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Sample records for gasoline reduce toxicity

  1. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  2. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  4. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  5. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  6. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  7. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  8. Toxicity of gasoline aqueous-leachate through sand-clay columns

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Li, Y. )

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect clay type and clay concentration may exert on the toxicity of the percolating water around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank. This situation in the laboratory was simulated using sand-clay columns. The experiment was conducted with two types of clays (kaolinite and illite) and three clay concentrations (0, 5 or 10%). The gasoline (0, 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8 mL) was injected through a hole in the middle of the column. After 24 hours of gasoline injection 100 mL of deionized water was added to the column and the leachate was tested for toxicity (EC[sub 50]) using the marine luminescent bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum). Leachate from the pure sand column was less toxic than the control but was more toxic than from the columns with clay. The addition of clay significantly reduced both the toxicity and the hydraulic conductivity. The toxicity increased significantly with the increase in gasoline concentration up to 0.5 mL but decreased with 0.8 mL gasoline. Using the concentrations of clay and the gasoline and the hydraulic conductivity a regression equation (R[sup 2] = 0.77) was calculated to predict the toxicity of the gasoline aqueous leachate. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Means of reducing the lead in automobile gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a discussion in six chapters of the effects of lead compounds in gasoline on various forms of life, world developments in controlling pollutants emitted in automobile exhaust, the refining methods used to produce gasoline, and means of reducing and eventually eliminating the lead content of gasoline.

  10. Toxicity reduction associated with bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Carroquino, M.J.; Gersberg, R.M.; Bradley, M.D. ); Dawsey, W.J. )

    1992-08-01

    In-situ biodegradation has received increasing attention as a method to remediate gasoline-contaminated soils and groundwaters. Typically, oxygen is added to enhance aerobic biodegradation. However, since oxygen is not very soluble in water and is difficult to distribute uniformly throughout an aquifer, nitrate has been investigated as an alternate electron acceptor. Nitrate has recently been used to stimulate BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) biodegradation in the laboratory and in field-scale tests on gasoline contaminated aquifers. Since there are hundreds of organic compounds in gasoline, the possibility exists that there are toxic intermediate metabolites or byproducts formed by biodegradation which may still exert toxicity. Unfortunately there is no information on the degree of toxicity reduction associated with BTX biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. This study used the Ceriodaphnia acute toxicity test to determine the degree of toxicity reduction associated with remediation of gasoline-contaminated groundwaters under denitrifying conditions, and compared these results to those for the aerobic process. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Braslia, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

  12. Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2009-10-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Braslia, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

  13. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  14. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  19. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  5. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  6. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  8. Method for reducing water sensitivity of ether containing gasoline compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhauster, A. M.

    1985-05-28

    A method for reducing the water sensitivity of an ether containing gasoline composition comprising mixing the ether component after it is prepared and while it is essentially water free with a selected paraffinic component before it is added to the gasoline.

  9. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  10. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  11. Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

  12. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  17. Optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon compositions for reducing exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yitao; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon compositions on raw exhaust emissions and combustion processes were studied on an engine test bench. The optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon composition was discussed. As olefins content increased from 10.0% to 25.0% in volume, the combustion duration was shortened by about 2 degree crank angle (degrees CA), and the engine-out THC emission was reduced by about 15%. On the other hand, as aromatics content changed from 35.0% to 45.0%, the engine-out NOx emissions increased by 4%. An increment in olefins content resulted in a slight increase in engine-out CO emission, while the aromatics content had little effect on engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO emissions. Over the new European driving cycle (NEDC), the THC, NOx and CO emissions of fuel with 25.0% olefins and 35.0% aromatics were about 45%, 21% and 19% lower than those of fuel with 10.0% olefins and 40.0% aromatics, respectively. The optimized gasoline compositions for new engines and new vehicles have low aromatics and high olefins contents. PMID:19999967

  18. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  19. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

    2002-08-25

    Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

  20. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  1. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S H; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  2. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  3. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  4. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L G; Gray, T M; Marr, M C; Tyl, R W; Trimmer, G W; Hoffman, G M; Murray, F J; Clark, C R; Schreiner, C A

    2014-11-01

    CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal anomalies. Exposure to 20,000mg/m(3) of BGVC produced slight reductions in maternal body weight/gain and decreased fetal body weight. G/MTBE exposure did not produce statistically significant maternal or developmental effects; however, two uncommon ventral wall closure defects occurred: gastroschisis (1 fetus at 10,000mg/m(3)) and ectopia cordis (1 fetus at 2000mg/m(3); 2 fetuses/1 litter at 10,000mg/m(3)). A second study (G/MTBE-2) evaluated similar exposure levels on GD 5-16 and an additional group exposed to 30,000mg/m(3) from GD 5-10. An increased incidence of cleft palate was observed at 30,000mg/m(3) G/MTBE. No ectopia cordis occurred in the replicate study, but a single observation of gastroschisis was observed at 30,000mg/m(3). The no observed adverse effect levels for maternal/developmental toxicity in the BGVC study were 10,000/2000mg/m(3), 20,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE study, and 10,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE-2 study. PMID:24979735

  5. Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, R. Christopher; Kiningham, Kinsley K.; Valentovic, Monica A. . E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu

    2006-06-01

    Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30-120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10 mM pyruvate or glucose (1.28 or 5.5 mM). LDH leakage was increased above control by 0.25 and 0.5 mM PAP beginning at 60 min and by 0.1 mM PAP at 120 min. Pyruvate prevented an increase in LDH leakage at 60- and 120-min exposure to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate also prevented a decline in ATP levels. Glucose (1.28 and 5.5 mM) provided less protection than pyruvate from PAP toxicity. Total glutathione levels were diminished by 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP within 60 and 30 min, respectively. Pyruvate prevented the decline in glutathione by 0.1 mM PAP at both time periods and at 30 min for 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate reduced the magnitude of glutathione depletion by 0.25 mM PAP following a 60-min incubation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in renal slices were increased at 60 min by exposure to 0.25 mM PAP, while pyruvate prevented increased GSSG levels by PAP. Pyruvate also reduced the extent of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins present after a 90-min incubation with PAP. These results indicate that pyruvate provided protection for PAP toxicity by providing an energy substrate and reducing oxidative stress.

  6. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  7. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: an approach to minimize environmental pollution risk.

    PubMed

    Paixo, J F; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B L; Carvalho, G C; Silveira, J S C; Rebouas, M; Matias, G R A; Rodrigues, I L P

    2007-03-01

    Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations. PMID:16930589

  8. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk

    SciTech Connect

    Paixao, J.F.; Nascimento, I.A. . E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A.; Leite, M.B.L.; Carvalho, G.C.; Silveira, J.S.C.; Reboucas, M.; Matias, G.R.A.; Rodrigues, I.L.P.

    2007-03-15

    Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

  9. Apparatus for improving gasoline comsumption, power and reducing emission pollutants of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Piedrafita, R.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for improving performance and reducing fuel comsumption and emission pollutants from an internal combustion gasoline engine. This apparatus consists of: 1.) an internal combustion gasoline engine having, in part, an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold where the exhaust manifold is modified to include a manifold exhaust port; 2.) a modified internal combustion engine carburetor connected to the intake manifold on the engine; 3.) a positive crankcase ventilation valve (PCV) which has an input port conventionally connected to the internal combustion engine and also has a PCV output port; 4.) an automobile fuel pump having an input connected to a conventional fuel tank and having a fuel pump output port; 5.) a thermic reactor; 6.) a thermic reactor air cleaner pneumatically connected to the clean air input port on the thermic reactor; 7.) a catalytic gas injector; 8.) a fuel regulator/restrictor consisting of a solid block having a fuel pump input port and a carburetor output port.

  10. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  11. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emissionparticularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

  12. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  13. Humic substances reduce bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The role of humic substances in the aquatic environment on the availability and toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants is reviewed. Organic contaminants associated with humics appear to be essentially unavailable for uptake by amphipods, daphnids, and fish. Acute toxicity of these compounds is also diminished proportionally. Since the affinity of organic solutes for binding to humics is related to their hydrophobicity, the effect of humics is significant only for compounds with octanol-water partition coefficients >10/sup 4/. In most cases, association of toxic metals with humics reduces the uptake and toxic effects of the contaminants. However, complex interactions among the toxicants, humic ligands, other transition metals and major cations in solution, and the carrier proteins on biological membranes make it difficult to generalize and predict any reduction in accumulation and toxicity of metals. Humic substances may have secondary effects on uptake and accumulation of toxicants by biota through their role in altering the transport and fate of pollutants.

  14. Approaches for the design of reduced toxicant emission cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, David J; Fieblekorn, Richard T; Bevan, Michael J; Rushforth, David; Murphy, James J; Ashley, Madeleine; McAdam, Kevin G; Liu, Chuan; Proctor, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious diseases through frequent and prolonged exposure to toxicants. Technologies are being developed to reduce smokers' toxicant exposure, including filter adsorbents, tobacco treatments and substitutes. This study examined the effect of modifications to filter ventilation, variations in cigarette circumference and active charcoal filter length and loading, as well as combinations of these features in a reduced-toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette, on the yields of toxicants in cigarette smoke. An air-dilution mechanism, called split-tipping, was developed in which a band of porous paper in the centre of the filter tipping functions to minimise the loss of effective filter ventilation that occurs at the high flow rates encountered during human-smoking, and to facilitate the diffusional loss of volatile toxicants. As compared with conventional filter ventilation cigarettes, split-tipping reduced tar and volatile smoke constituent emissions under high flow rate machine-smoking conditions, most notably for products with a 1-mg ISO tar yield. Furthermore, mouth level exposure (MLE) to tar and nicotine was reduced among smokers of 1-mg ISO tar cigarettes in comparison to smokers of cigarettes with traditional filter ventilation. For higher ISO tar level cigarettes, however, there were no significant reductions in MLE. Smaller cigarette circumferences reduced sidestream toxicant yields and modified the balance of mainstream smoke chemistry with reduced levels of aromatic amines and benzo[a]pyrene but increased yields of formaldehyde. Smaller circumference cigarettes also had lower mainstream yields of volatile toxicants. Longer cigarette filters containing increased levels of high-activity carbon (HAC) showed reduced machine-smoking yields of volatile toxicants: with up to 97% removal for some volatile toxicants at higher HAC loadings. Split-tipping was combined with optimal filter length and cigarette circumference in an RTP cigarette that gave significantly lower mainstream (up to ~90%) and sidestream (predominately 20%-60%) smoke yields of numerous toxicants as compared with a commercial comparator cigarette under machine-smoking conditions. Significantly lower mainstream and sidestream smoke toxicant yields were observed for an RTP cigarette comprising several toxicant reducing technologies; these observations warrant further evaluation in clinical studies where real-world relevance can be tested using biomarkers of exposure and physiological effect. PMID:25110628

  15. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticle reduces its toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Devi, G Prathinkra; Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Varsha, M K N Sai; Shrijha, B S; Lal, K K Subin; Anbazhagan, Veerappan; Thiagarajan, R

    2015-01-01

    Chemical transformations of metal nanoparticles can be an important way to mitigate nanoparticle toxicity. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) is a natural process shown to occur in environment. Very few studies, employing microbes and embryonic stages of zebrafish, have shown reduction in AgNPs toxicity as a direct result of sulfidation. However the feasibility of reducing nanoparticle toxicity by sulfidation of AgNPs has never been studied in adult vertebrates. In this study, we have used adult zebrafish as a model to study the efficacy of sulfidation of AgNPs in reducing nanoparticle toxicity by employing a battery of biomarkers in liver and brain. While AgNPs enhanced liver oxidative stress, altered detoxification enzymes and affected brain acetylcholinesterase activity, sulfidation of AgNPs resulted in significant alleviation of changes in these parameters. Histopathological analyses of liver and sulphydryl levels also support the significance of sulfidated AgNPs in controlling the toxicity of AgNPs. Our study provides the first biochemical data on the importance of sulfidation of AgNPs in reducing biological toxicity in adult vertebrates. PMID:25438120

  16. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  17. Reducing Environmental Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles through Shape Control.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Danielle E; Osterberg, Joshua S; Gwin, Carley A; Colman, Benjamin P; Meyer, Joel N; Bernhardt, Emily S; Gunsch, Claudia K; DiGulio, Richard T; Liu, Jie

    2015-08-18

    The use of antibacterial silver nanomaterials in consumer products ranging from textiles to toys has given rise to concerns over their environmental toxicity. These materials, primarily nanoparticles, have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of organisms; thus methods and materials that reduce their environmental toxicity while retaining their useful antibacterial properties can potentially solve this problem. Here we demonstrate that silver nanocubes display a lower toxicity toward the model plant species Lolium multiflorum while showing similar toxicity toward other environmentally relevant and model organisms (Danio rerio and Caenorhabditis elegans) and bacterial species (Esherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) compared to quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles and silver nanowires. More specifically, in the L. multiflorum experiments, the roots of silver nanocube treated plants were 5.3% shorter than the control, while silver nanoparticle treated plant roots were 39.6% shorter than the control. The findings here could assist in the future development of new antibacterial products that cause less environmental toxicity after their intended use. PMID:26146787

  18. Wasting away: Policies to reduce trash toxicity and quantity

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, H. )

    1990-03-01

    Communities all around the world are facing growing mounds of trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW). Media coverage of the shrinking landfill capacity has greatly increased awareness of the need to improve management of MSW when it is generated. Many U.S. businesses, public-interest groups, states, and municipalities, which have primary responsibility for managing MSW, are trying to increase the collection, processing, and marketing of recyclable material partly to relieve the pressures on municipal landfills. While such management activities should be increased and intensified, another challenge, a more difficult one, is to change the way this society makes products and generates MSW in the first place - that is, to reduce the toxicity and/or quantity of MSW. There are two basic routes to reducing toxicity and quantity: manufacturers can modify the design of products (and packaging) to reduce their toxicity or quantity, and consumers can modify their purchasing decisions, for example, by buying products that are less toxic, more durable, or more repairable. Both routes are described, and government programs and policy options which could lift obstacles are discussed.

  19. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.; Siron, R.

    1995-12-31

    A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture{trademark} condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox{reg_sign} Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products.

  20. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that is restricted for use in racing motor vehicles or racing boats that are used only in sanctioned..., distribution and sale to the ultimate consumer; and (3) The gasoline is not made available for use as motor vehicle gasoline, or dispensed for use in motor vehicles, except for motor vehicles used only...

  1. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that is restricted for use in racing motor vehicles or racing boats that are used only in sanctioned..., distribution and sale to the ultimate consumer; and (3) The gasoline is not made available for use as motor vehicle gasoline, or dispensed for use in motor vehicles, except for motor vehicles used only...

  2. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that is restricted for use in racing motor vehicles or racing boats that are used only in sanctioned..., distribution and sale to the ultimate consumer; and (3) The gasoline is not made available for use as motor vehicle gasoline, or dispensed for use in motor vehicles, except for motor vehicles used only...

  3. Selected ebselen analogs reduce mechlorethamine toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maria A; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Billack, Blase

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant. The lack of an effective antidote makes SM a continued threat to both military and civilian settings. A surrogate agent, namely mechlorethamine (HN2), was used here to mimic the toxicity of SM, and the main objective of this study was to demonstrate if selected organoselenium analogs could protect cultured A-431 skin cells from HN2 toxicity. Test compounds included ebselen (EB-1) and three related organoselenium analogs (EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4). In the absence of test compound, a reproducible and robust cell death was observed in the cells following incubation with HN2 (25?M, 24 or 48?h) while cells treated with test compound alone (15, 30 or 60?M) for similar periods of time were generally not affected. When incubated in the presence of both HN2 and test compound for 24 or 48?h, it was found that EB-1, EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4 could spare the cells from death, with the EB-4 compound being the most effective at reducing HN2 toxicity. Light microscopy confirmed these findings. The organoseleniums were also examined for their effects on reducing lipid peroxidation in the A-431 skin cells. Among the test compounds, EB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation by HN2 to the greatest extent. These studies, taken together, validate that the organoselenium antioxidants tested here may serve a purpose in the discovery of medical countermeasures to vesicants. PMID:23734969

  4. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  5. Structural Basis for the Reduced Toxicity of Dinophysistoxin-2

    SciTech Connect

    Huhn, J.; Jeffrey, F; Larsen, K; Rundberget, T; Rise, F; Cox, N; Arcus, V; Shi, Y; Miles, C

    2009-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) are algal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Recent studies indicate that DTX-2 is about half as toxic and has about half the affinity for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as OA. NMR structural studies showed that DTX-1 possessed an equatorial 35-methyl group but that DTX-2 had an axial 35-methyl group. Molecular modeling studies indicated that an axial 35-methyl could exhibit unfavorable interactions in the PP2A binding site, and this has been proposed as the reason for the reduced toxicity of DTX-2. Statistical analyses of published data indicate that the affinity of PP2A for DTX-1 is 1.6-fold higher, and for DTX-2 is 2-fold lower, than for OA. We obtained X-ray crystal structures of DTX-1 and DTX-2 bound to PP2A. The crystal structures independently confirm the C-35 stereochemistries determined in the earlier NMR study. The structure for the DTX-1 complex was virtually identical to that of the OA-PP2A complex, except for the presence of the equatorial 35-methyl on the ligand. The favorable placement of the equatorial 35-methyl group of DTX-1 against the aromatic {pi}-bonds of His191 may account for the increased affinity of PP2A toward DTX-1. In contrast, the axial 35-methyl of DTX-2 caused the side chain of His191 to rotate 140{sup o} so that it pointed toward the solvent, thereby opening one end of the hydrophobic binding cage. This rearrangement to accommodate the unfavorable interaction from the axial 35-methyl of DTX-2 reduces the binding energy and appears to be responsible for the reduced affinity of PP2A for DTX-2. These results highlight the potential of molecular modeling studies for understanding the relative toxicity of analogues once the binding site at the molecular target has been properly characterized.

  6. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Axial Thruster and ACS Thruster Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  7. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  8. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  9. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,

  10. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  11. Reducing groundwater pollution by toxic substances: Procedures and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterstone, Marvin

    1987-11-01

    One major source of water-related health problems is the improper disposal of toxic substances in the environment. Toxic materials leaching from unregulated and unlined pits, ponds, lagoons, and landfills have created a widespread environmental nightmare in the United States and many other parts of the world. At present, there are two major and interrelated components of this problem in the United States. The first is the issue of cleaning up abandoned disposal sites that pose actual or potential threats to water supplies. The second aspect of the problem concerns the necessity of siting proper management, treatment, or disposal facilities in the future. Priorities must be set to allow efficient, effective, and equitable allocation of the scarce resources that are available for accomplishing these tasks. This article examines a number of the issues involved in setting these priorities, and presents the results obtained from a study of risk estimation and evaluation in the context of groundwater contamination by toxic substances. The article introduces a new concept of risk estimation, which is shown to produce more accurate and credible risk analyses. Finally, the relationships between risk credibility and public perceptions of procedural fairness and equity are examined as these factors bear on the institutional aspects of implementing policies for site cleanup and/or facility siting.

  12. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  13. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  14. Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

  15. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  16. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  17. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed. PMID:25644031

  18. Reduce Toxic Exposures: Get Involved and Take Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the connection between many chemical exposures and learning and other developmental disabilities (LDD). National and local groups are developing new programs around the country that are making this connection--and taking action with regard to policy, education and research efforts. They are working towards reducing

  19. California`s cleaner burning gasoline and methyl tertiary butyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, J.; Mazur, L.

    1995-12-31

    As of June 1, 1996, California is required to use cleaner-burning gasoline to help meet federal ambient air quality standards and reduce ambient air toxics. Cleaner-burning gasoline reduces smog-forming emissions from motor vehicles by 15% and air pollution by over three million pounds per day. This is equivalent to removing 3.5 million cars from California`s roads. To enhance combustion and thus reduce emissions, California cleaner burning gasoline is required to contain 2.0% oxygen by weight. This is achieved by addition of oxygenates, such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Ambient air data of MTBE derived from motor vehicle emissions and refueling activities has been measured in several pilot studies and at 22 urban sites as part of California`s Air Resources Board statewide toxics monitoring network. These activities have only recently been initiated and this paper will describe data collected to date.

  20. Reduced Grating Acuity Associated with Retinal Toxicity in Children with Infantile Spasms on Vigabatrin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Sivan; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether visual functions are decreased in children with infantile spasms and vigabatrin-attributed retinal toxicity. Methods Contrast sensitivity and grating acuity were measured by using sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) testing in 42 children with infantile spasms (mean age, 29.23 18.31 months). All children had been exposed to vigabatrin (VGB) for a minimum of 1 month. These children were divided into retinal toxicity and no toxicity groupings based on 30-Hz flicker amplitude reductions on the full-field electroretinogram. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared visual functions between children with and without retinal toxicity. Results The MANOVA showed that visual function was significantly affected by VGB retinal toxicity. Further univariate analysis revealed that grating acuity was significantly reduced in children with toxicity. No differences in contrast sensitivity were found between children with toxicity and those without. Conclusions Reduced visual functions from VGB-attributed retinal toxicity can be detected in children with infantile spasms with the sweep VEP. PMID:19279311

  1. Smokeless tobacco brand switching: A means to reduce toxicant exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, D.K.; Ebbert, J.O.; Anderson, A.; Lin, H.; Le, C.; Hecht, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) brand switching on biomarkers of ST exposure and on ST use. Subjects seeking treatment to reduce their use were randomized to ST brand switching with controlled ST topography, brand switching with ad libitum ST use, or a waitlist control with subsequent randomization to one of these two conditions. The waitlist control group was included to assess whether changes were a consequence of time effect. During the intervention, Copenhagen or Kodiak ST users were asked to switch to products that were sequentially lower in nicotine content: Skoal Long Cut Original or Wintergreen for 4 weeks and then Skoal Bandits for the subsequent 4 weeks. Measures were obtained during the course of treatment and at 12-week follow-up. Significant reductions in total urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-l-(3 pyridyl) l-butanol (NNAL) plus its glucuronides (total NNAL) were observed with no significant differences between the controlled topography and ad libitum conditions. Significant reductions were also observed in the amount and duration of dips with a significant intervention effect for durational measures. At 12 weeks, the 7-day biochemically-verified tobacco abstinent rate was 26% in the ad libitum group. ST brand switching may be a feasible alternative intervention for ST users interested in quitting but unwilling to stop ST use completely. PMID:16996230

  2. Smokeless tobacco brand switching: a means to reduce toxicant exposure?

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, D K; Ebbert, J O; Anderson, A; Lin, H; Le, C; Hecht, S S

    2007-03-16

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) brand switching on biomarkers of ST exposure and on ST use. Subjects seeking treatment to reduce their use were randomized to ST brand switching with controlled ST topography, brand switching with ad libitum ST use, or a waitlist control with subsequent randomization to one of these two conditions. The waitlist control group was included to assess whether changes were a consequence of time effect. During the intervention, Copenhagen or Kodiak ST users were asked to switch to products that were sequentially lower in nicotine content: Skoal Long Cut Straight or Wintergreen for 4 weeks and then Skoal Bandits for the subsequent 4 weeks. Measures were obtained during the course of treatment and at 12-week follow-up. Significant reductions in total urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-L-(3-pyridyl)-L-butanol (NNAL) plus its glucuronides (total NNAL) were observed with no significant differences between the controlled topography and ad libitum conditions. Significant reductions were also observed in the amount and duration of dips with a significant intervention effect for durational measures. At 12 weeks, the 7-day biochemically-verified tobacco abstinent rate was 26% in the ad libitum group. ST brand switching may be a feasible alternative intervention for ST users interested in quitting but unwilling to stop ST use completely. PMID:16996230

  3. Dissolved organic carbon reduces the toxicity of aluminum to three tropical freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Trenfield, Melanie A; Markich, Scott J; Ng, Jack C; Noller, Barry; van Dam, Rick A

    2012-02-01

    The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the toxicity of aluminum (Al) at pH 5 (relevant to acid mine drainage conditions), to the tropical green hydra (Hydra viridissima), green alga (Chlorella sp.), and cladoceran (Moinodaphnia macleayi) was assessed. Two DOC sources, a natural in situ DOC in soft billabong water (SBW) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) standard, were compared. The order of sensitivity of the test organisms to dissolved Al (0.1 µm fraction) was Hydra viridissima > Moinodaphnia macleayi > Chlorella sp. with DOC reducing dissolved Al toxicity most for Hydra viridissima. However, colloidal or precipitated Al may contribute indirectly to the toxicity for M. macleayi and Chlorella sp. The toxicity of dissolved Al was up to six times lower in test waters containing 10 mg L(-1) DOC (in the form of SRFA), relative to toxicity observed at 1 mg L(-1) DOC. In contrast, the toxicity of Al was up to two times lower in SBW containing 10 mg L(-1) DOC, relative to water containing 1 mg L(-1) DOC. The increased ability of SRFA in reducing Al toxicity was linked to its greater affinity for complexing Al compared with the in situ DOC. This has important implications for studies that use commercial standards of humic substances to predict Al toxicity in local environments. Speciation modeling demonstrated that Al(3+) and AlOH(2+) provided a strong relationship with toxicity. An empirical relationship is provided for each organism that can be used to predict Al toxicity at a given Al and DOC concentration. PMID:22105345

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine in reducing radiation-induced skin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jennifer J; Cui, Tengjiao; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Allen, Glenn O; Li, Jie; Takita, Cristiane; Lally, Brian E

    2014-08-01

    Radiation therapy-induced acute and late effects, particularly skin toxicities, have significant impact on cancer patients' quality of life and long-term survival. To date, no effective topical agents have been routinely used in the clinical setting to prevent skin toxicity. Using SKH-hr1 hairless mice, we investigated two complementary and alternative medicine in their effects on inflammation and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced skin toxicity: Calendula officinalis (CO) and Ching Wan Hung (CWH). They were applied immediately following each IR dosing of 10Gy/day for 4days. Skin toxicity and inflammatory factors were evaluated at multiple time points up to 15days post-radiation. Serum interleukin (IL)-1?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were significantly induced by radiation. Both CO and CWH significantly inhibited IR-induced MCP1 (p<0.01), KC (p<0.05), and G-CSF (p<0.001). IR-induced erythema and blood vessel dilation were significantly reduced by CWH (p<0.001) but not by CO at day 10 post-IR. Both agents inhibited IR-induced IL-1? (p<0.01), MCP1 (p<0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (p<0.05). There were continuous inhibitory effects of CWH on IR-induced skin toxicities and inflammation. In contrast, CO treatment resulted in skin reactions compared to IR alone. Our results suggest that both CO and CWH reduce IR-induced inflammation and CWH reduced IR-induced erythema. In summary, CWH showed promising effects in reducing IR-related inflammation and skin toxicities, and future proof-of-principal testing in humans will be critical in evaluating its potential application in preventing IR-induced skin toxicities. PMID:24792319

  5. Attenuating the toxicity of cisplatin by using selenosulfate with reduced risk of selenium toxicity as compared with selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinsong Peng Dungeng; Lu Hongjuan; Liu Qingliang

    2008-02-01

    It has been reported that high doses of sodium selenite can reduce side effects of cisplatin (CDDP) without compromising its antitumor activity, thus substantially enhancing the cure rate in tumor-bearing mice. However, the toxicity of selenite at high doses should be a concern. The present study revealed that selenosulfate had much lower toxicity, but possessed equal efficacy in selenium (Se) utilization, as compared with selenite at similar doses when used for the intervention of CDDP. In addition, Se accumulation in whole blood and kidney of mice treated with selenosulfate was highly correlated with the survival rate of mice treated with CDDP (both r > 0.96 and both p < 0.05), suggesting that whole blood Se is a potential clinical biomarker to predict host tolerance to CDDP. In either Se-deficient or -sufficient mice bearing solid tumors of hepatoma 22 (H22), selenosulfate did not disturb the therapeutic effect of CDDP on tumors but effectively attenuated the toxicity of CDDP. Furthermore, in a highly malignant cancer model, with Se-sufficient mice bearing ascitic H22 cells, 8 or 10 mg/kg CDDP alone only achieved a null or 25% cure rate, whereas coadministration of selenosulfate with the above two doses of CDDP achieved cure rates of 87.5% or 75%. These results together argue for consideration of selenosulfate as an agent to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP.

  6. Ebselen reduces the toxicity of mechlorethamine in A-431 cells via inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lulla, Anju; Pino, Maria A; Pi?tka-Ottlik, Magdalena; M?ochowski, Jacek; Sparavalo, Oleksiy; Billack, Blase

    2013-06-01

    A series of test compounds were evaluated for an ability to reduce the toxicity of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) in vitro. The test compounds included resveratrol, pterostilbene, vitamin C, ebselen, ebselen diselenide, and ebselen-sulfur. Among them, ebselen demonstrated the highest degree of protection against HN2 toxicity. To this end, pretreatment of the cells with ebselen offered protection against the toxicant whereas no protection was observed when cells were first incubated with HN2 and then treated with ebselen. Significant increases in caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were observed in response to HN2, and ebselen was found to reduce these effects. Taken together, the data presented here indicate that ebselen is an effective countermeasure to nitrogen mustard in vitro, which is worthy of future investigation in vivo. PMID:23649643

  7. Reduced toxicity of fumonisin B1 in corn grits by single-screw extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion cooking under conditions of high heat and pressure reduces the concentration of fumonisins in corn-based products; however, the toxicity of heretofore uncharacterized fumonisin reactions products in extruded materials has not been determined. Uncontaminated corn grits, grits spiked with 3...

  8. A Community-Based Initiative to Reduce Children's Exposure to Toxics in Household Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Anne Berlin; Luskin, Jack

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design/methodology/approach--The program model was based on the

  9. Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic…

  10. INCREASED TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT 'SALMO GAIRDNERI' RESULTING FROM REDUCED CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The median lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow-through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6-8.6 mg/L, the fo...

  11. Efficient chemo-enzymatic gluten detoxification: reducing toxic epitopes for celiac patients improving functional properties.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Nunes, Fernando M; Guedes, Sofia; Domingues, Pedro; Silva, Amélia M; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of gluten, the exogenous effector in celiac disease, seeking its detoxification by selective chemical modification of toxic epitopes is a very attractive strategy and promising technology when compared to pharmacological treatment or genetic engineering of wheat. Here we present a simple and efficient chemo-enzymatic methodology that decreases celiac disease toxic epitopes of gluten proteins improving its technological value through microbial transglutaminase-mediated transamidation of glutamine with n-butylamine under reducing conditions. First, we found that using low concentrations of amine-nucleophile under non-reducing conditions, the decrease in toxic epitopes is mainly due to transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking. Second, using high amine nucleophile concentrations protein cross-linking is substantially reduced. Third, reducing conditions increase 7-fold the transamidation reaction further decreasing toxic epitopes amount. Fourth, using n-butylamine improves gluten hydrophobicity that strengthens the gluten network. These results open the possibility of tailoring gluten for producing hypoallergenic flours while still taking advantage of the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten. PMID:26691232

  12. Efficient chemo-enzymatic gluten detoxification: reducing toxic epitopes for celiac patients improving functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Nunes, Fernando M.; Guedes, Sofia; Domingues, Pedro; Silva, Amélia M.; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of gluten, the exogenous effector in celiac disease, seeking its detoxification by selective chemical modification of toxic epitopes is a very attractive strategy and promising technology when compared to pharmacological treatment or genetic engineering of wheat. Here we present a simple and efficient chemo-enzymatic methodology that decreases celiac disease toxic epitopes of gluten proteins improving its technological value through microbial transglutaminase-mediated transamidation of glutamine with n-butylamine under reducing conditions. First, we found that using low concentrations of amine-nucleophile under non-reducing conditions, the decrease in toxic epitopes is mainly due to transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking. Second, using high amine nucleophile concentrations protein cross-linking is substantially reduced. Third, reducing conditions increase 7-fold the transamidation reaction further decreasing toxic epitopes amount. Fourth, using n-butylamine improves gluten hydrophobicity that strengthens the gluten network. These results open the possibility of tailoring gluten for producing hypoallergenic flours while still taking advantage of the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten. PMID:26691232

  13. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF A REDUCED VOLUME MARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST METHOD USING AMPHIPOD AMPELISCA ABDITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has standardized methods for performing acute marine amphipod sediment toxicity tests. A test design reducing sediment volume from 200 to 50 ml and overlying water from 600 to 150 ml was recently proposed. An interlaboratory comparison wa...

