicle (LEV) and other emission control programs that will affect vehicles and maintenance. From 1998 to 2012 without the introduction of any type of RFG, these programs are estimated to reduce New York State mobile source summer emissions by 341 tons per day (or 40%) of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and by 292 tons per day (or 28%) of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and to reduce winter emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by 3,072 tons per day (or 39%). By 2012, the planned imposition of Federal RFG will produce further reductions (percent of 1998 levels) of 10 %, 4 % and 11%, respectively, for NMHC, NO{sub x} and CO. If New York State goes beyond EPA II and adopts CARB 2 specifications, further reductions achieved in 2012 are estimated to be very small, equaling 2% or less of 1998 levels of NMHC and NO{sub x} emissions, while CO emissions would actually increase by about 2%. When compared to EPA II over the same time frame, LS-EPA II would produce negligible (less than 1%) reductions in each of the above emissions categories.

Cunningham, R.E.; Michalski, G.W. [Turner, Mason & Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Baron, R.E.; Lyons, J.M.

1994-10-01

201

Reduced toxicity, myeloablative conditioning with BU, fludarabine, alemtuzumab and SCT from sibling donors in children with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

BU and CY (BU/CY; 200?mg/kg) before HLA-matched sibling allo-SCT in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with ~85% EFS but is limited by the acute and late effects of BU/CY myeloablative conditioning. Alternatives include reduced toxicity but more immunosuppressive conditioning. We investigated in a prospective single institutional study, the safety and efficacy of a reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen of BU 12.8-16?mg/kg, fludarabine 180?mg/m(2), alemtuzumab 54?mg/m(2) (BFA) before HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation in pediatric recipients with symptomatic SCD. Eighteen patients, median age 8.9 years (2.3-20.2), M/F 15/3, 15 sibling BM and 3 sibling cord blood (CB) were transplanted. Mean whole blood and erythroid donor chimerism was 91% and 88%, at days +100 and +365, respectively. Probability of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 17%. Two-year EFS and OS were both 100%. Neurological, pulmonary and cardiovascular function were stable or improved at 2 years. BFA RTC and HLA-matched sibling BM and CB allo-SCT in pediatric recipients result in excellent EFS, long-term donor chimerism, low incidence of GVHD and stable/improved organ function. PMID:24797180

Bhatia, M; Jin, Z; Baker, C; Geyer, M B; Radhakrishnan, K; Morris, E; Satwani, P; George, D; Garvin, J; Del Toro, G; Zuckerman, W; Lee, M T; Licursi, M; Hawks, R; Smilow, E; Baxter-Lowe, L A; Schwartz, J; Cairo, M S

2014-07-01

202

Linear blending values produce accurate results for EPA gasoline emission equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I described the method which linearizes gasoline emission equations of the EPA Simple and Complex Model forms. The goal is to develop constant component linear blending coefficients for VOC, toxics and NO[sub x] reductions that can be imbedded in linear programming models and used routinely as are other specifications. Applications include blending, planning and investment analyses to minimize gasoline

D. N. Dunbar; M. R. Tallett; J. Leather

2009-01-01

203

A relationship between hepatic metabolism of reduced lantadene A and its toxicity in rats and sheep.  

PubMed

The metabolism of the cholestatic triterpene acid reduced lantadene A has been studied in susceptible and resistant rats and in sheep which are susceptible to intoxication. Sheep and susceptible female rats produced a similar major metabolite and rats produced a second metabolite which was a glucuronide. These metabolites were also observed in extracts of bile canalicular membranes prepared from intoxicated rats. Resistant male and female rats produced a similar major metabolite which was different to those synthesized by susceptible animals. It is concluded that in rats and sheep there is a correlation between the type of metabolites produced in the liver and the susceptibility to intoxication by reduced lantadene A. PMID:2866921

Pass, M A; Goosem, M W; Pollitt, S

1985-01-01

204

Desulfurization of gasoline.  

PubMed Central

Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

Berger, J E

1975-01-01

205

Is the gasoline tax regressive?  

E-print Network

Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than ...

Poterba, James M.

1990-01-01

206

40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

2013-07-01

207

40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

2011-07-01

208

40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

2014-07-01

209

40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

2012-07-01

210

Science Nation: Green Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the help of the National Science Foundation (NSF), George Huber has been working to unlock the solar energy that's stored in cellulose. Recently, he received additional NSF funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, which he says will allow his team to continue developing new processes that can economically produce renewable gasoline and diesel fuels from domestically produced non-food biomass resources. Huber, along with a team of dedicated researchers at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, has figured out how to make gasoline from woodchips that are loaded with cellulose and the energy stored in that cellulose.

211

Reduced-toxicity conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves outcome in patients with myeloid malignancies  

PubMed Central

The introduction of reduced intensity/toxicity conditioning regimens has allowed allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to be performed in patients who were previously considered too old or otherwise unfit. Although it led to a reduction in non-relapse mortality, disease control remains a major challenge. We studied the outcome of 165 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n=124) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n=41) transplanted after conditioning with fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day for 5 days), intravenous busulfan (either 260 mg/m2: reduced intensity conditioning, or 390–520 mg/m2: reduced toxicity conditioning), and rabbit anti-thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days). The median age of the patients at transplantation was 56.8 years. The 2-year relapse incidence was 29% (23% versus 39% for patients transplanted in first complete remission and those transplanted beyond first complete remission, respectively; P=0.008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 57% (95% CI: 49.9–65). It was higher in the groups with favorable or intermediate cytogenetics than in the group with unfavorable cytogenetics (72.7%, 60.5%, and 45.7%, respectively; P=0.03). The cumulative incidence of grades 2–4 and 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease at day 100 was 19.3% and 7.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease at 1 year was 21.6% (severe forms: 7.8%). Non-relapse mortality at 1 year reached 11%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 61.8% (95% CI: 54.8–69.7). Unfavorable karyotype and disease status beyond first complete remission were associated with a poorer survival. This well-tolerated conditioning platform can lead to long-term disease control and offers possibilities of modulation according to disease stage or further development. PMID:25085356

Oudin, Claire; Chevallier, Patrice; Furst, Sabine; Guillaume, Thierry; Cheikh, Jean El; Delaunay, Jacques; Castagna, Luca; Faucher, Catherine; Granata, Angela; Devillier, Raynier; Chabannon, Christian; Esterni, Benjamin; Vey, Norbert; Mohty, Mohamad; Blaise, Didier

2014-01-01

212

Reduced-toxicity conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves outcome in patients with myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed

The introduction of reduced intensity/toxicity conditioning regimens has allowed allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to be performed in patients who were previously considered too old or otherwise unfit. Although it led to a reduction in non-relapse mortality, disease control remains a major challenge. We studied the outcome of 165 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n=124) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n=41) transplanted after conditioning with fludarabine (30 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days), intravenous busulfan (either 260 mg/m(2): reduced intensity conditioning, or 390-520 mg/m(2): reduced toxicity conditioning), and rabbit anti-thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days). The median age of the patients at transplantation was 56.8 years. The 2-year relapse incidence was 29% (23% versus 39% for patients transplanted in first complete remission and those transplanted beyond first complete remission, respectively; P=0.008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 57% (95% CI: 49.9-65). It was higher in the groups with favorable or intermediate cytogenetics than in the group with unfavorable cytogenetics (72.7%, 60.5%, and 45.7%, respectively; P=0.03). The cumulative incidence of grades 2-4 and 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease at day 100 was 19.3% and 7.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease at 1 year was 21.6% (severe forms: 7.8%). Non-relapse mortality at 1 year reached 11%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 61.8% (95% CI: 54.8-69.7). Unfavorable karyotype and disease status beyond first complete remission were associated with a poorer survival. This well-tolerated conditioning platform can lead to long-term disease control and offers possibilities of modulation according to disease stage or further development. PMID:25085356

Oudin, Claire; Chevallier, Patrice; Furst, Sabine; Guillaume, Thierry; El Cheikh, Jean; Delaunay, Jacques; Castagna, Luca; Faucher, Catherine; Granata, Angela; Devillier, Raynier; Chabannon, Christian; Esterni, Benjamin; Vey, Norbert; Mohty, Mohamad; Blaise, Didier

2014-11-01

213

Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines  

MedlinePLUS

... Provide recommendations for equipment maintenance to reduce CO emissions. Recommend the use of portable, audible CO monitors with small gasoline-powered engines. NIOSH Publications ALERT: Preventing Carbon Monoxide ...

214

Demand for gasoline in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the demand for gasoline in Kuwait for the period 1970–1989 using a cointegration and error correction model (ECM). It is found that gasoline demand is inelastic with respect to price in the short and long run, and while it is elastic in the long run, gasoline demand is inelastic with respect to income in the short run.

M. N. Eltony; N. H. Al-Mutairi

1995-01-01

215

Batteries: Lower cost than gasoline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the lifecycle costs of an electric car to a similar gasoline-powered vehicle under different scenarios of required driving range and cost of gasoline. An electric car is cost competitive for a significant portion of the scenarios: for cars of lower range and for higher gasoline prices. Electric cars with ?150km range are a technologically viable, cost competitive, high

Mathew Werber; Michael Fischer; Peter V. Schwartz

2009-01-01

216

Household impacts of gasoline decontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phase I CHRD System was used to estimate the direct impact on household gasoline expenditures of the gasoline price decontrol proposal. Decontrol was evaluated under two assumptions, a uniform 3 cents per gallon price increase at the pump in 1979 and a higher, 10 cents per gallon increase in 1979. Decontrol is estimated to increase average gasoline expenditures for

H. Beebout; J. King

1977-01-01

217

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

218

Long-term toxicity of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets: Effects on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development.  

PubMed

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets have emerged as novel materials for cancer therapeutics. Their toxicity has attracted much attention since these nanomaterials may have great potential for clinical cancer treatment. Here we report the influence of rGO exposure on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development. Mouse dams were injected with small or large rGO nanosheets at different doses and time points, pre- or post-fertilization. The sex hormone levels of adult female mice did not significantly change compared with the control group after intravenous injection with either small or large rGO, even at a high dose (25 mg/kg). Mouse dams could produce healthy offspring after treatment with rGO nanosheets before pregnancy and at an early gestational stage (?6 days). Despite the successful delivery of offspring, malformed fetuses were found among rGO-injected dam litters. All mice had abortions when injected with low (6.25 mg/kg) or intermediate (12.5 mg/kg) doses at a late gestational stage (?20 days); the majority of pregnant mice died when injected with the high dose of rGO at this stage of pregnancy. Interestingly, all surviving rGO-injected mouse mothers gave birth to another litter of healthy pups. The results presented in this work are important for a deeper understanding of the toxicity of rGO nanosheets on female reproductivity and their offspring development. PMID:25907052

Xu, Shun; Zhang, Zheyu; Chu, Maoquan

2015-06-01

219

ACAT inhibition reduces the progression of pre-existing, advanced atherosclerotic mouse lesions without plaque or systemic toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters in plaque foam cells. Complete deficiency of macrophage ACAT has been shown to increase atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice due to cytotoxicity from free cholesterol accumulation, while we previously showed that partial ACAT inhibition by Fujirebio compound F1394 decreased early atherosclerosis development. In this report, we tested F1394 effects on pre-established, advanced lesions of apoE-/- mice. Methods & Results ApoE-/- mice on Western diet for 14 weeks developed advanced plaques, and were either sacrificed (“Baseline”), or continued on Western diet without or with F1394 and sacrificed after 14 more weeks. F1394 was not associated with systemic toxicity. Compared to the baseline group, lesion size progressed in both groups; however, F1394 significantly retarded plaque progression, and reduced plaque macrophage, free and esterified cholesterol, and tissue factor contents compared to the untreated group. Apoptosis of plaque cells was not increased, consistent with the decrease in lesional free cholesterol, plaque necrosis was not increased, and efferocytosis (phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells) was not impaired. The effects of F1394 were independent of changes in plasma cholesterol levels. Conclusions Partial ACAT inhibition by F1394 lowered plaque cholesterol content and had other antiatherogenic effects in advanced lesions in apoE-/- mice without overt systemic or plaque toxicity, suggesting the continued potential of ACAT inhibition for the clinical treatment of atherosclerosis in spite of recent trial data. PMID:23139293

Rong, James X.; Blachford, Courtney; Feig, Jonathan E.; Bander, Ilda; Mayne, Jeffrey; Kusunoki, Jun; Miller, Christine; Davis, Matthew; Wilson, Martha; Dehn, Shirley; Thorp, Edward; Tabas, Ira; Taubman, Mark B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Fisher, Edward A.

2013-01-01

220

Photoimmunotherapy and irradiance modulation reduce chemotherapy cycles and toxicity in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis: perspective and results  

PubMed Central

Significant toxicities from multiple cycles of chemotherapy often cause delays or early termination of treatment, leading to poor outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. Complementary modalities that potentiate the efficacy of traditional agents with fewer cycles and less toxicity are needed. Photodynamic therapy is a mechanistically-distinct modality that synergizes with chemo and biologic agents. A combination regimen with a clinically relevant chemotherapy cocktail (cisplatin + paclitaxel) and anti-EGFR targeted photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is evaluated in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis. Mice received either 1 or 2 chemotherapy cycles followed by PIT with a chlorine6-Erbitux photoimmunoconjugate and 25 J/cm2 light. PIT + 1 cycle of chemotherapy significantly reduced tumor burden, comparable to multiple chemotherapy cycles. Relative to 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the addition of PIT did not cause significant mouse weight loss, whereas 2 cycles of chemotherapy led to a significant reduction in weight. Irradiance-dependence on PIT efficacy was a function of the conjugation chemistry, providing an additional variable for optimization of PIT outcome. PMID:23626376

Rizvi, Imran; Dinh, Tri A.; Yu, Weiping; Chang, Yuchiao; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Hasan, Tayyaba

2013-01-01

221

Use TAME and heavier ethers to improve gasoline properties  

SciTech Connect

Producing oxygenates from all potential FCC tertiary olefins is one of the most economic methods for reducing olefins and Reid vapor pressure (Rvp) in motor gasoline. MTBE production based on FCC isobutylene has reached a very high level. But the amount of MTBE from a refinery sidestream MTBE unit is insufficient for producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) and additional oxygenates must be purchased. The next phase will see conversion of isoamylenes in FCC light gasoline to TAME. Very little attention has been given to the heavier tertiary olefins present in the FCC light gasoline like tert-hexenes and heptenes. This route allows higher levels of oxygenates production, thereby lowering Rvp and the proportion of olefins in the gasoline pool and maximizing the use of FCC olefins. By using all the components produced by an FCC efficiently, many gasoline problems can be solved. Isobutene is converted to MTBE, C[sub 3]/C[sub 4] olefins are converted to alkylate and C[sub 5] tertiary olefins can be converted to TAME. All of these are preferred components for gasoline quality. By producing more oxygenates like MTBE, TAME and heavier ethers, a refinery can be self-sufficient in blending reformulated gasoline and no oxygenates need to be purchased. The technology for producing TAME and other ethers is described.

