These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

Reese, E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kimbrough, R.D. [Inst. for Evaluating Health Risks, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01

2

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

1993-01-01

3

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

2009-10-01

4

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations  

PubMed Central

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

2009-01-01

5

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: Developmental toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Gasoline-vapor condensate (BGVC) or condensed vapors from gasoline blended with methyl t-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME) diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via inhalation on gestation days (GD) 5-20 for 6h/day at levels of 0 (control filtered air), 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). These exposure durations and levels substantially exceed typical consumer exposure during refueling (<1-7mg/m(3), 5min). Dose responsive maternal effects were reduced maternal body weight and/or weight change, and/or reduced food consumption. No significant malformations were seen in any study. Developmental effects occurred at 20,000mg/m(3) of G/TAME (reduced fetal body weight, increased incidence of stunted fetuses), G/TBA (reduced fetal body weight, increased skeletal variants) and G/DIPE (reduced fetal weight) resulting in developmental NOAEL of 10,000mg/m(3) for these materials. Developmental NOAELs for other materials were 20,000mg/m(3) as no developmental toxicity was induced in those studies. Developmental NOAELs were equal to or greater than the concurrent maternal NOAELs which ranged from 2000 to 20,000mg/m(3). There were no clear cut differences in developmental toxicity between vapors of gasoline and gasoline blended with the ether or alcohol oxygenates. PMID:24845242

Roberts, Linda G; Gray, Thomas M; Trimmer, Gary W; Parker, Robert M; Murray, F Jay; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

2014-11-01

6

Method of reducing NOx emissions in gasoline vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An unleaded fuel composition is described comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an amount effective to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from electronic port fuel injected engines of an ammonium compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium formate, ammonium propionate, ammonium dicitrate, ammonium carbamate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and admixtures thereof.

Gwyn, J.E.

1993-08-10

7

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: Subchronic inhalation toxicity.  

PubMed

Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone. PMID:25020274

Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M

2014-11-01

8

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

9

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25

10

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: developmental toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m(3). Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal anomalies. Exposure to 20,000mg/m(3) of BGVC produced slight reductions in maternal body weight/gain and decreased fetal body weight. G/MTBE exposure did not produce statistically significant maternal or developmental effects; however, two uncommon ventral wall closure defects occurred: gastroschisis (1 fetus at 10,000mg/m(3)) and ectopia cordis (1 fetus at 2000mg/m(3); 2 fetuses/1 litter at 10,000mg/m(3)). A second study (G/MTBE-2) evaluated similar exposure levels on GD 5-16 and an additional group exposed to 30,000mg/m(3) from GD 5-10. An increased incidence of cleft palate was observed at 30,000mg/m(3) G/MTBE. No ectopia cordis occurred in the replicate study, but a single observation of gastroschisis was observed at 30,000mg/m(3). The no observed adverse effect levels for maternal/developmental toxicity in the BGVC study were 10,000/2000mg/m(3), 20,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE study, and 10,000/20,000 for the G/MTBE-2 study. PMID:24979735

Roberts, L G; Gray, T M; Marr, M C; Tyl, R W; Trimmer, G W; Hoffman, G M; Murray, F J; Clark, C R; Schreiner, C A

2014-11-01

11

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: Reproductive toxicity assessment.  

PubMed

Vapor condensates of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline-blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for reproductive toxicity in rats at target concentrations of 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3), 6h/day, 7days/week. BGVC and G/MTBE were assessed over two generations, the others for one generation. BGVC and G/MTBE F1 offspring were evaluated for neuropathology and changes in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein content. No neurotoxicity was observed. Male kidney weight was increased consistent with light hydrocarbon nephropathy. In adult rats, decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight were seen. Spleen weight decreased in adults and pups exposed to G/TBA. No pathological changes to reproductive organs occurred in any study. Decreased food consumption was seen in G/TAME lactating females. Transient decreases in G/TAME offspring weights were observed during lactation. Except for a minor increase in time to mating in G/TBA which did not affect other reproductive parameters, there were no adverse reproductive findings. The NOAEL for reproductive and offspring parameters was 20,000mg/m(3) for all vapor condensates except for lower offspring NOAELs of 10,000mg/m(3) for G/TBA and 2000mg/m(3) for G/TAME. PMID:24813181

Gray, Thomas M; Steup, David; Roberts, Linda G; O'Callaghan, James P; Hoffman, Gary; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