  14. Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more effi...

  15. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD. PMID:23807847

  16. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  17. Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binglin; Shang, Shenghua; Jabben, Zahra; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in regulating the response of plants to Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined possible involvement of NO in the alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl in tobacco plants. Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of NO accumulation and Cd concentration in tobacco plants after the addition of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP), or a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the solution containing NaCl and Cd. NO accumulation in tobacco roots was enhanced when plants were exposed to Cd, but reduced in the treatments of NaCl or l-NAME. NO production was not enhanced even when SNP (NO donor) was added to the solution containing Cd and NaCl. Root number was reduced in plants exposed to Cd, and increased by the addition of NaCl and reduced by the addition of SNP. Addition of NaCl or l-NAME to the Cd-containing solution reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues, with l-NAME having a more dramatic effect. It can be concluded that alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl contributed to reduction of NO accumulation in plants. PMID:25194697

  18. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of wastewater pretreatment. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metals, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, fed sequentially with untreated water. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In seven-day chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was as low as 20%, and 100% mortality occurred at 40%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC was > 50% but complete mortality occurred in undiluted effluent. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. Its undiluted effluent had no effect on survival, but did markedly reduce fecundity. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  19. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

  20. Efficacy of AdiDetox in reducing the toxicity of fumonisin B1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Denli, Muzaffer; Blandon, Juan C; Salado, Silvia; Guynot, Maria E; Casas, Josefina; Prez, Jose F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new mycotoxin inactivator (AdiDetox) in reducing the toxic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in the diet of rats. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley growing rats (125?g??1?g BW) were assigned to eight dietary treatments for seven days. The experiment had a 2??4 factorial arrangement with two levels of FB1 (0?mg and 15?mg of FB1/kg feed) and four levels of AdiDetox (0?g, 1?g, 2?g and 5?g /kg feed) in the diet. No significant differences were observed in the growth performance among treatments (P?>?0.05), though low levels of sphingosine (So) and sphinganine (Sa) were detected in the liver. However, So and Sa and the Sa/So ratio in kidneys were higher in rats receiving the FB1 diets (P?reduced the toxic effects of FB1, leading to a significant decrease in the Sa content and in the Sa/So ratio in kidneys. In conclusion, the results suggest that AdiDetox can effectively reduce toxicity of FB1 in growing rats. PMID:25660482

  1. Low acute hematological toxicity during chemotherapy predicts reduced disease control in advanced Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Brosteanu, O; Hasenclever, D; Loeffler, M; Diehl, V

    2004-03-01

    Chemotherapy-treated patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD) differ considerably in acute hematotoxicity. Hematotoxicity may be indicative of pharmacological and metabolic heterogeneity. We hypothesized that low hematotoxicity might correlate with reduced systemic dose and thus reduced disease control. A total of 266 patients with advanced HD treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (COPP-ABVD) were analyzed (HD6 trial of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group). The reported WHO grade of leukocytopenia was averaged over chemotherapy cycles given and weighted with the reciprocal dose intensity of the corresponding cycle. The low and high toxicity groups were defined in retrospect as having had an averaged WHO grade of leukocytopenia 2.1, respectively. The independent impact of low hematological toxicity on freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) was assessed multivariately adjusting for the international prognostic score for advanced HD. The results were validated in two independent cohorts [181 patients treated with COPP-ABVD (HD9-trial) and 250 patients treated with COPP-ABV-ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisone (IMEP) (HD6 trial)]. The 5-year FFTF rates were 68% for patients with high toxicity vs 47% for patients with low toxicity [multivariate relative risk (RR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.0, p=0.0002]. Patients with low toxicity received significantly higher nominal dose ( p=0.02) and dose intensity ( p<0.0001). This finding was confirmed in both validation cohorts (multivariate RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8, p=0.01 and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.01-2.26, p=0.04, respectively). Patients with low hematotoxicity have significantly higher failure rates despite higher doses and dose intensity. Hematotoxicity is an independent prognostic factor for treatment outcome. This observation suggests a strategy of individualized dosing adapted to hematotoxicity. PMID:15064867

  2. Reduced cadmium accumulation and toxicity in Daphnia magna under carbon nanotube exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-12-01

    With increasing application and commercial production, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will inevitably be released into aquatic environments and affect the transport and toxicity of toxic metals in ecosystems. The present study examined how CNTs affected the biokinetics and toxicity of a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), in the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna. The authors quantified the dissolved uptake and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50, 48 h and 72 h) of Cd in daphnids in the presence of functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (F-CNTs) with different lengths (10-30 µm vs 0.5-2 µm) and concentrations (4 mg/L and 8 mg/L). Compared with the control treatment without CNTs, both CNTs slowed down the accumulation rate of Cd in D. magna over 8 h of exposure and further reduced the accumulation thereafter. Mechanisms for the reduced Cd uptake were mainly related to the influences of CNTs on the physiological activity of daphnids. The LC50 of D. magna in the presence of Cd and shorter CNTs was almost the same as that of the control group without CNTs. However, the LC50 of the groups with normal CNTs was significantly higher than that of the control group (i.e., F-CNTs decreased Cd toxicity significantly). Meanwhile, CNTs also decreased the tolerance of D. magna to Cd. The present study suggests that different physical properties of CNTs, such as length, need to be considered in the environmental risk assessment of CNTs. PMID:26094590

  3. (Poly)phenols protect from α-synuclein toxicity by reducing oxidative stress and promoting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Diana; Tavares, Lucélia; McDougall, Gordon J; Vicente Miranda, Hugo; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Tenreiro, Sandra; Outeiro, Tiago F; Santos, Cláudia N

    2015-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement neurodegenerative disorder and is associated with the aggregation of α-synuclein (αSyn) and oxidative stress, hallmarks of the disease. Although the precise molecular events underlying αSyn aggregation are still unclear, oxidative stress is known to contribute to this process. Therefore, agents that either prevent oxidative stress or inhibit αSyn toxicity are expected to constitute potential drug leads for PD. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies provided evidence that (poly)phenols, pure or in extracts, might protect against neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress in the brain. In this study, we analyzed, for the first time, a (poly)phenol-enriched fraction (PEF) from leaves of Corema album, and used in vitro and cellular models to evaluate its effects on αSyn toxicity and aggregation. Interestingly, the PEF promoted the formation of non-toxic αSyn species in vitro, and inhibited its toxicity and aggregation in cells, by promoting the autophagic flux and reducing oxidative stress. Thus, C. album (poly)phenols appear as promising cytoprotective compounds, modulating central events in the pathogenesis of PD, such as αSyn aggregation and the impairment of autophagy. Ultimately, the understanding of the molecular effects of (poly)phenols will open novel opportunities for the exploitation of their beneficial effects and for drug development. PMID:25432533

  4. Extracts from presumed "reduced harm" cigarettes induce equivalent or greater toxicity in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Wang, Lei; Hirano, Yoshimi; Walters, Paula; Grill, Diane

    2015-09-01

    The tobacco industry has promoted certain cigarette products with claims that their use may be less harmful to the smoker as they purportedly deliver lower amounts of toxic chemicals compared to conventional cigarettes. This study was designed to compare the relative antigen presenting cellular toxicity of Eclipse, a presumed reduced exposure product (PREP) cigarette, when compared with the reference research 3R4F cigarettes (Kentucky University). Utilizing a murine macrophage cell line, murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) and human monocyte-derived DCs incubated with extracts generated from Eclipse and Kentucky reference 3R4F cigarettes, we determined the relative toxic effects of the different cigarette smoke extracts on cellular viability, oxidative stress, T-helper-1 (Th-1) polarizing cytokine production and general gene expression. Eclipse and 3R4F cigarette smoke extracts induced equivalent oxidatively-mediated cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein levels in macrophages and DCs. Cellular viability determination demonstrated greater induction of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis by Eclipse extracts in DCs. The production of the key Th-1 polarizing cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) by activated DCs or macrophages was suppressed to an equivalent or greater extent by Eclipse extracts. Microarray studies performed on bone marrow derived murine DCs incubated with Eclispe or 3R4F cigarette extracts showed identical genotoxic profiles. These studies imply that presumed reduced harm Eclipse cigarettes induce equivalent or greater antigen presenting cell dysfunction relative to 3R4F cigarettes and illustrate the importance of independent validation and testing of similar products claimed to be associated with reduced toxicity relative to other cigarettes. PMID:26169828

  5. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-10-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

  6. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Kristan L.S.; Dodd, Andrea A.; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles, observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 hours and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 hours in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the broncheoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung. PMID:24008224

  7. Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles suppress breast cancer cells growth with reduced myelosuppression toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing; Han, Jing; Cong, Wenshu; Ge, Ying; Ma, Dandan; Dai, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaping; Bi, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Docetaxel is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug widely used to treat multiple solid tumors; however, its toxicity and side effects limit its clinical efficacy. Herein, docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DSNs) were developed to reduce systemic toxicity of docetaxel while still keeping its anticancer activity. To evaluate its anticancer activity and toxicity, and to understand the molecular mechanisms of DSNs, different cellular, molecular, and whole genome transcription analysis approaches were utilized. The DSNs showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the commercial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere®) and induced more apoptosis at 24 hours after treatment in vitro. DSNs can cause the treated cancer cells to arrest in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner similar to Taxotere. They can also suppress tumor growth very effectively in a mice model with human xenograft breast cancer. Systemic analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray and subsequent verification experiments suggested that both DSNs and Taxotere regulate gene expression and gene function, including DNA replication, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Some of these genes expressed differentially at the protein level although their messenger RNA expression level was similar under Taxotere and DSN treatment. Moreover, DSNs improved the main side effect of Taxotere by greatly lowering myelosuppression toxicity to bone marrow cells from mice. Taken together, these results expound the antitumor efficacy and the potential working mechanisms of DSNs in its anticancer activity and toxicity, which provide a theoretical foundation to develop and apply a more efficient docetaxel formulation to treat cancer patients. PMID:25378924

  8. High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M.; Al-Dekheil, Ali; Babkr, Ali; Farahna, Mohammed; Mousa, Hassan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury. PMID:22558569

  9. Angiotensin II protects against ?-synuclein toxicity and reduces protein aggregation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Grammatopoulos, Tom N.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Standaert, David G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) in a genetic in-vitro PD model produced by ?-synuclein (?-syn) overexpression in the human neuroglioma H4 cell line. We observed a maximal decrease in ?-syn-induced toxicity of 85% and reduction in inclusion formation by 19% when cultures were treated with AngII in the presence of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan and AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. When compared to AngII, the AT4 receptor agonist AngIV was moderately effective in protecting H4 cells against ?-syn toxicity and did not significantly reduce inclusion formation. Here we show that AngII is protective against genetic, as well as neurotoxic models of PD. These data support the view that agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of Parkinson disease. PMID:17900533

  10. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  11. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  12. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells: New Approaches to Improve Their Efficacy and Reduce Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The durable remission of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma following chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has brought this new form of adoptive immunotherapy to center stage with the expectation that CAR T-cell therapy may provide similar efficacy in other hematologic and solid cancers. Herein, we review recent advances in the areas of CAR design that improve CAR T-cell proliferation, engraftment, and efficacy, as well as clinical application strategies that are designed to improve clinical efficacy while reducing the risk of toxicity and broaden patient access to this promising form of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26588679

  13. Structural mediation on polycation nanoparticles by sulfadiazine to enhance DNA transfection efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Long, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Shangcong; Tang, Minjie; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongxin; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2015-04-15

    Reducing the toxicity while maintaining high transfection efficiency is an important issue for cationic polymers as gene carriers in clinical application. In this paper, a new zwitterionic copolymer, polycaprolactone-g-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methyacrylate-co-sulfadiazine methacrylate) (PC-SDZ) with unique pH-sensitivity, was designed and prepared. The incorporation of sulfadiazine into poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) chains successfully mediates the surface properties including compacter shell structure, lower density of positive charges, stronger proton buffer capability, and enhanced hydrophobicity, which lead to reduction in toxicity and enhancements in stability, cellular uptake, endosome escape, and transfection efficiency for the PC-SDZ2 nanoparticles (NPs)/DNA complexes. Excellent transfection efficiency at the optimal N/P ratio of 10 was observed for PC-SDZ2 NPs/DNA complexes, which was higher than that of the commercial reagent-branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by CCK8 measurement, and the results showed significant reduction in cytotoxicity even at high concentration of complexes after sulfadiazine modification. Therefore, this work may demonstrate a new way of structural mediation of cationic polymer carriers for gene delivery with high efficiency and low toxicity. PMID:25801088

  14. Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-03-01

    In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95?L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. PMID:23180692

  15. Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, MaLing; Shi, HuaShan; Guo, Gang; Men, Ke; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Lan; Li, ZhiYong; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan

    2011-03-01

    In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and ~ 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

  16. Reduced Toxicity, High Performance Monopropellant at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, T. W.; Brand, A. J.; McKay, M. B.; Tinnirello, M.

    2010-09-01

    Current programs are aiming to develop reduced toxicity monopropellant formulations to replace spacecraft hydrazine monopropellant. The Air Force Research Laboratory's(AFRL's) approach to replacing hydrazine is the synthesis and development of energetic compounds/formulations with substantially less vapor toxicity and superior performance(specific impulse and density). Characterization and testing of these high energy density materials is an essential part of the screening process for viable advanced propellants. Hazardous handling characteristics, undesirable physical properties or unacceptable sensitivity behaviors must also be identified and/or modified to further development by a potential user. AFRL has successfully identified a novel monopropellant(designated AF-M315E) that shows great promise as an avenue toward replacement of hydrazine monopropellant for spacecraft propulsion. Hazard and safety/sensitivity, stability, and toxicity studies have been conducted on the monopropellant and will be described. The results from AF-M315E indicate that a >50% improvement in propulsion system performance over hydrazine is achievable while simultaneously providing a safer environment for the general public, ground personnel, crews and flight participants.

  17. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an automated fiber placement machine and the successful fabrication of a carbon fiber plate with an integrated microvascular channel is demonstrated.

  18. Can microwave radiation at high temperatures reduce the toxicity of fibrous crocidolite asbestos?

    PubMed Central

    Gulumian, M; Nkosibomvu, Z L; Channa, K; Pollak, H

    1997-01-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to crocidolite asbestos fibers produces fibrosis and two types of cancers: bronchogenic carcinoma and mesothelioma. It is therefore desirable to reduce toxicity of these fibers without affecting their other characteristics. In this study, commercial crocidolite asbestos fibers were radiated with microwave radiation at different temperatures. Radiated fibers and nonradiated original fibers were then studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy to quantify the amount of ferric and ferrous ions present at structurally different sites in each crocidolite sample. They were also studied for their ability to initiate the peroxidation of linoleic acid to assess the effect of radiation on this process. Results showed that microwave radiation reduced the total Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio. This reduction produced a concomitant decrease in the ability of the radiated samples to peroxidize linoleic acid. PMID:9400697

  19. Allopurinol reduces severity of delayed neurologic sequelae in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangtao; Ren, Ming; Wang, Xiujie; Jiang, Hongquan; Yin, Xiang; Wang, Shuyu; Wang, Xudong; Feng, Honglin

    2015-05-01

    Approximately half of those who survive severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning develop delayed neurologic sequelae. Growing evidence supports the crucial role of free radicals in delayed brain injury associated with CO toxicity. Xanthine oxidase (XO) has been reported to play a pivotal role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CO poisoning. A recent report indicates that allopurinol both attenuated oxidative stress and possessed anti-inflammatory properties in an animal model of acute liver failure. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential of allopurinol to reduce the severity of delayed neurologic sequelae. The rats were first exposed to 1000 ppm CO for 40 min and then to 3000 ppm CO for another 20 min. Following CO poisoning, the rats were injected with allopurinol (50 mg/kg, i.p.) six times. Results showed that allopurinol significantly reduced neuronal death and suppressed expression of pro-inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-?, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, and degraded myelin basic protein. Furthermore, behavioral studies revealed an improved performance in the Morris water maze test. Our findings indicated that allopurinol may have protective effects against delayed neurologic sequelae caused by CO toxicity. PMID:25845300

  20. Ebselen analogues reduce 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide toxicity in A-431 cells.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maria A; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Billack, Blase

    2013-01-01

    Vesicants are potent blistering agents. The prototype vesicant is sulphur mustard gas, first used in World War I, which still has no effective antidote. We used a mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) to study the ability of resveratrol (RES) and pterostilbene (PTS), two well-established stilbene antioxidants, ebselen (EB-1), an organoselenium compound, and three EB-1 analogues (EB-2, EB-3, and EB-4) to reduce CEES toxicity in human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431). Following a 24-hour incubation of a toxic concentration of CEES (1000 ?mol L-1), we used the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] test to analyse cell viability. Different concentrations of test antioxidants alone (15 ?mol L-1, 30 ?mol L-1 or 60 ?mol L-1) did not decrease cell viability. Treatment with CEES and test antioxidants for 24 h showed that only EB-1 and its analogues EB-2, EB-3, and EB-4 but not the stilbene compounds could rescue the cells from death. EB-1 and EB-4 were the most effective at reducing CEES cytotoxicity and did so in a concentration-dependent manner, while EB-2 and EB-3 demonstrated the least protective effect. In summary, the data described herein indicate that organoselenium antioxidants, especially EB-4, may prove useful as countermeasures to blistering agents. PMID:23612526

  1. Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hongmin; Monteiro, Mervyn J. . E-mail: monteiro@umbi.umd.edu

    2007-08-01

    Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases.

  2. Stabilization of ?-Synuclein Fibril Clusters Prevents Fragmentation and Reduces Seeding Activity and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lam, Huy T; Graber, Michael C; Gentry, Katherine A; Bieschke, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Protein misfolding results in the accumulation of aggregated ?-sheet-rich structures in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. The toxic oligomer hypothesis stipulates that prefibrillar assemblies, such as soluble oligomers or protofibrils, are responsible for the poor prognosis of these diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that a small molecule related to the natural compound orcein, O4, directly binds to amyloid-? fibrils and stabilizes them, accelerating the formation of end-stage mature fibrils. Here we demonstrate a similar phenomenon during O4 treatment of ?-synuclein (?syn) aggregates, the protein responsible for PD pathology. While the drug did not change the kinetics of aggregate formation as measured by the amyloidophilic dye thioflavin T, O4 depleted ?syn oligomers and promoted the formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate and proteinase K resistant aggregates consisting of large fibril clusters. These fibril clusters exhibited reduced toxicity to human neuronal model cells and reduced seeding activity in vitro. The effectiveness of O4 decreased when it was added at later points in the ?syn aggregation pathway, which suggests that the incorporation of O4 into fibril assemblies stabilizes them against chemical, enzymatic, and mechanic degradation. These findings suggest that small molecules, which stabilize amyloid fibrils, can prevent fibril fragmentation and seeding and consequently prevent prion-like replication of misfolded ?syn. Inhibiting prion replication by fibril stabilization could thus be a therapeutic strategy for PD. PMID:26799377

  3. Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-01

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

  4. Phenolic compounds prevent the oligomerization of ?-synuclein and reduce synaptic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoichi; Ono, Kenjiro; Takamura, Yusaku; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Nishijo, Hisao; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-09-01

    Lewy bodies, mainly composed of ?-synuclein (?S), are pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Epidemiological studies showed that green tea consumption or habitual intake of phenolic compounds reduced Parkinson's disease risk. We previously reported that phenolic compounds inhibited ?S fibrillation and destabilized preformed ?S fibrils. Cumulative evidence suggests that low-order ?S oligomers are neurotoxic and critical species in the pathogenesis of ?-synucleinopathies. To develop disease modifying therapies for ?-synucleinopathies, we examined effects of phenolic compounds (myricetin (Myr), curcumin, rosmarinic acid (RA), nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and ferulic acid) on ?S oligomerization. Using methods such as photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, circular dichroism spectroscopy, the electron microscope, and the atomic force microscope, we showed that Myr and RA inhibited ?S oligomerization and secondary structure conversion. The nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that Myr directly bound to the N-terminal region of ?S, whereas direct binding of RA to monomeric ?S was not detected. Electrophysiological assays for long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampal slices revealed that Myr and RA ameliorated ?S synaptic toxicity by inhibition of ?S oligomerization. These results suggest that Myr and RA prevent the ?S aggregation process, reducing the neurotoxicity of ?S oligomers. To develop disease modifying therapies for ?-synucleinopathies, we examined effects of phenolic compounds on ?-synuclein (?S) oligomerization. Phenolic compounds, especially Myricetin (Myr) and Rosmarinic acid (RA), inhibited ?S oligomerization and secondary structure conversion. Myr and RA ameliorated ?S synaptic toxicity on the experiment of long-term potentiation. Our results suggest that Myr and RA prevent ?S aggregation process and reduce the neurotoxicity of ?S oligomers. Phenolic compounds are good candidates of disease modifying drugs for ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:26016728

  5. The reduced bioavailability of copper by nano-TiO₂ attenuates the toxicity to Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyuan; Qian, Yi; Li, Herong; Cheng, Yanhong; Zhao, Meirong

    2015-08-01

    Nano-TiO2 is a widely applied nanoparticle (NPs) and co-exists with other pollutants such as heavy metals in aquatic environments. However, minimal knowledge is available concerning the ecological risk of these mixtures. Our study reported that at no toxic effect concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles (5 mg/L), the toxicity of Cu ions to the algae Microcystis aeruginosa was significantly attenuated by TiO2 nanoparticles. Specifically, the concentration of photosynthetic pigments (i.e., concentration of Chla) increased 37% when comparing only Cu ions treated and the nano-TiO2-Cu co-incubation. The levels of phycocyanin (PC), allophycocyanin (APC), phycoerythrin (PE), and phycobiliprotein (PBPs) were also recovered at levels ranging from 23 to 35% after 72 h. For oxidative indexes, the decreased activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) with the existence of nano-TiO2 displayed a lower level compared to Cu ions treatment only at 24 and 48 h. This toxicity attenuation can be confirmed by subcellular structures because the impairment to cellular membranes and organelles reduced with the presence of nano-TiO2. The potential mechanisms of the antagonism between the nano-TiO2 and Cu ions can be partially attributed to the sorption of copper onto TiO2 nanoparticles, which fitted the Freundlich isotherm (coefficient = 0.967). The decreased bioavailability of Cu ions protected algae cells from being attacked by free Cu ions. Given the abundance of released nanoparticles and unique physicochemical property of nanoparticles, our results elucidated the ecosafety of nanoparticles and co-substrates in aquatic systems. PMID:25903177

  6. Physical Trauma and Tungsten Toxicity Reduce the Efficiency of Biolistic Transformation 1

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Julie A.; Roy, Mihir K.; Sanford, John C.

    1992-01-01

    A cell suspension culture of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was used as a model to study injury to cells during biolistic transformation. Lawns of cells were bombarded with tungsten particles that were coated with a plasmid containing the β-glucuronidase and the neomycin phosphotransferase II genes. When a gunpowder-driven biolistic device was used, numerous transiently expressing cells were focused around the epicenter of the blast which was manifested by a hole blown in the filter paper supporting the cells. However, transformed cells nearest the blast epicenter were injured and could not be recovered as stable transformants. The injury was primarily caused by physical trauma to the cells from gas blast and acoustic shock generated by the device. Postlaunch baffles or meshes placed in the gunpowder device reduced cell injury and increased the recovery of kanamycin-resistant colonies 3.5- and 2.5-fold, respectively. A newly developed helium-driven device was more gentle to the cells and also increased the number of transformants. Cell injury could be further moderated by using a mesh and a prelaunch baffle in the helium device. Toxicity of the tungsten microprojectiles also contributed to cell injury. Gold microprojectiles were not toxic and resulted in fourfold more kanamycin-resistant colonies than when similar quantities of similarly sized tungsten particles were used. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668726

  7. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... baseline toxics value if it can determine an applicable toxics value for every batch of gasoline produced... = Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31,...

  8. Comparative study of regulated and unregulated air pollutant emissions before and after conversion of automobiles from gasoline power to liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline dual-fuel retrofits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Man-Ting; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2007-12-15

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly being examined as an alternative to gasoline use in automobiles as interest grows in reducing air pollutant emissions. In this study, emissions of regulated (CO, THC, NO(x)) and unregulated air pollutants, including CO2, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and BTEX (acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), were measured before and after conversion of nine gasoline-powered automobiles to LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. The tests were conducted on a standard chassis dynamometer in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency FTP-75 test procedure, with the exception that all tests were conducted under hot-start driving conditions. The influences of LPG on air pollutant emission levels and carcinogenic potency were investigated and compared with gasoline. The results showed average emission factors of 0.14 g/km, 0.33 mg/km, 0.09 g/km, 0.44 g/km, and 197 g/km for CO, THC, NO(x), PM, and CO2, respectively, for LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. Paired-sample t-test results indicated that the emissions of CO (p = 0.03), THC (p = 0.04), and CO2 (p = 4.6 x 10(-8)) were significantly reduced with the retrofit in comparison with gasoline-powered automobiles. The reduction percentages were 71%, 89%, and 14% for CO, THC, and CO2, respectively. The average total PAH emission factor for LPG was 217 microg/km, which is significantly lower than gasoline (863 microg/km; p = 0.05). The PAH corresponding carcinogenicities (BaP(eq)) were calculated via toxic equivalencies based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Paired-sample t-test results fortotal BaP(eq) emissions showed no significant difference between gasoline (30.0 microg/km) and LPG (24.8 microg/km) at a confidence level of 95%. The discrepancy between PAH and BaP(eq) emissions resulted from the higher emission percentages of high molecular weight PAHs for LPG, which might be from lubricant oil. The average emission factors of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were 351, 4400, 324, and 1100 microg/ km, respectively, with LPG as fuel, which were all significantly lower than those for gasoline (95% confidence level). The average reduction percentages were 78%, 61%, 57%, and 58% for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, respectively. PMID:18200881

  9. Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum).

    PubMed

    Markich, Scott J

    2013-01-15

    There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50)=134 μg L(-1)U at 20 mg CaCO(3 )L(-1) hardness, increasing to 547 μg L(-1) U at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K=6.25 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness, decreasing to log K=5.64 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO(2)(2+), UO(2)OH(+), UO(2)(OH)(2)) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) and UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer), and consequently, less U bound to physiologically active cell surface sites. In the absence of a biotic ligand model for U, the results of this study (together with previous work) reinforce the need for a more flexible, hardness-dependent, U guideline for the protection of selected freshwater biota. PMID:23220392

  10. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. PMID:12953887

  11. Small Bifunctional Chelators That Do Not Disaggregate Amyloid ? Fibrils Exhibit Reduced Cellular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional metal chelators that can modulate the amyloid ? (A?) peptide aggregation and its interaction with metal ions such as copper and zinc hold considerable promise as therapeutic agents for Alzheimers disease (AD). However, specific rather than systemic metal chelation by these compounds is needed in order to limit any side effects. Reported herein are two novel small bifunctional chelators, 2-[2-hydroxy-4-(diethylamino)phenyl]benzothiazole (L1) and 2-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)benzothiazole (L2), in which the metal-binding donor atoms are integrated within a molecular framework derived from the amyloid-binding fluorescent dye thioflavin T (ThT). The metal-binding properties of L1 and L2 were probed by pH spectrophotometric titrations to determine their pKa values and the corresponding metal complex stability constants, and the isolated metal complexes were structurally characterized. The amyloid-fibril-binding properties of L1 and L2 were investigated by fluorescence titrations and ThT competition assays. Interestingly, L1 and L2 do not lead to the formation of neurotoxic A?42 oligomers in the presence or absence of metal ions, as observed by native gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, L1 and L2 were able to reduce the cell toxicity of preformed A?42 oligomers and of the copper-stabilized A?42 oligomers. Given their ability to reduce the toxicity of soluble A?42 and Cu-A?42 species, L1 and L2 are promising lead compounds for the development of chemical agents that can control the neurotoxicity of soluble A?42 species in AD. PMID:25333939

  12. Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 1a Reduces the Oral Toxicity of Stx Type 2a

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Lisa M.; Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the primary virulence factor of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC can produce Stx1a and/or Stx2a, which are antigenically distinct. However, Stx2a-producing STEC are associated with more severe disease than strains producing both Stx1a and Stx2a. Methods and Results. To address the hypothesis that the reason for the association of Stx2a with more severe disease is because Stx2a crosses the intestinal barrier with greater efficiency that Stx1a, we covalently labeled Stx1a and Stx2a with Alexa Fluor 750 and determined the ex vivo fluorescent intensity of murine systemic organs after oral intoxication. Surprisingly, both Stxs exhibited similar dissemination patterns and accumulated in the kidneys. We next cointoxicated mice to determine whether Stx1a could impede Stx2a. Cointoxication resulted in increased survival and an extended mean time to death, compared with intoxication with Stx2a only. The survival benefit was dose dependent, with the greatest effect observed when 5 times more Stx1a than Stx2a was delivered, and was amplified when Stx1a was delivered 3 hours prior to Stx2a. Cointoxication with an Stx1a active site toxoid also reduced Stx2a toxicity. Conclusions. These studies suggest that Stx1a reduces Stx2a-mediated toxicity, a finding that may explain why STEC that produce only Stx2a are associated with more severe disease than strains producing Stx1a and Stx2a. PMID:26743841

  13. Development of novel aminoglycoside (NB54) with reduced toxicity and enhanced suppression of disease-causing premature stop mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nudelman, Igor; Rebibo-Sabbah, Annie; Cherniavsky, Marina; Belakhov, Valery; Hainrichson, Mariana; Chen, Fuquan; Schacht, Jochen; Pilch, Daniel S.; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Baasov, Timor

    2009-01-01

    Nonsense mutations promote premature translational termination and represent the underlying cause of a large number of human genetic diseases. The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin has the ability to allow the mammalian ribosome to read past a false-stop signal and generate full-length functional proteins. However, severe toxic side effects along with the reduced suppression efficiency at subtoxic doses limit the use of gentamicin for suppression therapy. We describe here the first systematic development of the novel aminoglycoside 2 (NB54) exhibiting superior in vitro readthrough efficiency to that of gentamicin in seven different DNA fragments derived from mutant genes carrying nonsense mutations representing the genetic diseases Usher syndrome, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Hurler syndrome. Comparative acute lethal toxicity in mice, cell toxicity and the assessment of hair cell toxicity in cochlear explants further indicated that 2 exhibits far lower toxicity than that of gentamicin. PMID:19309154

  14. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: diesel and gasoline.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Within this review the genotoxicity of diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions is placed in an historical context. New technologies have changed the composition of transportation methods considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The similarity of modern diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions to other carbonaceous fuels and emissions is striking. Recently an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that there was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (Group 1). In addition, the Working Group found that diesel exhaust has "a positive association (limited evidence) with an increased risk of bladder cancer." Like most other carbonaceous fuel emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts contain toxic levels of respirable particles (PM <2.5μm) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the level of toxic components in exhausts from diesel and gasoline emissions has declined in certain regions over time because of changes in engine design, the development of better aftertreatment devices (e.g., catalysts), increased fuel economy, changes in the fuels and additives used, and greater regulation. Additional research and better exposure assessments are needed so that decision makers and the public can decide to what extent diesel and gasoline engines should be replaced. PMID:25795114

  15. Effects of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on motorcycle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, An-Lin; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    By investigating the effect of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on the criteria pollutant emissions [CO, total hydrocarbons (THCs), and NO x] and on air toxics in the exhaust from a non-catalyst four-stroke motorcycle engine, inferences can be made concerning the effect of fuel composition on motorcycle emissions. The fuels were blended with different contents of sulfur (40 and 150 ppmw) and aromatics (20 and 30 vol%). The data indicate that the sulfur content does not correlate with the emissions of the criteria pollutants from the catalyst free engine. Instead, lowering aromatic content in gasoline reduced the THC emission by over 30%, especially in the cruising test. The NO x emission, however, showed an inverse correlation with the aromatic content in gasoline. While a reduction of aromatic content in gasoline may decrease emissions of benzene and toluene, it will increase the emission of aldehyde. Since the percentage changes of emission factor of THC and air toxics in the motorcycle were larger than those in passenger cars, the benefit of emission reduction due to fuel composition changes in motorcycles may have significant impacts in health risk analysis.