Ignatius, J.; Jaervelin, H.; Lindqvist, P. (Neste Engineering, Porvoo (Finland))

1995-02-01

222

Gasoline Composition in 2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline composition in the U.S is determined by factors related to crude oil source, refinery capacity, geography and regulatory factors. Major regulation derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments determines the benzene and former oxygenate requirements for reformulated...

223

A Single Mutation in the Non-Amyloidogenic Region of IAPP (Amylin) Greatly Reduces Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin) is a 37-residue peptide secreted with insulin by beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The aggregation of the peptide into either amyloid fibers or small soluble oligomers has been implicated in the death of beta-cells during type 2 diabetes through disruption of the cellular membrane. The actual form of the peptide responsible for beta-cell death has been a subject of controversy. Previous research has indicated that the N-terminal region of the peptide (residues 1-19) is primarily responsible for the membrane disrupting effect of the hIAPP peptide and induces membrane disruption to a similar extent as the full-length peptide without forming amyloid fibers when bound to the membrane. The rat version of the peptide, which is both non-cytotoxic and non-amyloidogenic, differs from the human peptide by only one amino acid residue: Arg18 in the rat version while His18 in the human version. To elucidate the effect of this difference, we have measured in this study the effects of the rat and human versions of IAPP1-19 on islet cells and model membranes. Fluorescence microscopy shows a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels of islet cells after the addition of hIAPP1-19 indicating disruption of the cellular membrane, while the rat version of the IAPP1-19 peptide is significantly less effective. Circular dichroism experiments and dye leakage assays on model liposomes show rIAPP1-19 is deficient in binding to and disrupting lipid membranes at low but not at high peptide to lipid ratios, indicating that the ability of rIAPP1-19 to form small aggregates necessary for membrane binding and disruption is significantly less than hIAPP1-19. At pH 6.0, where H18 is likely to be protonated, hIAPP1-19 resembles rIAPP1-19 in its ability to cause membrane disruption. Differential scanning calorimetry suggests a different mode of binding to the membrane for rIAPP1-19 compared to hIAPP1-19. Human IAPP1-19 has a minimal effect on the phase transition of lipid vesicles, suggesting a membrane orientation of the peptide in which the mobility of the acyl chains of the membrane is relatively unaffected. Rat IAPP1-19, however, has a strong effect on the phase transition of lipid vesicles at low concentrations suggesting the peptide does not easily insert into the membrane after binding to the surface. Our results indicate the modulation of the peptide orientation in the membrane by His18 plays a key role in the toxicity of non-amyloidogenic forms of hIAPP. PMID:18989933

Brender, Jeffrey R.; Hartman, Kevin; Reid, Kendra R.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

224

Antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity of methanol extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

2014-11-01

225

Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 – 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis.

Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

2014-10-01

226

Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.  

PubMed Central

Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis. PMID:25374886

McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

2014-01-01

227

Effect of fertilization on exudation, dehydrogenase activity, iron-reducing populations and Fe ++ formation in the rhizosphere of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in relation to iron toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To explain the mechanism of iron toxicity, greenhouse and growth chamber (14CO2 atmosphere) experiments were carried out. In pot experiments (with a typical iron-toxic soil and a fertile clay) we studied the effect of N, P, K and Ca+Mg fertilization (alone or in combination) on dehydrogenase activity, Fe++ formation, and the populations of iron-reducing bacteria in the rhizosphere of

G. Benckiser; S. Santiago; H. U. Neue; I. Watanabe; J. C. G. Ottow

1984-01-01

228

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

Bernard Lachance; Agnès Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

2004-01-01

229

Human antibody fragments specific for Bothrops jararacussu venom reduce the toxicity of other Bothrops sp. venoms.  

PubMed

Approximately 20,000 snakebites are registered each year in Brazil. The classical treatment for venomous snakebite involves the administration of sera obtained from immunized horses. Moreover, the production and care of horses is costly, and the use of heterologous sera can cause hypersensitivity reactions. The production of human antibody fragments by phage display technology is seen as a means of overcoming some of these disadvantages. The studies here attempted to test human monoclonal antibodies specific to Bothrops jararacussu against other Bothrops sp. venoms, using the Griffin.1 library of human single-chain fragment-variable (scFv) phage antibodies. Using the Griffin.1 phage antibody library, this laboratory previously produced scFvs capable of inhibiting the phospholipase and myotoxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu venom. The structural and functional similarities of the various forms of phospholipase A2 (PLA?) in Bothrops venom served as the basis for the present study wherein the effectiveness of those same scFvs were evaluated against B. jararaca, B. neuwiedi, and B. moojeni venoms. Each clone was found to recognize all three Bothrops venoms, and purified scFvs partially inhibited their in vitro phospholipase activity. In vivo assays demonstrated that the scFv clone P2B7 reduced myotoxicity and increased the survival of animals that received the test venoms. The results here indicate that the scFv P2B7 is a candidate for inclusion in a mixture of specific antibodies to produce a human anti-bothropic sera. This data demonstrates that the human scFv P2B7 represents an alternative therapeutic approach to heterologous anti-bothropic sera available today. PMID:22954026

Roncolato, Eduardo Crosara; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Funayama, Jaqueline Carlos; Bertolini, Thaís Barboza; Campos, Lucas Benício; Barbosa, José Elpidio

2013-01-01

230

Optimized combinations of bortezomib, camptothecin, and doxorubicin show increased efficacy and reduced toxicity in treating oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment of oral cancer with combinatorial drugs is increasingly being performed as drugs with different molecular targets often exert synergistic effects, thereby enhancing treatment efficacy. Current combinatorial drug regimens often combine the tolerable dosages of individual drugs. However, the optimized ratio of a drug combination and sequence of drug administration could contribute toward the synergy, leading to increased efficacy and reduced dosages. This report aims to study the possible synergistic effects of three anticancer drugs, a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, Camptothecin, and a DNA intercalation drug, Doxorubicin, when used in combination for treating oral cancer. To rapidly optimize the three-drug regimen with minimal experimental efforts, a Feedback System Control optimization technique, a recent platform technique developed particularly for drug combination screening, was applied. The optimized regimen showed a therapeutic window (death rate difference between cancer cells and normal cells) close to 100%. This is the first report on the use of a combination of bortezomib, Camptothecin, and Doxorubicin in the treatment of oral cancer. Our results indicate that to have the most synergistic anticancer effect, the drugs in the optimized regimen should be dosage specific and ratio specific. Furthermore, the sequence of drug administration plays a vital role in ensuring that the combination is effective. The optimized regimen reported here has the potential to considerably increase the cure rate of oral cancer and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25734832

Ding, Xianting; Matsuo, Kyle; Xu, Lin; Yang, Jian; Zheng, Longpo

2015-06-01

231

Physical exercise prior and during treatment reduces sub-chronic doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anti-cancer agent whose clinical usage results in a cumulative and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. We have previously shown that exercise performed prior to DOX treatment reduces the resulting cardiac(mito) toxicity. We sought to determine the effects on cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) when used prior and during DOX treatment. Male-young Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=6 per group): SAL+SED (saline sedentary), SAL+TM (12-weeks TM), SAL+FW (12-weeks FW), DOX+SED (7-weeks of chronic DOX treatment 2mg/kg per week), DOX+TM and DOX+FW. DOX administration started 5weeks after the beginning of the exercise protocol. Heart mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations, mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption and membrane potential), semi-quantification of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and their in-gel activity, as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress (SIRT3, p66shc and UCP2), biogenesis (PGC1? and TFAM), acetylation and markers for oxidative damage (carbonyl groups, MDA,SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD activity) were evaluated. DOX treatment resulted in ultrastructural and functional alterations and decreased OXPHOS. Moreover, DOX decreased complex I activity and content, mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM), increased acetylation and oxidative stress. TM and FW prevented DOX-induced alteration in OXPHOS, the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in complex V activity and in complex I activity and content. DOX-induced decreases in TFAM and SIRT3 content were prevented by TM only. Both chronic models of physical exercise performed before and during the course of sub-chronic DOX treatment translated into an improved mitochondrial bioenergetic fitness, which may result in part from the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. PMID:25446396

Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Santos-Alves, Estela; Mariani, Diogo; Rizo-Roca, David; Padrão, Ana I; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, J Ramon; Ferreira, Rita; Oliveira, Paulo J; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António

2015-01-01

232

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

2014-07-01

234

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

2011-07-01

235

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

2010-07-01

236

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

2012-07-01

237

Gasoline Vapor Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

1979-01-01

238

Sulfur in gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The international refiner is presently being squeezed by narrow refining margins and ever increasing demands for improved product quality. One high visibility aspect of this quality is the amount of sulfur allowed in motor gasoline under present and future regulations. This limit alone will call for fundamental changes in refining strategy, as well as require large capital investments. This paper will review the interaction of hydrotreating and FCC technologies, with the goal of describing that will be necessary to economically meet the gasoline sulfur limits in the coming years. The interaction with other upstream and downstream refinery operations will be considered within the boarder scope of total refinery products needed in the decade of reformulated fuels.

Pearce, J.R.; Keyworth, D.; Desai, P.H. [Akzo Chemicals Inc., Pasadena, TX (United States)

1993-12-31

239

Targeting therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with doxorubicin prodrug PDOX increases anti-metastatic effect and reduces toxicity: a preclinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to investigate the effects and safety of cathepsin B-cleavable doxorubicin (DOX)-prodrug (PDOX) for targeting therapy of metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using DOX as a positive control drug. Methods The orthotopic nude mice model of highly metastatic HCC was established and the animals were randomized and treated with PDOX, DOX and saline, respectively. Hematology, biochemistry and tumor markers were studied. At autopsy, liver tumor weight and size, ascites, abdominal lymph nodes metastases, experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis index (ePCI), and tumor-host body weight ratio were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies and western blotting were done to investigate key molecules involved in the mechanism of action. Results Compared with Control, both PDOX and DOX could similarly and significantly reduce liver tumor weight and tumor volume by over 40%, ePCI values, retroperitoneal lymph node metastases and lung metastases and serum AFP levels (P?reduce the Ki-67 positive rate of tumor cells, compared with DOX and Control groups. PDOX produced the effects at least via the ERK pathway. Conclusion Compared with DOX, PDOX may have better anti-metastatic efficacy and reduced side effects especially cardio-toxicities in this HCC model. PMID:23961994

2013-01-01

240

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times. PMID:23375214

Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

2013-05-01

241

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

2013-05-01

242

Office of Transportation and Air Quality: GASOLINE FUELS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers the user a variety of informational links that specifically address the testing, standards and regulations with which the gasoline manufacturers must comply. Since its implementation, one of the primary causes championed by the EPA has been to reduce emissions and pollutants by automobiles. In 1973 it called for a gradual phase-down of lead in gasoline, the primary fuel source for much of the transportation industry, culminating with passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of the 1990

243

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.  

PubMed

In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24852493

Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

2014-11-01

244

Synthetic Triterpenoids Can Protect Against Toxicity Without Reducing the Efficacy of Treatment with Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Experimental Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Synthetic oleanane triterpenoids are multifunctional drugs being developed for the prevention and treatment of a variety of chronic diseases driven by inflammation and oxidative stress. Low nanomolar concentrations of triterpenoids inhibit the induction of inflammatory cytokines, and these drugs are potent activators of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway. In contrast, low micromolar concentrations of triterpenoids increased the production of ROS and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in malignant MCF10 CA1a breast cancer cells. Because cancer cells respond differently to ROS than normal cells, it should be possible to exploit these differences therapeutically. In an experimental model of lung cancer, the triterpenoids activated the Nrf2 pathway, as seen by induction of the cytoprotective enzyme NQO1, and reduced the toxicity of carboplatin and paclitaxel. The induction of the Nrf2 pathway in the lung did not suppress the efficacy of treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel, as the average tumor burden in the group treated with the combination of CDDO-Me and carboplatin/paclitaxel decreased by 90% (P < 0.05 vs. the controls and both single treatment groups). Understanding the dose response of triterpenoids and related drugs will help provide the proper context for optimizing their potential clinical utility. PMID:24659938

Liby, Karen T.