2014-11-01

12

Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

Lim, Shinling

13

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

14

Reducing the Toxicity of Diesel Exhausts with Electrical Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major way of reducing the toxicity of diesel exhausts is to optimize the combustion directly in the cylinders. Unfortunately, research on that line has not given any substantial results. No matter how optimal the fuel combustion, the concentration of toxic components at the discharge from the cylinders considerably exceeds the maximum permissible. Also, that approach to toxicity reduction cannot

M. A. Mutushev; Yu. I. Sanaev

2004-01-01

15

Sulfidation of silver nanoparticle reduces its toxicity in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Chemical transformations of metal nanoparticles can be an important way to mitigate nanoparticle toxicity. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) is a natural process shown to occur in environment. Very few studies, employing microbes and embryonic stages of zebrafish, have shown reduction in AgNPs toxicity as a direct result of sulfidation. However the feasibility of reducing nanoparticle toxicity by sulfidation of AgNPs has never been studied in adult vertebrates. In this study, we have used adult zebrafish as a model to study the efficacy of sulfidation of AgNPs in reducing nanoparticle toxicity by employing a battery of biomarkers in liver and brain. While AgNPs enhanced liver oxidative stress, altered detoxification enzymes and affected brain acetylcholinesterase activity, sulfidation of AgNPs resulted in significant alleviation of changes in these parameters. Histopathological analyses of liver and sulphydryl levels also support the significance of sulfidated AgNPs in controlling the toxicity of AgNPs. Our study provides the first biochemical data on the importance of sulfidation of AgNPs in reducing biological toxicity in adult vertebrates. PMID:25438120

Devi, G Prathinkra; Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Varsha, M K N Sai; Shrijha, B S; Lal, K K Subin; Anbazhagan, Veerappan; Thiagarajan, R

2015-01-01

16

Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of

Shing Tet Leong; S Muttamara; Preecha Laortanakul

2002-01-01

17

Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments  

SciTech Connect

A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture{trademark} condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox{reg_sign} Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products.

Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Quebec (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Siron, R. [INRS-Oceanologie, Rimovski, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

18

Selected ebselen analogs reduce mechlorethamine toxicity in vitro.  

PubMed

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant. The lack of an effective antidote makes SM a continued threat to both military and civilian settings. A surrogate agent, namely mechlorethamine (HN2), was used here to mimic the toxicity of SM, and the main objective of this study was to demonstrate if selected organoselenium analogs could protect cultured A-431 skin cells from HN2 toxicity. Test compounds included ebselen (EB-1) and three related organoselenium analogs (EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4). In the absence of test compound, a reproducible and robust cell death was observed in the cells following incubation with HN2 (25?µM, 24 or 48?h) while cells treated with test compound alone (15, 30 or 60?µM) for similar periods of time were generally not affected. When incubated in the presence of both HN2 and test compound for 24 or 48?h, it was found that EB-1, EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4 could spare the cells from death, with the EB-4 compound being the most effective at reducing HN2 toxicity. Light microscopy confirmed these findings. The organoseleniums were also examined for their effects on reducing lipid peroxidation in the A-431 skin cells. Among the test compounds, EB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation by HN2 to the greatest extent. These studies, taken together, validate that the organoselenium antioxidants tested here may serve a purpose in the discovery of medical countermeasures to vesicants. PMID:23734969

Pino, Maria A; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Billack, Blase

2014-03-01

19

Attenuated reovirus displays oncolysis with reduced host toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background: Although the naturally occurring reovirus causes only mild symptoms in humans, it shows considerable potential as an oncolytic agent because of its innate ability to target cancer cells. In immunocompromised hosts, however, wild-type reovirus can target healthy tissues, including heart, liver, pancreas and neural structures. Methods: We characterized an attenuated form of reovirus (AV) derived from a persistently infected cell line through sequence analysis, as well as western blot and in vitro transcription and translation techniques. To examine its pathogenesis and oncolytic potential, AV reovirus was tested on healthy embryonic stem cells, various non-transformed and transformed cell lines, and in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with tumour xenografts. Results: Sequence analysis of AV reovirus revealed a premature STOP codon in its sigma 1 attachment protein. Western blot and in vitro translation confirmed the presence of a truncated ?1. In comparison to wild-type reovirus, AV reovirus did not kill healthy stem cells or induce black tail formation in SCID mice. However, it did retain its ability to target cancer cells and reduce tumour size. Conclusion: Despite containing a truncated attachment protein, AV reovirus still preferentially targets cancer cells, and compared with wild-type reovirus it shows reduced toxicity when administered to immunodeficient hosts, suggesting the potential use of AV reovirus in combination cancer therapy. PMID:21179029