  16. Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez, Ascensin; Ma Pinto, Rosa; Sillero, Antonio

    1986-11-01

    Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either 3H- or 14C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

  17. Salicylic acid reduces napropamide toxicity by preventing its accumulation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Guo Lin; Zhu, Hong Mei; Yang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether SA regulates plant response to herbicides (or pesticides) was unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of SA on herbicide napropamide accumulation and biological processes in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Plants exposed to 8 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed growth stunt and oxidative damage. Treatment with 0.1 mM SA improved growth and reduced napropamide levels in plants. Treatment with SA also decreased the abundance of O (2) (-.) and H(2)O(2) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increased activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in napropamide-exposed plants. Analysis of SOD, CAT, and POD activities using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed the results. These results may help to understand how SA regulates plant response to organic contaminants and provide a basis to control herbicide/pesticide contamination in crop production. PMID:19967348

  18. Does carbonation of steel slag particles reduce their toxicity? An in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Ibouraadaten, Saloua; van den Brule, Sybille; Lison, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Mineral carbonation can stabilize industrial residues and, in the steel industry, may contribute to simultaneously valorize CO2 emissions and slag. We hypothesized that, by restricting the leaching of metals of toxicological concern such as Cr and V, carbonation can suppress the toxicity of these materials. The cytotoxic activity (WST1 assay) of slag dusts collected from a stainless and a Linz-Donawitz (LD) steel plant, before and after carbonation, was examined in J774 macrophages. The release of Cr, V, Fe, Mn and Ni was measured after incubation in artificial lung fluids mimicking the extracellular and phagolysosomal milieu to which particles are confronted after inhalation. LD slag had the higher Fe, Mn and V content, and was more cytotoxic than stainless steel slag. The cytotoxic activity of LD but not of stainless dusts was reduced after carbonation. The cytotoxic activity of the dusts toward J774 macrophages necessitated a direct contact with the cells and was reduced in the presence of inhibitors of phagocytosis (cytochalasin D) or phagolysosome acidification (bafilomycin), pointing to a key role of metallic constituents released in phagolysosomes. This in vitro study supports a limited reduction of the cytotoxic activity of LD, but not of stainless, steel dusts upon carbonation. PMID:25735930

  19. Modification in digestive processing strategies to reduce toxic trace metal uptake in a marine bivalve

    SciTech Connect

    Decho, A.W.; Luoma, S.N.

    1994-12-31

    Bivalves possess two major digestion pathways for processing food particles: a rapid ``intestinal`` pathway where digestion is largely extracellular; and a slower ``glandular`` pathway where digestion is largely intracellular. The slower glandular pathway often results in more efficient absorption of carbon but also more efficient uptake of certain metals (e.g. Cr associated with bacteria). In the bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis, large portions (> 90%) of bacteria are selectively routed to the glandular pathway. This results in efficient C uptake but also efficient uptake of associated Cr. The authors further determined if prolonged exposure to Cr-contaminated bacteria would result in high Cr uptake by animals or whether mechanisms exist to reduce Cr exposure and uptake. Bivalves were exposed to natural food + added bacteria (with or without added Cr) for a 6-day period, then pulse-chase experiments were conducted to quantify digestive processing and % absorption efficiencies (%AE) of bacterial Cr. Bivalves compensate at low (2--5 ug/g sed) Cr by reducing overall food ingestion, while digestive processing of food remains statistically similar to controls. At high Cr (200--500 ug/g sed) there are marked decreases in % bacteria processed by glandular digestion. This results in lower overall %AE of Cr. The results suggest that bivalves under natural conditions might balance efficient carbon sequestration against avoiding uptake of potentially toxic metals associated the food.

  20. Nanotitanium dioxide toxicity in mouse lung is reduced in sanding dust from paint

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known of how the toxicity of nanoparticles is affected by the incorporation in complex matrices. We compared the toxic effects of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle UV-Titan L181 (NanoTiO2), pure or embedded in a paint matrix. We also compared the effects of the same paint with and without NanoTiO2. Methods Mice received a single intratracheal instillation of 18, 54 and 162 ?g of NanoTiO2 or 54, 162 and 486 ?g of the sanding dust from paint with and without NanoTiO2. DNA damage in broncheoalveolar lavage cells and liver, lung inflammation and liver histology were evaluated 1, 3 and 28 days after intratracheal instillation. Printex 90 was included as positive control. Results There was no additive effect of adding NanoTiO2 to paints: Therefore the toxicity of NanoTiO2 was reduced by inclusion into a paint matrix. NanoTiO2 induced inflammation in mice with severity similar to Printex 90. The inflammatory response of NanoTiO2 and Printex 90 correlated with the instilled surface area. None of the materials, except of Printex 90, induced DNA damage in lung lining fluid cells. The highest dose of NanoTiO2 caused DNA damage in hepatic tissue 1 day after intratracheal instillation. Exposure of mice to the dust from paints with and without TiO2 was not associated with hepatic histopathological changes. Exposure to NanoTiO2 or to Printex 90 caused slight histopathological changes in the liver in some of the mice at different time points. Conclusions Pulmonary inflammation and DNA damage and hepatic histopathology were not changed in mice instilled with sanding dust from NanoTiO2 paint compared to paint without NanoTiO2. However, pure NanoTiO2 caused greater inflammation than NanoTiO2 embedded in the paint matrix. PMID:22300483

  1. Wild-Type Huntingtin Reduces the Cellular Toxicity of Mutant Huntingtin In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Blair R.; Guttman, Julian A.; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Kimel, Gil H.; Singaraja, Roshni; Vogl, A. Wayne; Hayden, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mice expressing normal (YAC18) and mutant (YAC46 or YAC72) human huntingtin (htt), in a developmental- and tissue-specific manner, that is identical to endogenous htt. YAC72 mice develop selective degeneration of medium spiny projection neurons in the lateral striatum, similar to what is observed in Huntington disease. Mutant human htt expressed by YAC transgenes can compensate for the absence of endogenous htt and can rescue the embryonic lethality that characterizes mice homozygous for targeted disruption of the endogenous Hdh gene (?/?). YAC72 mice lacking endogenous htt (YAC72 ?/?) manifest a novel phenotype characterized by infertility, testicular atrophy, aspermia, and massive apoptotic cell death in the testes. The testicular cell death in YAC72 ?/? mice can be markedly reduced by increasing endogenous htt levels. YAC72 mice with equivalent levels of both wild-type and mutant htt (YAC72 +/+) breed normally and have no evidence of increased testicular cell death. Similar findings are seen in YAC46 ?/? mice compared with YAC46 +/+ mice, in which wild-type htt can completely counteract the proapoptotic effects of mutant htt. YAC18 ?/? mice display no evidence of increased cellular apoptosis, even in the complete absence of endogenous htt, demonstrating that the massive cellular apoptosis observed in YAC46 ?/? mice and YAC72 ?/? mice is polyglutamine-mediated toxicity from the mutant transgene. These data provide the first direct in vivo evidence of a role for wild-type htt in decreasing the cellular toxicity of mutant htt. PMID:11133364

  2. Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Belad-Nouira, Yosra; Bakhta, Hayfa; Haouas, Zohra; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2013-12-01

    Despite the reports on safety concerns regarding the relationship between aluminum salts and neurological and bone disease, many countries continue to use aluminum as phosphate binders among patients with renal failure. In search for a diet supplement that could reduce aluminum toxicity related to renal failure, we carried out this prospective animal study in which the fenugreek seeds were assessed for their effects on rats nephrotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Oral AlCl3 administration during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via drinking water) led to plasma biochemical changes, an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a decrease of total antioxidant status (TAS), and an induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the blood and brain, in addition to kidney atrophy and morphological alterations at the level of Bowman's capsule, the glomerulus and different sorts of tubules, reminiscent of some known kidney disease. The treatment with the whole fenugreek seed powder (FSP) (5% in the diet) during the last 2 months showed its effectiveness in restoring normal plasma values of urea, creatinine, ALP and glucose, as well as re-increasing the TAS, inhibiting LPO and alleviating histopathological changes in the injured kidneys. This study highlights the induced nephrotoxicicity, as well as the related toxicity in the brain and bone, by chronic oral ingestion of the aluminum salts. However, the maintenance of a diet supplemented with fenugreek seeds could offer protection for the kidney, bone and brain, at the same time. PMID:24353832

  3. Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bakhta, Hayfa; Haouas, Zohra; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the reports on safety concerns regarding the relationship between aluminum salts and neurological and bone disease, many countries continue to use aluminum as phosphate binders among patients with renal failure. In search for a diet supplement that could reduce aluminum toxicity related to renal failure, we carried out this prospective animal study in which the fenugreek seeds were assessed for their effects on rats nephrotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Oral AlCl3 administration during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via drinking water) led to plasma biochemical changes, an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a decrease of total antioxidant status (TAS), and an induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the blood and brain, in addition to kidney atrophy and morphological alterations at the level of Bowman's capsule, the glomerulus and different sorts of tubules, reminiscent of some known kidney disease. The treatment with the whole fenugreek seed powder (FSP) (5% in the diet) during the last 2 months showed its effectiveness in restoring normal plasma values of urea, creatinine, ALP and glucose, as well as re-increasing the TAS, inhibiting LPO and alleviating histopathological changes in the injured kidneys. This study highlights the induced nephrotoxicicity, as well as the related toxicity in the brain and bone, by chronic oral ingestion of the aluminum salts. However, the maintenance of a diet supplemented with fenugreek seeds could offer protection for the kidney, bone and brain, at the same time. PMID:24353832

  4. Toxicity and immunogenicity of a verotoxin 1 mutant with reduced globotriaosylceramide receptor binding in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Bast, D J; Brunton, J L; Karmali, M A; Richardson, S E

    1997-01-01

    The verotoxins (VT1 and VT2), produced by strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. To better understand the role of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor binding by the verotoxins in disease production, we examined the clinicopathologic effects of an intravenously (i.v.) administered verotoxin 1 mutant holotoxin (Phe30Ala) in rabbits. The substitution of alanine for phenylalanine 30 in the VT1 B subunit has been shown previously to reduce both Gb3 binding affinity and capacity in vitro. This reduction in receptor binding corresponded to a 10(5)-fold reduction in the toxic activity of VT1 on a Vero cell monolayer. In this study, purified 125I-labeled Phe30Ala was administered i.v. to rabbits to determine its specific distribution in rabbit tissues. In contrast to the rapid elimination of i.v. administered 125I-VT1 from the bloodstream, 125I-Phe30Ala had a 52-fold-longer half-life in serum and failed to localize preferentially in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system (CNS). Rabbits challenged with Phe30Ala at a dose equivalent to 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of VT1 showed no visible clinical symptoms typical of VT effect after 7 days. Administration of Phe30Ala at a dose equivalent to 100 times the LD50 of VT1, however, caused both clinical and histopathologic features indistinguishable from VT1 toxemia in rabbits, although the onset of symptoms was delayed. Rabbits were immunized with Phe30Ala and challenged i.v. with either 125I-VT1 or 125I-VT2. The specific uptake of 125I-VT1 in the gastrointestinal tract and CNS was totally inhibited in Phe30Ala immune rabbits. Only a partial decrease in target organ uptake was observed in Phe30Ala immune rabbits challenged with 125I-VT2. From this study, we conclude that Gb3 binding is responsible for target organ localization of VT1 and disease production in the rabbit. The ability of Phe30Ala to induce both strong antibody and protective responses against VT1 suggests that VT mutants with reduced receptor binding properties may be useful in vaccine strategies. A further reduction in the toxicity of Phe30Ala would be required for its use as a natural toxoid to protect against human verotoxigenic E. coli infections. PMID:9169727

  5. Gasoline from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

    1981-03-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

  6. Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales. PMID:18754453

  7. Amyloid ?-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of ?-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the ?-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of ?-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust ?-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid ?-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-? peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, ?2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, ?-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  8. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    PubMed

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M?DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. PMID:23660235

  9. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  10. Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

    2013-03-01

    The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

  11. Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G; Tao, J.

    1996-10-01

    Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2014-10-10

    In this study, CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (Ψ) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with Ψ or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamicsmore » and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for Ψ-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. Ψ modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases.« less

  13. Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model

    SciTech Connect

    deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2014-10-10

    In this study, CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (Ψ) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with Ψ or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamics and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for Ψ-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. Ψ modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases.

  14. Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2013-01-01

    A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

  15. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  16. Impact of improved mileage on gasoline consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, R.D.; Kaserman, D.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    A simple two-equation model is presented of the short-run derived demand for gasoline that incorporates both the effect of price and income on attained fuel efficiency and, at the same time, the effect of price, income, and attained fuel efficiency on miles traveled. The results of this effort have provided: (1) further evidence regarding the price and income elasticities of gasoline demand; and, more importantly, (2) the first reported estimate of the short-run mileage elasticity of gasoline demand. These findings are important in determining appropriate and effective policies for reducing gasoline consumption in that they influence the relative effectiveness of such policies as excise taxes versus fuel-efficiency standards. 9 references, 3 tables.

  17. Persulfate Oxidation of Gasoline Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, K.; Thomson, N.; Barker, J.

    2009-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is a promising remediation technology that can be potentially applied to a wide range of organic contaminants. Gasoline compounds are of particular interest because they extensively impact the soil and groundwater, and are highly persistent and toxic. In this investigation, destruction of specific gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and naphthalene), and fractions (F1 and F2) by activated and inactivated persulfate was studied at the bench-scale. Aqueous phase batch reactors (25 mL) for inactivated systems employed persulfate at two concentrations (1 or 20 g/L), and activated systems were conducted with a persulfate concentration of 20 g/L. In the activated systems, the ability of hydrogen peroxide or chelated-ferrous as an activator was examined at two experimental conditions (peroxide molar ratio 0.1 and 1.0 with respect to persulfate; and citric acid chelated ferrous at 150 and 600 mg/L). All treatments and controls contained an initial gasoline concentration of approximately 25 mg/L and were run in triplicate. Sampling for gasoline compounds was conducted over <28 day reaction period. The controls showed insignificant degradation for all the gasoline compounds and fractions examined while inactivated persulfate at 1 g/L showed little (<10%) decrease in the concentration of gasoline compounds over the 28 day reaction period. Inactivated persulfate at 20 g/L demonstrated a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of BTEX (>99%), TMB (>94%) and naphthalene (>71%). Oxidation of the F1 fraction (>94%) was more pronounced than the F2 fraction (>80%), and >93% TPH was oxidized. Use of peroxide as an activator at a molar ratio of 0.1 improved the destruction of TMBs (>99%) and naphthalene (>85%) while maintaining the high removal of BTEX (>99%) compounds. Increase in activator strength (molar ratio 1.0) decreased the destruction of xylenes (>86%) and TMBs (>81%). The decrease in concentration of all the compounds was higher for a molar ratio of 1.0 (<27%) as compared with a molar ratio of 0.1 (<11%). The activation by ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of compounds (except naphthalene) as compared with unactivated or peroxide activated persulfate. 1,3,5-TMB was completed oxidized after 4 days using higher chelated ferrous concentration and after 12 days using lower chelated ferrous concentration for persulfate activation. In general, increase in chelated ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of the gasoline compounds. While oxidation of F1 fraction was similar for two ferrous activation conditions, the oxidation of F2 fraction was lower when ferrous activation at 600 mg/L was employed. Use of persulfate at high dosages by itself or in combination with higher doses of chelated ferrous or optimum doses of peroxide as an activator seems to be a viable option for remediation of gasoline compounds examined in this study. Persulfate appears to be particularly effective in the oxidation of BTEX compounds, but may require ferrous activation for a complete oxidation of TMBs and peroxide activation for oxidation of naphthalene.

  18. Validation of the narcosis target lipid model for petroleum products: gasoline as a case study.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Joy A; Parkerton, Thomas F; Hellweger, Ferdi L; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2005-09-01

    The narcosis target lipid model (NTLM) was used to predict the toxicity of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of six gasoline blending streams to algae (Pseudokirchnereilla subcapitata, formerly Selenastrum capricornutum), juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and water flea (Daphnia magna). Gasolines are comprised of hydrocarbons that on dissolution into the aqueous phase are expected to act via narcosis. Aquatic toxicity data were obtained using a lethal-loading test in which WAFs were prepared using different gasoline loadings. The compositions of the gasolines were determined by analysis of C3 to C13 hydrocarbons grouped in classes of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and olefins. A model was developed to compute the concentrations of hydrocarbon blocks in WAFs based on gasoline composition and loading. The model accounts for the volume change of the gasoline, which varies depending on loading and volatilization loss. The predicted aqueous composition of WAFs compared favorably to measurements, and the predicted aqueous concentrations of WAFs were used in the NTLM to predict the aquatic toxicity of the gasolines. For each gasoline loading and species, total toxic units (TUs) were computed with an assumption of additivity. The acute toxicity of gasolines was predicted to within a factor of two for algae and daphnids. Predicted TUs overestimated toxicity to trout because of experimental factors that were not considered in the model. This analysis demonstrates the importance of aliphatic hydrocarbon loss to headspace during WAF preparation and the contribution of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons test to the toxicity of gasolines in closed systems and loss of aliphatics to headspace during WAF preparation. Model calculations indicate that satisfactory toxicity predictions can be achieved by describing gasoline composition using a limited number of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon blocks with different octanol-water partition coefficients. PMID:16193769

  19. Phosphorus-deficiency reduces aluminium toxicity by altering uptake and metabolism of root zone carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ward, Caroline L; Kleinert, Aleysia; Scortecci, Katia C; Benedito, Vagner A; Valentine, Alexander J

    2011-03-15

    The role of phosphorus (P) status in root-zone CO(2) utilisation for organic acid synthesis during Al(3+) toxicity was assessed. Root-zone CO(2) can be incorporated into organic acids via Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31). P-deficiency and Al(3+) toxicity can induce organic acid synthesis, but it is unknown how P status affects the utilisation of PEPC-derived organic acids during Al(3+) toxicity. Two-week-old Solanum lycopersicum seedlings were transferred to hydroponic culture for 3 weeks. The hydroponic culture consisted of a standard Long Ashton nutrient solution containing either 0.1?M or 1mM P. Short-term Al(3+) toxicity was induced by a 60-min exposure to a pH-buffered solution (pH 4.5) containing 2mM CaSO(4) and 50?M AlCl(3). Al(3+) toxicity induced a decline in root respiration, adenylate concentrations and an increase in root-zone CO(2) utilisation for both P sufficient and P-deficient plants. However during Al(3+) toxicity, P deficiency enhanced the incorporation and metabolism of root-zone CO(2) via PEPC. Moreover, P deficiency led to a greater proportion of the PEPC-derived organic acids to be exuded during Al(3+) toxicity. These results indicate that P-status can influence the response to Al(3+) by inducing a greater utilisation of PEPC-derived organic acids for Al(3+) detoxification. PMID:20926158

  20. Encapsulation of Aconitine in Self-Assembled Licorice Protein Nanoparticles Reduces the Toxicity In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Li-jing; Gao, Guan-zhen; Shen, Yong; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-fan

    2015-11-01

    Many herbal medicines and compositions are clinically effective but challenged by its safety risks, i.e., aconitine (AC) from aconite species. The combined use of Radix glycyrrhizae (licorice) with Radix aconite L. effectively eliminates toxicity of the later while increasing efficacy. In this study, a boiling-stable 31-kDa protein (namely GP) was purified from licorice and self-assembled into nanoparticles (206.2 ± 2.0 nm) at pH 5.0, 25 °C. The aconitine-encapsulated GP nanoparticles (238.2 ± 1.2 nm) were prepared following the same procedure and tested for its toxicity by intraperitoneal injection on ICR mouse ( n = 8). Injection of GP-AC nanoparticles and the mixed licorice-aconite decoction, respectively, caused mild recoverable toxic effects and no death, while the aconitine, particle-free GP-AC mixture and aconite decoction induced sever toxic effects and 100 % death. Encapsulation of poisonous alkaloids into self-assembled herbal protein nanoparticles contributes to toxicity attenuation of combined use of herbs, implying a prototype nanostructure and a universal principle for the safer clinical applications of herbal medicines.

  1. Encapsulation of Aconitine in Self-Assembled Licorice Protein Nanoparticles Reduces the Toxicity In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ke, Li-Jing; Gao, Guan-Zhen; Shen, Yong; Zhou, Jian-Wu; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Many herbal medicines and compositions are clinically effective but challenged by its safety risks, i.e., aconitine (AC) from aconite species. The combined use of Radix glycyrrhizae (licorice) with Radix aconite L. effectively eliminates toxicity of the later while increasing efficacy. In this study, a boiling-stable 31-kDa protein (namely GP) was purified from licorice and self-assembled into nanoparticles (206.2??2.0nm) at pH 5.0, 25C. The aconitine-encapsulated GP nanoparticles (238.2??1.2nm) were prepared following the same procedure and tested for its toxicity by intraperitoneal injection on ICR mouse (n?=?8). Injection of GP-AC nanoparticles and the mixed licorice-aconite decoction, respectively, caused mild recoverable toxic effects and no death, while the aconitine, particle-free GP-AC mixture and aconite decoction induced sever toxic effects and 100% death. Encapsulation of poisonous alkaloids into self-assembled herbal protein nanoparticles contributes to toxicity attenuation of combined use of herbs, implying a prototype nanostructure and a universal principle for the safer clinical applications of herbal medicines. PMID:26586149

  2. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Additives boost gasoline quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, L.M.

    1989-04-24

    Gasoline additives have become more important to the supply of high-quality finished gasoline. Additives are used for the inhibition of oxidation, rust, and gum formation, and for prevention of deposits on and in engine components. The demand for high-quality fuels has led to many different additives that are added at the refinery and downstream. This article describes some of the most important additives, what they are and what they do, and gives some guidelines on the selection and addition of them to the gasoline product.

  4. Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Reduces Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients Treated With Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Navesh K.; Li Tianyu; Chen, David Y.; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (AD) has been shown to increase late Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity when used concurrently with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicity by limiting the radiation dose received by the bowel and bladder. The present study compared the genitourinary and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in men treated with 3D-CRT+AD vs. IMRT+AD. Methods and Materials: Between July 1992 and July 2004, 293 men underwent 3D-CRT (n = 170) or IMRT (n = 123) with concurrent AD (<6 months, n = 123; {>=}6 months, n = 170). The median radiation dose was 76 Gy for 3D-CRT (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements) and 76 Gy for IMRT (95% to the planning target volume). Toxicity was assessed by a patient symptom questionnaire that was completed at each visit and recorded using a Fox Chase Modified Late Effects Normal Tissue Task radiation morbidity scale. Results: The mean follow-up was 86 months (standard deviation, 29.3) for the 3D-CRT group and 40 months (standard deviation, 9.7) for the IMRT group. Acute GI toxicity (odds ratio, 4; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-11.7; p = .005) was significantly greater with 3D-CRT than with IMRT and was independent of the AD duration (i.e., <6 vs. {>=}6 months). The interval to the development of late GI toxicity was significantly longer in the IMRT group. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate for Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity was 20% for 3D-CRT and 8% for IMRT (p = .01). On multivariate analysis, Grade 2 or greater late GI toxicity (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.3; p = .04) was more prevalent in the 3D-CRT patients. Conclusion: Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT significantly decreased the acute and late GI toxicity in patients treated with AD.

  6. Gasoline engine choking arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Armes, P.W.

    1987-10-13

    In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

  7. A New Approach to Reduce Toxicities and to Improve Bioavailabilities of Platinum-Containing Anti-Cancer Nanodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Ye, Qing; Lu, Maggie; Lo, Ya-Chin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Wei, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Wang, Shian-Jy; Bain, Daniel J.; Ho, Chien

    2015-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) drugs are the most potent and commonly used anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Nanoformulation of Pt drugs has the potential to improve the delivery to tumors and reduce toxic side effects. A major challenge for translating nanodrugs to clinical settings is their rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), hence increasing toxicities on off-target organs and reducing efficacy. We are reporting that an FDA approved parenteral nutrition source, Intralipid 20%, can help this problem. A dichloro (1, 2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum (II)-loaded and hyaluronic acid polymer-coated nanoparticle (DACHPt/HANP) is used in this study. A single dose of Intralipid (2?g/kg, clinical dosage) is administrated [intravenously (i. v.), clinical route] one hour before i.v. injection of DACHPt/HANP. This treatment can significantly reduce the toxicities of DACHPt/HANP in liver, spleen, and, interestingly, kidney. Intralipid can decrease Pt accumulation in the liver, spleen, and kidney by 20.4%, 42.5%, and 31.2% at 24-hr post nanodrug administration, respectively. The bioavailability of DACHPt/HANP increases by 18.7% and 9.4% during the first 5 and 24?hr, respectively. PMID:26039249

  8. Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Barley through Reduced Expression of the Multifunctional Aquaporin HvNIP2;11[W

    PubMed Central

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley. PMID:20581256

  9. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  10. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gasoline in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining industry.

  11. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 ?g L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 ?g L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides. PMID:24630450

  12. Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Michael Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer; Dickie, Graeme; O'Brien, Peter; Keller, Jacqui; Tpcony, Lee; Rischin, Danny

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during RT. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible if they had disease localized to the primary site and lymph nodes, with high-risk features. RT was delivered to the primary site and lymph nodes to a dose of 50 Gy and weekly carboplatin (area under the curve of 2) was given during RT. This was followed by three cycles of carboplatin and etoposide. A total of 18 patients were entered into the study, and their data were compared with the data from 53 patients entered into the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study. Results: Involved lymph nodes (Stage II) were present in 14 patients (77%). Treatment was completed as planned in 16 patients. The weekly carboplatin dose was delivered in 17 patients, and 15 were able to complete all three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide. Grade 3 and 4 neutrophil toxicity occurred in 7 patients, but no cases of febrile neutropenia developed. Compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 protocol (19 of 53 cases of febrile neutropenia), the reduction in the febrile neutropenia rate (p = 0.003) and decrease in Grade 3 skin toxicity (p = 0.006) were highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that weekly carboplatin at this dosage is a safe way to deliver synchronous chemotherapy during RT for MCC and results in a marked reduction of febrile neutropenia and Grade 3 skin toxicity compared with the three weekly regimen.

  13. Alternative aircraft anti-icing formulations with reduced aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Harris; Joback, Kevin; Geis, Steven; Bowman, George; Mericas, Dean; Corsi, Steven R.; Ferguson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The current research was conducted to identify alternative aircraft and pavement deicer and anti-icer formulations with improved environmental characteristics compared to currently used commercial products (2007). The environmental characteristics of primary concern are the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of the fully formulated products. Except when the distinction among products is necessary for clarity, “deicer” will refer to aircraft-deicing fluids (ADFs), aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAFs), and pavementdeicing materials (PDMs).

  14. Reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for pediatric hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Koichi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Sakashita, Kazuo; Kurata, Takashi; Saito, Shoji; Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Koike, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens often cause severe regimen-related toxicity (RRT). Furthermore, many patients suffer from poor quality of life in accordance with the increase in long-term survivors. We therefore devised a reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning (RTMAC) regimen consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), fludarabine (FLU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) for pediatric hematological malignancies. A retrospective single-center analysis was performed on patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aged ≤20 years, who had received an 8-Gy TBI/FLU/CY RTMAC regimen followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Thirty-one patients underwent first allo-HSCT after an RTMAC regimen. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), MDS (n = 4), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1) and acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (n = 2). While 3 patients showed early hematological relapse, the remaining 28 patients achieved engraftments. None of the patients developed grade 4 or 5 toxicities during the study period. The 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival were 80% [95% confidence interval: CI, 61–91%] and 71% [95% CI, 52–84%], respectively. Our RTMAC regimen would be less toxic and offers a high probability of survival for children with hematological malignancies. PMID:25373730

  15. Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

    1997-01-01

    Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9347900

  16. Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

    1997-08-01

    Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used. PMID:9347900

  17. Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Bisakha

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing

  18. Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups and fed 0%, 12%, 36% ethanol, or 36% ethanol plus folic acid (10 mg folic acid/L) diets. After 5 weeks, chronic consumption of the 36% ethanol diet significantly increased plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) (P < 0.05) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (P < 0.05), triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05), Hcy (P < 0.001), and low density lipoprotein conjugated dienes (CD) (P < 0.05) but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) (P < 0.001). These changes were prevented partially by folic acid supplementation. The 12% ethanol diet had no apparent effect on most parameters. Plasma Hcy concentration was well correlated with plasma ALT (r = 0.612**), AST (r = 0.652*), CD (r = 0.495*), and TRAP (r = -0.486*). The results indicate that moderately elevated Hcy is associated with increased oxidative stress and liver injury in alcohol-fed rats, and suggests that folic acid supplementation appears to attenuate hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption possibly by decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:22259676

  19. Improved pharmacokinetics and reduced toxicity of brucine after encapsulation into stealth liposomes: role of phosphatidylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Yan, Guo-jun; Hu, Rong-rong; Gu, Qian-wen; Chen, Ming-lei; Gu, Wei; Chen, Zhi-peng; Cai, Bao-chang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Brucine was encapsulated into stealth liposomes using the ammonium sulfate gradient method to improve therapeutic index. Materials and methods: Four brucine stealth liposomal formulations were prepared, which were made from different phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with different phase transition temperatures (Tm). The PCs used were soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), and distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC). The stabilities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicities of these liposomal formulations were evaluated and compared. Results: Size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of brucine-loaded stealth liposomes (BSL) were not influenced by PC composition. In vitro release studies revealed that drug release rate increased with decreased Tm of PCs, especially with the presence of rat plasma. After intravenous administration, the area under the curve (AUC) values of BSL-SPC, BSL-DPPC, BSL-HSPC, and BSL-DSPC in plasma were 7.71, 9.24, 53.83, and 56.83-fold as large as that of free brucine, respectively. The LD50 values of brucine solution, BSL-SPC, BSL-DPPC, BSL-HSPC, and BSL-DSPC following intravenous injection were 13.17, 37.30, 37.69, 51.18, and 52.86 mg/kg, respectively. It was found in calcein retention experiments that the order of calcein retention in rat plasma was SPC < DPPC << HSPC < DSPC stealth liposomes. Conclusion: PC composition could exert significant influence on the stabilities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicities of brucine-loaded stealth liposomes. DSPC or HSPC with Tm above 50C should be used to prepare the stealth liposomal formulation for the intravenous delivery of brucine. However, it was found in the present paper that the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of BSL were not influenced by the PC composition when the Tm of the PC was in the range of ?20C to 41C. PMID:22904620

  20. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  1. Synthesis of Carbohydrate Capped Silicon Nanoparticles and their Reduced Cytotoxicity, In Vivo Toxicity, and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Behray, Mehrnaz; Webster, Carl A; Wang, Qi; Sherwood, Victoria; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Chao, Yimin

    2015-08-26

    The development of smart targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that can identify and deliver drugs at a sustained rate directly to cancer cells may provide better efficacy and lower toxicity for treating primary and advanced metastatic tumors. Obtaining knowledge of the diseases at the molecular level can facilitate the identification of biological targets. In particular, carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognitions using nano-vehicles are likely to increasingly affect cancer treatment methods, opening a new area in biomedical applications. Here, silicon NPs (SiNPs) capped with carbohydrates including galactose, glucose, mannose, and lactose are successfully synthesized from amine terminated SiNPs. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] analysis shows an extensive reduction in toxicity of SiNPs by functionalizing with carbohydrate moiety both in vitro and in vivo. Cellular uptake is investigated with flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. The results show the carbohydrate capped SiNPs can be internalized in the cells within 24 h of incubation, and can be taken up more readily by cancer cells than noncancerous cells. Moreover, these results reinforce the use of carbohydrates for the internalization of a variety of similar compounds into cancer cells. PMID:26121084

  2. Glucocorticoids reduce intracellular calcium concentration and protects neurons against glutamate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Holmstrm, Kira M; Chetsawang, Banthit; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2013-04-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones which act through the glucocorticoid receptor. They regulate a wide variety of biological processes. Two glucocorticoids, the naturally occurring corticosterone and chemically produced dexamethasone, have been used to investigate the effect of glucocorticoids on Ca(2+)-signalling in cortical co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes. Dexamethasone and to a lesser degree corticosterone both induced a decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in neurons and astrocytes. The effect of both compounds can be blocked by inhibition of the plasmamembrane ATPase, calmodulin and by application of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, while inhibition of NMDA receptors or the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump had no effect. Glucocorticoid treatment further protects against detrimental calcium signalling and cell death by modulating the delayed calcium deregulation in response to glutamate toxicity. At the concentrations used dexamethasone and corticosterone did not show cell toxicity of their own. Thus, these results indicate that dexamethasone and corticosterone might be used for protection of the cells from calcium overload. PMID:23340218

  3. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed

    Berger, J E

    1975-04-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  4. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J E

    1975-01-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  5. Toxicity, emissions test results in for RFG

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.