2014-01-01

245

An ScFv Intrabody Against the Non-Amyloid Component of Alpha Synuclein Reduces Intracellular Aggregation and Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Summary Prevention of abnormal misfolding and aggregation of alpha-synuclein (?-syn) protein in vulnerable neurons should be a viable therapeutic strategy for reducing pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The non-amyloid component (NAC) region of ?-syn shows strong tendencies to form ?-sheet structures, and deletion of this region has been shown to reduce aggregation and toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Binding of a molecular species to this region may mimic effects of such deletions. Single-chain Fv antibodies (scFvs) retain the binding specificity of antibodies, and when genetically manipulated to create high-diversity libraries, allow in vitro selection against peptides. Accordingly, we used a yeast surface display library of an entire naïve repertoire of human scFv antibodies to select for binding to a NAC peptide. Candidate scFvs (after transfer to mammalian expression vectors), were screened for viability in a neuronal cell line by transient co-transfection with A53T mutant ?-syn. This provided a ranking of the protective efficacies of the initial panel of intracellular antibodies (intrabodies). High steady-state expression levels and apparent conformational epitope binding appeared more important than in vitro affinity in these assays. None of the scFvs selected matched the sequences of previously-reported anti- ?-syn scFvs. A stable cell line expressing the most effective intrabody, NAC32, showed highly significant reductions of abnormal aggregation in two separate models. Recently, intrabodies have shown promising anti-aggregation and neuroprotective effects against misfolded mutant huntingtin protein. The NAC32 study extends such work significantly, utilizing information about the pathogenic capacity of a specific ?-syn region to offer a new generation of in vitro-derived antibody fragments, both for further engineering as direct therapeutics and as tools for rational drug design for PD. PMID:18237741

Lynch, Sandra M.; Zhou, Chun; Messer, Anne

2008-01-01

246

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline. 1065.710 Section 1065.710...Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) This section specifies test fuel properties for gasoline with ethanol (low-level blend...

2014-07-01

247

Compost amendment of Cu–Zn minespoil reduces toxic bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and promotes establishment and biomass production of Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of lab and greenhouse studies were undertaken to understand how Cu and Zn toxicity influences Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.) growth, to what degree an organic amendment (yard waste compost) may reduce Cu and Zn bioavailability in Cu–Zn minespoil and promote plant growth in combination with fertilizer, and how the vertical distribution of compost in the minespoil influences

Ryan O'Dell; Wendy Silk; Peter Green; Victor Claassen

2007-01-01

248

Impact Analysis on Gasoline Demand and CO2 Emissions of the Reduction in Expressway Toll, Free Expressways and Repeal of Temporary Tax on Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toll on expressways is reduced as one of the economic stimulation packages of the Japanese government. The effect, however, is disputable. There are two competing views on the effect on gasoline demand and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which is related to climate change. One is that this measure increases gasoline demand and CO2 emissions and another is that this

Akira Yanagisawa

2009-01-01

249

Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.  

PubMed

We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline. PMID:24870412

Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

2014-06-17

250

Is the Gasoline Tax Regressive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than for middle or high-income households. This paper argues that annual expenditure provides a more reliable indicator of household well-being than annual income. It uses data from

James M. Poterba

1991-01-01

251

Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.  

PubMed

Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

2015-02-01

252

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1035: (1) The inventory reconciliation analysis under § 80.128(b) and the tender analysis under § 80.128(c) shall include Non-Toxics-FRGAS...to the gasoline inventory reconciliation analysis in § 80.128(b), and to the...

2010-07-01

253

Reducing power and iron chelating property of Terminalia chebula (Retz.) alleviates iron induced liver toxicity in mice  

PubMed Central

Background The 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME) was investigated for its in vitro iron chelating property and in vivo ameliorating effect on hepatic injury of iron overloaded mice. Methods The effect of fruit extract on Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation and Fe2+ mediated pUC-18 DNA breakdown was studied in order to find the in vitro iron chelating activity. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of: blank, patient control and treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg b.w. of TCME and desirox (standard iron chelator drug with Deferasirox as parent compound). Evaluations were made for serum markers of hepatic damage, antioxidant enzyme, lipid per oxidation and liver fibrosis levels. The reductive release of ferritin iron by the extract was further studied. Results In vitro results showed considerable iron chelation with IC50 of 27.19?±?2.80 ?g/ml, and a significant DNA protection with [P]50 of 1.07?±?0.03 ?g/ml along with about 86% retention of supercoiled DNA. Iron-dextran injection (i.p.) caused significant increase in the levels of the serum enzymes, viz., alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Bilirubin, which were subsequently lowered by oral administration of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of the fruit extract by 81.5%, 105.88%, 188.08% and 128.31%, respectively. Similarly, treatment with the same dose of the extract was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of liver antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and non-enzymatic reduced glutathione, by 49.8%, 53.5%, 35.4% and 11% respectively, in comparison to the iron overloaded mice. At the same time, the fruit extract effectively lowered the iron-overload induced raised levels of lipid per oxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline and liver iron by 49%, 67%, 67% and 26%, respectively, with oral treatment of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of TCME. The fruit extract also showed potential activity for reductive release of ferritin iron. Conclusions These findings suggest that Terminalia chebula extract may contain active substances capable of lessening iron overload induced toxicity, and hence possibly be useful as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases. PMID:22938047

2012-01-01

254

Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P < 0.05). The total number and average body weight (BW) of fetuses at 70 DIP, the number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the average BW of piglet at birth, the number of piglets born alive, the born alive litter weight, and born alive piglet BW at farrowing were also decreased by ZEN exposure (P < 0.05). The increased expressions of P53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in the uterus and placenta of sows at 70 DIP, the placenta and fetal uterus at farrowing, and the piglet uterus at weaning (P < 0.05). Adding 1% MHNTs decreased the residue of ZEN in maternal and fetal tissues. The number of fetuses and the average fetus BW at 70 DIP, the total number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the born alive piglet BW at farrowing, the average piglet BW, the litter weaned weight, and the average day gain at weaning were increased by adding 1% MHNTs, compared with the ZEN-treated group (P < 0.05). The MHNTs significantly reduced the damage to the fat in the colostrum and the protein and lactose in the milk induced by the ZEN-contaminated feed (P < 0.05). Modified halloysite nanotubes could be used as adsorbent in the feed to reduce the toxic effects of ZEN. PMID:25528463

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

2015-03-15

255

Elemental selenium at nano size (Nano-Se) as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of selenium toxicity: comparison with se-methylselenocysteine in mice.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. As a promising chemopreventive agent, its use requires consumption over the long term, so the toxicity of Se is always a crucial concern. Based on clinical findings and recent studies in selenoprotein gene-modified mice, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or more selenoproteins is responsible for the chemopreventive effect of Se. Furthermore, upregulation of phase 2 enzymes by Se has been implicated as a possible chemopreventive mechanism at supranutritional dietary levels. Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), a naturally occurring organic Se product, is considered as one of the most effective chemopreventive selenocompounds. The present study revealed that, as compared with SeMSC, elemental Se at nano size (Nano-Se) possessed equal efficacy in increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, but had much lower toxicity as indicated by median lethal dose, acute liver injury, survival rate, and short-term toxicity. Our results suggest that Nano-Se can serve as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of Se toxicity. PMID:17728283

Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Xufang; Xu, Tongwen

2008-01-01

256

Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding, the gasoline prices follow as closely as diesel prices to ALOP. Finally, system-wide causality analysis finds linkages among markets. In summary, both physical and statistical linkages exist among the study markets. Arbitrage among these markets is limited by the logistics of transportation infrastructure and by branding agreements in wholesale contracting.

Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

257

Development of lean NOx catalyst for lean burn gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean NOx catalyst for a lean burn gasoline engine was developed. This catalyst could constantly reduce NOx under lean burn driving condition by using hydrocarbon as a reducing agent. This catalyst consists of platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir) and rhodium (Rh) as active metals and H-MFI type zeolite as a support material. This catalyst had high thermal durability that was caused

H. Iwakuni; A. Takami; K. Komatsu

1999-01-01

258

Oligomerize for better gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on normal butene containing isobutene-depleted C{sub 4} hydrocarbons like raffinate II which are oligomerized using the Octol process in the liquid phase on a heterogeneous catalyst system to yield mainly C{sub 8} and C{sub 12} olefins. Raffinate II, the spent C{sub 4} fraction of an MTBE unit, is an ideal feedstock for further n-butene processing because of its high olefin concentration ranging between 70% and 80%. By modifications of MTBE technology, implementation of selective hydrogenation for removal of residual butadiene and superfractionating raffinate II, polymer grade 1-butene can be produced. Until the mid-70s raffinate I, the team cracker C{sub 4} cut after butadiene extraction, was mainly burned or blended into gasoline. Now nearly all raffinate I is or will be consumed for the purpose of converting isobutylene to MTBE.

Nierlich, F. (Huls AG, Marl (DE))

1992-02-01

259

Gasoline refractionator for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasoline refractionator for internal combustion engines has a first heat exchanger which receives gasoline from a fuel source and cools the gasoline sufficiently to cause the gasoline to separate into its lighter and heavier ends or components. The separated components are then heated in a second heat exchanger to a temperature at which the components will tend to remain

Gandy

1977-01-01

260

Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina  

E-print Network

- 1 - Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina, California Abstract We examine how gasoline price volatility impacts consumers' price elasticity of demand for gasoline. Results show that volatility in prices decreases consumer demand for gasoline in the intermediate

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

261

Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

2008-01-01

262

Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves hematologic toxicity in particular. Although the long-term efficacy of current treatment options remains disappointing, the improved therapeutic index of IMRT may aid in generalizing its use and allowing the addition of novel approaches such as intraperitoneal immunotherapy.

Desai, Neil B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Stein, Nicholas F. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2013-01-01

263

Diesel vs. gasoline emissions: Does PM from diesel or gasoline vehicles dominate in the US?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the US, the majority of the on-road fleet and vehicle miles travelled are attributed to light-duty vehicles, which are fuelled almost entirely by gasoline. However, due to their significantly higher PM emission rates, emissions inventories have tended to attribute the majority of the mobile source PM to contributions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles and strategies to reduce mobile source PM

Alan W. Gertler

2005-01-01

264

Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI  

SciTech Connect

The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2006-09-01

265

Arsenic toxicity is not due to a direct effect on the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds by Thiobacillus caldus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiobacillus caldus is a moderately thermophilic acidophile which has been implicated in the biooxidation of arsenic containing mineral Sulfides. The toxic effects of arsenic on this bacterium are presented here. Addition of arsenite to a growing culture of T. caldus caused a transient increase in the optical density of the culture while causing a simultaneous decrease in cell viability. The

Kevin B. Hallberg; Mark Dopson; E. Börje Lindström

1996-01-01

266

Copper Nanoparticle (CuNP) Nanochain Arrays with a Reduced Toxicity Response: A Biophysical and Biochemical Outlook on Vigna radiata.  

PubMed

Copper deficiency or toxicity in agricultural soil circumscribes a plant's growth and physiology, hampering photochemical and biochemical networks within the system. So far, copper sulfate (CS) has been used widely despite its toxic effect. To get around this long-standing problem, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized, characterized, and tested on mung bean plants along with commercially available salt CS, to observe morphological abnormalities enforced if any. CuNPs enhanced photosynthetic activity by modulating fluorescence emission, photophosphorylation, electron transport chain (ETC), and carbon assimilatory pathway under controlled laboratory conditions, as revealed from biochemical and biophysical studies on treated isolated mung bean chloroplast. CuNPs at the recommended dose worked better than CS in plants in terms of basic morphology, pigment contents, and antioxidative activities. CuNPs showed elevated nitrogen assimilation compared to CS. At higher doses CS was found to be toxic to the plant system, whereas CuNP did not impart any toxicity to the system including morphological and/or physiological alterations. This newly synthesized polymer-encapsulated CuNPs can be utilized as nutritional amendment to balance the nutritional disparity enforced by copper imbalance. PMID:25686266

Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Satakshi; Chandra, Sourov; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

2015-03-18

267

Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach  

E-print Network

Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

Muehlegger, Erich J.

2004-01-01

268

40 CFR 80.1652 - Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and oxygenate...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1652 Reporting requirements...

2014-07-01

269

Price elasticity for gasoline revisited  

SciTech Connect

A reexamination of the 1974 findngs of Houthakker, Verleger, and Sheehan confirms that gasoline prices can promote energy conservation and that demand responses devlop over time. The empirical evidence is consistent with other earlier studies. The responsiveness observed during the 1962 to 73 sample period probably understates present economic elasticity because gasoline prices now require a larger share of disposable income, making a -1.5 price elasticity more realistic. 8 references, 1 table. (DCK)

Pelaez, R.F.

1981-10-01

270

Antiknock agent for unleaded gasolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 66.095.21\\/662.75 +665.6 Because of the need to curtail harmful discharges from automotive vehicles, gasolines with improved ecological properties have been developed. The most critical ecological factor is the gasoline's content of antiknock additives based on tetraethyllead or tetramethyllead (TEL or TML). These compounds are harmful to humans and vegetation, and they have an adverse effect on the catalytic converters

E. A. Dem'yanenko; A. V. Sachivko; V. P. Tverdokhlebov; P. S. Deineko; A. M. Bakaleinik; V. M. Manaenkov; V. E. Emel'yanov; S. N. Onoichenko

1993-01-01

271

Effects of selected food phytochemicals in reducing the toxic actions of TCDD and p,p?-DDT in U937 macrophages  

PubMed Central

To assess the effectiveness of selected food phytochemicals in reducing the toxic effects of the environmental toxicants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and p,p?-DDT (DDT), we tested the potencies of auraptene, nobiletin, zerumbone, and (±)-13-hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (13-HOA) in reversing the inflammatory action of these toxicants in U937 human macrophages. Using quantitative RT–PCR as the initial screening assay, we identified antagonistic actions of zerumbone and auraptene against the action of TCDD and DDT in up-regulating the mRNA expressions of COX-2 and VEGF. The functional significance of the inhibitory action of zerumbone on COX-2 expression was confirmed by demonstrating its suppression of TCDD-induced activation of COX-2 gene expression in mouse MMDD1 cells. We tested auraptene on DDT-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in U937 macrophages and found that auraptene is a powerful agent antagonizing this action of DDT. To confirm the significance of these actions of zerumbone and auraptene at the cellular level, we assessed their influence on TCDD-induced apoptosis resistance in intact U937 macrophages and found that they are capable of reversing this action of TCDD. In conclusion, zerumbone and auraptene were identified to be the most effective agents in protecting U937 macrophages from developing these cell toxic effects of TCDD and DDT. PMID:20865247

Sciullo, Eric M.; Vogel, Christoph F.; Wu, Dalei; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime

2010-01-01

272

40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. 80...80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined...

2014-07-01

273

40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. 80...80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined...

2013-07-01

274

40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. 80...80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined...