Kim, M; Garant, K A; zur Nieden, N I; Alain, T; Loken, S D; Urbanski, S J; Forsyth, P A; Rancourt, D E; Lee, P W K; Johnston, R N

2011-01-01

20

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

21

Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

Campbell, Brian

2010-01-01

22

Reducing levels of toxic RNA with small molecules.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy. DM is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a toxic gain of function RNA. The toxic RNA is produced from expanded noncoding CTG/CCTG repeats, and these CUG/CCUG repeats sequester the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of RNA binding proteins. The MBNL proteins are regulators of alternative splicing, and their sequestration has been linked with mis-splicing events in DM. A previously reported screen for small molecules found that pentamidine was able to improve splicing defects associated with DM. Biochemical experiments and cell and mouse model studies of the disease indicate that pentamidine and related compounds may work through binding the CTG*CAG repeat DNA to inhibit transcription. Analysis of a series of methylene linker analogues of pentamidine revealed that heptamidine reverses splicing defects and rescues myotonia in a DM1 mouse model. PMID:24028068

Coonrod, Leslie A; Nakamori, Masayuki; Wang, Wenli; Carrell, Samuel; Hilton, Cameron L; Bodner, Micah J; Siboni, Ruth B; Docter, Aaron G; Haley, Michael M; Thornton, Charles A; Berglund, J Andrew

2013-11-15

23

Temperature determines toxicity: Bisphenol A reduces thermal tolerance in fish.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous pollutant around the globe, but whether environmental concentrations have toxic effects remains controversial. BPA interferes with a number of nuclear receptor pathways, including several that mediate animal responses to environmental input. Because thermal acclimation is regulated by these pathways in fish, we hypothesized that the toxicity of BPA would change with ambient temperature. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ecologically relevant and artificially high concentrations of BPA at two acclimation temperatures, and tested physiological responses at two test temperatures that corresponded to acclimation temperatures. We found ecologically relevant concentrations of BPA (20 ?g l(-1)) impair swimming performance, heart rate, muscle and cardiac SERCA activity and gene expression. We show many of these responses are temperature-specific and non-monotonic. Our results suggest that BPA pollution can compound the effects of climate change, and that its effects are more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for. PMID:25514059

Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

2015-02-01

24

Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

Louv, Richard

2006-01-01

25

Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

2014-01-01

26

Reduced Grating Acuity Associated with Retinal Toxicity in Children with Infantile Spasms on Vigabatrin Therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether visual functions are decreased in children with infantile spasms and vigabatrin-attributed retinal toxicity. Methods Contrast sensitivity and grating acuity were measured by using sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) testing in 42 children with infantile spasms (mean age, 29.23 ± 18.31 months). All children had been exposed to vigabatrin (VGB) for a minimum of 1 month. These children were divided into retinal toxicity and no toxicity groupings based on 30-Hz flicker amplitude reductions on the full-field electroretinogram. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared visual functions between children with and without retinal toxicity. Results The MANOVA showed that visual function was significantly affected by VGB retinal toxicity. Further univariate analysis revealed that grating acuity was significantly reduced in children with toxicity. No differences in contrast sensitivity were found between children with toxicity and those without. Conclusions Reduced visual functions from VGB-attributed retinal toxicity can be detected in children with infantile spasms with the sweep VEP. PMID:19279311

Durbin, Sivan; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Westall, Carol A.

2013-01-01

27

Improved distribution and reduced toxicity of adriamycin bound to albumin-heparin microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adriamycin (ADR) was formulated in albumin-heparin conjugate microspheres (AHCMS) to improve site-specific delivery and to reduce the toxicity of the drug. The effect of formulating ADR in AHCMS was investigated upon intrahepatic administration to male Wag\\/Rij rats. After intraveno-portal (i.v.p.) administration of ADR-AHCMS, ADR peak plasma concentrations were reduced 10-fold and ADR tissue levels of non-target tissues were significantly reduced,

H. F. M. Cremers; L. G. Bayon; R. Verrijk; M. M. Wesseling; J. Wondergem; G. Heuff; G. S. Kwon; Y. H. Bae; J. Feijen; S. W. Kim