    1996-01-08

    Contrary to reports in the popular press, a great deal of testing has been performed on MTBE. Toxicological experiments show no ill effects, even at low levels of exposure. There are insufficient data, however, to draw the same conclusion for other ethers. In addition, EPA`s air-quality monitors reveal greatly reduced levels of most pollutants over the past 20 or so years. And results from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program indicate that reformulated gasolines will further reduce many, although probably not all, automobile exhaust emissions. This paper reviews the testing and toxicity results and procedures.

  6. p53-Based strategy to reduce hematological toxicity ofchemotherapy: A proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chul S; Michalek, Joel E; Elledge, Richard; Kelly, Kevin R; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Su, Hang; Jenkins, Carol A; Argiris, Athanassios; Swords, Ronan; Eng, Tony Y; Karnad, Anand; Crownover, Richard L; Swanson, Gregory P; Goros, Martin; Pollock, Brad H; Yuan, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    p53 activation is a primary mechanism underlying pathological responses to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Our recent animal studies showed that low dose arsenic (LDA)-induced transient p53 inhibition selectively protected normal tissues from chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Study objectives were to: 1) define the lowest safe dose of arsenic trioxide that transiently blocks p53 activation in patients and 2) assess the potential of LDA to decrease hematological toxicity from chemotherapy. Patients scheduled to receive minimum 4 cycles of myelosuppressive chemotherapy were eligible. For objective 1, dose escalation of LDA started at 0.005mg/kg/day for 3 days. This dose satisfied objective 1 and was administered before chemotherapy cycles 2, 4, and 6 for objective 2. p53 level in peripheral lymphocytes was measured on day 1 of each cycle by ELISA assay. Chemotherapy cycles 1, 3, and 5 served as the baseline for the subsequent cycles of 2, 4, and 6 respectively. If p53 level for the subsequent cycle was lower (or higher) than the baseline cycle, p53 was defined as "suppressed" (or "activated") for the pair of cycles. Repeated measures linear models of CBC in terms of day, cycle, p53 activity and interaction terms were used. Twenty-six patients treated with 3 week cycle regimens form the base of analyses. The mean white blood cell, hemoglobin and absolute neutrophil counts were significantly higher in the "suppressed" relative to the "activated" group. These data support the proof of principle that suppression of p53 could lead to protection of bone marrow in patients receiving chemotherapy. This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01428128. PMID:26440706

  7. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  8. Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults With Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Aaron P.; Barney, Christian L.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Groot, John F. de; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Tucker, Susan L.; Crawford, Cody N.; Khan, Meena; Khatua, Soumen; Gilbert, Mark R.; Brown, Paul D.; Mahajan, Anita

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4-103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11-63) for p-CSI. Results: p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2% vs 5.8%; P=.004), and less p-CSI patients had >5% weight loss compared with x-CSI (16% vs 64%; P=.004). p-CSI patients experienced less grade 2 nausea and vomiting compared with x-CSI (26% vs 71%; P=.004). Patients treated with x-CSI were more likely to have medical management of esophagitis than p-CSI patients (57% vs 5%, P<.001). p-CSI patients had a smaller reduction in peripheral white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets compared with x-CSI (white blood cells 46% vs 55%, P=.04; hemoglobin 88% vs 97%, P=.009; platelets 48% vs 65%, P=.05). Mean vertebral doses were significantly associated with reductions in blood counts. Conclusions: This report is the first analysis of clinical outcomes for adult medulloblastoma patients treated with p-CSI. Patients treated with p-CSI experienced less treatment-related morbidity including fewer acute gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities.

  9. Toxicity and degradation of metal-complexed cyanide by a bacterial consortium under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhe-Xue; Bae, Jin-Woo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Cho, Yong-Gyun; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2004-06-01

    Free cyanide at 1 mm decreased the initial sulfate reduction rate of a batch culture of granular sludge from 0.3 to 0.14 mmol d(-1) g(-1) SS (suspended solid), whereas 0.5 mm cyanide had a minimal effect (0.25 mmol d(-1) g(-1) SS). The order of toxicity of metal-complexed cyanides to the sludge was as follows: zinc-complexed cyanide (most toxic) > free cyanide = nickel-complexed cyanide > copper-complexed cyanide (least toxic), which also corresponds well with the order of the stability (dissociation) constants of the metal-cyanide complexes. A consortium degrading cyanide was enriched using nickel cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. This consortium completely removed 0.5 mm of nickel-complexed cyanide under sulfate-reducing conditions in 11 d. Analysis of clone library of 16S rRNA genes shows that the consortium was composed of three major phylotypes including Desulfovibrio. PMID:15269528

  10. Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice

    PubMed Central

    Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; brink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cellderived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast celldeficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

  11. Geranylgeranylacetone blocks doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity and reduces cancer cell growth and invasion through RHO pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sysa-Shah, Polina; Xu, Yi; Guo, Xin; Pin, Scott; Bedja, Djahida; Bartock, Rachel; Tsao, Allison; Hsieh, Angela; Wolin, Michael S; Moens, An; Raman, Venu; Orita, Hajime; Gabrielson, Kathleen L

    2014-07-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapy for solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, but its use is limited due to cardiotoxicity. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an antiulcer agent used in Japan for 30 years, has no significant adverse effects, and unexpectedly reduces ovarian cancer progression in mice. Because GGA reduces oxidative stress in brain and heart, we hypothesized that GGA would prevent oxidative stress of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity and improve doxorubicin's chemotherapeutic effects. Nude mice implanted with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were studied after chronic treatment with doxorubicin, doxorubicin/GGA, GGA, or saline. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to monitor systolic heart function and xenografts evaluated. Mice were euthanized and cardiac tissue evaluated for reactive oxygen species generation, TUNEL assay, and RHO/ROCK pathway analysis. Tumor metastases were evaluated in lung sections. In vitro studies using Boyden chambers were performed to evaluate GGA effects on RHO pathway activator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced motility and invasion. We found that GGA reduced doxorubicin cardiac toxicity, preserved cardiac function, prevented TUNEL-positive cardiac cell death, and reduced doxorubicin-induced oxidant production in a nitric oxide synthase-dependent and independent manner. GGA also reduced heart doxorubicin-induced ROCK1 cleavage. Remarkably, in xenograft-implanted mice, combined GGA/doxorubicin treatment decreased tumor growth more effectively than doxorubicin treatment alone. As evidence of antitumor effect, GGA inhibited LPA-induced motility and invasion by MDA-MB-231 cells. These anti-invasive effects of GGA were suppressed by geranylgeraniol suggesting GGA inhibits RHO pathway through blocking geranylation. Thus, GGA protects the heart from doxorubicin chemotherapy-induced injury and improves anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in breast cancer. PMID:24737026

  12. Reduced toxicity of F-deficient Sendai virus vector in the mouse fetus.

    PubMed

    Waddington, S N; Buckley, S M K; Bernloehr, C; Bossow, S; Ungerechts, G; Cook, T; Gregory, L; Rahim, A; Themis, M; Neubert, W J; Coutelle, C; Lauer, U M; Bitzer, M

    2004-04-01

    Current concerns over insertional mutagenesis by retroviral vectors mitigate investigations into alternative, potentially persistent gene therapy vector systems not dependent on genomic integration, such as Sendai virus vectors (SeVV). Prenatal gene therapy requires efficient gene delivery to several tissues, which may not be achievable by somatic gene transfer to the adult. Initially, to test the potential and tropism of the SeVV for gene delivery to fetal tissues, first-generation (replication- and propagation-competent) recombinant SeVV, expressing beta-galactosidase was introduced into late gestation immunocompetent mice via the amniotic and peritoneal cavities and the yolk sac vessels. At 2 days, this resulted in very high levels of expression particularly in the airway epithelium, mesothelium and vascular endothelium, respectively. However, as expected, substantial vector toxicity was observed. The efficiency of gene transfer and the level of gene expression were then examined using a second-generation SeVV. The second generation was developed to be still capable of cytoplasmic RNA replication and therefore high-level gene expression, but incapable of vector spread due to lack of the gene for viral F-protein. Vector was introduced into the fetal amniotic and peritoneal cavities, intravascularly, intramuscularly and intraspinally; at 2 days, expression was observed in the airway epithelia, peritoneal mesothelia, unidentified cells in the gut wall, locally at the site of muscle injection and in the dorsal root ganglia, respectively. Mortality was dramatically diminished compared with the first-generation vector. PMID:14724676

  13. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  14. Gasoline Composition in 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition in the U.S is determined by factors related to crude oil source, refinery capacity, geography and regulatory factors. Major regulation derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments determines the benzene and former oxygenate requirements for reformulated...

  15. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.995 Section 80.995... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions 80.995 What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In appropriate extreme and...

  16. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.995 Section 80.995... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions 80.995 What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In appropriate extreme and...

  17. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.995 Section 80.995... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions 80.995 What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In appropriate extreme and...

  18. Recommending calcium to reduce lead toxicity in children: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ballew, C; Bowman, B

    2001-03-01

    Assertions that adequate or supplemental calcium intake can reduce lead absorption in children are based on liberal extrapolation from animal studies, experiments with human adults, and cross-sectional studies of children that have a variety of methodologic weaknesses. Without stronger supporting evidence, statements that diet can ameliorate the deleterious effects of environmental lead could provide a false sense of efficacy and divert efforts from lead abatement and from behavioral modifications that might have more impact. PMID:11330624

  19. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event.

    PubMed

    Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-02-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL(-1), 10ngL(-1), 2μgL(-1), 20μgL(-1)) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. PMID:26647170

  20. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  1. Kinetic Targeting of pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin: a new Approach to Reduce Toxicity during Chemotherapy (CARL-trial)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The therapeutic success of chemotherapeutic agents is often limited by severe adverse effects. To reduce toxicity of these drugs, nanoscale particle-based drug delivery systems (DDS) are used. DDS accumulate to some extent in tumor tissues, but only a very small portion of a given dose reaches this target. Accumulation of DDS in tumor tissues is supposed to be much faster than in certain other tissues in which side effects occur ("Kinetic Targeting"). Once saturation in tumor tissue is achieved, most of the administered DDS still circulate in the plasma. The extracorporeal elimination of these circulating nanoparticles would probably reduce toxicity. Methods For the CARL-trial (Controlled Application and Removal of Liposomal chemotherapeutics), pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) was used as chemotherapeutic agent and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) was performed for extracorporeal elimination of liposomes. PLD was given as 40 mg/m2 every 3 weeks in combination with vinorelbine 2 25 mg/m2 (neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer, 12 patients), or as 40 mg/m2 every 4 weeks (recurrent ovarian cancer, 3 patients). Primary endpoints were the efficiency and safety profile of DFPP, and secondary endpoints were side effects and tumor response. Results DFPP eliminated ~62% of circulating PLD, corresponding to ~45% of the total dose (n = 57 cycles). AUC of doxorubicin was reduced by 50%. No leakage of doxorubicin was detected during elimination, and no relevant DFPP-related side effects occurred. Reduction in tumor size > 30% occurred in 10/12 (neoadjuvant) and in 1/3 patients (recurrent). Only five grade 2 events and one grade 3 event (mucositis, neutropenia or leucopenia) and a single palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia grade 2 were reported. Conclusion Extracorporeal elimination of PLD by DFPP is safe and efficient. CARL can diminish the main dose-limiting side effects of PLD, and probably many different DDS alike. Trial registration DRKS00000163 PMID:21816044

  2. Biochar filters reduced the toxic effects of nickel on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) grown in nutrient film technique hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Banna, Mostafa F; Gao, Bin

    2016-04-01

    This work used the nutrient film technique to evaluate the role of biochar filtration in reducing the toxic effects of nickel (Ni(2+)) on tomato growth. Three hydroponic treatments: T1 (control), T2 (with Ni(2+)), and T3 (with Ni(2+) and biochar) were used in the experiments. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy was used to characterize the pre- and post-treatment biochar samples. The results illustrated that precipitation, ion exchange, and complexation with surface functional groups were the potential mechanisms of Ni(2+) removal by biochar. In comparison to the control, the T2 treatment showed severe Ni-stress with alterations in cell wall structure, distortions in cell nucleus, disturbances in mitochondrial system, malformations in stomatal structure, and abnormalities in chloroplast structure. The biochar filters in T3 treatment reduced dysfunctions of cell organelles in root and shoot cells. Total chlorophyll concentration decreased by 41.6% in T2 treatment. This reduction, however, was only 20.8% due to the protective effect of the biochar filters. The presence of Ni(2+) in the systems reduced the tomato fruit yield 58.5% and 31.9% in T2 and T3, respectively. Nickel concentrations reached the toxic limit in roots, shoots, and fruits in T2, which were not observed in T3. Biochar filters in T3 also minimized the dramatic reductions in nutrients concentration in roots, shoots, and fruits, which occurred in T2 treatment due to the severe Ni-stress. Findings from this work suggested that biochar filters can be used on farms as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation. PMID:26866963

  3. Reduced-toxicity conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves outcome in patients with myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Claire; Chevallier, Patrice; Furst, Sabine; Guillaume, Thierry; Cheikh, Jean El; Delaunay, Jacques; Castagna, Luca; Faucher, Catherine; Granata, Angela; Devillier, Raynier; Chabannon, Christian; Esterni, Benjamin; Vey, Norbert; Mohty, Mohamad; Blaise, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of reduced intensity/toxicity conditioning regimens has allowed allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to be performed in patients who were previously considered too old or otherwise unfit. Although it led to a reduction in non-relapse mortality, disease control remains a major challenge. We studied the outcome of 165 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n=124) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n=41) transplanted after conditioning with fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day for 5 days), intravenous busulfan (either 260 mg/m2: reduced intensity conditioning, or 390–520 mg/m2: reduced toxicity conditioning), and rabbit anti-thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days). The median age of the patients at transplantation was 56.8 years. The 2-year relapse incidence was 29% (23% versus 39% for patients transplanted in first complete remission and those transplanted beyond first complete remission, respectively; P=0.008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 57% (95% CI: 49.9–65). It was higher in the groups with favorable or intermediate cytogenetics than in the group with unfavorable cytogenetics (72.7%, 60.5%, and 45.7%, respectively; P=0.03). The cumulative incidence of grades 2–4 and 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease at day 100 was 19.3% and 7.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease at 1 year was 21.6% (severe forms: 7.8%). Non-relapse mortality at 1 year reached 11%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 61.8% (95% CI: 54.8–69.7). Unfavorable karyotype and disease status beyond first complete remission were associated with a poorer survival. This well-tolerated conditioning platform can lead to long-term disease control and offers possibilities of modulation according to disease stage or further development. PMID:25085356

  4. Low-dose AgNPs reduce lung mechanical function and innate immune defense in the absence of cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Danielle J; Leo, Bey Fen; Massa, Christopher B; Sarkar, Srijata; Tetley, Terry D; Chung, Kian Fan; Chen, Shu; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Zhang, Junfeng; Schwander, Stephan K; Gow, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    Multiple studies have examined the direct cellular toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the lung is a complex biological system with multiple cell types and a lipid-rich surface fluid; therefore, organ level responses may not depend on direct cellular toxicity. We hypothesized that interaction with the lung lining is a critical determinant of organ level responses. Here, we have examined the effects of low dose intratracheal instillation of AgNPs (0.05 μg/g body weight) 20 and 110 nm diameter in size, and functionalized with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Both size and functionalization were significant factors in particle aggregation and lipid interaction in vitro. One day post-intratracheal instillation lung function was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue collected. There were no signs of overt inflammation. There was no change in surfactant protein-B content in the BAL but there was loss of surfactant protein-D with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized particles. Mechanical impedance data demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary elastance as compared to control, greatest with 110 nm PVP-stabilized particles. Seven days post-instillation of PVP-stabilized particles increased BAL cell counts, and reduced lung function was observed. These changes resolved by 21 days. Hence, AgNP-mediated alterations in the lung lining and mechanical function resolve by 21 days. Larger particles and PVP stabilization produce the largest disruptions. These studies demonstrate that low dose AgNPs elicit deficits in both mechanical and innate immune defense function, suggesting that organ level toxicity should be considered. PMID:26152688

  5. A Single Mutation in the Non-Amyloidogenic Region of IAPP (Amylin) Greatly Reduces Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Hartman, Kevin; Reid, Kendra R.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2009-01-01

    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin) is a 37-residue peptide secreted with insulin by beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The aggregation of the peptide into either amyloid fibers or small soluble oligomers has been implicated in the death of beta-cells during type 2 diabetes through disruption of the cellular membrane. The actual form of the peptide responsible for beta-cell death has been a subject of controversy. Previous research has indicated that the N-terminal region of the peptide (residues 1-19) is primarily responsible for the membrane disrupting effect of the hIAPP peptide and induces membrane disruption to a similar extent as the full-length peptide without forming amyloid fibers when bound to the membrane. The rat version of the peptide, which is both non-cytotoxic and non-amyloidogenic, differs from the human peptide by only one amino acid residue: Arg18 in the rat version while His18 in the human version. To elucidate the effect of this difference, we have measured in this study the effects of the rat and human versions of IAPP1-19 on islet cells and model membranes. Fluorescence microscopy shows a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels of islet cells after the addition of hIAPP1-19 indicating disruption of the cellular membrane, while the rat version of the IAPP1-19 peptide is significantly less effective. Circular dichroism experiments and dye leakage assays on model liposomes show rIAPP1-19 is deficient in binding to and disrupting lipid membranes at low but not at high peptide to lipid ratios, indicating that the ability of rIAPP1-19 to form small aggregates necessary for membrane binding and disruption is significantly less than hIAPP1-19. At pH 6.0, where H18 is likely to be protonated, hIAPP1-19 resembles rIAPP1-19 in its ability to cause membrane disruption. Differential scanning calorimetry suggests a different mode of binding to the membrane for rIAPP1-19 compared to hIAPP1-19. Human IAPP1-19 has a minimal effect on the phase transition of lipid vesicles, suggesting a membrane orientation of the peptide in which the mobility of the acyl chains of the membrane is relatively unaffected. Rat IAPP1-19, however, has a strong effect on the phase transition of lipid vesicles at low concentrations suggesting the peptide does not easily insert into the membrane after binding to the surface. Our results indicate the modulation of the peptide orientation in the membrane by His18 plays a key role in the toxicity of non-amyloidogenic forms of hIAPP. PMID:18989933

  6. Phytoremediation potential of willow trees for aquifers contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline.

    PubMed

    Corseuil, H X; Moreno, F N

    2001-08-01

    Ethanol-blended gasoline has been used in Brazil for 20 years and, probably, is going to be more widely used in North America due to the MtBE environmental effects on groundwater. The potential impacts caused by the presence of ethanol in UST spills are related to the co-solvency effect and the preferential degradation of ethanol over the BTEX compounds. These interactions may increase the length of dissolved hydrocarbon plumes and the costs associated with site remediation. This study investigates the advantages of phytoremediation to overcome the problems associated with the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminanted with gasoline-ethanol mixtures. Experiments were performed under lab conditions with cuttings of Willow tree (Salix babylonica) cultivated hydroponically. Results showed that the cuttings were able to reduce ethanol and benzene concentrations by more than 99% in less than a week. The uptake of both contaminants was confirmed by blank controls and was significantly related to cuttings transpiration capacity. Sorption onto roots biomass also markedly affected the behavior of contaminants in solution. Experiments to evaluate plants' toxicity to ethanol indicated that plants were only affected when aqueous ethanol concentration reached 2000mgl(-1). Results suggest that phytoremediation can be a good complement to intrinsic remediation in shallow aquifer sites contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline spills. PMID:11471702

  7. A fully human chimeric antigen receptor with potent activity against cancer cells but reduced risk for off-tumor toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Song, De-Gang; Ye, Qunrui; Poussin, Mathilde; Liu, Lin; Figini, Mariangela; Powell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells against antigen-expressing tumors in an HLA-independent manner. To date, various CARs have been constructed using mouse single chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) of high affinity that are immunogenic in humans and have the potential to mediate “on-target” toxicity. Here, we developed and evaluated a fully human CAR comprised of the human C4 folate receptor-alpha (αFR)-specific scFv coupled to intracellular T cell signaling domains. Human T cells transduced to express the C4 CAR specifically secreted proinflammatory cytokine and exerted cytolytic functions when cultured with αFR-expressing tumors in vitro. Adoptive transfer of C4 CAR T cells mediated the regression of large, established human ovarian cancer in a xenogeneic mouse model. Relative to a murine MOv19 scFv-based αFR CAR, C4 CAR T cells mediated comparable cytotoxic tumor activity in vitro and in vivo but had lower affinity for αFR protein and exhibited reduced recognition of normal cells expressing low levels of αFR. Thus, T cells expressing a fully human CAR of intermediate affinity can efficiently kill antigen-expressing tumors in vitro and in vivo and may overcome issues of transgene immunogenicity and “on-target off-tumor” toxicity that plague trials utilizing CARs containing mouse-derived, high affinity scFvs. PMID:26101914

  8. The development of response surface pathway design to reduce animal numbers in toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design, assesses its performance and effectiveness in estimating LD50, and compares RSP with Up and Down Procedures (UDPs) and Random Walk (RW) design. Methods A basic 4-level RSP design was used on 36 male ICR mice given intraperitoneal doses of Yessotoxin. Simulations were performed to optimise the design. A k-adjustment factor was introduced to ensure coverage of the dose window and calculate the dose steps. Instead of using equal numbers of mice on all levels, the number of mice was increased at each design level. Additionally, the binomial outcome variable was changed to multinomial. The performance of the RSP designs and a comparison of UDPs and RW were assessed by simulations. The optimised 4-level RSP design was used on 24 female NMRI mice given Azaspiracid-1 intraperitoneally. Results The in vivo experiment with basic 4-level RSP design estimated the LD50 of Yessotoxin to be 463 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 383535). By inclusion of the k-adjustment factor with equal or increasing numbers of mice on increasing dose levels, the estimate changed to 481 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 362566) and 447 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 378504 ?g/kgBW), respectively. The optimised 4-level RSP estimated the LD50 to be 473 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 442517). A similar increase in power was demonstrated using the optimised RSP design on real Azaspiracid-1 data. The simulations showed that the inclusion of the k-adjustment factor, reduction in sample size by increasing the number of mice on higher design levels and incorporation of a multinomial outcome gave estimates of the LD50 that were as good as those with the basic RSP design. Furthermore, optimised RSP design performed on just three levels reduced the number of animals from 36 to 15 without loss of information, when compared with the 4-level designs. Simulated comparison of the RSP design with UDPs and RW design demonstrated the superiority of RSP. Conclusion Optimised RSP design reduces the number of animals needed. The design converges rapidly on the area of interest and is at least as efficient as both the UDPs and RW design. PMID:24661560

  9. Association of phosphatidylcholine and NSAIDs as a novel strategy to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Barron, Melisa; Marathi, Upendra

    2009-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are highly effective drugs that inhibit pain and inflammation, and perhaps due to the role of inflammation in the underlying etiology, NSAIDs have also demonstrated efficacy in reducing a patient's risk of developing a number of cancers and neurological diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). The utility of these powerful drugs is limited due to their gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects, notably peptic ulceration and GI bleeding which is briefly reviewed here. We also describe the barrier property of the GI mucosa and how it is affected by NSAIDs, as it is our position that disruption of the surface barrier is an important component in the drugs' pathogenesis, in addition to selective inhibition of COX-2, which has proven to be problematic. We also discuss current alternative approaches being taken to mitigate the GI side-effects of NSAIDs, including developing combination drugs where NSAIDs are packaged with inhibitors of HCl secretion such as proton pump inhibitors or H2-receptor antagonists. We then present the rationale for the development of the PC associated NSAID technology which came out of our observation that the mammalian gastric mucosa has hydrophobic, nonwettable properties that provides a barrier to luminal acid, and the role of phospholipids and specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) in this barrier property. In the last section we review the development of our current lipid-based PC-NSAID formulations and our encouraging preclinical and clinical observations validating their GI safety and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20135022

  10. Naptumomab estafenatox, an engineered antibody-superantigen fusion protein with low toxicity and reduced antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Gran; Skartved, Niels-Jrgen; Walln-Ohman, Marie; Nyhln, Helen Carlsson; Behm, Kristina; Hedlund, Gunnar; Nederman, Thore

    2010-06-01

    Antibody-targeted superantigens have a potential to become useful drugs for tumor therapy. However, clinical practice has identified several issues that need to be addressed to optimize such molecules. On the basis of the experience from superantigen products in clinical trials, a novel tumor-targeted superantigen, naptumomab estafenatox (5T4FabV18-SEA/E-120 or ABR-217620) has been designed. Critical properties, such as tumor reactivity, therapeutic window, and seroreactivity were all improved. The engineered 5T4Fab moiety recognizes the 5T4 antigen expressed on a large number of solid tumor forms with an affinity in the order of 1 nM. The fusion protein induces T-cell mediated killing of tumor cells at concentrations around 10 pM. Compared with a construct with a wild-type superantigen, it is more potent in mediating killing of tumor cells but a 10,000-fold less active in mediating killing of MHC class II positive cells. The target epitopes for naturally occurring antibodies toward bacterial superantigens are reduced. Only large excesses of human anti-SEA antibodies neutralize the antitumor effects of the antibody-targeted superantigen. Naptumomab estafenatox induces dramatic reduction of established human tumors in Severe Combined Immunodeficient mice grafted with human lymphocytes. Thus, naptumomab estafenatox is a novel optimized tumor-targeted superantigen currently investigated in clinical trials. PMID:20463598

  11. Reducing canonical Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway confers protection against mutant Huntingtin toxicity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pascale; Besson, Marie-Thérèse; Devaux, Jérôme; Liévens, Jean-Charles

    2012-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease characterized by movement disorders, cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is caused by expanded CAG tract within the coding region of Huntingtin protein. Despite major insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to HD, no effective cure is yet available. Mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) has been reported to alter the stability and levels of β-Catenin, a key molecule in cell adhesion and signal transduction in Wingless (Wg)/Wnt pathway. However it remains to establish whether manipulation of Wg/Wnt signaling can impact HD pathology. We here investigated the phenotypic interactions between mHtt and Wg/Wnt signaling by using the power of Drosophila genetics. We provide compelling evidence that reducing Armadillo/β-Catenin levels confers protection and that this beneficial effect is correlated with the inactivation of the canonical Wg/Wnt signaling pathway. Knockdowns of Wnt ligands or of the downstream transcription factor Pangolin/TCF both ameliorate the survival of HD flies. Similarly, overexpression of one Armadillo/β-Catenin destruction complex component (Axin, APC2 or Shaggy/GSK-3β) increases the lifespan of HD flies. Loss of functional Armadillo/β-Catenin not only abolishes neuronal intrinsic but also glia-induced alterations in HD flies. Our findings highlight that restoring canonical Wg/Wnt signaling may be of therapeutic value. PMID:22531500

  12. Treatment with extracellular HSP70/HSC70 protein can reduce polyglutamine toxicity and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Novoselova, Tatiana V; Margulis, Boris A; Novoselov, Sergey S; Sapozhnikov, Alexander M; van der Spuy, Jacqueline; Cheetham, Michael E; Guzhova, Irina V

    2005-08-01

    The accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates is a feature of neurodegenerative disease. Overexpression of Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) can protect cells with protein aggregates from apoptosis. Another trait of HSP70 is its ability to cross the plasma membrane. Therefore, we purified a preparation of HSP70/HSC70 from bovine muscle and used it in a model of Huntington's disease. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were transfected with huntington exon 1 with short (25) or long (103) CAG trinucleotide repeats coupled to green flourescent protein (GFP). Cells transfected with the long polyCAG repeat had insoluble protein aggregates and died through apoptosis. Biotinylated HSP70/HSC70 incorporated into the culture medium appeared inside the cells within 3-6 h of incubation. This incorporation correlated with a reduction in apoptotic cells by 40-50%. Confocal microscopy revealed that labelled internalized HSP70/HSC70 co-localized with the polyglutamine inclusions. The measurement of the number and size of inclusions showed that HSP70/HSC70 was able to reduce both these parameters. A filter trap assay and immunoblotting demonstrated that the introduction of HSP70/HSC70 also decreased protein aggregation. Together with earlier data on the effects of exogenously administered HSP70/HSC70 on cultured cells and on animals, these data show that preparations based on HSP70 may have some potential as therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative pathologies. PMID:15992387

  13. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  14. Production of reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.J.; Raghuram, S.

    1992-08-04

    This patent describes a process combination for producing a gasoline component from a naphtha feedstock. It comprises: contacting the naphtha feedstock in a reforming zone at reforming conditions with a reforming catalyst comprising a Group VIII metal on a refractory support to produce a reformate and a hydrogen-rich gas; separating the reformate, in a first separation zone, into a light hydrocarbon product and a heavy reformate; separating the heavy reformate, in a second separation zone, into a low-octane paraffin fraction and an aromatic-rich fraction; contacting a low-octane paraffin fraction in a paraffin-isomerization zone at primary isomerization conditions with a paraffin-isomerizing catalyst to produce an isomerized heavy-paraffin product; and, combining at least a portion of each of the aromatic-rich fraction and the isomerized heavy-paraffin product to produce the gasoline component.

  15. Antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity of methanol extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

  16. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis. PMID:25374886

  17. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis.

  18. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed

    McCulley, Rebecca L; Bush, Lowell P; Carlisle, Anna E; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichlo coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause "fescue toxicosis" in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009-2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis. PMID:25374886

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    PubMed

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase. PMID:26386958

  20. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times. PMID:23375214

  1. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  3. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  4. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  5. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  6. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  7. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps... of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For oxygenated gasoline programs with a minimum... following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  10. Does the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles reduce copper toxicity? A factorial approach with the benthic amphipod Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Zubrod, Jochen P; Feckler, Alexander; Merkel, Tobias; Lüderwald, Simon; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2015-08-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) may adsorb co-occurring chemical stressors, such as copper (Cu). This interaction has the potential to reduce the concentration of dissolved Cu due to surface binding to the nanoparticles. The subsequent sedimentation of nano-TiO2 agglomerates may increase the exposure of benthic species towards the associated Cu. This scenario was assessed by employing the amphipod Gammarus fossarum as model species and taking advantage of a 2×2-factorial design investigating absence and presence of 2mg nano-TiO2/L and 40μg Cu/L (n=45; t=24d) in darkness, respectively. Nano-TiO2 alone did not affect mortality and leaf consumption, whereas Cu alone caused high mortality (>70%), reduced leaf consumption (25%) and feces production (30%) relative to the control. In presence of nano-TiO2, Cu-induced toxicity was largely eliminated. However, independent of Cu, nano-TiO2 decreased the gammarids' assimilation and weight. Hence, nano-TiO2 may be applicable as Cu-remediation agent, while its potential long-term effects need further attention. PMID:26037100

  11. Optimized combinations of bortezomib, camptothecin, and doxorubicin show increased efficacy and reduced toxicity in treating oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xianting; Matsuo, Kyle; Xu, Lin; Yang, Jian; Zheng, Longpo

    2015-06-01

    Oral cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment of oral cancer with combinatorial drugs is increasingly being performed as drugs with different molecular targets often exert synergistic effects, thereby enhancing treatment efficacy. Current combinatorial drug regimens often combine the tolerable dosages of individual drugs. However, the optimized ratio of a drug combination and sequence of drug administration could contribute toward the synergy, leading to increased efficacy and reduced dosages. This report aims to study the possible synergistic effects of three anticancer drugs, a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, Camptothecin, and a DNA intercalation drug, Doxorubicin, when used in combination for treating oral cancer. To rapidly optimize the three-drug regimen with minimal experimental efforts, a Feedback System Control optimization technique, a recent platform technique developed particularly for drug combination screening, was applied. The optimized regimen showed a therapeutic window (death rate difference between cancer cells and normal cells) close to 100%. This is the first report on the use of a combination of bortezomib, Camptothecin, and Doxorubicin in the treatment of oral cancer. Our results indicate that to have the most synergistic anticancer effect, the drugs in the optimized regimen should be dosage specific and ratio specific. Furthermore, the sequence of drug administration plays a vital role in ensuring that the combination is effective. The optimized regimen reported here has the potential to considerably increase the cure rate of oral cancer and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25734832

  12. Inversely related aposematic traits: reduced conspicuousness evolves with increased toxicity in a polymorphic poison-dart frog.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ian J

    2011-06-01

    Prevailing theory contends that aposematic coloration evolves in tandem with toxicity so that the evolution of increased toxicity will accompany the evolution of greater conspicuousness. Although variation in aposematic coloration within single species should be selectively constrained, because individuals varying from a predator-recognized warning signal will incur greater risk of predation, several species of poison-dart frogs display remarkable phenotypic variation. This variation may have evolved to match different levels of toxicity, and these species provide excellent opportunities to examine the evolution of aposematic coloration. Here, I test whether increased conspicuousness in the granular poison-dart frog evolved in tandem with increased toxicity. Contrary to classical predictions, toxicity assays, spectral reflectance measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction reveal that the less conspicuous color morphs are actually significantly more toxic than the brightest, most conspicuous phenotypes and that the more toxic, less-conspicuous form evolved from a less toxic, more conspicuous ancestor. Through gas chromatography--mass spectrometry analysis of toxin profiles, I traced the increase in toxicity in the less-conspicuous populations to an acquisition of specific alkaloids, some of which are proven convulsants. These results challenge the tenet that increased conspicuousness always evolves with increased toxicity and support the idea that once aposematism has been established in a species, phenotypic variation may evolve from brightness and toxicity becoming decoupled. PMID:21644954

  13. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit P.; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by AsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (AsIII). SA also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  14. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit P; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (As(V)) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by As(V) and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (As(III)). SA also overcame As(V) induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  15. Nixtamalization Reduces Fumonisin Toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 is a fungal toxin found in corn and corn-based foods. It causes diseases in animals, and is a suspected risk factor for birth defects in humans depending on contaminated corn as a diet staple. Tortillas, snacks and other foods are made from corn by the alkaline cooking process known as ...