2012-07-01

275

40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. 80...80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined...

2010-07-01

276

40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. 80...80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined...

2011-07-01

277

Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.  

PubMed

The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx. PMID:19595441

Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-09-15

278

Toxic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

Kim, Jae Woo

2012-01-01

279

Heat-Induced Superaggregation of Amphotericin B Reduces Its In Vitro Toxicity: a New Way To Improve Its Therapeutic Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superaggregation of amphotericin B (AmB) was previously shown to occur upon heating of solutions at 70°C. In the present study, we demonstrate that heat pretreatment of Fungizone (deoxycholate salt of AmB (AmB- DOC)) solutions induces a drastic decrease in the in vitro toxicity of this antibiotic. Heated AmB-DOC colloidal solutions, which mainly contained superaggregated and monomeric forms of the antibiotic,

FRANCOIS GABORIAU; MONIQUE CHERON; CAROLINE PETIT; JACQUES BOLARD; M. Curie

1997-01-01

280

Reduced toxicity of lipo-oligosaccharide from a phoP mutant of Neisseria meningitidis: an in vitro demonstration.  

PubMed

PhoP is part of a two-component regulatory system, which we have previously demonstrated in Neisseria meningitidis and shown to be an important regulator of virulence in an in vivo model. The phoP mutant clearly induced cross-species reactive antibodies and lacks the obvious toxic effects of the wild-type strain. In the current study, we demonstrate distinct differences between the wild-type and mutant strains in an in vitro model of toxicity. At concentrations likely to be present early in an infection, the mutant was more efficient at stimulating an inflammatory response than the wild-type. However, at the concentrations likely to be found at the site of a fulminant infection, the mutant showed significantly weaker ability to stimulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. SDS-PAGE analysis of the isolated LOS from the wild-type and mutant showed a difference in the level of expression of two major species of LOS, a finding which was supported by preliminary MALDI-TOF analysis. These results suggest that the altered toxicity of the mutant may be due to the increased expression of a conformationally altered LOS species, which shows less affinity and avidity for the cellular receptors responsible for the inflammatory response to endotoxin. PMID:16420742

Rustam, Tarick; McClean, Stephen; Newcombe, Jane; McFadden, Johnjoe; Eales-Reynolds, Lesley-Jane

2006-01-01

281

Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

2014-01-01

282

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

2007-06-01

283

Toxicology and human health effects following exposure to oxygenated or reformulated gasoline.  

PubMed

In order to replace antiknock leaded derivatives in gasoline, legislations were enacted in the United States and other countries to find safer additives and to reduce CO, O3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in non-attainment areas. Oxygenates commonly used include various alcohols and aliphatic ethers. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used and studied ether oxygenate and is added to gasoline at concentrations up to 15% by volume. Inhalation of fumes while fueling automobiles is the main source of human exposure to MTBE. Humans are also exposed when drinking water contaminated with MTBE. Epidemiological, clinical, animal, metabolic and kinetic studies have been carried out to address human health risks resulting from exposure to MTBE. MTBE is an animal carcinogen, but its human carcinogenic potential remains unclear. Because MTBE functions as a non-traditional genotoxicant, several mechanisms were suggested to explain its mode of action, such as, functioning as a cytotoxic as opposed to a mitogenic agent; involvement of hormonal mechanisms; or operating as a promoter instead of being a complete carcinogen. Some studies suggested that carcinogenicity of MTBE might be due to its two main metabolites, formaldehyde or tributanol. A role for DNA repair in MTBE carcinogenesis was recently unveiled, which explains some, but not all effects. The totality of the evidence shows that, for the majority of the non-occupationally exposed human population, MTBE is unlikely to produce lasting adverse health effects, and may in some cases improve health by reducing the composition of emitted harmful VOCs and other substances. A small segment of the population (e.g. asthmatic children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency) may be at increased risk for toxicity. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate this hypothesis. Concern over ground and surface water contamination caused by persistent MTBE has lead the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to proposed reducing or eliminating its use as a gasoline additive. The major potential alternatives to MTBE are other forms of ethers such as ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and alcohols such as ethanol. More definitive studies are needed to understand the mechanism(s) by which aliphatic ethers may pose health and environmental impacts. The switch from MTBE to ethanol is not without problems. Ethanol costs more to produce, poses challenges to the gasoline distribution system, extends the spread of hydrocarbons through ground water in gasoline plumes, and in the short-term is unlikely to be available in sufficient quantity. Moreover, its metabolite acetaldehyde is a possible carcinogen that undergoes a photochemical reaction in the atmosphere to produce the respiratory irritant peroxylacetate nitrate (PAN). Congress is addressing whether the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) provisions concerning reformulated gasoline (RFG) should be modified to allow refineries to discontinue or lessen the use of oxygenates. PMID:11641038

Ahmed, F E

2001-09-15

284

Effect of HHO gas on combustion emissions in gasoline engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the emission pollution associated with oil combustion is gaining an increasing interest worldwide. Recently, Brown’s gas (HHO gas) has been introduced as an alternative clean source of energy. A system to generate HHO gas has been built and integrated with Honda G 200 (197cc single cylinder engine). The results show that a mixture of HHO, air, and gasoline cause

Sa’ed A. Musmar; Ammar A. Al-Rousan

2011-01-01

285

Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel. Plume lengths, though, would not be proportionately reduced. One implication of these results was that the concentrations would be reduced, but the number of impacted wells would remain similar. Because the simulations included emplacement of the gasoline, dissolution from contact with flowing ground water and transient transport in the aquifer, a common-sense explanation of the results was difficult to construct. A simpler model was then used for the purpose of explaining to policy-makers why the plume length reductions were less than proportionate to the reduction of the amount of MTBE. The model was simple enough (one-dimensional, steady state, constant source concentration) so that the effect of each term of the transport equation on plume length could be easily shown. The weight of evidence from using multiple models, direct explanations from the transport equation, and field observation, then provided a sufficient basis for policy makers to understand scientifically how gasoline composition affects ground water impacts. >http://www.epa.gov/athens/learn2model/part- two/onsite/length.htm

Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

2001-12-01

286

Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.  

PubMed

Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

2013-10-01

287

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

288

Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

289

Household gasoline demand in the United States  

E-print Network

Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01

290

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

291

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline for testing must have octane values that represent commercially available fuels for the appropriate application. (b) There are two grades of...

2010-07-01

292

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

293

Method and apparatus for abatement of gasoline vapor emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus are described for installing, controlling and operating a vapor control system for abating gasoline vapor emissions which occur at a gasoline service station during transfer of liquid gasoline from a gasoline supply tank truck to underground storage containers at the station and also during transfer of liquid gasoline from the underground storage containers to the gasoline

Hirt

1981-01-01

294

Evaluation of two mycotoxin binders to reduce toxicity of broiler diets containing ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin contaminated grain.  

PubMed

In order to assess ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) binding ability of two commercial sorbents, both in vitro and in vivo trials with broilers were performed. Crude OA and T-2 extracts from contaminated grain were used to assess in vitro binding ability of two sorbents (Zeotek [Zk] and Mycofix [Mx]), by quantifying free mycotoxin through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. For in vivo trial, a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used for this experiment, being the factors: adsorbents (none, Zk, and Mx), OA (0 and 567 parts per billion [ppb]) and T-2 (0 and 927 ppb). OA and T-2 contaminated wheat and corn, respectively, were added to sorghum-soybean meal diets to meet 567 ppb of OA and 927 ppb of T-2. Mycotoxins were fed alone or combined in treatments. After 21 days, blood chemistry, gross, and histological evaluations were performed. Relative weights of liver, kidney, and bursa of Fabricius were obtained. Zk had the highest OA and T-2 in vitro binding ability (100% and 8.67%, respectively). Chickens fed OA with or without sorbents had a lower body weight and feed intake reduction. However, those birds fed T-2 were partly protected by a sorbent. Birds fed both toxins showed toxic additive effects, and no protection of any adsorbent was observed. A significant reduction in plasma proteins, albumin, and globulins was a characteristic observed in all birds fed diets with OA both with or without adsorbents. Uric acid level in blood was increased in all chickens fed OA-contaminated diets. Histological findings observed in birds fed OA-contaminated diets were necrosis of kidney tubular cells, swollen and necrotic hepatocytes, bile ducts hyperplasia, and increased diameter of proventriculus glands. In birds that received T-2 alone, only the liver, with the same kind of lesions, was affected. According to these results, it can be concluded that there is not a relation between in vitro and in vivo trials. OA toxic effects could not be counteracted by any sorbent. T-2 toxicity could be partially counteracted by an adsorbent used in this research. PMID:14562898

García, A R; Avila, E; Rosiles, R; Petrone, V M

2003-01-01

295

Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats  

SciTech Connect

Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ? We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ? We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ? We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin after intravenous anticalin administration. ? We provide clinical data on outcome improvement after anticalin administration.

Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

2012-09-15

296

Reduced in vivo ocular surface toxicity with polyquad-preserved travoprost versus benzalkonium-preserved travoprost or latanoprost ophthalmic solutions.  

PubMed

The study used a validated acute in vivo model to compare a new formulation of travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution(travoprost PQ), preserved with polyquaternium-1 (PQ), with commercially available formulations of benzalkonium-chloride(BAK)-preserved travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution(travoprost BAK) and BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005%ophthalmic solution (latanoprost BAK). Adult male New Zealand albino rabbits (n = 36) were randomly divided into 6 groups. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.001% PQ, 0.015% BAK, travoprost PQ, travoprost BAK or latanoprost BAK were applied onto rabbit eyes as 1 drop, for 15 times at 5-min intervals.The ocular surface reactions were investigated at hour 4 and day 1 using slitlamp examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) for cornea, limbus and conjunctiva/conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue, conjunctival impression cytology and standard immunohistology in cryosections for detecting CD45+ infiltrating cells and MUC-5AC-labeled cells. PBS, PQ and travoprost PQ did not induce obvious irritation by clinical observation, changes in microstructures of the whole ocular surface as measured by IVCM analysis,inflammatory infiltration or cell damage as measured by impression cytology, altered levels of goblet cell counts or numerous CD45+ cells in the cornea. In contrast, all BAK-containing products induced diffuse conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis, abnormal changes in the ocular surface microstructure,significant total ocular surface toxicity scores,damaged epithelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased goblet cell density. Travoprost PQ did not elicitocular surface toxicity when administered to rabbit eyes.These results suggest a greater safety advantage for the ocular surface of patients receiving chronic glaucoma treatment with PQ-preserved drugs. PMID:22473057

Liang, Hong; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Riancho, Luisa; Baudouin, Christophe

2012-01-01

297

Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive

1993-01-01

298

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

EIA Publications

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01

299

Water tolerance of gasoline-methanol blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a method based on laser attenuation that was devised to accurately measure the phase separation and, in turn, the water tolerance of gasoline - methanol blends with and without cosolvents. Water tolerances were quantified for a variety of blends in model and actual gasolines, as well as in major refinery streams-alkylate, FCC gasoline, and reformate -

G. J. Green; T. Y. Yan

1991-01-01

300

A new approach to gasoline octane modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

m Abstract- The mathematical model for predicting the octane number of gasoline blends is presented. The model is based on the analysis of gasoline fuels from different naphtha process streams and takes into account the intermolecular interaction between hydrocarbons and oxygenates in gasoline blends. The octane number is correlated to a total of 69 hydrocarbons measured by gas chromatography. The

Smyshlyaeva Julia Alexandrovna; Duong Chi Tuyen

2011-01-01

301

Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to “total” heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including “volatile components” at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable. PMID:879781

Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

1977-01-01

302

Sorption and phase distribution of ethanol and butanol blended gasoline vapours in the vadose zone after release.  

PubMed

The sorption and phase distribution of 20% ethanol and butanol blended gasoline (E20 and B20) vapours have been examined in soils with varying soil organic matter (SOM) and water contents via laboratory microcosm experiments. The presence of 20% alcohol reduced the sorption of gasoline compounds by soil as well as the mass distribution of the compounds to soil solids. This effect was greater for ethanol than butanol. Compared with the sorption coefficient (Kd) of unblended gasoline compounds, the Kd of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 54% for pentane, 54% for methylcyclopentane (MCP) and 63% for benzene, while the Kd of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 38% for MCP and 49% for benzene. The retardation factor (R) of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 53% for pentane, 53% for MCP and 48% for benzene, while the R of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 37% for MCP and 38% for benzene. For all SOM and water contents tested, the Kd and R of all gasoline compounds were in the order of unblended gasoline > B20 > E20, indicating that the use of high ethanol volume in gasoline to combat climate change could put the groundwater at greater risk of contamination. PMID:25079274

Ugwoha, Ejikeme; Andresen, John M

2014-03-01

303

Synthesis, identification and in vivo studies of tumor-targeting agent peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer with similar efficacy but reduced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Methods PDOX was synthesized using doxorubicin (DOX) attaching to a CTSB-cleavable dipeptide Ac-Phe-Lys and a para-amino-benzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) spacer. PC model was established by injecting VX2 tumor cells into the gastric sub-mucosa of 40 rabbits, which then were randomized into 4 groups: the Control (n?=?10) without treatment, the HIPEC (n?=?10) receiving cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the PDOX (n?=?10) and the DOX (n?=?10) receiving systemic chemotherapy with PDOX 50.0 mg/kg or DOX 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, after CRS?+?HIPEC. Results The median overall survivals (OS) were 23.0 d (95% CI: 19.9 d - 26.1 d) in the Control, 41.0 d (36.9 d - 45.1 d) in the HIPEC, 65.0 d (44.1 d - 71.9 d) in the PDOX, and 58.0 d (39.6 d - 54.4 d) in the DOX. Compared with the Control, the OS was extended by 70% in the HIPEC (p?toxicities with marked reduction of white blood cells and platelets, as well as cardiac toxicities with significant increases in creatine kinase mb isoenzyme, evident myocardium coagulation necrosis, significant nuclear degeneration, peri-nucleus mitochondria deletion, mitochondria-pyknosis, and abnormal intercalated discs. But these toxicities were not evident in the PDOX. Conclusions PDOX is a newly synthesized tumor-targeting prodrug of DOX. Compared with DOX, PDOX has similar efficacy but reduced hematological and cardiac toxicities in treating rabbit model of gastric PC. PMID:24588871

2014-01-01

304

Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels on Learning and Memory  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential toxicity of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels to the developing nervous system is of concern. We previously reported an absence of effect on learning and memory as seen in a trace fear conditioning task and water maze task in offspring of dams exposed prenatally to the...