1995-01-01

28

Complementary and alternative medicine in reducing radiation-induced skin toxicity.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy-induced acute and late effects, particularly skin toxicities, have significant impact on cancer patients' quality of life and long-term survival. To date, no effective topical agents have been routinely used in the clinical setting to prevent skin toxicity. Using SKH-hr1 hairless mice, we investigated two complementary and alternative medicine in their effects on inflammation and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced skin toxicity: Calendula officinalis (CO) and Ching Wan Hung (CWH). They were applied immediately following each IR dosing of 10 Gy/day for 4 days. Skin toxicity and inflammatory factors were evaluated at multiple time points up to 15 days post-radiation. Serum interleukin (IL)-1?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were significantly induced by radiation. Both CO and CWH significantly inhibited IR-induced MCP1 (p < 0.01), KC (p < 0.05), and G-CSF (p < 0.001). IR-induced erythema and blood vessel dilation were significantly reduced by CWH (p < 0.001) but not by CO at day 10 post-IR. Both agents inhibited IR-induced IL-1? (p < 0.01), MCP1 (p < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (p < 0.05). There were continuous inhibitory effects of CWH on IR-induced skin toxicities and inflammation. In contrast, CO treatment resulted in skin reactions compared to IR alone. Our results suggest that both CO and CWH reduce IR-induced inflammation and CWH reduced IR-induced erythema. In summary, CWH showed promising effects in reducing IR-related inflammation and skin toxicities, and future proof-of-principal testing in humans will be critical in evaluating its potential application in preventing IR-induced skin toxicities. PMID:24792319

Hu, Jennifer J; Cui, Tengjiao; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Allen, Glenn O; Li, Jie; Takita, Cristiane; Lally, Brian E

2014-08-01

29

Attenuating the toxicity of cisplatin by using selenosulfate with reduced risk of selenium toxicity as compared with selenite  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported that high doses of sodium selenite can reduce side effects of cisplatin (CDDP) without compromising its antitumor activity, thus substantially enhancing the cure rate in tumor-bearing mice. However, the toxicity of selenite at high doses should be a concern. The present study revealed that selenosulfate had much lower toxicity, but possessed equal efficacy in selenium (Se) utilization, as compared with selenite at similar doses when used for the intervention of CDDP. In addition, Se accumulation in whole blood and kidney of mice treated with selenosulfate was highly correlated with the survival rate of mice treated with CDDP (both r > 0.96 and both p < 0.05), suggesting that whole blood Se is a potential clinical biomarker to predict host tolerance to CDDP. In either Se-deficient or -sufficient mice bearing solid tumors of hepatoma 22 (H22), selenosulfate did not disturb the therapeutic effect of CDDP on tumors but effectively attenuated the toxicity of CDDP. Furthermore, in a highly malignant cancer model, with Se-sufficient mice bearing ascitic H22 cells, 8 or 10 mg/kg CDDP alone only achieved a null or 25% cure rate, whereas coadministration of selenosulfate with the above two doses of CDDP achieved cure rates of 87.5% or 75%. These results together argue for consideration of selenosulfate as an agent to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP.

Zhang Jinsong [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)], E-mail: zjszyzzc@mail.hf.ah.cn; Peng Dungeng; Lu Hongjuan; Liu Qingliang [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)

2008-02-01

30

Ebselen reduces the toxicity of mechlorethamine in A-431 cells via inhibition of apoptosis.  

PubMed

A series of test compounds were evaluated for an ability to reduce the toxicity of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) in vitro. The test compounds included resveratrol, pterostilbene, vitamin C, ebselen, ebselen diselenide, and ebselen-sulfur. Among them, ebselen demonstrated the highest degree of protection against HN2 toxicity. To this end, pretreatment of the cells with ebselen offered protection against the toxicant whereas no protection was observed when cells were first incubated with HN2 and then treated with ebselen. Significant increases in caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were observed in response to HN2, and ebselen was found to reduce these effects. Taken together, the data presented here indicate that ebselen is an effective countermeasure to nitrogen mustard in vitro, which is worthy of future investigation in vivo. PMID:23649643

Lulla, Anju; Pino, Maria A; Pi?tka-Ottlik, Magdalena; M?ochowski, Jacek; Sparavalo, Oleksiy; Billack, Blase

2013-06-01

31

INCREASED TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT 'SALMO GAIRDNERI' RESULTING FROM REDUCED CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The median lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow-through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6-8.6 mg/L, the fo...

32

Effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the toxicity of a coal liquefaction product to juvenile channel catfish  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the acute toxicity of a representative coal liquefaction product. Acute bioassays with juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were used to compare the toxicities of raw (nonupgraded) H-Coal oil, four samples of the same H-Coal oil subjected to different degrees of upgrading by hydrotreatment, and a petroleum crude oil. Channel catfish were chosen because they have considerable commercial and sport fisheries value and are likely to be abundant in large rivers where commercial coal liquefaction facilities will be located.