  16. Suspended particles only marginally reduce pyrethroid toxicity to the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex (L.) during pulse exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Cedergreen, Nina; Kronvang, Brian; Andersen, Maj-Britt Bjergager; Nørum, Ulrik; Kretschmann, Andreas; Strobel, Bjarne Westergaard; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2016-04-01

    Current ecotoxicological research on particle-associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin on the epibenthic freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) using brief pulse exposures followed by a 144 h post exposure recovery phase. Humic acid (HA) and the clay mineral montmorillonite (MM) were used as model sorbents in environmentally realistic concentrations (5, 25 and 125 mg L(-1)). Mortality of G. pulex was recorded during the post exposure recovery phase and locomotor behavior was measured during exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that HA in concentrations ≥25 mg L(-1) adsorbed the majority of pyrethroids but only reduced mortality of G. pulex up to a factor of four compared to pyrethroid-only treatments. MM suspensions adsorbed a variable fraction of pyrethroids (10 % for bifenthrin and 70 % for lambda-cyhalothrin) but did not significantly change the concentration-response relationship compared to pure pyrethroid treatments. Behavioral responses and immobilisation rate of G. pulex were reduced in the presence of HA, whereas behavioral responses and immobilisation rate were increased in the presence of MM. This indicates that G. pulex was capable of sensing the bioavailable fraction of lambda-cyhalothrin. Our results imply that suspended particles reduce to only a limited extent the toxicity of pyrethroids to G. pulex and that passive uptake of pyrethroids can be significant even when pyrethroids are adsorbed to suspended particles. PMID:26831865

  17. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.

    PubMed

    Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24852493

  18. Data on Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  19. Solid-phase treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor substantially reduces pharmaceutical concentrations and toxicity from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Rodrguez, Carlos E; Jeli?, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farr, Marinella; Caminal, Glria; Petrovi?, Mira; Barcel, Dami; Vicent, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    For safe biosolid-land-applying, sludge should be contaminant-free. However, it may contain important amounts of micropollutants, not removed in the wastewater-treatment-processes. An alternative treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor was applied in sterile solid-phase systems consisting of sludge and a lignocellulosic substrate. Fungal colonization and activity were demonstrated during the process, according to monitoring of ergosterol, laccase activity and the naproxen-degradation test (ND24). Fourteen out of 43 analyzed pharmaceuticals were found in the raw sludge. After treatment, phenazone, bezafibrate, fenofibrate, cimetidine, clarithromycin, sulfamethazine and atenolol were completely removed, while removals between 42% and 80% were obtained for the remaining pharmaceuticals. Toxicological analyses (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and seed germination) showed an important reduction in sludge toxicity after treatment. Results suggest that a solid-phase treatment with T. versicolor may reduce the ecotoxicological impact of micropollutants present in sewage sludge. This is the first report of a fungal-approach for elimination of emerging pollutants from biosolids. PMID:21376580

  20. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi−Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26892768

  1. Lipid-PEG conjugates sterically stabilize and reduce the toxicity of phytantriol-based lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jiali; Hinton, Tracey M; Waddington, Lynne J; Fong, Celesta; Tran, Nhiem; Mulet, Xavier; Drummond, Calum J; Muir, Benjamin W

    2015-10-01

    Lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticle dispersions are of interest as delivery vectors for biomedicine. Aqueous dispersions of liposomes, cubosomes, and hexosomes are commonly stabilized by nonionic amphiphilic block copolymers to prevent flocculation and phase separation. Pluronic stabilizers such as F127 are commonly used; however, there is increasing interest in using chemically reactive stabilizers for enhanced functionalization and specificity in therapeutic delivery applications. This study has explored the ability of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEGMW) (2000 Da ? MW ? 5000 Da) to engineer and stabilize phytantriol-based lyotropic liquid crystalline dispersions. The poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) moiety provides a tunable handle to the headgroup hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity to allow access to a range of nanoarchitectures in these systems. Specifically, it was observed that increasing PEG molecular weight promotes greater interfacial curvature of the dispersions, with liposomes (L?) present at lower PEG molecular weight (MW 2000 Da), and a propensity for cubosomes (QII(P) or QII(D) phase) at MW 3400 Da or 5000 Da. In comparison to Pluronic F127-stabilized cubosomes, those made using DSPE-PEG3400 or DSPE-PEG5000 had enlarged internal water channels. The toxicity of these cubosomes was assessed in vitro using A549 and CHO cell lines, with cubosomes prepared using DSPE-PEG5000 having reduced cytotoxicity relative to their Pluronic F127-stabilized analogues. PMID:26362479

  2. Improved efficacy and reduced toxicity by ultrasound-guided intrahepatic injections of helper-dependent adenoviral vector in Gunn rats.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Nunzia; Nusco, Edoardo; Piccolo, Pasquale; Castaldo, Sigismondo; Vankova, Jana; Vetrini, Francesco; Palmer, Donna J; Vitek, Libor; Ng, Philip; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2013-10-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I is caused by mutations of the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene resulting in life-threatening increase of serum bilirubin. Life-long correction of hyperbilirubinemia was previously shown with intravenous injection of high doses of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing UGT1A1 in the Gunn rat, the animal model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. However, such high vector doses can activate an acute and potentially lethal inflammatory response with elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6). To overcome this obstacle, we investigated safety and efficacy of direct injections of low HDAd doses delivered directly into the liver parenchyma of Gunn rats. Direct hepatic injections performed by either laparotomy or ultrasound-guided percutaneous injections were compared with the same doses given by intravenous injections. A greater reduction of hyperbilirubinemia and increased conjugated bilirubin in bile were achieved with 1 10(11) vp/kg by direct liver injections compared with intravenous injections. In sharp contrast to intravenous injections, direct hepatic injections neither raised serum IL-6 nor resulted in thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of HDAd vectors into liver parenchyma resulted in improved hepatocyte transduction and reduced toxicity compared with systemic injections and is clinically attractive for liver-directed gene therapy of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. PMID:23947957

  3. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi‑Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  4. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26892768

  5. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    PubMed

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline. PMID:24870412

  6. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined? 80.825 Section 80.825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined? 80.825 Section 80.825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements...

  8. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

  9. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ammon W; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Knoppel, Edward L; Hall, Jeffery O

    2016-05-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S. officinale. Male, California White chicks were orally exposed to daily doses of 0.04, 0.13, 0.26, 0.52 and 1.04 mmol lycopsamine, intermedine or reduced comfrey extract per kg bodyweight (BW) for 10 days. After another 7 days chicks were euthanized. Based on clinical signs of poisoning, serum biochemistry, and histopathological analysis the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than lycopsamine and intermedine. This work suggests a greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract. It also suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey. Published 2015. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26177929

  10. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  11. Oligomerize for better gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Nierlich, F. )

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports on normal butene containing isobutene-depleted C{sub 4} hydrocarbons like raffinate II which are oligomerized using the Octol process in the liquid phase on a heterogeneous catalyst system to yield mainly C{sub 8} and C{sub 12} olefins. Raffinate II, the spent C{sub 4} fraction of an MTBE unit, is an ideal feedstock for further n-butene processing because of its high olefin concentration ranging between 70% and 80%. By modifications of MTBE technology, implementation of selective hydrogenation for removal of residual butadiene and superfractionating raffinate II, polymer grade 1-butene can be produced. Until the mid-70s raffinate I, the team cracker C{sub 4} cut after butadiene extraction, was mainly burned or blended into gasoline. Now nearly all raffinate I is or will be consumed for the purpose of converting isobutylene to MTBE.

  12. Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

    In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding, the gasoline prices follow as closely as diesel prices to ALOP. Finally, system-wide causality analysis finds linkages among markets. In summary, both physical and statistical linkages exist among the study markets. Arbitrage among these markets is limited by the logistics of transportation infrastructure and by branding agreements in wholesale contracting.

  13. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jrg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions. PMID:25900116

  14. ATM gene single nucleotide polymorphisms predict regimen-related gastrointestinal toxicity in patients allografted after reduced conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Adam; Raida, Ludek; Mrazek, Frantisek; Schneiderova, Petra; Kriegova, Eva; Furst, Tomas; Furstova, Jana; Faber, Edgar; Ambruzova, Zuzana; Papajik, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Polymorphisms of genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity have become an object of major interest in regard to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) complications. Regimen-related gastrointestinal toxicity (RR-GIT) is the dominant complication during the pre-engraftment period and has been linked to increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) development. According to our hypothesis, functional variants of genes participating in DNA damage response (DDR) may have an impact on the extent of tissue damage caused by the conditioning regimen. In our single-center study, we analyzed 62 patients who underwent HSCT from HLA-identical donors after reduced conditioning. The patients were genotyped for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs4585 T/G, rs189037 A/G, rs227092 T/G, rs228590 C/T, and rs664677 T/C) of the ATM gene-the essential member of the DDR pathways, using allele-specific matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry assay. Because of almost absolute linkage disequilibrium observed among all 5 SNPs, association of 2 major ATM haplotypes (ATM1/ATM2) with RR-GIT and acute GVHD (aGVHD) was analyzed. Importantly, the univariate and multivariate analysis showed that patients homozygous for ATM2 haplotype (rs4585*T, rs189037*A, rs227092*T, rs228590*C, and rs664677*T) are more likely to suffer from high-grade RR-GIT than ATM1 homozygous patients. The association with aGVHD was not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the ATM gene variability in relation to RR-GIT in the allogeneic HSCT setting. PMID:25759145

  15. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P < 0.05). The total number and average body weight (BW) of fetuses at 70 DIP, the number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the average BW of piglet at birth, the number of piglets born alive, the born alive litter weight, and born alive piglet BW at farrowing were also decreased by ZEN exposure (P < 0.05). The increased expressions of P53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in the uterus and placenta of sows at 70 DIP, the placenta and fetal uterus at farrowing, and the piglet uterus at weaning (P < 0.05). Adding 1% MHNTs decreased the residue of ZEN in maternal and fetal tissues. The number of fetuses and the average fetus BW at 70 DIP, the total number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the born alive piglet BW at farrowing, the average piglet BW, the litter weaned weight, and the average day gain at weaning were increased by adding 1% MHNTs, compared with the ZEN-treated group (P < 0.05). The MHNTs significantly reduced the damage to the fat in the colostrum and the protein and lactose in the milk induced by the ZEN-contaminated feed (P < 0.05). Modified halloysite nanotubes could be used as adsorbent in the feed to reduce the toxic effects of ZEN. PMID:25528463

  16. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... volume of applicable gasoline produced or imported in batch i. Ti = The toxics value of batch i. n = The number of batches of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. i = Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. (b) The calculation specified in paragraph...

  17. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produced or imported during the period 1998-2000, separately for each type of gasoline listed at 80.815(b... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline... section no later than June 30, 2001, or 3 months prior to the first introduction of gasoline into...

  18. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produced or imported during the period 1998-2000, separately for each type of gasoline listed at 80.815(b... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline... section no later than June 30, 2001, or 3 months prior to the first introduction of gasoline into...

  19. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... volume of applicable gasoline produced or imported in batch i. Ti = The toxics value of batch i. n = The number of batches of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. i = Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. (b) The calculation specified in paragraph...

  20. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produced or imported during the period 1998-2000, separately for each type of gasoline listed at 80.815(b... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline... section no later than June 30, 2001, or 3 months prior to the first introduction of gasoline into...

  1. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... volume of applicable gasoline produced or imported in batch i. Ti = The toxics value of batch i. n = The number of batches of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. i = Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. (b) The calculation specified in paragraph...

  2. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  3. Benzene pollution from gasoline usage.

    PubMed

    Foo, S C

    1991-04-01

    Local gasolines contain benzene ranging from 1.8 to 3.7% and their use can lead to significant exposure to benzene. Gasoline station attendants were found to be exposed to short-term exposure levels (STEL) of 0.064-179 ppm. Their 8-h time-weighted averaged (TWA) exposure ranged from 0.028 to 0.71 ppm. For motorcar service mechanics, TWA exposure levels ranged from 0.014 to 1.7 ppm. The exposure of drivers of gasoline delivery tankers ranged from 0.08 to 2.37 ppm for personal TWA exposure over the whole workshift. For local people not occupationally exposed to gasoline or other benzene-containing volatile chemicals, exposure from the ambient environment ranged from 0.0023 to 0.027 ppm. Gasoline usage also contributed to the contamination of surface water with benzene. Benzene levels in water samples taken from drains leading from gasoline stations were between 1.1 and 40.4 micrograms l-1. PMID:1857958

  4. Escherichia coli 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase aids in tellurite resistance by reducing the toxicant in a NADPH-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, J M; Arenas, F A; Garca, J A; Daz-Vsquez, W A; Valdivia-Gonzlez, M; Sabotier, M; Vsquez, C C

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to the tellurium oxyanion tellurite (TeO3(2-)) results in the establishment of an oxidative stress status in most microorganisms. Usually, bacteria growing in the presence of the toxicant turn black because of the reduction of tellurite (Te(4+)) to the less-toxic elemental tellurium (Te(0)). In vitro, at least part of tellurite reduction occurs enzymatically in a nicotinamide dinucleotide-dependent reaction. In this work, we show that TeO3(2-) reduction by crude extracts of Escherichia coli overexpressing the zwf gene (encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) takes place preferentially in the presence of NADPH instead of NADH. The enzyme responsible for toxicant reduction was identified as 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Gnd). The gnd gene showed a subtle induction at short times after toxicant exposure while strains lacking gnd were more susceptible to the toxicant. These results suggest that both NADPH-generating enzymes from the pentose phosphate shunt may be involved in tellurite detoxification and resistance in E. coli. PMID:26211962

  5. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose homeostasis). These observations suggest a LOEL of 3000 ppm of E85 for vertical activity, LOELs of 9000 ppm of E0 and E85 for maternal food consumption, and NOELs of 9000 ppm for the other endpoints reported here. The ethanol content of the vapors did not consistently alter the pattern of behavioral, immunological, or physiological responses to the fuel vapors. The concentrations of the vapors used here exceed by 4-6 orders of magnitude typical exposure levels encountered by the public. PMID:25724818

  6. Biofiltration of gasoline and ethanol-amended gasoline vapors.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marlene; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Paca, Jan; Soccol, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the projected increase in use of ethanol as a biofuel, the current study was conducted to compare the biofiltration efficiencies for plain and 25% ethanol-containing gasoline. Two biofilters were operated in a downflow mode for 7 months, one of them being compost-based whereas the other using a synthetic packing material, granulated tire rubber, inoculated with gasoline-degrading microorganisms. Inlet concentrations measured as total hydrocarbon (TH) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 g m(-3) at a constant empty bed retention time of 6.84 min. Contrary to the expectations based on microbiological considerations, ethanol-amended gasoline was more readily biodegraded than plain hydrocarbons, with the respective steady state elimination capacities of 26-43 and 14-18 gTH m(-3) h(-1) for the compost biofilter. The efficiency of both biofilters significantly declined upon the application of higher loads of plain gasoline, yet immediately recovering when switched back to ethanol-blended gasoline. The unexpected effect of ethanol in promoting gasoline biodegradation was explained by increasing hydrocarbon partitioning into the aqueous phase, with mass transfer being rate limiting for the bulk of components. The tire rubber biofilter, after a long acclimation, surpassed the compost biofilter in performance, presumably due to the 'buffering' effect of this packing material increasing the accessibility of gasoline hydrocarbons to the biofilm. With improved substrate mass transfer, biodegradable hydrocarbons were removed in the tire rubber biofilter's first reactor stage, with most of the remaining poorly degradable smaller-size hydrocarbons being degraded in the second stage. PMID:22486670

  7. In Vitro Systems Toxicology Assessment of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product Shows Reduced Toxicity Compared to That of a Conventional Cigarette.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Martin, Florian; Marescotti, Diego; Guedj, Emmanuel; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Dariusz; Goedertier, Didier; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-01-19

    Cigarette smoke increases the risk for respiratory and other diseases. Although smoking prevalence has declined over the years, millions of adults choose to continue to smoke. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are potentially valuable tools for adult smokers that are unwilling to quit their habit. Here, we investigated the biological impact of a candidate MRTP, the tobacco-heating system (THS) 2.2, compared to that of the 3R4F reference cigarette in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Chemical characterization of the THS 2.2 aerosol showed reduced levels of harmful constituents compared to those of a combustible cigarette. Multiparametric indicators of cellular toxicity were measured via real-time cellular analysis and high-content screening. The study was complemented by a whole transcriptome analysis, followed by computational approaches to identify and quantify perturbed molecular pathways. Exposure of cells to 3R4F cigarette smoke resulted in a dose-dependent response in most toxicity end points. Moreover, we found a significant level of perturbation in multiple biological pathways, particularly in those related to cellular stress. By contrast, exposure to THS 2.2 resulted in an overall lower biological impact. At 3R4F doses, no toxic effects were observed. A toxic response was observed for THS 2.2 in some functional end points, but the responses occurred at doses between 3 and 15 times higher than those of 3R4F. The level of biological network perturbation was also significantly reduced following THS 2.2 aerosol exposure compared to that of 3R4F cigarette smoke. Taken together, the data suggest that THS 2.2 aerosol is less toxic than combustible cigarette smoke and thus may have the potential to reduce the risk for smoke-related diseases. PMID:26651182

  8. Synthetic gasoline additive packages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The need for additives in modern fuels reflects significant changes recently to gasoline composition, with the incorporation of more cracked components and oxygenated supplements. The olefinic components produced by cracking are more prone to oxidation and have been linked to increased deposits in critical fuel metering areas in both carburetors and fuel injectors, and also in induction systems, especially in the intake ports and on intake valves. Heavy aromatics are also produced from severe refinery processing and have been shown to increase deposits in the combustion chamber and on piston crowns, and to correlate well with the octane requirement increase (ORI). In addition, oxygenates can affect intake valve deposits. MTBE was found to increase intake valve deposits in one engine family, as an example. More testing is needed, however, to define the oxygenates' effects on deposit formation more fully. This article describes new detergent additive system which may provide engine cleanliness without detrimental effects on emissions and vehicle performance, particularly octane requirements increase and intake valve sticking.

  9. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Neil B.; Stein, Nicholas F.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M.; Goodman, Karyn; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves hematologic toxicity in particular. Although the long-term efficacy of current treatment options remains disappointing, the improved therapeutic index of IMRT may aid in generalizing its use and allowing the addition of novel approaches such as intraperitoneal immunotherapy.

  10. Reducing lead exposure in children

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The near elimination of lead-related childhood fatalities and encephalopathy by the 1970s and the sharp decline in mean blood lead levels nationwide documented between 1976 and 1980 are two milestones in the fight against lead poisoning. In the case of the latter, we know the antecedents, such as controls on the sale, use, and lead content of lead paint, improved chelation therapy, and increased awareness and case finding; however, the antecedents' relative contributions are not known due to a lack of evaluation. Similarly, the effect of a variety of social-welfare programs has not been evaluated. Since the 1970s, our perception of the problem of lead toxicity and consequently its control has changed. First steps have been made toward attaining one primary preventive objective, controlling the multiple sources of new inputs of lead to the biosphere that contribute to asymptomatic lead toxicity. The lead content of widely used commodities has been reduced (canned foods and gasoline) or virtually eliminated (paint). The benefits of passive measures used to attain reductions in lead exposure have been documented to a greater extent than those of active programs. The best example of a successful primary and passive preventive measure is the availability of lead-free gasoline since 1974, which largely accounts for decreases in ambient air lead concentrations nationwide and the recent shift to lower values in the distribution curve of children's blood lead levels. The latter provides a margin of safety for children before known toxic levels are reached. The contribution of reductions in dietary lead to changes in blood lead levels has not been well documented. Studies also show the benefits of the use of lead-free paint in new housing. Compared to children living in older homes with deteriorating lead paint, those living in lead-free homes are at low risk for lead toxicity.

  11. Copper nanoparticle (CuNP) nanochain arrays with a reduced toxicity response: a biophysical and biochemical outlook on Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Satakshi; Chandra, Sourov; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2015-03-18

    Copper deficiency or toxicity in agricultural soil circumscribes a plant's growth and physiology, hampering photochemical and biochemical networks within the system. So far, copper sulfate (CS) has been used widely despite its toxic effect. To get around this long-standing problem, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized, characterized, and tested on mung bean plants along with commercially available salt CS, to observe morphological abnormalities enforced if any. CuNPs enhanced photosynthetic activity by modulating fluorescence emission, photophosphorylation, electron transport chain (ETC), and carbon assimilatory pathway under controlled laboratory conditions, as revealed from biochemical and biophysical studies on treated isolated mung bean chloroplast. CuNPs at the recommended dose worked better than CS in plants in terms of basic morphology, pigment contents, and antioxidative activities. CuNPs showed elevated nitrogen assimilation compared to CS. At higher doses CS was found to be toxic to the plant system, whereas CuNP did not impart any toxicity to the system including morphological and/or physiological alterations. This newly synthesized polymer-encapsulated CuNPs can be utilized as nutritional amendment to balance the nutritional disparity enforced by copper imbalance. PMID:25686266

  12. Reduced Activity of Double-Strand Break Repair Genes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Late Normal Tissue Radiation Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oorschot, Bregje van; Hovingh, Suzanne E.; Moerland, Perry D.; Medema, Jan Paul; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Vrieling, Harry; Franken, Nicolaas A.P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate clinical parameters and DNA damage response as possible risk factors for radiation toxicity in the setting of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Clinical parameters of 61 prostate cancer patients, 34 with (overresponding, OR) and 27 without (non-responding, NR) severe late radiation toxicity were assembled. In addition, for a matched subset the DNA damage repair kinetics (γ-H2AX assay) and expression profiles of DNA repair genes were determined in ex vivo irradiated lymphocytes. Results: Examination of clinical data indicated none of the considered clinical parameters to be correlated with the susceptibility of patients to develop late radiation toxicity. Although frequencies of γ-H2AX foci induced immediately after irradiation were similar (P=.32), significantly higher numbers of γ-H2AX foci were found 24 hours after irradiation in OR compared with NR patients (P=.03). Patient-specific γ-H2AX foci decay ratios were significantly higher in NR patients than in OR patients (P<.0001). Consequently, NR patients seem to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) more efficiently than OR patients. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated several genes of the homologous recombination pathway to be stronger induced in NR compared with OR patients (P<.05). A similar trend was observed in genes of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway (P=.09). This is congruent with more proficient repair of DNA DSBs in patients without late radiation toxicity. Conclusions: Both gene expression profiling and DNA DSB repair kinetics data imply that less-efficient repair of radiation-induced DSBs may contribute to the development of late normal tissue damage. Induction levels of DSB repair genes (eg, RAD51) may potentially be used to assess the risk for late radiation toxicity.

  13. Health effects of gasoline refueling vapors and measured exposures at service stations.

    PubMed

    Page, N P; Mehlman, M

    1989-10-01

    Liquid gasoline is a complex mixture of at least 150 hydrocarbons with about 60-70% alkanes (paraffins), 25-30% aromatics, and 6-9% alkenes. In order to evaluate the potential for health effects from inhaling gasoline vapors, it is essential to understand the major differences in the composition of vapors versus liquid gasoline. The small chain, low carbon-numbered components are more volatile and thus in higher percentages in the vapor phase than the larger and heavier molecules. It is noteworthy that the concentrations of aromatics (the more toxic of the gasoline components), are depleted to about 2% in the vapor phase, with the light paraffins (the less toxic) enriched to about 90%. Actual measurements of vapor exposure at service stations confirm that the vapor composition is primarily to low weight alkanes although benzene is also emitted and represents the chemical of greatest concern. A perceived health concern from inhaling gasoline vapors is the potential for carcinogenicity based on the induction of kidney tumors in male rats and liver tumors in female mice exposed to wholly-vaporized gasoline. However, the results of the animal studies are of questionable relevance for human risk assessment due to the unique mechanism operative only in the male rat and since the exposure was to wholly-vaporized gasoline rather than the gasoline vapor mixture to which humans are exposed. Recent research supports the hypothesis that branched-chain-alkanes bind to a globulin specific to make rats, alpha 2-u-globulin. The protein complex can not be degraded in the usual manner so that protein accumulation occurs in renal cells, leading to cytotoxicity, death, proliferation, and with prolonged exposure, kidney cancer. The results of epidemiology studies fail to link an increase in cancer to exposure to gasoline vapors. PMID:2683228

  14. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx. PMID:19595441

  15. Prospective DPYD genotyping to reduce the risk of fluoropyrimidine-induced severe toxicity: Ready for prime time.

    PubMed

    Lunenburg, Carin A T C; Henricks, Linda M; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Swen, Jesse J; Deenen, Maarten J; Schellens, Jan H M; Gelderblom, Hans

    2016-02-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine (CAP) are among the most frequently prescribed anticancer drugs. They are inactivated in the liver by the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). Up to 5% of the population is DPD deficient and these patients have a significantly increased risk of severe and potentially lethal toxicity when treated with regular doses of 5-FU or CAP. DPD is encoded by the gene DPYD and variants in DPYD can lead to a decreased DPD activity. Although prospective DPYD genotyping is a valuable tool to identify patients with DPD deficiency, and thus those at risk for severe and potential life-threatening toxicity, prospective genotyping has not yet been implemented in daily clinical care. Our goal was to present the available evidence in favour of prospective genotyping, including discussion of unjustified worries on cost-effectiveness, and potential underdosing. We conclude that there is convincing evidence to implement prospective DPYD genotyping with an upfront dose adjustment in DPD deficient patients. Immediate benefit in patient care can be expected through decreasing toxicity, while maintaining efficacy. PMID:26716401

  16. A laboratory assessment of the toxic attributes of six 'reduced risk insecticides' on Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Maxime; Bostanian, Noubar J; Thistlewood, Howard M A; Mauffette, Yves; Racette, Gaétan

    2011-06-01

    The modified excised leaf disc method was used to measure the effects of six insecticides on eggs, larvae, adults, and female fecundity of Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) in a 'worst case laboratory exposure'. This study identified insecticides that would be recommended for tier II field evaluations for an integrated pest management program. Commercially formulated insecticides were applied with a thin-layer chromatography sprayer adjusted to 10.34 kPa (1.5 psi), at the recommended label concentrations in Canada. LC(50) values were estimated from aliquots above and below that concentration. Spinetoram and spirotetramat were toxic at label concentrations. The label concentration for spinetoram was 34.3-fold the LC(50) estimate (0.006 gL(-1)) and for spirotetramat the label concentration was 7.7-fold the LC(50) estimate (0.03 gL(-1)). Clothianidin was considerably less toxic and the label concentration was 0.15-fold the LC(50) estimate (2.29 gL(-1)). Estimates of LC(50) for novaluron and chlorantraniliprole could not be established. Both materials showed slight toxicity to at least one growth stage of the predator. Novaluron, clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole should be evaluated in the field for compatibility in IPM programs. Flubendiamide was harmless to all growth stages and it is recommended for inclusion in IPM programs without additional tier II field evaluations. Field evaluations with spinetoram and spirotetramat should be pursued only if alternatives are unavailable. PMID:21458842

  17. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel. Plume lengths, though, would not be proportionately reduced. One implication of these results was that the concentrations would be reduced, but the number of impacted wells would remain similar. Because the simulations included emplacement of the gasoline, dissolution from contact with flowing ground water and transient transport in the aquifer, a common-sense explanation of the results was difficult to construct. A simpler model was then used for the purpose of explaining to policy-makers why the plume length reductions were less than proportionate to the reduction of the amount of MTBE. The model was simple enough (one-dimensional, steady state, constant source concentration) so that the effect of each term of the transport equation on plume length could be easily shown. The weight of evidence from using multiple models, direct explanations from the transport equation, and field observation, then provided a sufficient basis for policy makers to understand scientifically how gasoline composition affects ground water impacts. >http://www.epa.gov/athens/learn2model/part- two/onsite/length.htm

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  19. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

  20. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  1. Toxicology and human health effects following exposure to oxygenated or reformulated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F E

    2001-09-15

    In order to replace antiknock leaded derivatives in gasoline, legislations were enacted in the United States and other countries to find safer additives and to reduce CO, O3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in non-attainment areas. Oxygenates commonly used include various alcohols and aliphatic ethers. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used and studied ether oxygenate and is added to gasoline at concentrations up to 15% by volume. Inhalation of fumes while fueling automobiles is the main source of human exposure to MTBE. Humans are also exposed when drinking water contaminated with MTBE. Epidemiological, clinical, animal, metabolic and kinetic studies have been carried out to address human health risks resulting from exposure to MTBE. MTBE is an animal carcinogen, but its human carcinogenic potential remains unclear. Because MTBE functions as a non-traditional genotoxicant, several mechanisms were suggested to explain its mode of action, such as, functioning as a cytotoxic as opposed to a mitogenic agent; involvement of hormonal mechanisms; or operating as a promoter instead of being a complete carcinogen. Some studies suggested that carcinogenicity of MTBE might be due to its two main metabolites, formaldehyde or tributanol. A role for DNA repair in MTBE carcinogenesis was recently unveiled, which explains some, but not all effects. The totality of the evidence shows that, for the majority of the non-occupationally exposed human population, MTBE is unlikely to produce lasting adverse health effects, and may in some cases improve health by reducing the composition of emitted harmful VOCs and other substances. A small segment of the population (e.g. asthmatic children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency) may be at increased risk for toxicity. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate this hypothesis. Concern over ground and surface water contamination caused by persistent MTBE has lead the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to proposed reducing or eliminating its use as a gasoline additive. The major potential alternatives to MTBE are other forms of ethers such as ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and alcohols such as ethanol. More definitive studies are needed to understand the mechanism(s) by which aliphatic ethers may pose health and environmental impacts. The switch from MTBE to ethanol is not without problems. Ethanol costs more to produce, poses challenges to the gasoline distribution system, extends the spread of hydrocarbons through ground water in gasoline plumes, and in the short-term is unlikely to be available in sufficient quantity. Moreover, its metabolite acetaldehyde is a possible carcinogen that undergoes a photochemical reaction in the atmosphere to produce the respiratory irritant peroxylacetate nitrate (PAN). Congress is addressing whether the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) provisions concerning reformulated gasoline (RFG) should be modified to allow refineries to discontinue or lessen the use of oxygenates. PMID:11641038

  2. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  3. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the seasonal and geographical volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are...