305

THE INFLUENCE OF THE GASOLINE OXYGENATE ETHANOL ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BTX BIODEGRADATION. (R823420)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microb...

306

The influence of the gasoline oxygenate ethanol on aerobic and anaerobic BTX biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microbial degradation of representative BTX compounds under electron acceptor conditions commonly found in intrinsic bioremediation projects. Under aerobic conditions,

Henry X. Corseuil; Craig S. Hunt; Ruy Carlos Ferreira dos Santos; Pedro J. J Alvarez

1998-01-01

307

Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

2014-05-20

308

Ad5/48 hexon oncolytic virus expressing sTGF?RIIFc produces reduced hepatic and systemic toxicities and inhibits prostate cancer bone metastases.  

PubMed

We are interested in developing oncolytic adenoviruses for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases. A key limitation of Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) is that upon systemic administration, it produces major liver and systemic toxicities. To address this issue, a chimaeric Ad5/48 adenovirus mHAd.sT?RFc was created. Seven hypervariable regions of Ad5 hexon present in Ad5-based Ad.sT?RFc expressing soluble transforming growth factor beta receptor II-Fc fusion protein (sTG?RIIFc), were replaced by those of Ad48. mHAd.sT?RFc, like Ad.sT?RFc, was replication competent in the human PCa cells, and produced high levels of sTG?RIIFc expression. Compared to Ad.sT?RFc, the systemic delivery of mHAd.sT?RFc in nude mice resulted in much reduced systemic toxicity, and reduced liver sequestration. Ad.sT?RFc produced significant liver necrosis, and increases in alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6 levels, while mHAd.sT?RFc produced much reduced responses of these markers. Intravenous delivery of Ad.sT?RFc or mHAd.sT?RFc (5 × 10(10) viral particles/mouse) in nude mice bearing PC-3-luc PCa bone metastases produced inhibition of bone metastases. Moreover, a larger dose of the mHAd.sT?RFc (4 × 10(11) viral particles /mouse) was also effective in inhibiting bone metastases. Thus, mHAd.sT?RFc could be developed for the treatment of PCa bone metastases. PMID:24791939

Xu, Weidong; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yang, Yuefeng; Hu, Zebin; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Morgan, Melanie; Wu, Ying; Hutten, Ryan; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart; Guise, Theresa; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Brendler, Charles; Seth, Prem

2014-08-01

309

Co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp inhibitor by a reduction-sensitive liposome to overcome multidrug resistance, enhance anti-tumor efficiency and reduce toxicity.  

PubMed

Abstract To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy with high efficiency and safety, a reduction-sensitive liposome (CL-R8-LP), which was co-modified with reduction-sensitive cleavable PEG and octaarginine (R8) to increase the tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and lysosome escape, was applied to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor of verapamil (VER) in this study. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX and VER in the binary-drug loaded CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was about 95 and 70% (w/w), respectively. The uptake efficiencies, the cytotoxicity, and the apoptosis and necrosis-inducing efficiency of CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) were much higher than those of DOX and the other control liposomes in MCF-7/ADR cells or tumor spheroids. Besides, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was proven to be uptaken into MCF-7/ADR cells by clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, followed by efficient lysosomal escape. In vivo, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7/ADR tumor and reduce the toxicity of DOX and VER, which could be ascribed to increased accumulation of drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells and reduced distribution in normal tissues. In summary, the co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and P-gp inhibitors by our reduction-sensitive liposome was a promising approach to overcome MDR, improve anti-tumor effect and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25491241

Tang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

2014-12-10

310

Chimeric antigen receptor T Cells with dissociated signaling domains exhibit focused antitumor activity with reduced potential for toxicity in vivo.  

PubMed

Adoptive immunotherapy using T lymphocytes genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) holds considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. However, CAR-based therapies may involve on-target toxicity against normal tissues expressing low amounts of the targeted tumor-associated antigen (TAA). To specify T cells for robust effector function that is selective for tumor but not normal tissue, we developed a trans-signaling CAR strategy, whereby T-cell activation signal 1 (CD3z) is physically dissociated from costimulatory signal 2 (CD28) in two CARs of differing antigen specificity: mesothelin and a-folate receptor (FRa). Human T cells were genetically modified to coexpress signal 1 (anti-Meso scFv-CD3z) and signal 2 (anti-FRa scFv-CD28) CARs in trans. Trans-signaling CAR-T cells showed weak cytokine secretion against target cells expressing only one TAA in vitro, similar to first-generation CAR-T cells bearing CD3z only, but showed enhanced cytokine secretion upon encountering natural or engineered tumor cells coexpressing both antigens, equivalent to that of second-generation CAR-T cells with dual signaling in cis. CAR-T cells with dual specificity also showed potent anticancer activity and persistence in vivo, which was superior to first-generation CAR-T cells and equivalent to second-generation CARs. Importantly, second-generation CAR-T cells exhibited potent activity against cells expressing mesothelin alone, recapitulating normal tissue, whereas trans-signaling CAR-T cells did not. Thus, a dual specificity, trans-signaling CAR approach can potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of CAR-T cells against cancer while minimizing parallel reactivity against normal tissues bearing single antigen. PMID:24409448

Lanitis, Evripidis; Poussin, Mathilde; Klattenhoff, Alex W; Song, Degang; Sandaltzopoulos, Raphael; June, Carl H; Powell, Daniel J

2013-07-01

311

The risk of lead toxicity in homes with lead paint hazard  

SciTech Connect

While lead paint has long been known to be a major source of lead poisoning, only a few small epidemiologic studies have attempted to assess directly the relative risk of lead poisoning due to the presence of lead paint. Using data from over 200,000 screening tests of children in the city of Chicago performed between 1976 and 1980, the relative risks can be quantified for children living in a major urban area. Lead paint was found to be a significant predictor of the probability of a child having lead toxicity. As expected, the reduction in leaded gasoline sales during the period reduced mean blood lead levels and increased the percentage of lead toxic children whose toxicity could be attributed to paint lead. Poisson regression models indicated that with the elimination of leaded gasoline, the relative risk of lead toxicity given lead paint exposure was 5.70 (95% CI, 4.13-7.86) during the winter and fall. The relative risk rose to 12.81 (95% CI, 7.33-22.4) in the spring and 15.8 (95% CI, 8.90-28.1) in the summer, probably due to increased exposure to window wells.

Schwartz, J.; Levin, R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-02-01

312

Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

2014-09-01

313

Prevention of chemically induced urinary bladder cancers by naproxen: protocols to reduce gastric toxicity in humans do not alter preventive efficacy.  

PubMed

The COX inhibitors (NSAID/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2-specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present study examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of naproxen. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder-specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/kg body weight/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/kg body weight/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN-treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), naproxen alone or combined with omeprazole-prevented cancers, yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN -: treated rats were administered naproxen: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily naproxen/1week vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily naproxen/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C, and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19%, and 96% of rats (P < 0.01). Short-term naproxen treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols that should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) in clinical prevention trials. Cancer Prev Res; 8(4); 296-302. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25762530

Lubet, Ronald A; Scheiman, James M; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M Margaret; Boring, Daniel L; Steele, Vernon E; Grubbs, Clinton J

2015-04-01

314

An optimized nanoparticle delivery system based on chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules reduces the toxicity of amphotericin B and is effective in treating tegumentary leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AmpB) is active against leishmaniasis, but its use is hampered due to its high toxicity observed in patients. In this study, a nanoparticles-delivery system for AmpB (NQC-AmpB), containing chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules, was evaluated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis. An in vivo biodistribution study, including biochemical and toxicological evaluations, was performed to evaluate the toxicity of AmpB. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and injected in mice. The products presented a similar biodistribution in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of the animals. Free AmpB induced alterations in the body weight of the mice, which, in the biochemical analysis, indicated hepatic and renal injury, as well as morphological damage to the kidneys of the animals. In general, no significant organic alteration was observed in the animals treated with NQC-AmpB. Mice were infected with L. amazonensis and treated with the nanoparticles or free AmpB; then, parasitological and immunological analyses were performed. The NQC-AmpB group, as compared to the control groups, presented significant reductions in the lesion size and in the parasite burden in all evaluated organs. These animals presented significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10, when compared to the control groups. The NQC-AmpB system was effective in reducing the infection in the animals, and proved to be effective in diminishing the toxicity evoked by AmpB, which was observed when it was administered alone. In conclusion, NQC-AmpB could be considered a viable possibility for future studies in the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:25429219

Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Franca, Juçara R; Fuscaldi, Leonardo L; Santos, Mara L; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Fernandes, Simone O A; Cardoso, Valbert N; Castilho, Rachel O; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Faraco, André A G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A

2014-01-01

315

An optimized nanoparticle delivery system based on chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules reduces the toxicity of amphotericin B and is effective in treating tegumentary leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AmpB) is active against leishmaniasis, but its use is hampered due to its high toxicity observed in patients. In this study, a nanoparticles-delivery system for AmpB (NQC-AmpB), containing chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules, was evaluated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis. An in vivo biodistribution study, including biochemical and toxicological evaluations, was performed to evaluate the toxicity of AmpB. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and injected in mice. The products presented a similar biodistribution in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of the animals. Free AmpB induced alterations in the body weight of the mice, which, in the biochemical analysis, indicated hepatic and renal injury, as well as morphological damage to the kidneys of the animals. In general, no significant organic alteration was observed in the animals treated with NQC-AmpB. Mice were infected with L. amazonensis and treated with the nanoparticles or free AmpB; then, parasitological and immunological analyses were performed. The NQC-AmpB group, as compared to the control groups, presented significant reductions in the lesion size and in the parasite burden in all evaluated organs. These animals presented significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10, when compared to the control groups. The NQC-AmpB system was effective in reducing the infection in the animals, and proved to be effective in diminishing the toxicity evoked by AmpB, which was observed when it was administered alone. In conclusion, NQC-AmpB could be considered a viable possibility for future studies in the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:25429219

Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Franca, Juçara R; Fuscaldi, Leonardo L; Santos, Mara L; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Fernandes, Simone OA; Cardoso, Valbert N; Castilho, Rachel O; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos AP; Faraco, André AG; Coelho, Eduardo AF; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A

2014-01-01

316

Gene Transfer of Mutant Mouse Cholinesterase Provides High Lifetime Expression and Reduced Cocaine Responses with No Evident Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with 3H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3×1011 particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (1010 particles) to 20,000 fold (1013 particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7×1012 particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7×1012 particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose. PMID:23840704

Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

2013-01-01

317

Compost amendment of Cu-Zn minespoil reduces toxic bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and promotes establishment and biomass production of Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.).  

PubMed

A series of lab and greenhouse studies were undertaken to understand how Cu and Zn toxicity influences Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.) growth, to what degree an organic amendment (yard waste compost) may reduce Cu and Zn bioavailability in Cu-Zn minespoil and promote plant growth in combination with fertilizer, and how the vertical distribution of compost in the minespoil influences rooting depth. Root Cu and Zn toxicity thresholds were determined to be 1 mgL(-1) and 10 mgL(-1) in solution, respectively. The compost amendment had exceptionally high Cu and Zn binding capacities (0.17 and 0.08 g metal g C(-1), for Cu and Zn, respectively) that were attributed to high compost humic and fulvic acid concentrations. Maximum plant biomass was achieved when minespoil was amended with compost and fertilizer in combination. Fertilizer alone had no effect on plant growth. Mixing compost into the minespoil was essential to promote adequate rooting depth. PMID:17240016

O'Dell, Ryan; Silk, Wendy; Green, Peter; Claassen, Victor

2007-07-01

318

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

319

Thermally enhanced bioremediation of a gasoline-contaminated aquifer using toluene oxidizing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The combined application of steam injection and vacuum extraction has proved to be very effective for the in situ remediation of a gasoline contaminated aquifer. It is expected that the steam treated zone with its near-sterile nature, increased temperature, and decreased level of contaminant concentration will provide a superior environment for enhanced bioremediation, and will favor the survival of an introduced microbial culture for the destruction of residual gasoline hydrocarbons and especially BTEX compounds (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl benzene, and Xylene). A mixed microbial culture seeded from the pre-steamed aquifer material was enriched in a laboratory chemostat on toluene, a major gasoline aromatic. Studies were conducted to determine the optimal conditions for microbial growth and activity. Growth rate studies conducted at different temperatures revealed that cell growth was optimal at 35 C, a temperature at which the aquifer can be maintained using the existing steam injection wells. The enriched culture was shown to degrade all BTEX compounds successfully both individually and in mixtures. Substrate toxicity was observed for some of the gasoline aromatics but at concentration levels well above those found in groundwater. When cells were exposed to mixtures of BTEX compounds, the biodegradation of xylene, the most recalcitrant aromatic among BTEX compounds, was stimulated. When cells were exposed to gasoline, BTEX degradation proceeded with no apparent inhibition by gasoline aliphatics; little aliphatic degradation took place, however, suggesting the absence of monooxygenase enzymes in the mixed culture. In mixtures of both toluene and propane enriched cultures, only dioxygenase activity was observed.

Deeb, R.; Alvarez-Cohen, L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1994-12-31

320

40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a...geographic phase-in area (GPA) gasoline sulfur content standards under §...

2013-07-01

321

40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a...geographic phase-in area (GPA) gasoline sulfur content standards under §...

2011-07-01

322

40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a...geographic phase-in area (GPA) gasoline sulfur content standards under §...