  4. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  5. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the seasonal and geographical volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) This section specifies test fuel properties for gasoline with ethanol (low-level blend only) and for gasoline without ethanol. Note that the “fuel type” for the fuels specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section is considered to be gasoline. In contrast, fuels with higher...

  7. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the seasonal and geographical volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are...

  8. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  9. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the seasonal and geographical volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are...

  10. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  11. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  12. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the seasonal and geographical volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline. 1065.710 Section 1065.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline for testing must...

  14. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  15. Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mdler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 110 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

  16. Baker's Yeast Deficient in Storage Lipid Synthesis Uses cis-Vaccenic Acid to Reduce Unsaturated Fatty Acid Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sec, Peter; Garaiova, Martina; Gajdos, Peter; Certik, Milan; Griac, Peter; Hapala, Ivan; Holic, Roman

    2015-07-01

    The role of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) in the reduction of unsaturated fatty acids toxicity was investigated in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quadruple mutant (QM, dga1? lro1? are1? are2?) deficient in enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol and steryl ester synthesis has been previously shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous unsaturated fatty acids. We have found that cis-vaccenic acid accumulated during cultivation in the QM cells but not in the corresponding wild type strain. This accumulation was accompanied by a reduction in palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) content in the QM cells that is consistent with the proposed formation of cis-vaccenic acid by elongation of palmitoleic acid. Fatty acid analysis of individual lipid classes from the QM strain revealed that cis-vaccenic acid was highly enriched in the free fatty acid pool. Furthermore, production of cis-vaccenic acid was arrested if the mechanism of fatty acids release to the medium was activated. We also showed that exogenous cis-vaccenic acid did not affect viability of the QM strain at concentrations toxic for palmitoleic or oleic acids. Moreover, addition of cis-vaccenic acid to the growth medium provided partial protection against the lipotoxic effects of exogenous oleic acid. Transformation of palmitoleic acid to cis-vaccenic acid is thus a rescue mechanism enabling S. cerevisiae cells to survive in the absence of triacylglycerol synthesis as the major mechanism for unsaturated fatty acid detoxification. PMID:25908426

  17. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  18. Evaluation of two mycotoxin binders to reduce toxicity of broiler diets containing ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin contaminated grain.

    PubMed

    Garca, A R; Avila, E; Rosiles, R; Petrone, V M

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) binding ability of two commercial sorbents, both in vitro and in vivo trials with broilers were performed. Crude OA and T-2 extracts from contaminated grain were used to assess in vitro binding ability of two sorbents (Zeotek [Zk] and Mycofix [Mx]), by quantifying free mycotoxin through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. For in vivo trial, a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used for this experiment, being the factors: adsorbents (none, Zk, and Mx), OA (0 and 567 parts per billion [ppb]) and T-2 (0 and 927 ppb). OA and T-2 contaminated wheat and corn, respectively, were added to sorghum-soybean meal diets to meet 567 ppb of OA and 927 ppb of T-2. Mycotoxins were fed alone or combined in treatments. After 21 days, blood chemistry, gross, and histological evaluations were performed. Relative weights of liver, kidney, and bursa of Fabricius were obtained. Zk had the highest OA and T-2 in vitro binding ability (100% and 8.67%, respectively). Chickens fed OA with or without sorbents had a lower body weight and feed intake reduction. However, those birds fed T-2 were partly protected by a sorbent. Birds fed both toxins showed toxic additive effects, and no protection of any adsorbent was observed. A significant reduction in plasma proteins, albumin, and globulins was a characteristic observed in all birds fed diets with OA both with or without adsorbents. Uric acid level in blood was increased in all chickens fed OA-contaminated diets. Histological findings observed in birds fed OA-contaminated diets were necrosis of kidney tubular cells, swollen and necrotic hepatocytes, bile ducts hyperplasia, and increased diameter of proventriculus glands. In birds that received T-2 alone, only the liver, with the same kind of lesions, was affected. According to these results, it can be concluded that there is not a relation between in vitro and in vivo trials. OA toxic effects could not be counteracted by any sorbent. T-2 toxicity could be partially counteracted by an adsorbent used in this research. PMID:14562898

  19. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, Florian; Steimer, Werner; Nitzsche, Thomas; Lehrstuhl fr Biologische Chemie, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Freising-Weihenstephan ; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Mller, Christine; Schlapschy, Martin; Lehrstuhl fr Biologische Chemie, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Freising-Weihenstephan ; Zilker, Thomas; Skerra, Arne; Lehrstuhl fr Biologische Chemie, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Freising-Weihenstephan

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.550 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ? We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ? We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ? We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin after intravenous anticalin administration. ? We provide clinical data on outcome improvement after anticalin administration.

  20. Toxic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangho; Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-12-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  1. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  2. Upgrading gasoline derived from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.J.; Hail, A.H.P.

    1984-04-24

    The present invention relates to a process for upgrading low grade gasoline made from synthesis gas, especially the gasoline made from coal-based processes. The process comprises contacting in the vapour phase the low-grade gasoline either alone or admixed with a C/sub 3//C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon feed with a gallium/aluminosilicate catalyst. The product gasoline so formed has an octane rating RON(clear) above 100 and a bromine number below 2. The process enables synthesis gas and coal to be used as a source of high grade gasoline.

  3. Processing of kansui roots stir-baked with vinegar reduces kansui-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity by decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and regulating the cell apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Guo, Jianming; Cao, Yudan; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Ding, Anwei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1) after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2) was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS), ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb. PMID:24896263

  4. Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

  5. Toll-like receptor-5 agonist Entolimod broadens the therapeutic window of 5-fluorouracil by reducing its toxicity to normal tissues in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharov, Bojidar M.; Brackett, Craig M.; Veith, Jean M.; Johnson, Christopher P.; Gitlin, Ilya I.; Toshkov, Ilia A.; Gleiberman, Anatoli S.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Burdelya, Lyudmila G.

    2014-01-01

    Myelosuppression and gastrointestinal damage are common side effects of cancer treatment limiting efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. The Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist Entolimod has demonstrated efficacy in mitigating damage to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues caused by radiation. Here, using 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) treated mice as a model of chemotherapy-induced side effects, we demonstrated significant reduction in the severity of 5-FU-induced morbidity and increased survival accompanied by the improved integrity of intestinal tissue and stimulated the restoration of hematopoiesis. Entolimod-stimulated IL-6 production was essential for Entolimod's ability to rescue mice from death caused by doses of 5-FU associated with hematopoietic failure. In contrast, IL-6 induction was not necessary for protection and restoration of drug-damaged gastrointestinal tissue by Entolimod. In a syngeneic mouse CT26 colon adenocarcinoma model, Entolimod reduced the systemic toxicity of 5-FU, but did not reduce its antitumor efficacy indicating that the protective effect of Entolimod was selective for normal, non-tumor, tissues. These results suggest that Entolimod has clinical potential to broaden the therapeutic window of genotoxic anticancer drugs by reducing their associated hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicities. PMID:24583651

  6. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats. PMID:19930677

  7. Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to “total” heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including “volatile components” at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable. PMID:879781

  8. Bovine Insulin Filaments Induced by Reducing Disulfide Bonds Show a Different Morphology, Secondary Structure, and Cell Toxicity from Intact Insulin Amyloid Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Zako, Tamotsu; Sakono, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Naomi; Ihara, Masaki; Maeda, Mizuo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Amyloid fibrils are associated with more than 20 diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Insulin is a 51-residue polypeptide hormone, with its two polypeptide chains linked by one intrachain and two interchain disulfide bonds, and has long been known to self-assemble invitro into amyloid fibrils. We demonstrate here that bovine insulin forms flexible filaments in the presence of a reducing agent, Tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine. The insulin filaments, possibly formed due to partial reduction of S-S bonds in insulin molecules, differ from intact insulin fibrils in terms of their secondary structure. The insulin filaments were determined to have an antiparallel ?-sheet structure, whereas the insulin fibrils have a parallel ?-sheet structure. Of importance, the cell toxicity of the insulin filaments was remarkably lower than that of the insulin fibrils. This finding supports the idea that cell toxicity of amyloids correlates with their morphology. The remarkably low toxicity of the filamentous structure should shed new light on possible pharmacological approaches to the various diseases caused by amyloid fibrils. PMID:19383476

  9. Sorption and permeability of gasoline hydrocarbons in organobentonite porous media.

    PubMed

    Smith, James A; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Burns, Susan E

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the use of organobentonites as liners for underground gasoline storage tanks to reduce the risk of subsurface contamination. A series of permeability measurements were conducted on two types of organobentonites: benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite (BTEA-bentonite) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium-bentonite (HDTMA-bentonite). Both water and commercial unleaded gasoline were used as the permeant liquids. Results of these measurements indicate that the intrinsic permeability of the organobentonite decreases by one to two orders of magnitude when the permeant liquid is changed from water to gasoline. Results of batch sorption measurements reveal that benzene sorption to both organobentonites from water is greater than benzene sorption to conventional bentonite. The magnitude of benzene sorption is related to the loading of the organic quaternary ammonium cation on the clay. As the HDTMA cation loading increases from 25% of cation exchange capacity (CEC) to 120% of CEC, benzene sorption increases. However, as the BTEA cation loading increases from 40 to 120% of CEC, benzene sorption decreases. Collectively, these results suggest that organobentonites can be used effectively to reduce hydrocarbon migration rates beneath leaking underground gasoline storage tanks, and that the optimal organic cation loading with respect to pollutant sorption may be less than 50% of cation exchange capacity for some organobentonite-solute combinations. PMID:12475481

  10. Emissions from light duty gasoline vehicles operating on low blend ethanol gasoline and E85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Belisle, Sheri L.; Baas, Cara-Lynn

    The results of two recent vehicle emission studies are described in this paper, along with a statistical analysis of the changes in tailpipe emissions due to the use of ethanol that includes the results from these two studies in combination with results from other literature reports. The first study evaluates the effect of two low blend ethanol gasolines (E10, E20) on tailpipe and evaporative emissions from three multi-port fuel injection vehicles and one gasoline direct injection vehicle at two different test temperatures. The second study evaluates the differences in tailpipe emissions and fuel consumptions of paired flexible fuel and conventional gasoline vehicles operating on California RFG Phase 2 and/or E85 fuels at 20 °C. The vehicles were tested over the four-phase FTP or UDDS and US06 driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions were characterized for criteria pollutants (CO, NO X, NMHC, NMOG), greenhouse gases (CO 2, CH 4, N 2O), and a suite of unregulated emissions including important air toxics (benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein), and ozone reactivity. In the low blend ethanol study, evaporative emissions were quantified and characterized for NMHC. While contradicting, results can be seen among the various literature reports and with these two new studies, the statistical analyses of the aggregated data offers much clearer pictures of the changes in tailpipe emissions that may be expected using either low blend ethanol gasoline (E10) or E85. The results of the statistical analysis suggest that the use of E10 results in statistically significant decreases in CO emissions (-16%); statistically significant increases in emissions of NMHC (9%), NMOG (14%), acetaldehyde (108%), 1,3-butadiene (16%), and benzene (15%); and no statistically significant changes in NO X, CO 2, CH 4, N 2O or formaldehyde emissions. The statistical analysis suggests that the use of E85 results in statistically significant decreases in emissions of NO X (-45%), NMHC (-48%), 1,3-butadiene (-77%), and benzene (-76%); statistically significant increases in emissions of formaldehyde (73%) and acetaldehyde (2540%), and no statistically significant change in CO, CO 2, and NMOG emissions.

  11. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose response using different monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senden, R. J.; DeJean, P.; McAuley, K. B.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies.

  12. A “building block” approach to the new influenza A virus entry inhibitors with reduced cellular toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dongguo; Li, Fangfang; Wu, Qiuyi; Xie, Xiangkun; Wu, Wenjiao; Wu, Jie; Chen, Qing; Liu, Shuwen; He, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a severe worldwide threat to public health and economic development that results in the emergence of drug-resistant or highly virulent strains. Therefore, it is imperative to develop potent anti-IAV drugs with different modes of action to currently available drugs. Herein, we show a new class of antiviral peptides generated by conjugating two known short antiviral peptides: part-1 (named Jp with the sequence of ARLPR) and part-2 (named Hp with the sequence of KKWK). The new peptides were thus created by hybridization of these two domains at C- and N- termini, respectively. The anti-IAV screening results identified that C20-Jp-Hp was the most potent peptide with IC50 value of 0.53 μM against A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) strain. Interestingly, these new peptides display lower toxicities toward mammalian cells and higher therapeutic indices than their prototypes. In addition, the mechanism of action of C20-Jp-Hp was extensively investigated. PMID:26952867

  13. A Synthetic Peptide Blocking the Apolipoprotein E/?-Amyloid Binding Mitigates ?-Amyloid Toxicity and Fibril Formation in Vitro and Reduces ?-Amyloid Plaques in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Marcin; Pankiewicz, Joanna; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Ripellino, James A.; Li, Yongsheng; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Mathews, Paul M.; Fryer, John D.; Holtzman, David M.; Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is associated with accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?). A major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is inheritance of the apolipoprotein (apo) E4 allele. ApoE can act as a pathological chaperone of A?, promoting its conformational transformation from soluble A? into toxic aggregates. We determined if blocking the apoE/A? interaction reduces A? load in transgenic (Tg) AD mice. The binding site of apoE on A? corresponds to residues 12 to 28. To block binding, we synthesized a peptide containing these residues, but substituted valine at position 18 to proline (A?1228P). This changed the peptides properties, making it non-fibrillogenic and non-toxic. A?1228P competitively blocks binding of full-length A? to apoE (IC50 = 36.7 nmol). Furthermore, A?1228P reduces A? fibrillogenesis in the presence of apoE, and A?/apoE toxicity in cell culture. A?1228P is blood-brain barrier-permeable and in AD Tg mice inhibits A? deposition. Tg mice treated with A?1228P for 1 month had a 63.3% reduction in A? load in the cortex (P = 0.0043) and a 59.5% (P = 0.0087) reduction in the hippocampus comparing to age-matched control Tg mice. Antibodies against A? were not detected in sera of treated mice; therefore the observed therapeutic effect of A?1228P cannot be attributed to an antibody clearance response. Our experiments demonstrate that compounds blocking the interaction between A? and its pathological chaperones may be beneficial for treatment of ?-amyloid deposition in AD. PMID:15331417

  14. Heavy metal distribution in sediments and ecological risk assessment: The role of diagenetic processes in reducing metal toxicity in bottom sediments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, H M

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the heavy metal distributions in river and lagoonal sediments of Jacarepagu Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The occurrence of metal phase translocation from the reducible to the oxidizable was observed for Fe, Mn and Ni, from the fluvial environment to the lagoonal. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidizable phase while Zn and Pb were mainly associated with the reducible phase in both environments. It has been demonstrated that metal sulfide formation and complexation by organic complexes are very important aspects in terms of toxicity reduction. By means of a risk assessment methodology, based on available sediment data, it was demonstrated that the lagoonal system is exposed to a low potential ecological risk and that Zn was the metal of greater concern with respect to the system pollution. PMID:15093371

  15. Effects of a highly toxic coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl on intermediary metabolism: reduced triose phosphate content in rat liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Kato, H; Hatsumura, M; Ishida, T; Ariyoshi, N; Yamada, H; Oguri, K

    2001-05-01

    The effects of a highly toxic coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), on triose phosphate metabolizing enzymes were studied. Male Wistar rats received 25 mg/kg PenCB, i.p. At this dose the compound provokes a wasting syndrome. The activity of triose phosphate metabolizing enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, glycerokinase, transaldolase and transketolase were significantly reduced by PenCB treatment to 50%, 60%, 50%, 70% and 40% of free-fed controls, respectively. An inhibition study with pyrazol, a specific inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), showed that ADH makes about a 30% contribution to the formation of glycerol-3-phosphate from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Our current study revealed that PenCB suppresses ADH at the protein expression level. The reduced formation of glycerol-3-phosphate from glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase by PenCB could be due to the suppression of ADH. The triose phosphate content in the liver cytosol of PenCB-treated rats was significantly lower than in free-fed controls. The suppression of triose phosphate metabolism could be a cause of the wasting syndrome provoked by highly toxic coplanar PCB. PMID:11452517

  16. Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes by transmembrane pH gradient to reduce toxicity toward H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Alyane, Mohamed; Barratt, Gillian; Lahouel, Mesbah

    2015-01-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Entrapped DOX in liposome has been shown to reduce cardiotoxicity. Results showed that about 92% of the total drug was encapsulated in liposome. The release experiments showed a weak DOX leakage in both culture medium and in PBS, more than 98% and 90% of the encapsulated DOX respectively was still retained in liposomes after 24 h of incubation. When the release experiments were carried out in phosphate buffer pH5.3, the leakage of DOX from liposomes reached 37% after 24 h of incubation. Evaluation of cellular uptake of the liposomal DOX indicated the possible endocytosis of liposomes because the majority of visible fluorescence of DOX was mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas the nuclear compartment showed a weak intensity. When using unloaded fluorescent-liposomes, the fluorescence was absent in nuclei suggests that liposomes cannot cross the nuclear membrane. MTT assay and measurement of LDH release suggest that necrosis is the form of cellular death predominates in H9c2 cells exposed to high doses of DOX, while for weak doses apoptosis could be the predominate form. Entrapped DOX reduced significantly DOX toxicity after 3 and 6 h of incubation, but after 20 h entrapped DOX is more toxic than free one. PMID:27013909

  17. Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes by transmembrane pH gradient to reduce toxicity toward H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Alyane, Mohamed; Barratt, Gillian; Lahouel, Mesbah

    2016-03-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Entrapped DOX in liposome has been shown to reduce cardiotoxicity. Results showed that about 92% of the total drug was encapsulated in liposome. The release experiments showed a weak DOX leakage in both culture medium and in PBS, more than 98% and 90% of the encapsulated DOX respectively was still retained in liposomes after 24 h of incubation. When the release experiments were carried out in phosphate buffer pH5.3, the leakage of DOX from liposomes reached 37% after 24 h of incubation. Evaluation of cellular uptake of the liposomal DOX indicated the possible endocytosis of liposomes because the majority of visible fluorescence of DOX was mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas the nuclear compartment showed a weak intensity. When using unloaded fluorescent-liposomes, the fluorescence was absent in nuclei suggests that liposomes cannot cross the nuclear membrane. MTT assay and measurement of LDH release suggest that necrosis is the form of cellular death predominates in H9c2 cells exposed to high doses of DOX, while for weak doses apoptosis could be the predominate form. Entrapped DOX reduced significantly DOX toxicity after 3 and 6 h of incubation, but after 20 h entrapped DOX is more toxic than free one. PMID:27013909

  18. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for highermore » loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.« less

  19. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE GASOLINE OXYGENATE ETHANOL ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BTX BIODEGRADATION. (R823420)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microb...

  1. Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels on Learning and Memory

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential toxicity of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels to the developing nervous system is of concern. We previously reported an absence of effect on learning and memory as seen in a trace fear conditioning task and water maze task in offspring of dams exposed prenatally to the...

  2. PE38KDEL-loaded anti-HER2 nanoparticles inhibit breast tumor progression with reduced toxicity and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Kou, Geng; Wang, Hao; Chen, Huaiwen; Li, Bohua; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Shuhui; Hou, Sheng; Qian, Weizhu; Dai, Jianxin; Zhao, Jian; Zhong, Yanqiang; Guo, Yajun

    2009-05-01

    The clinical use of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE)-based immunotoxins is limited by the toxicity and immunogenicity of PE. To overcome the limitations, we have developed PE38KDEL-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles conjugated with Fab' fragments of a humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (rhuMAbHER2). The PE38KDEL-loaded nanoparticles-anti-HER2 Fab' bioconjugates (PE-NP-HER) were constructed modularly with Fab' fragments of rhuMAbHER2 covalently linked to PLGA nanoparticles containing PE38KDEL. Compared with nontargeted nanoparticles that lack anti-HER2 Fab', PE-NP-HER specifically bound to and were sequentially internalized into HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells, which result in significant cytotoxicity in vitro. In HER2 overexpressing tumor xenograft model system, administration of PE-NP-HER showed a superior efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth compared with PE-HER referring to PE38KDEL conjugated directly to rhuMAbHER2. Moreover, PE-NP-HER was well tolerated in mice with a higher LD(50) (LD(50) of 6.86 +/- 0.47 mg/kg vs. 2.21 +/- 0.32 mg/kg for PE-NP-HER vs. PE-HER (mean +/- SD); n = 3), and had no influence on the plasma level of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of animals when injected at a dose of 1 mg/kg where PE-HER caused significant increase of serum ALT in the treated mice. Notably, PE-NP-HER was of low immunogenicity in development of anti-PE38KDEL neutralizing antibodies and was less susceptible to inactivation by anti-PE38KDEL antibodies compared with PE-HER. This novel bioconjugate, PE-NP-HER, may represent a useful strategy for cancer treatment. PMID:18481173

  3. Alkoxyalkyl prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates enhance oral antiviral activity and reduce toxicity: current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Karl Y.

    2009-01-01

    Although the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates cidofovir, adefovir and tenofovir are approved for treating human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and HIV infections, respectively, their utility is limited by low oral bioavailability, renal toxicity and poor cell penetration. Research over the past decade has shown that these undesirable features can be eliminated by esterifying the compounds with an alkoxyalkyl group, in effect disguising them as lysophospholipids. In this modified form, the drugs are readily taken up in the gastrointestinal tract and have a prolonged circulation time in plasma. The active metabolite also has a long half life within cells, permitting infrequent dosing. Because these modified drugs are not recognized by the transport mechanisms that cause the accumulation of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates in renal tubular cells, they lack nephrotoxicity. Alkoxyalkyl esterification also markedly increases the in vitro antiviral activity of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by improving their delivery into cells. For example, an alkoxyalkyl ester of cyclic-cidofovir, a less soluble compound, retains antiviral activity for 3 months following a single intravitreal injection. Two of these novel compounds, hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (CMX-001) and hexadecyloxypropyl-tenofovir (CMX-157) are now in clinical development. This article focuses on the hexadecyloxypropyl and octadecyloxyethyl esters of cidofovir and (S)-HPMPA, describing their synthesis and the evaluation of their in vitro and in vivo activity against a range of orthopoxviruses, herpesviruses, adenoviruses and other double-stranded DNA viruses. The extension to other nucleoside phosphonate antivirals is highlighted, demonstrating that this novel approach can markedly improve the medicinal properties of these drugs. PMID:19425198

  4. Molecular Signatures of Reduced Nerve Toxicity by CeCl3 in Phoxim-exposed Silkworm Brains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Binbin; Li, Fanchi; Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Kaizun; Tian, Jianghai; Hu, Jingsheng; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    CeCl3 can reduce the damage caused by OP pesticides, in this study we used the brain of silkworms to investigate the mechanism of CeCl3 effects on pesticide resistance. The results showed that phoxim treatments led to brain damages, swelling and death of neurons, chromatin condensation, and mitochondrial damage. Normal nerve conduction was severely affected by phoxim treatments, as revealed by: increases in the contents of neurotransmitters Glu, NO, and ACh by 63.65%, 61.14%, and 98.54%, respectively; decreases in the contents of 5-HT and DA by 53.19% and 43.71%, respectively; reductions in the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase, and AChE by 85.27%, 85.63%, and 85.63%, respectively; and increase in the activity of TNOS by 22.33%. CeCl3 pretreatment can significantly reduce such damages. Results of DGE and qRT-PCR indicated that CeCl3 treatments significantly upregulated the expression levels of CYP4G23, cyt-b5, GSTs-?1, ace1, esterase-FE4, and ?-esterase 2. Overall, phoxim treatments cause nerve tissue lesions, neuron death, and nerve conduction hindrance, but CeCl3 pretreatments can promote the expression of phoxim resistance-related genes in silkworm brains to reduce phoxim-induced damages. Our study provides a potential new method to improve the resistance of silkworms against OP pesticides. PMID:26227613

  5. Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make

  6. Thermally enhanced bioremediation of a gasoline-contaminated aquifer using toluene oxidizing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Deeb, R.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.

    1994-12-31

    The combined application of steam injection and vacuum extraction has proved to be very effective for the in situ remediation of a gasoline contaminated aquifer. It is expected that the steam treated zone with its near-sterile nature, increased temperature, and decreased level of contaminant concentration will provide a superior environment for enhanced bioremediation, and will favor the survival of an introduced microbial culture for the destruction of residual gasoline hydrocarbons and especially BTEX compounds (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl benzene, and Xylene). A mixed microbial culture seeded from the pre-steamed aquifer material was enriched in a laboratory chemostat on toluene, a major gasoline aromatic. Studies were conducted to determine the optimal conditions for microbial growth and activity. Growth rate studies conducted at different temperatures revealed that cell growth was optimal at 35 C, a temperature at which the aquifer can be maintained using the existing steam injection wells. The enriched culture was shown to degrade all BTEX compounds successfully both individually and in mixtures. Substrate toxicity was observed for some of the gasoline aromatics but at concentration levels well above those found in groundwater. When cells were exposed to mixtures of BTEX compounds, the biodegradation of xylene, the most recalcitrant aromatic among BTEX compounds, was stimulated. When cells were exposed to gasoline, BTEX degradation proceeded with no apparent inhibition by gasoline aliphatics; little aliphatic degradation took place, however, suggesting the absence of monooxygenase enzymes in the mixed culture. In mixtures of both toluene and propane enriched cultures, only dioxygenase activity was observed.

  7. Gene Transfer of Mutant Mouse Cholinesterase Provides High Lifetime Expression and Reduced Cocaine Responses with No Evident Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with 3H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3×1011 particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (1010 particles) to 20,000 fold (1013 particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7×1012 particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7×1012 particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose. PMID:23840704

  8. Gene transfer of mutant mouse cholinesterase provides high lifetime expression and reduced cocaine responses with no evident toxicity.

    PubMed

    Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J; Russell, Stephen J; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with (3)H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3 10(11) particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (10(10) particles) to 20,000 fold (10(13) particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7 10(12) particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7 10(12) particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose. PMID:23840704

  9. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  10. 40 CFR 80.1654 - California gasoline requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false California gasoline requirements. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur 80.1654 California gasoline requirements. (a) California gasoline exemption. California gasoline that complies with all the requirements...

  11. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  12. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  13. Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

    2014-09-01

    In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

  14. An optimized nanoparticle delivery system based on chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules reduces the toxicity of amphotericin B and is effective in treating tegumentary leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Franca, Juara R; Fuscaldi, Leonardo L; Santos, Mara L; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Fernandes, Simone OA; Cardoso, Valbert N; Castilho, Rachel O; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos AP; Faraco, Andr AG; Coelho, Eduardo AF; Chvez-Fumagalli, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmpB) is active against leishmaniasis, but its use is hampered due to its high toxicity observed in patients. In this study, a nanoparticles-delivery system for AmpB (NQC-AmpB), containing chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules, was evaluated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis. An in vivo biodistribution study, including biochemical and toxicological evaluations, was performed to evaluate the toxicity of AmpB. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and injected in mice. The products presented a similar biodistribution in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of the animals. Free AmpB induced alterations in the body weight of the mice, which, in the biochemical analysis, indicated hepatic and renal injury, as well as morphological damage to the kidneys of the animals. In general, no significant organic alteration was observed in the animals treated with NQC-AmpB. Mice were infected with L. amazonensis and treated with the nanoparticles or free AmpB; then, parasitological and immunological analyses were performed. The NQC-AmpB group, as compared to the control groups, presented significant reductions in the lesion size and in the parasite burden in all evaluated organs. These animals presented significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10, when compared to the control groups. The NQC-AmpB system was effective in reducing the infection in the animals, and proved to be effective in diminishing the toxicity evoked by AmpB, which was observed when it was administered alone. In conclusion, NQC-AmpB could be considered a viable possibility for future studies in the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:25429219

  15. Prevention of chemically induced urinary bladder cancers by naproxen: protocols to reduce gastric toxicity in humans do not alter preventive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lubet, Ronald A; Scheiman, James M; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M Margaret; Boring, Daniel L; Steele, Vernon E; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2015-04-01

    The COX inhibitors (NSAID/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2-specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present study examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of naproxen. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder-specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/kg body weight/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/kg body weight/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN-treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), naproxen alone or combined with omeprazole-prevented cancers, yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN -: treated rats were administered naproxen: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily naproxen/1week vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily naproxen/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C, and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19%, and 96% of rats (P < 0.01). Short-term naproxen treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols that should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) in clinical prevention trials. PMID:25762530

  16. ACTH (Acthar Gel) Reduces Toxic SOD1 Protein Linked to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Transgenic Mice: A Novel Observation

    PubMed Central

    Arrat, Hasan; Lukas, Thomas J.; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology and pathology that makes the development of new therapies difficult. ACTH has neurotrophic and myotrophic effects, but has not been tested in an ALS mouse model. The G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS was used to test the ability of this drug to delay ALS-like symptoms. We showed that within a specific dose range, ACTH significantly postponed the disease onset and paralysis in the mouse model. To our surprise and of greater significance is that ACTH significantly reduced the levels of soluble SOD1 in the spinal cord and CNS tissues of G93A-SOD1 treated mice as well as cultured fibroblasts. PMID:25955410

  17. Heat shock proteins reduce toxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion in SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guo-Hua; Qi, Chen; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2005-11-15

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. However, the pathogenesis of PD remains unclear. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have many functions, including inhibition of apoptosis and necrosis, protection from oxidative stress, and maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential, that are related to neurodegenerative diseases. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) is a neurotoxin that selectively inhibits the mitochondrial functions of DA neurons in the substantia nigra. MPP(+) administration is accepted as a model for PD. In the present study, we found that MPP(+) induced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability. Lower concentrations of MPP(+) induced mainly early apoptosis, and, as the concentration increased, the number of late apoptotic and necrotic cells significantly increased. However, treated by heat shock preconditioning or transfection with HDJ-1, a homologue of human Hsp40, cells showed marked improvement in viability after exposure to the same concentrations of MPP(+). Compared with heat shock, HDJ-1 appeared to improve cell viability obviously. Similarly, HDJ-1 elicited significantly stronger protective effects against apoptosis and necrosis. In addition, HDJ-1 transfection maintained more injured cells in early apoptotic stages and inhibited the occurrence of late apoptotic/necrotic events. Heat shock and HDJ-1 both ameliorated MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity by maintaining the mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the effects of HSPs, such as reducing apoptosis and necrosis, preserving mitochondrial functions and decreasing oxidative stress, may bring a novel approach for PD therapy. PMID:16235253

  18. Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). PMID:17629620

  19. Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Khoufi S; Aloui F; Sayadi S

    2008-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1).

  20. Co-delivery of Pirarubicin and Paclitaxel by Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles to Enhance Antitumor Effect and Reduce Systemic Toxicity in Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoli; Lian, Xianghong; Dong, Jianxia; Wan, Zhuoya; Xia, Chunyu; Song, Xu; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-11-01

    In our study, we aimed to develop a codelivery nanoparticulate system of pirarubicin (THP) and paclitaxel (PTX) (Co-AN) using human serum albumin to improve the therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicities. The prepared Co-AN demonstrated a narrow size distribution around 156.9 ± 3.2 nm (PDI = 0.16 ± 0.02) and high loading efficiency (87.91 ± 2.85% for THP and 80.20 ± 2.21% for PTX) with sustained release profiles. Significantly higher drug accumulation in tumors and decreased distribution in normal tissues were observed for Co-AN in xenograft 4T1 murine breast cancer bearing BALB/c mice. Cytotoxicity test against 4T1 cells in vitro and antitumor assay on 4T1 breast cancer in vivo demonstrated that the antitumor effect of Co-AN was superior to that of the single drug or free combination. Also, Co-AN induced increased apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest against 4T1 cells compared to that of the single drug formulation. Remarkably, Co-AN exhibited significantly lower side effects regarding bone marrow suppression and organ and gastrointestinal toxicities. This human serum albumin-based codelivery system represents a promising platform for combination chemotherapy in breast cancers. PMID:26422373

  1. Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability

    SciTech Connect

    Snee, R.D. ); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

    1994-01-17

    The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

  2. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  3. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m3 for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

  4. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in significant biological effects for upregulation of MIP-2, clearance of Pseudomonas bacteria, development of allergic response after in utero exposure, and cardiovascular indicators of vasoconstriction, oxidant stress, and damage. PMID:17886058

  5. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress. PMID:26552588

  6. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress. PMID:26552588

  7. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist reduces lethality and intestinal toxicity of 5-Fluorouracil in a mouse mucositis model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenqian; Han, Xiaodong; Qin, Shenyin; Zheng, Qi; Wang, Zhigang; Xiang, Di; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Huili; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhu, Shunying; Yu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Han, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis is still an unmet medical problem. 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), a chemotherapy drug, was used to create the animal model of mucositis. Global gene expression array was applied to identify genetic signals involved in the pathogenesis of mucositis. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) was one of the candidates with the characteristic gene expression profile. Its temporal expression pattern correlated to the damage and regeneration phase of the small intestine after a single injection of 5-Fu to mice. Administration of recombinant IL-1Ra to the mouse model of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-Fu demonstrated its therapeutic effects to the symptoms and pathology of the disease. The IL-1Ra treatment reduced the acute lethality, accelerated their body weight recovery, and eliminated severe diarrhea. The symptomatic benefits were supported by the pathological benefits, in which the mice treated with IL-1Ra has less damage and faster recovery of the structure integrity of their small intestine than that of the mice treated with vehicle control. To deliver the therapeutics to the unmet medical condition, further mechanism and translational studies of IL-1Ra in the settings of chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis are warranted. PMID:21723691

  8. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  9. Systemic delivery of a novel liver-detargeted oncolytic adenovirus causes reduced liver toxicity but maintains the antitumor response in a breast cancer bone metastasis model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenwei; Krimmel, Jeffrey; Zhang, Zhiling; Hu, Zebin; Seth, Prem

    2011-09-01

    We are interested in developing oncolytic adenoviruses for the treatment of bone metastasis of cancer. A key limitation of systemic delivery of oncolytic adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is that the majority of the virus is taken up by the liver, causing liver damage and systemic toxicity. Given that Ad5 hexon binding with blood coagulation factor X is a key factor in liver sequestration, and that a rare serotype, Ad48, has a diminished capacity to bind with factor X, we have generated mHAd.luc2, a novel hexon-chimeric oncolytic adenovirus. To create mHAd.luc2, seven hypervariable regions of Ad5 hexon were substituted with the corresponding regions from Ad48. Compared with Ad5-based oncolytic virus Ad.luc2, intravenous injection of mHAd.luc2 into nude mice resulted in significantly reduced liver uptake. A single high dose (1.010(11) viral particles/mouse) of Ad.luc2 resulted in 100% animal death by day 3; whereas none of the mice died in the mHAd.luc2 group. Liver enzyme and liver pathology studies indicated that mHAd.luc2 induced significantly less liver toxicity compared with Ad.luc2. Both mHAd.luc2 and Ad.luc2 exhibited similar binding with breast tumor cells, whereas in the presence of factor X, mHAd.luc2 binding was reduced. Both mHAd.luc2 and Ad.luc2 had nearly equal replication potential in breast cancer cells in vitro. Intravenous injection of mHAd.luc2 and Ad.luc2 into nude mice bearing bone metastases resulted in uptake of the viruses into skeletal tumors, and induced significant inhibition of established bone metastases. Thus, liver-detargeted oncolytic adenovirus can be developed for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. PMID:21480822

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many people using gasoline-powered tools such as ... CO is a dangerous poison. Operating gasoline-powered engines and tools indoors is RISKY BUSINESS. Recommendations It ...

  12. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; Dorandeu, Fréderic

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. PMID:22245128

  13. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is not fully suppressed.

  14. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality. PMID:25982734

  15. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  16. Nanomedicine for therapeutic drug therapy: Approaches to increase the efficacy of drug therapy with nanoemulsion delivery and reduce the toxicity of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambalapally, Swetha Reddy

    The advancement of nanotechnology has paved the way for novel nanoscale materials for use in a wide range of applications. The use of these nanomaterials in biomedicine facilitates the improvement of existing technologies for disease prevention and treatment through diagnostics, tumor detection, drug delivery, medical imaging and vaccine development. Nanotechnology delivery systems for therapeutic uses includes the formulation of nanoparticles in emulsions. These novel delivery systems can improve drug efficacy by their ability to enhance bioavailability, minimize drug side effects, decrease drug toxicity, provide targeted site delivery and increase circulation of the drug in the blood. Additionally, these delivery systems also improve the drug stability and encapsulation efficiency. In the Introduction, this thesis will describe a novel technique for the preparation of nanoemulsions which was utilized in drug delivery and diagnostic applications. This novel Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) method is a solvent and polymer-free and low energy requiring emulsification method, typically utilizing oils stabilized by nonionic surfactants to prepare water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The correlation between the particle size, zeta potential and the emulsion stability is described. The use of this nanoemulsion delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals by utilizing in vitro systems was investigated. Using the PIT method, a self assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) of gamma Tocotrienols (gammaT3), a component of Vitamin E family has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol accumulation in HepG-2 cells. The nanoemulsion is stable and the particle size is around 20 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.065. The effect of the nano gammaT3 on the metabolism of cholesterol, HMG-CoA activity and Apo-B levels were evaluated in an in vitro system utilizing HepG2 cells. A new class of nanoparticles, Quantum dots (QDs) has shown immense potential as novel nanomaterials used as fluorescent labels. They have been studied extensively due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. The study of their applications has led to their use as novel platforms for delivery into living systems for use in medical imaging. The second part of this thesis discusses the toxicity of the various semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe and InP. The results show the toxicity of CdSe and InP QDs in in vitro cultures of whole skin biopsies exposed to similar concentrations. This forms the basis for further studies involving QDs and approaches to reduce the toxicity of these nanoparticles. Finally, ligand exchange mediated Solutol HS-15 modified CdSe QDs were prepared for the first time. The modified CdSe QDs demonstrated long term stability and reduced cytotoxicity. Such behavior is interpreted as arising from decreased aggregation of the QDs due to the incorporation of the surfactant.

  17. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-01-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  18. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-04-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  19. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  20. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  1. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and

  2. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

  3. Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1989-04-10

    Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

  4. MAPPING GASOLINE REQUIREMENTS, APPLICABLE REGULATIONS AND BANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal and State regulations play an important role in understanding gasoline composition around the United States. Multiple sources of information on these programs were used to develop reliable, up-to-date maps showing gasoline requirements imposed by various regulations. Th...

  5. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE GASOLINE AND OXYFUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the ubiquity of gasoline for several decades and more recent modifications in fuel formulations to achieve cleaner gasoline, a quantitative comparative assessment of the health risks related to these fuels remains to be performed. Under authority of Clean Air Act secti...

  6. Historical Gasoline Composition Data 1976 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  7. EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENICITY OF UNLEADED GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the document the likelihood that unleaded gasoline vapors are carcinogenic to humans is evaluated. From carcinogenicity data in animals, an estimate is made of the magnitude of cancer risk a person would experience, under the assumption that gasoline vapors are carcinogenic. A...

  8. Listeria monocytogenes strains selected on ciprofloxacin or the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride exhibit reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, benzalkonium chloride, and other toxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rakic-Martinez, Mira; Drevets, Douglas A; Dutta, Vikrant; Katic, Vera; Kathariou, Sophia

    2011-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a leading agent for severe food-borne illness and death in the United States and other nations. Even though drug resistance has not yet threatened therapeutic interventions for listeriosis, selective pressure associated with exposure to antibiotics and disinfectants may result in reduced susceptibility to these agents. In this study, selection of several L. monocytogenes strains on either ciprofloxacin (2 ?g/ml) or the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC; 10 ?g/ml) led to derivatives with increased MICs not only to these agents but also to several other toxic compounds, including gentamicin, the dye ethidium bromide, and the chemotherapeutic drug tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. The spectrum of compounds to which these derivatives exhibited reduced susceptibility was the same regardless of whether they were selected on ciprofloxacin or on BC. Inclusion of strains harboring the large plasmid pLM80 revealed that MICs to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin did not differ between the parental and plasmid-cured strains. However, ciprofloxacin-selected derivatives of pLM80-harboring strains had higher MICs than those derived from the plasmid-cured strains. Susceptibility to the antimicrobials was partially restored in the presence of the potent efflux inhibitor reserpine. Taken together, these data suggest that mutations in efflux systems are responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype of strains selected on ciprofloxacin or BC. PMID:22003016

  9. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  10. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0–t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

  11. Results from a clofarabine-busulfan-containing, reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation: the phase 2 prospective CLORIC trial

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Patrice; Labopin, Myriam; Socié, Gérard; Tabrizi, Reza; Furst, Sabine; Lioure, Bruno; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; de La Tour, Régis Peffault; Vigouroux, Stéphane; El-Cheikh, Jean; Blaise, Didier; Michallet, Mauricette; Bilger, Karin; Milpied, Noel; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of a clofarabine, intravenous busulfan and antithymocyte globulin-based reduced-toxicity conditioning (CloB2A2) regimen before allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Thirty high-risk patients (median age: 59 years; acute myeloid leukemia n=11, acute lymphoblastic leukemia n=13; myelodysplastic syndrome n=5, bi-phenotypic leukemia n=1) were included in this phase 2 study. At time of their transplant, 20 and seven patients were in first and second complete remission, respectively, while three patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were responding to chemotherapy or who had not been previously treated. The CloB2A2 regimen consisted of clofarabine 30 mg/m2/day for 4 days, busulfan 3.2 mg/kg/day for 2 days and antithymocyte globulin 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days. The median follow-up was 23 months. Engraftment occurred in all patients. The 1-year overall survival, leukemia-free survival, relapse incidence and non-relapse mortality rates were 63±9%, 57±9%, 40±9%, and 3.3±3%, respectively. Comparing patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome versus those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/bi-phenotypic leukemia, the 1-year overall and leukemia-free survival rates were 75±10% versus 50±13%, respectively (P=0.07) and 69±12% versus 43±13%, respectively (P=0.08), while the 1-year relapse incidence was 25±11% versus 57±14%, respectively (P=0.05). The CloB2A2 regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation is feasible, allowing for full engraftment and low toxicity. Disease control appears to be satisfactory, especially in patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT00863148. PMID:24951467

  12. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

  13. Constitutive Androgen Receptor-Null Mice Are Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Parathion: Association with Reduced Cytochrome P450-Mediated Parathion MetabolismS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Linda C.; Hernandez, Juan P.

    2010-01-01

    Constitutive androgen receptor (CAR) is activated by several chemicals and in turn regulates multiple detoxification genes. Our research demonstrates that parathion is one of the most potent, environmentally relevant CAR activators with an EC50 of 1.43 μM. Therefore, animal studies were conducted to determine whether CAR was activated by parathion in vivo. Surprisingly, CAR-null mice, but not wild-type (WT) mice, showed significant parathion-induced toxicity. However, parathion did not induce Cyp2b expression, suggesting that parathion is not a CAR activator in vivo, presumably because of its short half-life. CAR expression is also associated with the expression of several drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (P450). CAR-null mice demonstrate lower expression of Cyp2b9, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp3a11 primarily, but not exclusively in males. Therefore, we incubated microsomes from untreated WT and CAR-null mice with parathion in the presence of esterase inhibitors to determine whether CAR-null mice show perturbed P450-mediated parathion metabolism compared with that in WT mice. The metabolism of parathion to paraoxon and p-nitrophenol (PNP) was reduced in CAR-null mice with male CAR-null mice showing reduced production of both paraoxon and PNP, and female CAR-null mice showing reduced production of only PNP. Overall, the data indicate that CAR-null mice metabolize parathion slower than WT mice. These results provide a potential mechanism for increased sensitivity of individuals with lower CAR activity such as newborns to parathion and potentially other chemicals due to decreased metabolic capacity. PMID:20573718

  14. Reducing the probability of radiation-induced hepatic toxicity by changing the treatment modality from helical tomotherapy to fixed-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin Ho; Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung; Jang, Hong Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate and compare the risk of radiation-induced hepatic toxicity (RIHT) in helical tomotherapy and fixed-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods Twenty patients with unresectable HCC treated with tomotherapy were selected. We performed tomotherapy re-planning to reduce the non-target normal liver volume receiving a dose of more than 15 Gy (NTNL-V15Gy), and we created a fixed-beam IMRT plan (FB-P). We compared the dosimetric results as well as the estimated probability of RIHT among the tomotherapy initial plan (T-IP), the tomotherapy re-plan (T-RP), and the FB-P. Results Comparing the T-RP and FB-P, the homogeneity index was 0.11 better with the T-RP. However, the mean NTNL-V15Gy was 6.3% lower with the FB-P. These differences result in a decline in the probability of RIHT from 0.216 in the T-RP to 0.115 in the FB-P. In patients whose NTNL-V15Gy was higher than 43.2% with the T-RP, the probability of RIHT markedly reduced from 0.533 to 0.274. Conclusions By changing the treatment modality from tomotherapy to fixed-beam IMRT, we could reduce the liver dose and the probability of RIHT without scarifying the target coverage, especially in patients whose liver dose is high. PMID:26376679

  15. Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for Nonroad Engines: DRAFT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol (E0) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas (C...

  16. Gasoline and diesel fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.P.

    1981-10-13

    A gasoline and diesel fuel additive is composed of a mixture of alcohol, toluene, and hydrogen peroxide. The preferred ratio of these substances is 16/8/1. Also for the purpose of quality control, when the additive is to be used with diesel fuel, a few drops of diesel fuel and several drops of glycerin are added to the additive mixture to determine if the proper mixture and blending has been achieved. The process of making this additive includes vigorous agitation of the substances as they are blended together in the order of a predetermined amount of toluene being added to a predetermined quantity of alcohol, and then a chosen amount of hydrogen peroxide being added thereafter. Followed by the vigorous blending of these substances, and then immediate putting of the mixture into suitable containers, and tightly sealing the containers to prevent deterioration of the additive mixture.

  17. Barge Ocean 250 gasoline spill

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, C.A.

    1981-11-01

    On 16 March 1978, the barge Ocean 250 grounded on Watch Hill Reef, 1,006 m off Watch Hill, Rhode Island. An estimated 2.6 million liters of gasoline was spilled into Block Island Sound. Results of cytogenetic analyses indicated maximum damage occurred in fish eggs. Membrane or embryo damage occurred in up to 100% of the fourbeard rockling, Enchelyopus cimbrius, and yellowtail flounder, Limanda ferruginea, eggs collected over a 4 day period following the spill. Twenty-three fish samples representing 10 species were analyzed. With the exception of localized damage to fish eggs, there was no apparent discernible damage to fish or invertebrate populations in the area immediately following the spill.

  18. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of gasoline service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise 779.255 Meaning of gasoline service establishment. (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is typically a physically separate place of business engaged primarily (primarily meaning 50 percent or more) in selling gasoline...

  19. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of gasoline service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise 779.255 Meaning of gasoline service establishment. (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is typically a physically separate place of business engaged primarily (primarily meaning 50 percent or more) in selling gasoline...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.103 - Gasoline fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gasoline fuel additives. 3201.103 Section 3201.103... Designated Items 3201.103 Gasoline fuel additives. (a) Definition. Chemical agents added to gasoline to increase octane levels, improve lubricity, and provide engine cleaning properties to gasoline-fired...

  1. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of gasoline service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise 779.255 Meaning of gasoline service establishment. (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is typically a physically separate place of business engaged primarily (primarily meaning 50 percent or more) in selling gasoline...

  2. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of gasoline service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise 779.255 Meaning of gasoline service establishment. (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is typically a physically separate place of business engaged primarily (primarily meaning 50 percent or more) in selling gasoline...

  3. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of gasoline service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise 779.255 Meaning of gasoline service establishment. (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is typically a physically separate place of business engaged primarily (primarily meaning 50 percent or more) in selling gasoline...

  4. A comparison of immune reconstitution and graft-versus-host disease following myeloablative conditioning versus reduced toxicity conditioning and umbilical cord blood transplantation in paediatric recipients.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Mark B; Jacobson, Judith S; Freedman, Jason; George, Diane; Moore, Virginia; van de Ven, Carmella; Satwani, Prakash; Bhatia, Monica; Garvin, James H; Bradley, Mary Brigid; Harrison, Lauren; Morris, Erin; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Schwartz, Joseph; Baxter-Lowe, Lee A; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2011-10-01

    Immune reconstitution appears to be delayed following myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in paediatric recipients. Although reduced toxicity conditioning (RTC) versus MAC prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with decreased transplant-related mortality, the effects of RTC versus MAC prior to UCBT on immune reconstitution and risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are unknown. In 88 consecutive paediatric recipients of UCBT, we assessed immune cell recovery and immunoglobulin reconstitution at days +100, 180 and 365 and analysed risk factors associated with acute and chronic GVHD. Immune cell subset recovery, immunoglobulin reconstitution, and the incidence of opportunistic infections did not differ significantly between MAC versus RTC groups. In a Cox model, MAC versus RTC recipients had significantly higher risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD [Hazard Ratio (HR) 61, P = 0002] as did recipients of 4/6 vs. 5-6/6 HLA-matched UCBT (HR 31, P = 003), who also had significantly increased risk of chronic GVHD (HR 185, P = 004). In multivariate analyses, MAC versus RTC was furthermore associated with significantly increased transplant-related (Odds Ratio 268, P = 0008) and overall mortality (HR = 41, P = 00001). The use of adoptive cellular immunotherapy to accelerate immune reconstitution and prevent and treat opportunistic infections and malignant relapse following UCBT warrants further investigation. PMID:21848882

  5. Alkylate is key for cleaner burning gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Alkylate is a key component in cleaner burning gasoline. The alkylation process reacts light olefins (propylene, butylenes, and amylenes) with isobutane in the presence of a strong acid catalyst. The alkylate that is produced consists of branched paraffins having a low Reid vapor pressure (Rvp), high research and motor octane numbers (RON & MON), low sulfur content, and a good driveability index (DI). Therefore, alkylation removes olefinic, high Rvp components from the gasoline pool and converts them to an ideal, high octane blendstock for cleaner burning gasoline.

  6. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  7. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

  8. Species profiles and normalized reactivity of volatile organic compounds from gasoline evaporation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; L, Sujun; Shao, Min; Lee, Frank S. C.; Yu, Jianzhen

    2013-11-01

    In China, fast increase in passenger cars and gasoline consumption with yet quite limited vapor recovery during gasoline distribution has procured growing concern about gasoline evaporation as an important emission source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly in megacities hard-hit by air quality problems. This study presents VOC species profiles related to major pathways of gasoline evaporative loss in China, including headspace displacement, refueling operations and spillage/leakage. Apart from liquid gasoline and headspace vapors, gasoline vapors emitted when refueling cars in service stations or tank trucks in oil marketing depots were also sampled in situ with vapor recovery units (VRUs) turning on/off. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons accounted for 55-66, 21-35 and 4-8% in refueling vapors, 59-72, 18-28 and 4-10% in headspace vapors and 33-51, 8-15 and 38-48% in liquid gasoline samples, respectively. During refueling with VRUs turning on, total VOCs in vapors were less than one fifth of that with VRUs turning off, and aromatic hydrocarbons had higher weight percentages of about 8% in contrast with that of about 4% during refueling with VRUs turning off. Refueling vapors, especially for that with VRUs turning off, showed a larger fraction of light hydrocarbons including C3-C5 light alkenes when compared to headspace vapors, probably due to splashing and disturbance during filling operation. In refueling or headspace vapors the ratios of i-pentane/benzene, i-pentane/toluene, and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether)/benzene ranged 8.7-57, 2.7-4.8, and 1.9-6.6, respectively; and they are distinctively much higher than those previously reported in vehicle exhausts. Calculated normalized reactivity or ozone formation potential of the gasoline vapors in China ranged 3.3-4.4 g O3 g-1 VOC, about twice that of gasoline headspace vapors reported in USA as a result of larger fractions of alkenes in China's gasoline vapors. The results suggested that reducing VOC emission from gasoline distribution sector would particularly benefit ground-level ozone control in China.

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  13. Review of the carcinogenic potential of gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, G K

    1993-01-01

    This review examines the animal, human, and mechanistic studies that precede the new studies reported in this volume. Wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline was found to produce a dose-dependent increase in renal carcinoma in male rats and an excess above background incidence of hepatocellular tumors in female mice in the high-dose group. Mechanistic studies suggest that gasoline is not mutagenic and that the probable mechanism for the male rat renal tumors involves a rat-specific protein, alpha 2u-globulin, whose binding with highly branched aliphatic compounds results in renal tubule cell death and, in turn, a proliferative sequence that increases renal tubule tumors. Human evidence generated predominantly from studies of refinery workers does not support a kidney or liver cancer risk in humans. The current epidemiologic database is inadequate to access leukemia risk from low-level benzene exposure from gasoline. Studies of gasoline-exposed workers that incorporate quantitative exposure information are needed. PMID:8020448

  14. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  15. Predict octane number for gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. )

    1993-05-01

    A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

  16. Survey of American (USA) gasolines (2008).

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    The regulations for gasoline's content vary depending on the time of year and physical location within the United States while the refinery and distribution system mixes product batches; this results in variability of content. ASTM E1618 requires both the aromatic and alkane EIP patterns of gasoline to compare with references. A survey was conducted by collecting gasoline from Florida to Oregon, from 85 to 93 octane. Samples were analyzed in accordance with ASTM E1618 in various states of evaporation. The range of differences found in the 90% evaporated alkane EIPs is presented and showed a continuum of response when the n-alkane response was compared with the branched alkane response. Similarly, the ratio of the alkane EIP to the aromatic EIP also showed a continuum of response at the 90% evaporated state. Gasoline samples with unusual characteristics are also discussed. PMID:25288158

  17. Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Edgar R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

  18. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

    2002-04-15

    Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. PMID:11993859

  19. Petroleum fingerprinting: Dating a gasoline release

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.D.; Morrison, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    Dating a gasoline releases is particularly important in situations involving a contaminated gasoline service station. Often the station begins under the control of a major oil company, and as it ages and deteriorates it may be operated by a series of smaller operators. When facing a claim for contamination, often operators blame former operators. Fingerprinting is one of several successful methods used to date petroleum releases on contaminated sites. The topics covered in this article are inventory reconciliation; reverse groundwater modeling; hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

  20. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  1. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-01-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

  2. Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR’s minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb. PMID:20948946

  3. Once-daily intravenous busulfan and fludarabine: clinical and pharmacokinetic results of a myeloablative, reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in AML and MDS.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Marcos; Couriel, Daniel; Thall, Peter F; Wang, Xuemei; Madden, Timothy; Jones, Roy; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Shahjahan, Munir; Pierre, Betty; Giralt, Sergio; Korbling, Martin; Russell, James A; Champlin, Richard E; Andersson, Borje S

    2004-08-01

    Postulating favorable antileukemic effect with improved safety, we used intravenous busulfan and fludarabine as conditioning therapy for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and intravenous busulfan 130 mg/m2 were given once daily for 4 days, with tacrolimus-methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We treated 74 patients with AML and 22 patients with MDS; patients had a median age of 45 years (range, 19-66 years). Only 20% of the patients were in first complete remission (CR) at transplantation. Donors were HLA-compatible related (n = 60) or matched unrelated (n = 36). The CR rate for 54 patients with active disease was 85%. At a median follow-up of 12 months, 1-year regimen-related and treatment-related mortalities were 1% and 3%, respectively. Two patients had reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Actuarial 1-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 65% and 52% for all patients, and 81% and 75% for patients receiving transplants in CR. Recipient age and donor type did not influence OS or EFS. Median busulfan clearance was 109 mL/min/m2 and median daily area-under-the-plasma-concentration-versus-time-curve was 4871 micromol-min, with negligible interdose variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The results suggest that intravenous busulfan-fludarabine is an efficacious, reduced-toxicity, myeloablative-conditioning regimen for patients with AML or MDS undergoing HSCT. PMID:15073038

  4. Encapsulation of temozolomide in a tumor-targeting nanocomplex enhances anti-cancer efficacy and reduces toxicity in a mouse model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Rait, Antonina; Kim, Eric; DeMarco, James; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Chang, Esther H

    2015-12-01

    Although temozolomide (TMZ) is the current first-line chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), most patients either do not respond or ultimately fail TMZ treatment. Both intrinsic tumor resistance and limited access of TMZ to brain tumors as a result of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contribute to poor response and ultimately to poor prognosis for GBM patients. We have developed a "dual-targeting" nanomedicine that both actively crosses the BBB and actively targets cancer cells once in the brain parenchyma. This nanomedicine (termed scL-TMZ) is sized ~40 nm and comprised of a cationic liposome (DOTAP:DOPE) encapsulating TMZ. The surface of liposome is decorated with anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody fragments to facilitate the crossing of the BBB by the scL-TMZ in addition to targeting GBM in the brain. This novel formulation was found to be markedly more effective than standard TMZ in both TMZ-resistant and TMZ-sensitive GBM. Encapsulation of TMZ also markedly enhanced its efficacy in killing a variety of non-GBM tumor cells. The scL-TMZ nanocomplex was shown to target cancer stem cells, which have been linked to both drug resistance and recurrence in GBM. Most significantly, systemically administered scL-TMZ significantly prolonged survival in mice bearing intracranial GBM tumors. The improved efficacy of scL-TMZ compared to standard TMZ was accompanied by reduced toxicity, so we conclude that the scL-TMZ nanomedicine holds great promise as a more effective therapy for GBM and other tumor types. PMID:26325605

  5. Reduced-toxicity conditioning with treosulfan and fludarabine in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: final results of an international prospective phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruutu, Tapani; Volin, Liisa; Beelen, Dietrich W.; Trenschel, Rudolf; Finke, Juergen; Schnitzler, Marc; Holowiecki, Jerzy; Giebel, Sebastian; Markiewicz, Miroslaw; Uharek, Lutz; Blau, Igor W.; Kienast, Joachim; Stelljes, Matthias; Larsson, Kajsa; Zander, Axel R.; Gramatzki, Martin; Repp, Roland; Einsele, Hermann; Stuhler, Gernot; Baumgart, Joachim; Mylius, Heidrun A.; Pichlmeier, Uwe; Freund, Mathias; Casper, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Background An alternative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen for allogeneic transplantation, based on treosulfan and fludarabine, has recently been identified. The rationale for this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of this regimen prospectively in patients with a primary myelodysplastic syndrome. Design and Methods A total of 45 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes were conditioned with 314 g/m2 treosulfan and 530 mg/m2 fludarabine followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes were refractory anemia with excess blasts-2 (44%), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (27%), refractory anemia (9%), refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (4%), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ringed sideroblasts (4%), refractory anemia with excess blasts-1 (2%), and myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del (5q) (2%). The myelodysplastic syndrome was unclassified in 7% of the patients. Forty-seven percent of the patients had a favorable karyotype, 29% an unfavorable one, and 18% an intermediate karyotype. Patients were evaluated for engraftment, adverse events, graft-versus-host disease, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, overall survival and disease-free survival. Results All but one patient showed primary engraftment of neutrophils after a median of 17 days. Non-hematologic adverse events of grade IIIIV in severity included mainly infections and gastrointestinal symptoms (80% and 22% of the patients, respectively). Acute graft-versus-host disease grade IIIV developed in 24%, and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease in 28% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 780 days, the 2-year overall and disease-free survival estimates were 71% and 67%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 17% and 16%, respectively. Conclusions Our safety and efficacy data suggest that treosulfan-based conditioning therapy is a promising treatment option for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01062490 PMID:21659356

  6. Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor to reduce the toxicity of super-VAC chemotherapy in advanced solid tumours in childhood.

    PubMed

    Jones, C A; Shaw, P J; Stevens, M M

    1995-08-01

    Children with advanced solid tumours at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children (RAHC) receive an intensive four drug chemotherapy combination, Super-VAC (cyclophosphamide, 500 mg/m2, adriamycin, 30 mg/m2, actinomycin-D, 0.5 mg/m2, all daily for 3 days, and vincristine, 1.5 mg/m2 weekly). The majority of patients respond well to three courses of such therapy, but with considerable morbidity, including fever, neutropenia, and mucositis. In an attempt to reduce the morbidity of Super-VAC, G-CSF was added. We documented various parameters in 12 patients who received 28 cycles with G-CSF and compared them to an historical control group of 37 cycles in the preceding 14 patients who received Super-VAC. The median duration of each cycle was 23 days with G-CSF and 28 days without G-CSF (P = 0.004). However, differences in requirements for inpatient care (median 16 v. 20 days), intravenous antibiotics (median 9 v. 10 days), amphotericin (median 5 v. 3 days), morphine (median 8.5 v. 7 days), or TPN (median 6.5 v. 8 days) did not reach statistical significance. As expected, a significant difference in neutrophil recovery was demonstrated between the two groups (median 11 v. 16 days, P < 0.0001) but not in platelet recovery (median 13 v. 13 days). The use of G-CSF with Super-VAC resulted in a shorter cycle length, so increasing the dose intensity. A reduction in morbidity could not be demonstrated. No toxic side effects from G-CSF were noted. PMID:7541508

  7. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J.

    1995-10-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  8. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was the main process leading to the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential. While for Hyundai ICEV, gasoline production and tailpipe emission were the primary sources of environmental impact in the use phase. Tailpipe emission was a significant cause for increase in Eutrophication Potential and Global Warming Potential, and so forth. On the basis of inventory data analysis and 2010 Beijing electricity mix, the comparative results of haze-induced pollutants emissions showed that the full life cycle emissions of PM2.5, NO(x), SO(x), VOCs of Midi EV were higher than those of Hyundai ICEV, but the emission of NH3 was lower than that of Hyundai ICEV. Different emissions in use phase were the chief reason leading to this trend. In addition, by sensitivity analysis the results indicated that with the increase of lifetime mileage and proportion of cleaning energy, the rate of GHG( Green House Gas) emission reduction per kilometer of Midi EV became higher with respect to Hyundai ICEV. Haze-induced pollutants emission from EV could be significantly reduced using cleaner power energy. According to the assessment results, some management strategies aiming at electric car promotion were proposed. PMID:25929083

  9. Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ban-Weiss, George A; McLaughlin, John P; Harley, Robert A; Kean, Andrew J; Grosjean, Eric; Grosjean, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Carbonyls can be toxic and highly reactive in the atmosphere. To quantify trends in carbonyl emissions from light-duty (LD) vehicles, measurements were made in a San Francisco Bay area highwaytunnel bore containing essentially all LD vehicles during the summers of 1999, 2001, and 2006. The LD vehicle emission factor for formaldehyde, the most abundant carbonyl, did not change between 1999 and 2001, then decreased by 61 +/- 7% between 2001 and 2006. This reduction was due to fleet turnover and the removal of MTBE from gasoline. Acetaldehyde emissions decreased by 19 +/- 2% between 1999 and 2001 and by the same amount between 2001 and 2006. Absent the increased use of ethanol in gasoline after 2003, acetaldehyde emissions would have further decreased by 2006. Carbonyl emission factors for medium- (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks were measured in 2006 in a separate mixed-traffic bore of the tunnel. Emission factors for diesel trucks were higher than those for LD vehicles for all reported carbonyls. Diesel engine exhaust dominates over gasoline engines as a direct source of carbonyl emissions in California. Carbonyl concentrations were also measured in liquid-gasoline samples and were found to be low (< 20 ppm). The gasoline brands that contained ethanol showed higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in unburned fuel versus gasoline that was formulated without ethanol. Measurements of NO2 showed a yearly rate of decrease for LD vehicle emissions similar to that of total NOx in this study. The observed NO2/NOx ratio was 1.2 +/- 0.3% and 3.7 +/- 0.3% for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. PMID:18589949

  10. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmo, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Cau Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Lus Andr

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota. PMID:20167351

  11. Refining economics of U.S. gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

    2014-10-01

    Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ∼ 93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ∼ 1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 8% for 100-RON E30). PMID:25224603

  12. Quantitative analysis of reformulated gasoline by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Drinkwater, D.; Nero, V.