2012-07-01

323

40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a...geographic phase-in area (GPA) gasoline sulfur content standards under §...

2014-07-01

324

Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

2013-01-02

325

Treatment of Late Stage Disease in a Model of Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fever: T-705 Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity Suggests an Alternative to Ribavirin  

PubMed Central

A growing number of arenaviruses are known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever (HF), a severe and life-threatening syndrome characterized by fever, malaise, and increased vascular permeability. Ribavirin, the only licensed antiviral indicated for the treatment of certain arenaviral HFs, has had mixed success and significant toxicity. Since severe arenaviral infections initially do not present with distinguishing symptoms and are difficult to clinically diagnose at early stages, it is of utmost importance to identify antiviral therapies effective at later stages of infection. We have previously reported that T-705, a substituted pyrazine derivative currently under development as an anti-influenza drug, is highly active in hamsters infected with Pichinde virus when the drug is administered orally early during the course of infection. Here we demonstrate that T-705 offers significant protection against this lethal arenaviral infection in hamsters when treatment is begun after the animals are ill and the day before the animals begin to succumb to disease. Importantly, this coincides with the time when peak viral loads are present in most organs and considerable tissue damage is evident. We also show that T-705 is as effective as, and less toxic than, ribavirin, as infected T-705-treated hamsters on average maintain their weight better and recover more rapidly than animals treated with ribavirin. Further, there was no added benefit to combination therapy with T-705 and ribavirin. Finally, pharmacokinetic data indicate that plasma T-705 levels following oral administration are markedly reduced during the latter stages of disease, and may contribute to the reduced efficacy seen when treatment is withheld until day 7 of infection. Our findings support further pre-clinical development of T-705 for the treatment of severe arenaviral infections. PMID:19008960

Gowen, Brian B.; Smee, Donald F.; Wong, Min-Hui; Hall, Jeffery O.; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Bailey, Kevin W.; Stevens, John R.; Furuta, Yousuke; Morrey, John D.

2008-01-01

326

Stimulation of sigma receptors with afobazole blocks activation of microglia and reduces toxicity caused by amyloid-?25-35.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of senile dementia in the United States. Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) and the effects of this peptide on microglial cells contribute greatly to the etiology of AD. Experiments were carried out to determine whether the pan-selective ?-receptor agonist afobazole can modulate microglial response to the cytotoxic A? fragment, A?25-35. Treatment with afobazole decreased microglial activation in response to A?, as indicated by reduced membrane ruffling and cell migration. The effects of afobazole on A?25-35-evoked migration were concentration dependent and consistent with ?-receptor activation. When afobazole was coapplied with either BD-1047 [N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine dihydrobromide] or rimcazole, which are ?-1- and ?-2-selective antagonists, respectively, the inhibition of A?25-35-induced migration by afobazole was reduced. Prolonged exposure of microglia to A?25-35 resulted in glial cell death that was associated with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and the death protease caspase-3. Coapplication of afobazole with A?25-35 decreased the number of cells expressing both Bax and caspase-3 and resulted in a concomitant enhancement in cell survival. Although afobazole inhibited activation of microglia cells by A?25-35, it preserved normal functional responses in these cells after exposure to the amyloid peptide. Intracellular calcium increases induced by ATP were depressed in microglia after 24-hour exposure to A?25-35. However, coincubation in afobazole returned these responses to near control levels. Therefore, stimulation of ?-1 and ?-2 receptors by afobazole prevents A?25-35 activation of microglia and inhibits A?25-35-associated cytotoxicity, suggesting that afobazole may be useful for AD therapeutics. PMID:24006337

Behensky, Adam A; Yasny, Ilya E; Shuster, Alexander M; Seredenin, Sergei B; Petrov, Andrey V; Cuevas, Javier

2013-11-01

327

Gasoline Price Pass-through  

EIA Publications

Over the past several years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has extensively studied the relationships between wholesale and retail markets for transportation fuels. This article represents a return to gasoline markets, where EIA first performed this type of analysis and modeling in 1997. The current effort takes advantage of improvements and enhancements to our approach over the intervening years, resulting in more detailed and accurate results.

2003-01-01

328

Phase Out of Leaded Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sofia Institute on Local Air Quality is part of the Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe. Its report, Phase Out of Leaded Gasoline, explains why leaded gas is being eliminated and reviews current obstacles facing the phase out, technical and economic factors to consider, and policy measures and instruments for use in the phase out. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations and references. The report is available either online or as a [.pdf] file.

1998-01-01

329

[98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-02-29

330

Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

Eslami, Farshad

331

Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

2010-03-01

332

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01

333

Nanomedicine for therapeutic drug therapy: Approaches to increase the efficacy of drug therapy with nanoemulsion delivery and reduce the toxicity of quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advancement of nanotechnology has paved the way for novel nanoscale materials for use in a wide range of applications. The use of these nanomaterials in biomedicine facilitates the improvement of existing technologies for disease prevention and treatment through diagnostics, tumor detection, drug delivery, medical imaging and vaccine development. Nanotechnology delivery systems for therapeutic uses includes the formulation of nanoparticles in emulsions. These novel delivery systems can improve drug efficacy by their ability to enhance bioavailability, minimize drug side effects, decrease drug toxicity, provide targeted site delivery and increase circulation of the drug in the blood. Additionally, these delivery systems also improve the drug stability and encapsulation efficiency. In the Introduction, this thesis will describe a novel technique for the preparation of nanoemulsions which was utilized in drug delivery and diagnostic applications. This novel Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) method is a solvent and polymer-free and low energy requiring emulsification method, typically utilizing oils stabilized by nonionic surfactants to prepare water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The correlation between the particle size, zeta potential and the emulsion stability is described. The use of this nanoemulsion delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals by utilizing in vitro systems was investigated. Using the PIT method, a self assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) of gamma Tocotrienols (gammaT3), a component of Vitamin E family has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol accumulation in HepG-2 cells. The nanoemulsion is stable and the particle size is around 20 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.065. The effect of the nano gammaT3 on the metabolism of cholesterol, HMG-CoA activity and Apo-B levels were evaluated in an in vitro system utilizing HepG2 cells. A new class of nanoparticles, Quantum dots (QDs) has shown immense potential as novel nanomaterials used as fluorescent labels. They have been studied extensively due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. The study of their applications has led to their use as novel platforms for delivery into living systems for use in medical imaging. The second part of this thesis discusses the toxicity of the various semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe and InP. The results show the toxicity of CdSe and InP QDs in in vitro cultures of whole skin biopsies exposed to similar concentrations. This forms the basis for further studies involving QDs and approaches to reduce the toxicity of these nanoparticles. Finally, ligand exchange mediated Solutol HS-15 modified CdSe QDs were prepared for the first time. The modified CdSe QDs demonstrated long term stability and reduced cytotoxicity. Such behavior is interpreted as arising from decreased aggregation of the QDs due to the incorporation of the surfactant.

Kambalapally, Swetha Reddy

334

Copper chloride induces antioxidant gene expression but reduces ability to mediate H2O2 toxicity in Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu)-based biocides are currently used as control measures for both fungal and bacterial diseases in agricultural fields. In this communication, we show that exposure of the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris to nonlethal concentrations of Cu(2+) ions (75 µM) enhanced expression of genes in OxyR, OhrR and IscR regulons. High levels of catalase, Ohr peroxidase and superoxide dismutase diminished Cu(2+)-induced gene expression, suggesting that the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides is responsible for Cu(2+)-induced gene expression. Despite high expression of antioxidant genes, the CuCl2-treated cells were more susceptible to H2O2 killing treatment than the uninduced cells. This phenotype arose from lowered catalase activity in the CuCl2-pretreated cells. Thus, exposure to a nonlethal dose of Cu(2+) renders X. campestris vulnerable to H2O2, even when various genes for peroxide-metabolizing enzymes are highly expressed. Moreover, CuCl2-pretreated cells are sensitive to treatment with the redox cycling drug, menadione. No physiological cross-protection response was observed in CuCl2-treated cells in a subsequent challenge with killing concentrations of an organic hydroperoxide. As H2O2 production is an important initial plant immune response, defects in H2O2 protection are likely to reduce bacterial survival in plant hosts and enhance the usefulness of copper biocides in controlling bacterial pathogens. PMID:24385479

Sornchuer, Phornphan; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

2014-02-01

335

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

Lammert, M.

2008-06-01

336

Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation  

E-print Network

Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

Muehlegger, Erich J

2005-01-01

337

Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice  

SciTech Connect

Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ? During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ? Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ? Glial activation is not fully suppressed.

Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

2012-03-01

338

New Evidence on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 1997 paper, Borenstein, Cameron, and Gilbert (BCG) claim that gasoline prices rise quickly following an increase in the price of crude oil, but fall slowly following a decrease. This note estimates an error-correction model with daily spot gasoline and crude-oil price data over the period 1985-1998 and finds no evidence of asymmetry in wholesale gasoline prices. The sources

Lance J. Bachmeier; James M. Griffin

2003-01-01

339

Composition, toxicity, and mutagenicity of particulate and semivolatile emissions from heavy-duty compressed natural gas-powered vehicles.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) and vapor-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected from three buses fueled by compressed natural gas. The bus engines included a well-functioning, conventional engine; a "high emitter" engine; and a new technology engine with an oxidation catalyst. Chemical analysis of the emissions showed differences among these samples, with the high emitter sample containing markers of engine oil constituents. PM + SVOC samples were also collected for mutagenicity and toxicity testing. Extraction efficiencies from the collection media were lower than for similarly collected samples from gasoline or diesel vehicles. Responses to the recovered samples were compared on the basis of exhaust volume, to incorporate the emission rates into the potency factors. Mutagenicity was assessed by Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Mutagenicity was greatest for the high emitter sample and lowest for the new technology sample. Metabolic activation reduced mutagenicity in strain TA100, but not TA98. Toxicity, including inflammation, cytotoxicity, and parenchymal changes, was assessed 24 h after intratracheal instillation into rat lungs. Lung responses were generally mild, with little difference between the responses to equivalent volumes of emissions from the normal emitter and the new technology, but greater responses for the high emitter. These emission sample potencies are further compared on the basis of recovered mass with previously reported samples from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles. While mutagenic potencies for the CNG emission samples were similar to the range observed in the gasoline and diesel emission samples, lung toxicity potency factors were generally lower than those for the gasoline and diesel samples. PMID:15976195

Seagrave, JeanClare; Gigliotti, Andrew; McDonald, Jacob D; Seilkop, Steven K; Whitney, Kevin A; Zielinska, Barbara; Mauderly, Joe L

2005-09-01

340

Thermal stress and toxicity.  

PubMed

Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at sub-thermoneutral temperatures of ~22?C. When exposed to chemical toxicants under these relatively cool conditions, rodents typically undergo a regulated hypothermic response, characterized by preference for cooler ambient temperatures and controlled reduction in core temperature. Reducing core temperature delays the clearance of most toxicants from the body; however, a mild hypothermia also improves recovery and survival from the toxicant. Raising ambient temperature to thermoneutrality and above increases the rate of clearance of the toxicant but also exacerbates toxicity. Furthermore, heat stress combined with work or exercise is likely to worsen toxicity. Body temperature of large mammals, including humans, does not decrease as much in response to exposure to a toxicant. However, heat stress can nonetheless worsen toxic outcome in humans through a variety of mechanisms. For example, heat-induced sweating and elevation in skin blood flow accelerates uptake of some insecticides. Epidemiological studies suggest that thermal stress may exacerbate the toxicity of airborne pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Overall, translating results of studies in rodents to that of humans is a formidable task attributed in part to the interspecies differences in thermoregulatory response to the toxicants and to thermal stress. PMID:24944028

Gordon, Christopher J; Johnstone, Andrew F M; Aydin, Cenk

2014-07-01

341

Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats  

PubMed Central

After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0–t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

2014-01-01

342

Results from a clofarabine-busulfan-containing, reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation: the phase 2 prospective CLORIC trial.  

PubMed

We prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of a clofarabine, intravenous busulfan and antithymocyte globulin-based reduced-toxicity conditioning (CloB2A2) regimen before allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Thirty high-risk patients (median age: 59 years; acute myeloid leukemia n=11, acute lymphoblastic leukemia n=13; myelodysplastic syndrome n=5, bi-phenotypic leukemia n=1) were included in this phase 2 study. At time of their transplant, 20 and seven patients were in first and second complete remission, respectively, while three patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were responding to chemotherapy or who had not been previously treated. The CloB2A2 regimen consisted of clofarabine 30 mg/m(2)/day for 4 days, busulfan 3.2 mg/kg/day for 2 days and antithymocyte globulin 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days. The median follow-up was 23 months. Engraftment occurred in all patients. The 1-year overall survival, leukemia-free survival, relapse incidence and non-relapse mortality rates were 63±9%, 57±9%, 40±9%, and 3.3±3%, respectively. Comparing patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome versus those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/bi-phenotypic leukemia, the 1-year overall and leukemia-free survival rates were 75±10% versus 50±13%, respectively (P=0.07) and 69±12% versus 43±13%, respectively (P=0.08), while the 1-year relapse incidence was 25±11% versus 57±14%, respectively (P=0.05). The CloB2A2 regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation is feasible, allowing for full engraftment and low toxicity. Disease control appears to be satisfactory, especially in patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT00863148. PMID:24951467

Chevallier, Patrice; Labopin, Myriam; Socié, Gérard; Tabrizi, Reza; Furst, Sabine; Lioure, Bruno; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; de La Tour, Régis Peffault; Vigouroux, Stéphane; El-Cheikh, Jean; Blaise, Didier; Michallet, Mauricette; Bilger, Karin; Milpied, Noel; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad

2014-09-01

343

7 CFR 3201.103 - Gasoline fuel additives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Gasoline fuel additives. 3201.103 Section 3201.103...Items § 3201.103 Gasoline fuel additives. (a) Definition. Chemical...for qualifying biobased gasoline fuel additives. By that date, Federal...

2014-01-01

344

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

345

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

2012-07-01

346

40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having...

2012-07-01

347

40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having...