    1995-12-31

    Reformulated gasoline (RFG) is a new product offered in the United States since January 1, 1995 in an effort by the EPA to meet the Clean Air Act. RFG is a highly-designed product with tight specifications for aromatics, benzene, oxygenate content, distillation properties, sulfur content, toxics content, and vapor pressure. Because of all the new regulatory requirements on this product, a number of new analytical techniques have been specified for its analysis, including GC/MS for total aromatics. Data from the EPA and proposed ASTM methods for RFG analysis are presented, along with data suggesting a number of extensions and improvements on these methods. The accuracy and precision of these methods are evaluated.

  13. Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.

    PubMed

    Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

    2000-09-01

    Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range < 0.2-129 mg/m3) at the Stage II service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean refueling times were 57 seconds (range 23-207) at the Stage I and 66 seconds (range 18-120) at the Stage II station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged from 10 to 17 degrees C, and wind velocity was 2-4 m/s. The climatic conditions were very similar on the measurement days. Based on this study it was found that the Stage II vapor recovery system reduces gasoline emission considerably. The exposure level of customers at the Stage II station during refueling was circa 20-25 percent of the exposure at the Stage I service station when conditions were equal and no other confounding factors such as leaks or spills were present. PMID:10983401

  14. Performance testing of gasolines blended with methanol and gasoline grade tertiary-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    DeJovine, J.M.; Baudino, J.H.; Drake, D.A.; Texler, M.C.; Drucker, G.E.

    1982-09-01

    As the result of an evaluation program, an EPA waiver was granted to Atlantic Richfield for use of methanol at concentrations of up to 4.5 vol % in combination with at least an equal volume of gasoline grade tertiary-butyl alcohol (GTBA) so that the total oxygen content of a finished gasoline will not exceed 3.5 wt %. The in-vehicle performance testing of the methanol/GTBA gasolines is emphasized. Results of four major performance areas are presented: exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, automotive material compatibility, and driveability. The results of these evaluations led to the commercial use and test marketing of Oxinol gasoline blends by a number of US gasoline refiners. 7 figures, 6 tables.

  15. Gasoline marketing: Octane mislabeling in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The problem of octane mislabeling at gasoline stations in New York City has grown - from 46 or fewer citations in 1981 to 171 citations in 1986. No single source of octane mislabeling exists but the city has found both gasoline station operators and fuel distributors to blame. The problem does not seem to be unique to any one type of gasoline station but 57 percent of the 171 citations issued involved gasoline sold under the name of a major refiner; the rest involved unbranded gasoline. Octane cheating can be lucrative in New York City. A station intentionally mislabeling its gasoline could realize amounts many times the city's maximum $500 fine for cheating.

  16. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Fisher, Galen; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  17. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline. PMID:22432307

  18. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  19. Process for making high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.B. Jr.; Carson, D.B.

    1986-06-10

    A process is described for simultaneously raising the octane number of a gasoline product stream and improving the cetane number and smoke point of a distillate stream, while increasing the total volume of liquid products obtained from a naphtha boiling range charge stock. The process consists of: (a) separating the charge into a natural gasoline stream comprising a lower boiling point stream essentially free of C/sub 7/ paraffins and higher boiling hydrocarbons, and a higher boiling point stream essentially free of C/sub 6/ paraffins and lower boiling hydrocarbons; (b) reacting the higher boiling stream in a reforming reaction zone, at reforming conditions and with a reforming catalyst selected to convert naphthenic hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons; (c) separating the result reforming effluent stream to recover an aromatic concentrate and a stream rich in C/sub 7/ and higher paraffins; (d) separating the paraffin rich stream to recover a light paraffin stream comprising C/sub 8/ paraffins and lower boiling hydrocarbons and a middle distillate product stream comprising C/sub 9/ and higher boiling hydrocarbons; (e) converting at least a portion of the lighter paraffin stream into a high octane gasoline component in a paraffin upgrading zone; (f) combining at least a portion of the converted light paraffin stream and the aromatic concentrate with the natural gasoline stream to recover a high octane gasoline product stream.

  20. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  1. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  2. Effect of ethanol denaturant on gasoline RVP (revised). Topical report, June 21, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 require further reduction in gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP) to reduce pollution. This research focused on characterizing the effect of ethanol denaturant and water on the RVP of the final ethanol-blended fuel. Anectdotal stories tell of up to a 0.5-psi effect of ethanol denaturant on the RVP of the finished ethanol-blended gasoline. Additionally, earlier Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data indicated water could have a significant effect on the RVP. It was necessary to scientifically verify these effects using acceptable laboratory protocols.

  3. Modeling the impact of ethanol on the persistence of benzene in gasoline-contaminatedgroundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molson, J. W.; Barker, J. F.; Frind, E. O.; Schirmer, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the persistence of benzenein gasoline-contaminated aquifers is simulated using a multicomponent reactivetransport model. The conceptual model includes a residual gasoline sourcewhich is dissolving at the water table into an aquifer containing a limitedamount of dissolved oxygen. The coupled processes include nonaqueous phaseliquid (NAPL) source dissolution, transport of the dissolved components, andcompetitive aerobic biodegradation. Comparisons are made between dissolvedbenzene plumes from a gasoline spill and those from an otherwise equivalentspill containing 10% ethanol (gasohol). Simulations have shown that undersome conditions a 10% ethanol component in gasoline can extend the traveldistance of a benzene plume by up to 150% relative to that from an equivalentethanol-free gasoline spill. The increase occurs because ethanol preferentiallyconsumes oxygen, which reduces the biodegradation rate of benzene. The impactis limited, however, because sufficient oxygen disperses behind the ethanolplume into the slightly retarded benzene plume. A sensitivity analysis fortwo common spill scenarios showed that background oxygen concentrations andbenzene retardation have the most significant influence on ethanol-inducedbenzene persistence. The results are highly relevant in light of the increasinguse of ethanol-enhanced fuels throughout the world and the forthcoming banof methyl tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) in California and its probable replacementby ethanol by the end of 2002.

  4. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  5. Effect of the gasoline additives on PAH emission.

    PubMed

    Mi, H H; Lee, W J; Chen, S J; Lin, T C; Wu, T L; Hu, J C

    1998-04-01

    PAH emission from the powered engines fueled by a 95 leadfree gasoline (95-LFG), a 92 leadfree gasoline (92-LFG) and a Premium leaded gasoline (PLG) with two gasoline additives (SA and SB) were collected using a PAH sampling system with a particulate interception device. Twenty one PAHs were analyzed primarily by an GC/MS, while eight metal elements were determined mainly by an ICP-AES. This investigation showed that the gasoline additives contain more amounts of carcinogenic PAHs than gasolines do. Blending these additives do raise the PAH content in the gasolines, simultaneously, will emit more amount of PAHs from the tailpipe of engine exhaust. It is suggested that before a gasoline additive is commercialized, an assessment on its PAH emission should be evaluated to make sure that the additive will not emit more PAHs and cause adverse effect on public health. PMID:9532730

  6. Study of health hazards in use of methanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Kasparov, A.A.; Golovkova, N.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.

    1986-07-01

    The hygienic evaluation of mehanol for use as an additive to gasoline was performed under conditions of city driving of automotive vehicles operating on the blends MGB and BM 15-93 (the gasoline base stock had an octane number of 66). The workers handling MGB were examined for personality traits, emotional and volitional state, and anxiety level; also, certain features of psychic activity were evaluated (mental capability, attention, memory). The results show that a situation peceding the start of work with MGB was responsible for most of the freases in subjective indexes characterizing the emotion state, and the mobility and rate of occurence of psychic functions in comparison to background activity. The results indicate the possibility of using MGB to replace leaded and unleaded gasoline, since such replacement will reduce the environmental pollution by fuel combustion products, and the level of air pollution in the workplace will remain low.

  7. Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Butters, R.A.

    1990-09-30

    Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

  8. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section 80.210 Protection of Environment... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  9. Gasoline reformulation to roil petrochem markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-08

    This paper reports that reformulating gasoline in the U.S. will transform world markets for oxygenates quickly and extensively. That's the main point of a study by Probe Economics Inc., Millwood, N.Y., that assesses the effects gasoline reformulation will have on prices and supplies of methyl tertiary butyl ether, methanol, ethanol, and other oxygenates. Probe also examined how upheaval in oxygenates markets will ripple through refined products and petrochemical markets. The analyst sees world oxygenate demand possibly growing more than tenfold by 2001.

  10. Gasoline's lead reduction in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, H.; Perrin, F.; Sosa, R.; Torres, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) in the Mexican Basin has the most serious ozone problem in Mexico. Sunshine, altitude (2240m), light winds, poor ventilation and mountains forming a closed basin, concentrate the pollutants which facilitate ozone formation. Ozone concentrations in the Mexican Basin have increased since fall 1986. The increase of the ozone events has coincided with the introduction by Petroleos Mexicanos of a new gasoline with a tetraethyl lead concentration of 0.64 ml/gal and a additive detergent with amine base. The effect of this new gasoline on ozone layer depletion in MCMZ is discussed in this paper.

  11. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2) a 98-species version including nitric oxide formation reactions. Development of reduced mechanisms is necessary because the detailed mechanism is computationally prohibitive in three-dimensional CFD and chemical kinetics simulations. Simulations of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS), a GCI strategy, have been performed using CONVERGE with the 96-species reduced mechanism developed in this work for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. Comparison is made to experimental data from the Sandia HCCI/GCI engine at a compression ratio 14:1 at intake pressures of 1 bar and 2 bar. Analysis of the heat release and temperature in the different equivalence ratio regions reveals that sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge occurs in order of increasing equivalence ratio for 1 bar intake pressure and in order of decreasing equivalence ratio for 2 bar intake pressure. Increased low- and intermediate-temperature heat release with increasing equivalence ratio at 2 bar intake pressure compensates for decreased temperatures in higher-equivalence ratio regions due to evaporative cooling from the liquid fuel spray and decreased compression heating from lower values of the ratio of specific heats. The presence of low- and intermediate-temperature heat release at 2 bar intake pressure alters the temperature distribution of the mixture stratification before hot-ignition, promoting the desired sequential auto-ignition. At 1 bar intake pressure, the sequential auto-ignition occurs in the reverse order compared to 2 bar intake pressure and too fast for useful reduction of the maximum pressure rise rate compared to HCCI. Additionally, the premixed portion of the charge auto-ignites before the highest-equivalence ratio regions. Conversely, at 2 bar intake pressure, the premixed portion of the charge auto-ignites last, after the higher-equivalence ratio regions. More importantly, the sequential auto-ignition occurs over a longer time period for 2 bar intake pressure than at 1 bar intake pressure such that a sizable reduction in the maximum pressure rise rate compared to HCCI can be achieved.

  12. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... importer of California gasoline is, with regard to such gasoline, exempt from the independent analysis...); and (4) The segregation of simple and complex model certified gasoline provision contained in § 80.78...'s authorized representative upon request. (h)(1) For the purposes of the batch sampling and...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines (a) The mine shall...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

  17. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline....

  18. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  19. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall...

  20. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall...

  1. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall...

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  3. Reduced Toxicity of Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 2c in Mice Compared to Stx2d Is Associated with Instability of Stx2c Holotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Bunger, Joshua C.; Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; Maynard, Ernest L.; O’Brien, Alison D.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is an AB5 ribotoxin made by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). These organisms cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC make two types of Stxs, Stx1 and/or Stx2. Stx2 has one prototype (a) and six subtypes (b–g), but only STEC that make Stx2a, and/or Stx2c, or Stx2d are associated with severe disease. However, Stx2c is about 10-fold less toxic than Stx2d in vivo despite only two amino acid differences in the A subunit at positions 291 and 297. We made mutations at these two sites to create intermediate toxins between Stx2c and Stx2d, and determined the 50% cytotoxic dose on Vero cells before and after heat treatment, and the 50% lethal dose in mice of the toxins. We found that serine 291 was associated with increased toxicity in vivo and that either amino acid change from that in Stx2c to that in Stx2d increased heat stability. We also assessed the secondary structure of Stx2c and Stx2d by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The CD studies suggest that Stx2c has a less-ordered secondary structure than Stx2d. We conclude that both amino acids at positions 291 and 297 in Stx2c contribute to its decreased stability and in vivo toxicity compared to Stx2d. PMID:26110507

  4. SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

  5. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance

  6. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  7. Review of the carcinogenic potential of gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    This review examines the animal, human, and mechanistic studies that precede the new studies reported in this volume. Wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline was found to produce a dose-dependent increase in renal carcinoma in male rats and an excess above background incidence of hepatocellular tumors in female mice in the high-dose group. Mechanistic studies suggest that gasoline is not mutagenic and that the probable mechanism for the male rat renal tumors involves a rat-specific protein, {alpha}{sub 2u}-globulin, whose binding with highly branched aliphatic compounds results in renal tubule cell death and, in turn, a proliferative sequence that increases renal tubule tumors. Human evidence generated predominantly from studies of refinery workers does not support a kidney or liver cancer risk in humans. The current epidemiologic database is inadequate to access leukemia risk from low-level benzene exposure from gasoline. Studies of gasoline-exposed workers that incorporate quantitative exposure information are needed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  9. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristicfor the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  10. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic—for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  11. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of five terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for a basic gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the intermediate course guide see CE 010 946.) The materials were developed for a two semester (2 hours daily)…

  12. Phase Partitioning from Theanol Blend Gasolines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the use of ethanol and other alcohols as motor fuel additives has increased. Additionally, ethanol production has expanded due to the potential use of ethanol as a primary fuel source. Historical patterns of gasoline composition show strong dependency on regulato...

  13. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour

  14. U.S. GASOLINE COMPOSITION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents results from a 2004/2005 study of U.S. gasoline composition. Differences in composition are driven by regulation, octane requirements, refining methods, and performance needs. Major differences in composition were traced to a few compounds: benzene, MTB...

  15. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  16. Oral (po) dosing with RSU 1069 or RB 6145 maintains their potency as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins but reduces systemic toxicity compared with parenteral (ip) administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Bowler, J.; Nolan, J.; Wright, E.G.; Lorimore, S.A.; Adams, G.E. )

    1991-07-01

    RB 6145 is a pro-drug of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 with reduced systemic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of RSU 1069 for C3H/He mice was 80 mg/kg (0.38 mmol/kg) ip but 320 mg/kg (1.5 mmol/kg) following po administration. The MTD values of RB 6145 were 350 mg/kg (0.94 mmol/kg) ip and 1 g/kg (2.67 mmol/kg) po. Toxicity of RSU 1069 toward bone marrow stem cells was also less after po administration than after ip administration; 0.1 mmol/kg ip RSU 1069 and 0.38 mmol/kg po RSU 1069 both reduced the surviving fraction of clonogenic CFU-A cells by 50%. Oral administration of RSU 1069 resulted in lower spermatogenic toxicity. No loss of intestinal crypts was detected after ip or po administration of RSU 1069. Some nephrotoxicity was observed in half of the mice given the highest po dose of 1.5 mmol/kg of RSU 1069; this was not observed following the highest ip dose of drug. For RSU 1069 and RB 6145, administered by either route, the maximum hypoxic cell radiosensitization in murine KHT sarcomas, occurred when the drugs were given 45-60 min before 10 Gy of X rays. The degree of radiosensitization produced by a particular dose of either compound was largely independent of the route of administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies, using 3H-RSU 1069, suggested that anti-tumor efficacy correlated with peak blood level of label and concentration in the tumor at the time of irradiation, which were not reduced by po compared with ip administration. Normal tissue toxicity tended to correlate with total exposure over time, which was reduced approximately two-fold by po administration. Oral administration of RSU 1069 or RB 6145, as well as being convenient, may give therapeutic benefit since dose-limiting toxicity in mice was reduced compared with parenteral administration, whereas radiosensitizing activity was less affected.

  17. Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

  18. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers market power, thereby leading to higher prices. Low brand diversity, though, could act to facilitate collusive behavior, leading to higher prices. I find that prices are higher in markets with high brand diversity. The final chapter of the dissertation summarizes the general findings.

  19. Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

  20. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  1. Modular and selective biosynthesis of gasoline-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Micah J; Kunjapur, Aditya M; Prather, Kristala L J

    2016-01-01

    Typical renewable liquid fuel alternatives to gasoline are not entirely compatible with current infrastructure. We have engineered Escherichia coli to selectively produce alkanes found in gasoline (propane, butane, pentane, heptane, and nonane) from renewable substrates such as glucose or glycerol. Our modular pathway framework achieves carbon-chain extension by two different mechanisms. A fatty acid synthesis route is used to generate longer chains heptane and nonane, while a more energy efficient alternative, reverse-β-oxidation, is used for synthesis of propane, butane, and pentane. We demonstrate that both upstream (thiolase) and intermediate (thioesterase) reactions can act as control points for chain-length specificity. Specific free fatty acids are subsequently converted to alkanes using a broad-specificity carboxylic acid reductase and a cyanobacterial aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The selectivity obtained by different module pairings provides a foundation for tuning alkane product distribution for desired fuel properties. Alternate ADs that have greater activity on shorter substrates improve observed alkane titer. However, even in an engineered host strain that significantly reduces endogenous conversion of aldehyde intermediates to alcohol byproducts, AD activity is observed to be limiting for all chain lengths. Given these insights, we discuss guiding principles for pathway selection and potential opportunities for pathway improvement. PMID:26556131

  2. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  3. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  4. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat certain heart conditions. Digitalis toxicity is a complication of digitalis therapy. It may ... Digitalis toxicity can be caused by high levels of digitalis in the body. A decreased tolerance to the drug ...

  5. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  6. A comparison of the cellular toxicity of exhausts from cars driven on present and future fuels.

    PubMed

    Bernson, V

    1983-01-01

    A cellular test system (brown-fat-cell-test) (BFC-test) has been used to evaluate the toxicity of the particulate phase of exhaust emission from vehicles fuelled with gasoline and alcohol-mixed fuels. The results were evaluated by an analysis of variance with multiple contrasts. The exhaust extracts from cars driven on commercially available gasoline were found to be significantly more toxic to the cellular oxygen consumption than a similar extract of exhausts from cars driven on alcohol-mixed fuels. The lowest toxicity was found with extracts from catalyst processed exhausts. PMID:6197769

  7. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry. VIII. Health effects of motor fuels: Carcinogenicity of gasoline--scientific update

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Significant increases in tumors of kidney, liver, and other tissues and organs following exposure to gasoline provide sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity. Benzene, a significant component of gasoline, has been established without question as a human carcinogen by IARC, EPA, and WHO. 1,3-Butadiene, a component of gasoline, is a powerful carcinogen in both animals and humans. Sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alkyl benzenes, very significant components of gasoline, has also been established. Human epidemiologic studies show important increases in cancers of the kidney, stomach, brain, pancreas, prostate, lung, and skin as well as hematopoietic and lymphatic leukemias as a result of exposure to gasoline, its components, and its vapors. Stage 2 controls are being implemented to reduce exposure of the human population to gasoline vapors. 59 refs.

  8. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination 80.910 How does a refiner...

  9. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination 80.910 How does a refiner...

  10. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. PMID:24956589

  11. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

  12. Market to watch: US gasoline - keeping vigil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-10

    Speculations about US gasoline prices abound in the US daily and trade press. These come from investment consultants, the government, and hard-core statistics gatherers. This issue reviews consumption and price patterns over time for a view of market evolution. The effects of the 1986 oil-price crash are discussed as causal of residual effects on consumption patterns in 1987. It's tempting to speculate what near-term effects past developments will have on the world's largest free market for gasoline. This issue also contains: (1) the ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam and Singapore for early June 1987, and (2) the ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, June 1987 edition. 3 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  14. A reduced-toxicity regimen is associated with durable engraftment and clinical cure of nonmalignant genetic diseases among children undergoing blood and marrow transplantation with an HLA-matched related donor.

    PubMed

    Mahadeo, Kris Michael; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Miklos, David B; Killen, Renna; Kohn, Donald; Crooks, Gay M; Shah, Ami J; Kharbanda, Sandhya; Agarwal, Rajni; Kapoor, Neena

    2015-03-01

    Blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) is a standard curative therapy for patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases. Myeloablative conditioning has been associated with significant regimen-related toxicity (RRT), whereas reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been associated with graft failure. In this prospective pilot trial conducted at 2 centers between 2006 and 2013, we report the outcome of 22 patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases who were conditioned with a novel reduced-toxicity regimen: i.v. busulfan (16 mg/kg), alemtuzumab (52 mg/m(2)), fludarabine (140 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (105 mg/kg). The median age of the study population was 3.5 years (range, 5 months to 26 years). No cases of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, severe or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or primary graft failure were reported. Median time to neutrophil engraftment (>500 cells/?L) and platelet engraftment (>20K cells/?L) were 19 (range, 12 to 50) and 23.5 (range, 14 to 134) days, respectively. The median length of follow-up was 3 years (range, .2 to 6.3). The overall survival rates were 95% at 100 days (95% confidence interval, .72 to .99) and 90% at 6 years (95% confidence interval, .68 to .98). RRT and chronic GVHD are significant barriers to BMT for patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases. This alemtuzumab-based reduced-toxicity regimen appears to be promising with durable engraftment, effective cure of clinical disease, low rates of RRT, and no observed chronic GVHD. PMID:25459642

  15. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  16. Physicochemical and redox characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline and diesel passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Michael D.; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Mamakos, Athanasios; Samaras, Zissis; Schmitz, Debra A.; Froines, John R.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from mobile sources has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease, and an array of environmental problems, including global warming and acid rain. Till date, however, it is not clear which physical characteristics or chemical constituents of PM are significant contributors to the magnitude of the health risk. This study sought to determine the relationship between physical and chemical characteristics of PM while quantitatively measuring samples for redox activity of diesel and gasoline particulate emissions from passenger vehicles typically in use in Europe. The main objective was to relate PM chemistry to the redox activity in relation to vehicle type and driving cycle. Our results showed a high degree of correlation between several PM species, including elemental and organic carbon, low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace metals such as lithium, beryllium, nickel and zinc, and the redox activity of PM, as measured by a quantitative chemical assay, the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The reduction in PM mass or number emission factors resulting from the various engine configurations, fuel types and/or after-treatment technologies, however, was non-linearly related to the decrease in overall PM redox activity. While the PM mass emission rate from the diesel particle filter (DPF)-equipped vehicle was on average approximately 25 times lower than that of the conventional diesel, the redox potential was only eight times lower, which makes the per mass PM redox potential of the DPF vehicle about three times higher. Thus, a strategy aimed at protecting public health and welfare by reducing total vehicle mass and number emissions may not fully achieve the desired goal of preventing the health consequences of PM exposure. Further, study of the chemical composition and interactions between various chemical species may yield greater insights into the toxicity of the PM content of vehicle exhaust.

  17. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  18. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  20. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  1. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  2. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  3. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  4. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  5. Potential health effects of gasoline and its constituents: A review of current literature (1990-1997) on toxicological data.

    PubMed Central

    Caprino, L; Togna, G I

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed toxicological studies, both experimental and epidemiological, that appeared in international literature in the period 1990-1997 and included both leaded and unleaded gasolines as well as their components and additives. The aim of this overview was to select, arrange, and present references of scientific papers published during the period under consideration and to summarize the data in order to give a comprehensive picture of the results of toxicological studies performed in laboratory animals (including carcinogenic, teratogenic, or embryotoxic activity), mutagenicity and genotoxic aspects in mammalian and bacterial systems, and epidemiological results obtained in humans in relation to gasoline exposure. This paper draws attention to the inherent difficulties in assessing with precision any potential adverse effects on health, that is, the risk of possible damage to man and his environment from gasoline. The difficulty of risk assessment still exists despite the fact that the studies examined are definitely more technically valid than those of earlier years. The uncertainty in overall risk determination from gasoline exposure also derives from the conflicting results of different studies, from the lack of a correct scientific approach in some studies, from the variable characteristics of the different gasoline mixtures, and from the difficulties of correctly handling potentially confounding variables related to lifestyle (e.g., cigarette smoking, drug use) or to preexisting pathological conditions. In this respect, this paper highlights the need for accurately assessing the conclusive explanations reported in scientific papers so as to avoid the spread of inaccurate or misleading information on gasoline toxicity in nonscientific papers and in mass-media messages. PMID:9452413

  6. Methanol as a gasoline extender: a critique.

    PubMed

    Wigg, E E

    1974-11-29

    The tests conducted with the three vehicles at different emission control levels suggest that, in the area of fuel economy and emissions, potential benefits with methanol blends are related to carburetion and are only significant in the case of the rich-operating cars built before emission control standards were imposed. Theoretical considerations related to methanol's leaning effect on carburetion support this conclusion. Potential advantages for methanol in these areas are therefore continuously diminishing as the older cars leave the roads. At present, these older cars use only about one-fourth of the totalc motor gasoline consumed and, before methanol could be used on a large scale, this fraction would be much smaller. The use of methanol in gasoline would almost certainly create severe product quality problems. Water contamination could lead to phase separation in the distribution system and possibly in the car tank as well, and this would require additional investment in fuel handling and blending equipment. Excess fuel volatility in hot weather may also have adverse effects on car performance if the methanol blends include typical concentrations of butanes and pentanes. Removal of these light hydrocarbon components would detract from methanol's role as a gasoline extender and if current fuel volatility specifications were maintained, its use could lead to a net loss in the total available energy for use in motor fuels. Car performance problems associated with excessively lean operation would also be expected in the case of a significant proportion of late-model cars which are adjusted to operate on lean fuel-air mixtures. If methanol does become available in large quantities, these factors suggest that it would be more practical to use it for purposes other than those related to the extending of motor gasoline, such as for gas turbines used for electric power generation. In this case, the "pure" methanol would act as a cleanburning fuel, having none of the potentially severe product quality problems associated with its use in motor gasoline, while the fuel oil or natural gas cLirrently burned in these tuLrbines CotLild be diverted to other ulses. PMID:17838586

  7. Encapsulation of cisplatin in long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes improves its antitumor effect and reduces acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Elaine A; Souza, Cristina M; Carvalho-Júnior, Álvaro D; Coelho, Luiz GV; Lana, Ângela MQ; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Mônica C

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective and potent anticancer drugs used as first-line chemotherapy against several solid tumors. However, the severe side effects and its tendency to provoke chemoresistance often limit CDDP therapy. To avoid these inconveniences, the present study’s research group developed long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP). The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effect and toxicity of SpHL-CDDP, as compared with that of free CDDP, and long-circulating and non- pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (NSpHL-CDDP), after their intravenous administration in solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice. Antitumor activity was evaluated by analysis of tumor volume and growth inhibition ratio, serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical studies. Body weight variation and the histological examination of bone marrow and kidneys were used as toxicity indicators. A significant reduction in the tumor volume and a higher tumor growth inhibition ratio was observed after SpHL-CDDP treatment, compared with free CDDP and NSpHL-CDDP treatments. In addition, complete remission of the tumor was detected in 18.2% of the mice treated with SpHL- CDDP (16 mg/kg). As such, the administration of SpHL-CDDP, as compared with free CDDP and NSpHL-CDDP, led to a decrease in the area of necrosis and in the percentage of positive CDC 47 tumor cells. A significant reduction in the VEGF serum level was also observed after SpHL-CDDP treatment, as compared with free-CDDP treatment. SpHL-CDDP administered in a two-fold higher dose than that of free CDDP presented a loss in body weight and changes in the hematopoietic tissue morphology, which proved to be similar to that of free CDDP. No changes could be verified in the renal tissue after any formulations containing CDDP had been administered. These findings showed that SpHL-CDDP allowed for the administration of higher doses of CDDP, significantly improving its antitumor effect. PMID:23091378

  8. Reduced toxicity and superior cellular response of preosteoblasts to Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and comparison with Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Challa, V S A; Mali, S; Misra, R D K

    2013-07-01

    There are serious concerns on the toxicity of vanadium in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In this regard, we describe the biological footprint of Ti-6Al-4V and compare with a viable alternate Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy, in terms of novel experimentation pertaining to cellular activity that include qualitative and quantitative analysis of Feret's diameter of cells, area, and perimeter, and proteins-actin, vinculin, and fibronectin. Interestingly, Ti-6Al-7Nb was characterized by superior cell attachment, proliferation, viability, morphology, and spread, which were significantly different from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Additionally, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated stronger vinculin signals associated with actin stress fibers in the outer regions of the cells and cellular extensions in Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. These striking observations suggest enhanced cell-substrate interaction and activity on the surface of niobium-containing titanium alloy. The significant differences in the cellular response between the two alloys clearly point to the determining role of alloying element (Nb versus V) in a conclusive manner. Based on this study, next generation of titanium alloys is proposed to focus on niobium-containing alloy. PMID:23349101

  9. Dissolved organic carbon reduces uranium bioavailability and toxicity. 1. Characterization of an aquatic fulvic acid and its complexation with uranium[VI].

    PubMed

    Trenfield, Melanie A; McDonald, Suzanne; Kovacs, Krisztina; Lesher, Emily K; Pringle, Jennifer M; Markich, Scott J; Ng, Jack C; Noller, Barry; Brown, Paul L; van Dam, Rick A

    2011-04-01

    Fulvic acid (FA) from a tropical Australian billabong (lagoon) was isolated with XAD-8 resin and characterized using size exclusion chromatography, solid state cross-polarization magic angle spinning, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and potentiometric acid-base titration. Physicochemical characteristics of the billabong FA were comparable with those of the Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) standard. The greater negative charge density of the billabong FA suggested it contained protons that were more weakly bound than those of SRFA, with the potential for billabong water to complex less metal contaminants, such as uranium (U). This may subsequently influence the toxicity of metal contaminants to resident freshwater organisms. The complexation of U with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (10 mg L(-1)) in billabong water was calculated using the HARPHRQ geochemical speciation model and also measured using flow field-flow fractionation combined with inductively coupled plasma mass-spectroscopy. Agreement between both methods was very good (within 4% as U-DOC). The results suggest that in billabong water at pH 6.0, containing an average DOC of 10 mg L(-1) and a U concentration of 90 ?g L(-1), around 10% of U is complexed with DOC. PMID:21351802

  10. The effects of acute acetaminophen toxicity on hepatic mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and levels of peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Cigremis, Yilmaz; Turel, Huseyin; Adiguzel, Kevser; Akgoz, Muslum; Kart, Asim; Karaman, Musa; Ozen, Hasan

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the regulation of antioxidant system under acetaminophen (AAP) toxicity. Twelve male New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups with the following treatments: Group 1 animals were intraperitoneally injected with single saline (control). Group 2 animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of AAP at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. Four hours following the treatments, blood samples were collected and the rabbits were sacrificed to collect liver samples. Hepatocellular damage was evaluated by aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as well as histopathological examinations and immunohistochemical analysis. Tissue-reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO(.)), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured. mRNA expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that liver GSH was reduced significantly in AAP-treated rabbits (P < 0.05), while MDA and NO(.) levels were increased when they were compared to control (P < 0.05). Blood AST and ALT levels were also increased following AAP treatment (P < 0.05). Hepatocellular degeneration and severe necrosis were detected in histopathological examinations. Increased immunostaining was observed for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine in the liver. There were no changes in mRNA expression levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px after AAP treatment compared to control group. These results suggest that the expression of these enzymes, which are involved in the antioxidant system, may not be altered after AAP toxicity, although classical toxic changes such as depletion of GSH, hepatocellular necrosis, and increased immunostaining for iNOS and nitrotyrosine were detected. PMID:19039654

  11. ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

  12. Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

    1921-01-01

    Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

  13. Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.

    PubMed

    Hasselbring, Lori C

    2006-03-17

    This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container. PMID:16181732

  14. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hao, Ji-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Guang; Xiao, Jian-Hua

    The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NO x emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NO x have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion efficiency, engine's speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake specific energy consumption.

  15. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Miche, Hélène; Keller, Catherine

    2012-03-30

    Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha(-1). ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat. PMID:22301080

  16. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540 Section 80.540... Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions 80.540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a) A refiner that has been approved by...

  17. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... period of March 1, 2005 through February 28, 2009, the sulfur content of GPA gasoline at any downstream... produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540 Section 80.540... under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a) A refiner that has been approved by...

  18. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540 Section 80.540... Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions 80.540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a) A refiner that has been approved by...

  19. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540 Section 80.540... Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions 80.540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a) A refiner that has been approved by...

  20. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540 Section 80.540... Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions 80.540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a) A refiner that has been approved by...