2013-07-01

348

40 CFR 80.1654 - California gasoline requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false California gasoline requirements. 80.1654 Section 80... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1654 California gasoline requirements. (a) California...

2014-07-01

349

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The...

2010-07-01

350

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The...

2011-07-01

351

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The...

2012-07-01

352

40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having...

2010-07-01

353

29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

2011-07-01

354

29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

2010-07-01

355

40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having...

2014-07-01

356

40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having...

2011-07-01

357

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

2013-07-01

358

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The...

2013-07-01

359

29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

2012-07-01

360

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

2011-07-01

361

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

2014-07-01

362

29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

2013-07-01

363

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

2010-07-01

364

29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

2014-07-01

365

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185...185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by §...

2013-10-01

366

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185...185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by §...

2014-10-01

367

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185...185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by §...

2011-10-01

368

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185...185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by §...

2012-10-01

369

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185...185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by §...

2010-10-01

370

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

371

Constitutive Androgen Receptor-Null Mice Are Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Parathion: Association with Reduced Cytochrome P450-Mediated Parathion MetabolismS?  

PubMed Central

Constitutive androgen receptor (CAR) is activated by several chemicals and in turn regulates multiple detoxification genes. Our research demonstrates that parathion is one of the most potent, environmentally relevant CAR activators with an EC50 of 1.43 ?M. Therefore, animal studies were conducted to determine whether CAR was activated by parathion in vivo. Surprisingly, CAR-null mice, but not wild-type (WT) mice, showed significant parathion-induced toxicity. However, parathion did not induce Cyp2b expression, suggesting that parathion is not a CAR activator in vivo, presumably because of its short half-life. CAR expression is also associated with the expression of several drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (P450). CAR-null mice demonstrate lower expression of Cyp2b9, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp3a11 primarily, but not exclusively in males. Therefore, we incubated microsomes from untreated WT and CAR-null mice with parathion in the presence of esterase inhibitors to determine whether CAR-null mice show perturbed P450-mediated parathion metabolism compared with that in WT mice. The metabolism of parathion to paraoxon and p-nitrophenol (PNP) was reduced in CAR-null mice with male CAR-null mice showing reduced production of both paraoxon and PNP, and female CAR-null mice showing reduced production of only PNP. Overall, the data indicate that CAR-null mice metabolize parathion slower than WT mice. These results provide a potential mechanism for increased sensitivity of individuals with lower CAR activity such as newborns to parathion and potentially other chemicals due to decreased metabolic capacity. PMID:20573718

Mota, Linda C.; Hernandez, Juan P.

2010-01-01

372

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01

373

40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional blendstocks for oxygenate...FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are...

2014-07-01

374

40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional blendstocks for oxygenate...FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are...

2012-07-01

375

40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional blendstocks for oxygenate...FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are...

2013-07-01

376

Biodegradation of gasoline ether oxygenates.  

PubMed

Ether oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) are added to gasoline to improve fuel combustion and decrease exhaust emissions. Ether oxygenates and their tertiary alcohol metabolites are now an important group of groundwater pollutants. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the microorganisms, enzymes and pathways involved in both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds. This review also aims to illustrate how these microbiological and biochemical studies have guided, and have helped refine, molecular and stable isotope-based analytical approaches that are increasingly being used to detect and quantify biodegradation of these compounds in contaminated environments. PMID:23116604

Hyman, Michael

2013-06-01

377

Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities  

SciTech Connect

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

378

MAPPING GASOLINE REQUIREMENTS, APPLICABLE REGULATIONS AND BANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal and State regulations play an important role in understanding gasoline composition around the United States. Multiple sources of information on these programs were used to develop reliable, up-to-date maps showing gasoline requirements imposed by various regulations. Th...

379

What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?  

EIA Publications

This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

2014-01-01

380

EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENICITY OF UNLEADED GASOLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

In the document the likelihood that unleaded gasoline vapors are carcinogenic to humans is evaluated. From carcinogenicity data in animals, an estimate is made of the magnitude of cancer risk a person would experience, under the assumption that gasoline vapors are carcinogenic. A...

381

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE GASOLINE AND OXYFUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite the ubiquity of gasoline for several decades and more recent modifications in fuel formulations to achieve ?cleaner? gasoline, a quantitative comparative assessment of the health risks related to these fuels remains to be performed. Under authority of Clean Air Act secti...

382

Predict octane number for gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers,

A. H. Zahed; S. A. Mullah; M. D. Bashir

1993-01-01

383

Octane number prediction for gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been developed to determine the Research Octane Number (RON) of gasoline blends produced in a Greek refinery. The developed ANN models use as input variables the volumetric content of seven most commonly used fractions in the gasoline production and their respective RON numbers. The model parameters (ANN weights) are presented such that the model

Nikos Pasadakis; Vassilis Gaganis; Charalambos Foteinopoulos

2006-01-01

384

Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

2004-01-01

385

Mutation of threonine 34 in mouse podoplanin-Fc reduces CLEC-2 binding and toxicity in vivo while retaining antilymphangiogenic activity.  

PubMed

The lymphatic system plays an important role in cancer metastasis and inhibition of lymphangiogenesis could be valuable in fighting cancer dissemination. Podoplanin (Pdpn) is a small, transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). During mouse development, binding of Pdpn to the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets is critical for the separation of the lymphatic and blood vascular systems. Competitive inhibition of Pdpn functions with a soluble form of the protein, Pdpn-Fc, leads to reduced lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. However, the transgenic overexpression of human Pdpn-Fc in mouse skin causes disseminated intravascular coagulation due to platelet activation via CLEC-2. In the present study, we produced and characterized a mutant form of mouse Pdpn-Fc, in which threonine 34, which is considered essential for CLEC-2 binding, was mutated to alanine (PdpnT34A-Fc). Indeed, PdpnT34A-Fc displayed a 30-fold reduced binding affinity for CLEC-2 compared with Pdpn-Fc. This also translated into fewer side effects due to platelet activation in vivo. Mice showed less prolonged bleeding time and fewer embolized vessels in the liver, when PdpnT34A-Fc was injected intravenously. However, PdpnT34A-Fc was still as active as wild-type Pdpn-Fc in inhibiting lymphangiogenesis in vitro and also inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vivo. These data suggest that the function of Pdpn in lymphangiogenesis does not depend on threonine 34 in the CLEC-2 binding domain and that PdpnT34A-Fc might be an improved inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis with fewer toxic side effects. PMID:24907275

Bianchi, Roberta; Fischer, Eliane; Yuen, Don; Ernst, Ellen; Ochsenbein, Alexandra M; Chen, Lu; Otto, Vivianne I; Detmar, Michael

2014-07-25

386

The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

[1] With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NOx) control devices to reduce air pollution,''modern'diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NOx below

Mark Z. Jacobson; John H. Seinfeld; Greg R. Carmichael; David G. Streets

2003-01-01

387

Elemental Selenium at Nano Size (Nano-Se) as a Potential Chemopreventive Agent with Reduced Risk of Selenium Toxicity: Comparison with Se-Methylselenocysteine in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. As a promising chemopreventive agent, its use requires consumption over the long term, so the toxicity of Se is always a crucial concern. Based on clinical findings and recent studies in selenoprotein gene-modified mice, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or

Jinsong Zhang; Xufang Wang; Tongwen Xu

2008-01-01

388

40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. 80.131 Section 80...gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. (a) Attest...

2010-07-01

389

Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum  

SciTech Connect

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1995-10-01

390

Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

391

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi

2010-01-01

392

Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological

W. A. Apel; W. D. Kant; F. S. Colwell; B. Singleton; B. D. Lee; G. F. Andrews; A. M. Espinosa; E. G. Johnson

1993-01-01

393

Method and apparatus for controlling gasoline vapor emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for abatement of gasoline vapor emissions from a vent pipe at a gasoline service station or the like in which a vapor piping system interconnects the vent pipe with gasoline storage tanks and gasoline dispensing nozzles in the service station. The apparatus includes a pilot burner with pilot ignition means and a main burner with

Hirt

1987-01-01

394

Species profiles and normalized reactivity of volatile organic compounds from gasoline evaporation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, fast increase in passenger cars and gasoline consumption with yet quite limited vapor recovery during gasoline distribution has procured growing concern about gasoline evaporation as an important emission source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly in megacities hard-hit by air quality problems. This study presents VOC species profiles related to major pathways of gasoline evaporative loss in China, including headspace displacement, refueling operations and spillage/leakage. Apart from liquid gasoline and headspace vapors, gasoline vapors emitted when refueling cars in service stations or tank trucks in oil marketing depots were also sampled in situ with vapor recovery units (VRUs) turning on/off. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons accounted for 55-66, 21-35 and 4-8% in refueling vapors, 59-72, 18-28 and 4-10% in headspace vapors and 33-51, 8-15 and 38-48% in liquid gasoline samples, respectively. During refueling with VRUs turning on, total VOCs in vapors were less than one fifth of that with VRUs turning off, and aromatic hydrocarbons had higher weight percentages of about 8% in contrast with that of about 4% during refueling with VRUs turning off. Refueling vapors, especially for that with VRUs turning off, showed a larger fraction of light hydrocarbons including C3-C5 light alkenes when compared to headspace vapors, probably due to splashing and disturbance during filling operation. In refueling or headspace vapors the ratios of i-pentane/benzene, i-pentane/toluene, and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether)/benzene ranged 8.7-57, 2.7-4.8, and 1.9-6.6, respectively; and they are distinctively much higher than those previously reported in vehicle exhausts. Calculated normalized reactivity or ozone formation potential of the gasoline vapors in China ranged 3.3-4.4 g O3 g-1 VOC, about twice that of gasoline headspace vapors reported in USA as a result of larger fractions of alkenes in China's gasoline vapors. The results suggested that reducing VOC emission from gasoline distribution sector would particularly benefit ground-level ozone control in China.

Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; Lü, Sujun; Shao, Min; Lee, Frank S. C.; Yu, Jianzhen

2013-11-01

395

Outcomes of thalassemia patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by using a standard myeloablative versus a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen according to a new risk stratification.  

PubMed

Improving outcomes among class 3 thalassemia patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) remains a challenge. Before HSCT, patients who were ? 7 years old and had a liver size ? 5 cm constitute what the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research defined as a very high-risk subset of a conventional high-risk class 3 group (here referred to as class 3 HR). We performed HSCT in 98 patients with related and unrelated donor stem cells. Seventy-six of the patients with age < 10 years received the more conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen (cyclophosphamide, busulfan, ± fludarabine); the remaining 22 patients with age ? 10 years and hepatomegaly (class 3 HR), and in several instances additional comorbidity problems, underwent HSCT with a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen (fludarabine and busulfan). We then compared the outcomes between these 2 groups (MAC versus RTC). Event-free survival (86% versus 90%) and overall survival (95% versus 90%) were not significantly different between the respective groups; however, there was a higher incidence of serious treatment-related complications in the MAC group, and although we experienced 6 graft failures in the MAC group (8%), there were none in the RTC group. Based on these results, we suggest that (1) class 3 HR thalassemia patients can safely receive HSCT with our novel RTC regimen and achieve the same excellent outcome as low/standard-risk thalassemia patients who received the standard MAC regimen, and further, (2) that this novel RTC approach should be tested in the low/standard-risk patient population. PMID:25064743

Anurathapan, Usanarat; Pakakasama, Samart; Mekjaruskul, Pimsiri; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Songdej, Duantida; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Sanpakit, Kleebsabai; Pongtanakul, Bunchoo; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Meekaewkunchorn, Arunotai; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Ungkanont, Artit; Issaragrisil, Surapol; Andersson, Borje S; Hongeng, Suradej

2014-12-01

396

Effects of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on motorcycle emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By investigating the effect of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on the criteria pollutant emissions [CO, total hydrocarbons (THCs), and NOx] and on air toxics in the exhaust from a non-catalyst four-stroke motorcycle engine, inferences can be made concerning the effect of fuel composition on motorcycle emissions. The fuels were blended with different contents of sulfur (40 and 150ppmw)

Yung-Chen Yao; Jiun-Horng Tsai; An-Lin Chang; Fu-Tien Jeng

2008-01-01

397

A new approach to deep desulfurization of gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel by selective adsorption for ultra-clean fuels and for fuel cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel) for producing ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications, we explored a new desulfurization process by selective adsorption for removing sulfur (SARS). An adsorbent was developed and used for adsorption desulfurization of diesel fuel, gasoline and jet fuel at room temperature.

Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

2002-01-01

398

Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae.  

PubMed

Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota. PMID:20167351

Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luís André

2010-04-01

399

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

EIA Publications

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

2008-01-01

400

METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE): Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation of Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), also known as an oxygenate, a chemical compound used as a gasoline additive to enhance the octane and subsequently burn the fuel more completely.

401

Survey of American (USA) gasolines (2008).  

PubMed

The regulations for gasoline's content vary depending on the time of year and physical location within the United States while the refinery and distribution system mixes product batches; this results in variability of content. ASTM E1618 requires both the aromatic and alkane EIP patterns of gasoline to compare with references. A survey was conducted by collecting gasoline from Florida to Oregon, from 85 to 93 octane. Samples were analyzed in accordance with ASTM E1618 in various states of evaporation. The range of differences found in the 90% evaporated alkane EIPs is presented and showed a continuum of response when the n-alkane response was compared with the branched alkane response. Similarly, the ratio of the alkane EIP to the aromatic EIP also showed a continuum of response at the 90% evaporated state. Gasoline samples with unusual characteristics are also discussed. PMID:25288158

Hetzel, Susan S

2015-01-01

402

Predict octane number for gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1993-05-01

403

Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

Stephens, Edgar R.

1977-01-01

404

Edgeworth price cycles in retail gasoline markets  

E-print Network

In this dissertation, I present three essays that are motivated by the interesting and dynamic price-setting behavior of firms in Canadian retail gasoline markets. In the first essay, I examine behavior at the market level ...

Noel, Michael David, 1971-

2002-01-01

405

In vitro genotoxicity of exhaust emissions of diesel and gasoline engine vehicles operated on a unified driving cycle.  

PubMed

Acetone extracts of engine exhaust particulate matter (PM) and of vapor-phase semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) collected from a set of 1998-2000 model year normal emitter diesel engine automobile or light trucks and from a set of 1982-1996 normal emitter gasoline engine automobiles or light trucks operated on the California Unified Driving Cycle at 22 [degree]C were assayed for in vitro genotoxic activities. Gasoline and diesel PM were comparably positive mutagens for Salmonella typhimurium strains YG1024 and YG1029 on a mass of PM extract basis with diesel higher on a mileage basis; gasoline SVOC was more active than diesel on an extracted-mass basis, with diesel SVOC more active on a mileage basis. For chromosomal damage indicated by micronucleus induction in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells), diesel PM expressed about one-tenth that of gasoline PM on a mass of extract basis, but was comparably active on a mileage basis; diesel SVOC was inactive. For DNA damage in V79 cells indicated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, gasoline PM was positive while diesel PM was active at the higher doses; gasoline SVOC was active with toxicity preventing measurement at high doses, while diesel SVOC was inactive at all but the highest dose. PMID:15614403

Liu, Yu-Qing; Keane, Michael; Ensell, Mang; Miller, William; Kashon, Michael; Ong, Tong-man; Mauderly, Joe; Lawson, Doug; Gautam, Mridul; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Eberhardt, James; Wallace, William

2005-01-01

406

Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Four Fuels for Metamysidopsis insularis , an Indigenous Tropical Mysid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of four fuels (leaded gasoline, unleaded gasoline, diesel, Jet A-1) to Metamysidopsis insularis, an indigenous tropical mysid species was determined. Approximately 10 000 barrels (bbl) of fuel are consumed daily in Trinidad and Tobago, and about 50 000 bbl are exported. Accidental discharges at points of transfer as well as from inadequate storage

Azad Mohammed

2005-01-01

407

Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.  

PubMed Central

The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

Sawyer, R F

1993-01-01

408

Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981  

SciTech Connect

Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

1982-06-01

409

Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR’s minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb. PMID:20948946

Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

2010-01-01

410

29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

2010-07-01

411

29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

2013-07-01

412

40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

2011-07-01

413

78 FR 20102 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions AGENCY: Environmental...collection request (ICR), ``Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions'' (EPA ICR...continue collecting notifications from gasoline retailers and wholesale...

2013-04-03

414

40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

2013-07-01

416

29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

2011-07-01

417

29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

2011-07-01

418

29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

2012-07-01

419

29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

2013-07-01

420

29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

2010-07-01

421

29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

2014-07-01

422

40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

2014-07-01

423

29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

2014-07-01

424

29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

2012-07-01

425

Refining economics of U.S. gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.  

PubMed

Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ? 93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ? 1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ? 3% for 98-RON E20, ? 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ? 3% for 98-RON E20, ? 8% for 100-RON E30). PMID:25224603

Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

2014-10-01

426

Higher Busulfan Dose Intensity Does Not Improve Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Following Fludarabine, Busulfan-based Reduced Toxicity Conditioning  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the impact of busulfan dose-intensity in patients undergoing reduced toxicity/intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation in a multicenter retrospective study of 112 consecutive patients. Seventy-five patients were conditioned with busulfan (0.8 mg/kg/dose IV × 8 doses), fludarabine (30mg/m2/day, days ?7 to ?3), and 6mg/kg of ATG (RIC group), while 37 patients received a more-intense conditioning with busulfan (130mg/m2/day IV, days ?6 to ?3), fludarabine (40mg/m2/day, days ?6 to ?3), and 6mg/kg of ATG (RTC group). At baseline both groups were matched for median age, unrelated donor allografts, and HLA-mismatched allografts. More patients in RIC group had high-risk disease, and higher median co-morbidity index. There were no graft rejections. Median time to neutrophil (17 vs. 15 days; p=0.003) and platelet engraftment (16 vs. 11 days; p<0.001) was significantly longer in the RIC group. RTC group had significantly more bacterial (62.2% vs. 32%; p=0.004) and fungal infections (13.5% vs. 1.3% p=0.01). For RIC and RTC groups rates of grade II-IV acute GVHD (34% vs. 40%; p-value=0.54), and chronic GVHD (45% vs. 57%; p-value=0.30) were not significantly different. In similar order at 1-year the cumulative-incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) (12% vs. 21%; p-value=0.21) and relapse rates (38% vs. 39%; p=0.96) were not significantly different. Patients in RIC and RTC groups had similar 1-year overall survival (61% vs. 50% p=0.11) and progression free survival (50% vs. 36% p-value=0.39). Our data suggest that merits of higher busulfan dose-intensity in the context of fludarabine/busulfan-based RTC may be offset by higher early morbidity. PMID:21360728

Hamadani, Mehdi; Craig, Michael; Phillips, Gary S.; Abraham, Jame; Tse, William; Cumpston, Aaron; Gibson, Laura; Remick, Scot C.; Bunner, Pamela; Leadmon, Sonia; Elder, Patrick; Hofmeister, Craig; Penza, Sam; Efebera, Yvonne; Andritsos, Leslie; Garzon, Ramiro; Benson, Don M.; Blum, William; Devine, Steven M.

2013-01-01

427

Gasoline volatility and hot weather driveability of Japanese cars  

SciTech Connect

Hot weather driveability test procedures on a chassis dynamometer correlated with field tests were established, and the effect of gasoline volatility on driveability performance was examined using 11 Japanese cars. It was found that the 50% evaporated temperature had a larger effect on hot weather driveability than the Reid vapor pressure. Also, hot idle compensators and fuel return systems were very effective for reducing malfunctions. As to conditions which should be controlled in chassis dynamometer tests, wind velocity were important as the same as ambient temperature; however, sun loading was not.

Yoshida, E.; Nagasawa, T.; Nomura, H.; Nozaki, N.

1983-11-01

428

Gasoline demand and car choice: estimating gasoline demand using household information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, calls for carbon taxes as a policy tool to combat global warming have kept a discussion of the price and income elasticities of gasoline demand alive. To date, gasoline demand elasticity estimates are almost exclusively based on aggregate data that are subject to aggregation problems and make distributional concerns impossible to address. By using household-level data from

Hilke A. Kayser

2000-01-01

429

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

430

Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline. PMID:22432307

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

2011-01-01

431

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1235 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is...

2014-07-01

432

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1235 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is...

2010-07-01

433

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1235 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is...

2013-07-01

434

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1235 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is...

2012-07-01

435

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1235 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is...

2011-07-01

436

40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? 80.200 Section... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is...

2012-07-01

437

40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers? 80.195... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline...

2012-07-01

438

40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers? 80.195... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline...

2010-07-01

439

40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers? 80.195... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline...

2013-07-01

440

40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? 80.200 Section... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is...

2014-07-01

441

40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? 80.200 Section... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is...

2010-07-01

442

40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers? 80.195... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline...

2014-07-01

443

40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers? 80.195... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline...

2011-07-01

444

40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? 80.200 Section... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is...

2011-07-01

445

40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? 80.200 Section... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is...

2013-07-01

446

Fuel options for the fuel cell vehicle: hydrogen, methanol or gasoline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell vehicles can be powered directly by hydrogen or, with an onboard chemical processor, other liquid fuels such as gasoline or methanol. Most analysts agree that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in terms of reducing vehicle complexity, but one common perception is that the cost of a hydrogen infrastructure would be excessive. According to this conventional wisdom, the automobile

C. E. Thomas; Brian D James; Frank D Lomax; Ira F Kuhn

2000-01-01

447

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

448

Toxic chemicals and toxic laws  

SciTech Connect

Recently there was consternation when it was discovered that a program intended to help minorities and the underprivileged in Detroit might have to be canceled. The reason was that some of the land on which new buildings were built was thought to contain toxic chemicals and therefore fell under the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (or Superfund). This collision of two valuable programs illustrates how a program originally heralded to carry out a worthwhile goal can become flawed. Since 1980, when the Superfund Act was passed by an overwhelming majority in Congress, only 34 of 1,245 identified priority sites have been cleaned up while approximately 40% of the money has been spent in trial litigation and administrative oversight. Critics, many of them within the EPA, point out that if the chemical danger level had been scientifically determined, approximately 90% of the truly important sites could have been cleaned up by now and the money wisely spent. However, the program was designed so that Congress initially did not have to raise much money or raise taxes and instead could argue that the program would not cost the taxpayer anything because it soaked the corporations. What needs to be done First, priority decisions should be taken out of the hands of nonscientists and lawyers and placed in those of scientists who are knowledgeable about toxic agents, who can identify effective targets objectively and who can establish workable priorities for removal of toxic waste. Second, a significant fraction of the money should be dedicated to research and to new programs that are more cost-effective. The purpose is to get chemical manufacturers thinking about reducing pollutants and the cost of cleanup when they plan to manufacture a chemical.

Koshland, D.E. Jr.

1991-08-30

449

The U. S. dollar value of gasoline: Currency crisis in Europe  

SciTech Connect

The recent currency crisis in Europe puts the possibility of European economic union in further jeopardy after the Maastricht Treaty was not approved by the Netherlands earlier this Summer. The increased value of European currencies relative to the US dollar during the past Summer had little effect upon national currency gasoline prices. However, the recent currency devaluations in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, already struggling with weak economies, definitely reduce consumer buying power. Governments may use the high taxes imposed on gasoline as a buffer against higher prices, but still, consumers may buy less gasoline as their money doesn't go as far as it once did. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Sept. 25, 1992; and (2) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 1992 Edition.

Not Available

1992-09-30

450

Study of health hazards in use of methanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

The hygienic evaluation of mehanol for use as an additive to gasoline was performed under conditions of city driving of automotive vehicles operating on the blends MGB and BM 15-93 (the gasoline base stock had an octane number of 66). The workers handling MGB were examined for personality traits, emotional and volitional state, and anxiety level; also, certain features of psychic activity were evaluated (mental capability, attention, memory). The results show that a situation peceding the start of work with MGB was responsible for most of the freases in subjective indexes characterizing the emotion state, and the mobility and rate of occurence of psychic functions in comparison to background activity. The results indicate the possibility of using MGB to replace leaded and unleaded gasoline, since such replacement will reduce the environmental pollution by fuel combustion products, and the level of air pollution in the workplace will remain low.

Kasparov, A.A.; Golovkova, N.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.

1986-07-01

451

Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

Butters, R.A.

1990-09-30

452

Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of four fuels for Metamysidopsis insularis, an indigenous tropical mysid species.  

PubMed

The toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of four fuels (leaded gasoline, unleaded gasoline, diesel, Jet A-1) to Metamysidopsis insularis, an indigenous tropical mysid species was determined. Approximately 10 000 barrels (bbl) of fuel are consumed daily in Trinidad and Tobago, and about 50 000 bbl are exported. Accidental discharges at points of transfer as well as from inadequate storage facilities, can pose a significant contamination risk to the environment. Organisms were assayed with the WSF under both UV and fluorescent lights. The WSF was prepared using different fuel/seawater (v/v) mixtures. It was found that organisms exposed to diesel, Jet A-1 and unleaded gasoline showed similar toxicological responses under both light regimes, and were more toxic than the leaded gasoline. The results also showed that none of these fuels show photo-induced toxicity. The WSF of the 0.1% mixtures of unleaded gasoline, diesel and Jet A-1 were acutely toxic to M. insularis. However, for the leaded gasoline, only the 0.5% mixture was acutely toxic. The high toxicity of these fuels may be due to the presence of light, more soluble fractions. It is therefore likely that these fuels will have significant impacts in our local environment, if any spills occur. PMID:15931976

Mohammed, Azad

2005-05-01

453

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01

454

Portuguese refiner starts up new gasoline complex  

SciTech Connect

Petroleos de Portugal S.A. (Petrogal) has started up a new $85 million gasoline complex at its Sines, Portugal, refinery. The complex includes HF alkylation and Hydrisom units. The refinery also has completed an overall $650 million upgrade that includes a new visbreaker and vacuum column. Petrogal says the project has increased gasoline production to about 30,000 b/d. Major units constructed for the overall refinery expansion included: a 35,000 b/sd FCCU; a 26,000 b/sd visbreaker; a 45,000 b/sd vacuum distillation unit; two extractive mercaptan columns; an amylene treater; a sulfur-recovery system; and an 8,000 b/sd alkylation complex. The paper describes the gasoline complex, laboratory, safety, control room operation, and start-up.

Not Available

1995-03-13

455

46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

2014-10-01

456

46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

2011-10-01

457

46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

2010-10-01

458

46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

2013-10-01

459

46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

2012-10-01

460

Protective effect of vitamin E against carbendazim-induced testicular toxicity-histopathological evidences and reduced residue levels in testis and serum.  

PubMed

The fungicide Carbendazim Methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) is known to produce male reproductive toxicity. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of vitamin E, an antioxidant against the testicular toxicity induced by MBC. HPLC analysis showed that the amount of MBC in testis and serum was 57.40 +/- 3.38 nmol/g and 14.10 +/- 0.84 nmol/ml, respectively, in rats treated with carbendazim + vitamin-E, which were significantly lower than that of rats treated with carbendazim alone (240 +/- 15.60 nmol/g and 318.70 +/- 22.52 nmol/ml, respectively). MBC treatment significantly decreased the testicular weight while co-administration of vitamin-E registered normal testicular weight. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and lumen in MBC-treated rats compared to control whereas they remained normal in vitamin E + MBC-treated rats. Leydig cells appeared dispersed and hypertrophic after MBC treatment. Various histopathological changes were observed in testis of rats treated with MBC whereas these changes were absent in vitamin-E + MBC-treated rat testis. In conclusion protection against MBC-induced toxicity was observed with co-administration of vitamin E with MBC. PMID:17479253

Rajeswary, Sivasankaran; Mathew, Nisha; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; Kalyanasundram, Muthuswamy; Kumaran, Bassouvalingam

2007-11-01