Cada, G.F.; Kenna, M.

1985-05-01

33

PHARMACOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENT OF ENDOCANNABINOID SIGNALING REDUCES THE CHOLINERGIC TOXICITY OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE  

PubMed Central

Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) elicits cholinergic toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, leading to accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors throughout the body. Endocannabinoids inhibit the release of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine via a widely distributed retrograde signaling pathway. Endocannabinoid signaling is therefore a potential therapeutic target for the management of OP poisoning. We first evaluated the relative in vitro and in vivo (2.5 mg/kg, sc) effects of DFP on cholinesterase, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, another endocannabinoid degrading enzyme) and cannabinoid receptor (CB1) binding in rat hippocampus. The effects of WIN 55212-2 (cannabinoid receptor agonist, 1.5 mg/kg), URB597 (FAAH inhibitor, 3 mg/kg), URB602 (MAGL inhibitor, 10 mg/kg) or AM404 (endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, 10 mg/kg) on DFP toxicity were then examined. Adult male rats (n=5/treatment group) were given either peanut oil or DFP followed immediately by vehicle or one of the four cannabinomimetic drugs. Functional signs of toxicity were evaluated for 24 hours and then rats were sacrificed for neurochemical measurements. DFP inhibited cholinesterase, FAAH, MAGL and CB1 receptor binding in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, with highest and lowest potency against cholinesterase and FAAH, respectively. In vivo, DFP inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase (89%) and FAAH (42%), but had no significant effect on MAGL or CB1 binding. Rats treated with DFP alone showed typical signs of cholinergic toxicity including involuntary movements and excessive secretions (SLUD signs). WIN 55212-2, URB597, URB602 and AM404 all significantly reduced involuntary movements following DFP exposure in a time-dependent manner, and most (URB597, URB602 and AM404) also significantly reduced DFP-induced SLUD signs. These results suggest that enhancing endocannabinoid signaling can attenuate the acute toxicity of DFP and provide rationale for further investigations on the role of endocannabinoids in cholinergic toxicity. PMID:18765251

Nallapaneni, Anuradha; Liu, Jing; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey

2008-01-01

34

Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in regulating the response of plants to Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined possible involvement of NO in the alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl in tobacco plants. Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of NO accumulation and Cd concentration in tobacco plants after the addition of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP), or a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the solution containing NaCl and Cd. NO accumulation in tobacco roots was enhanced when plants were exposed to Cd, but reduced in the treatments of NaCl or l-NAME. NO production was not enhanced even when SNP (NO donor) was added to the solution containing Cd and NaCl. Root number was reduced in plants exposed to Cd, and increased by the addition of NaCl and reduced by the addition of SNP. Addition of NaCl or l-NAME to the Cd-containing solution reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues, with l-NAME having a more dramatic effect. It can be concluded that alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl contributed to reduction of NO accumulation in plants. PMID:25194697

Zhang, Binglin; Shang, Shenghua; Jabben, Zahra; Zhang, Guoping

2014-12-01

35

Studies on the Low Toxicity of Reduced Iron, B.P. 1932  

PubMed Central

Reduced iron, B.P. 1932, an old form of medicinal metallic iron powder, was given by mouth to albino rats. Measurable toxic effects were not produced until the dose reached 10 g./kg. body weight, which is 10 times the LD50 of iron similarly given as ferrous sulfate. Death occurred at three days and after from doses of 60 to 100 g./kg. and was due to hemoconcentration and vascular congestion of the liver and kidneys resulting from absorption of iron through an inflamed gastrointestinal mucosa. Larger doses produced death in one to three days from bowel obstruction due to impaction of iron in the stomach and intestines. The results suggest that reduced iron is the least toxic of all iron medicinal preparations and that re-investigation of its therapeutic value is warranted. PMID:6021563

Boyd, Eldon M.; Shanas, M. N.

1967-01-01

36

A nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of indomethacin eye drops and enhances its corneal permeability.  

PubMed

Indomethacin (IMC) has been shown to reduce post-operative inflammation and to decrease intraocular irritation after cataract extraction and in cystoid macular edema; however, the clinical use of its most commonly used eye drops is limited due to topical side-effects that include burning sensation, irritation and epithelial keratitis. It is known that decreasing direct cell stimulation and reducing the amount applied via increasing bioavailability are useful for improving these issues. In this study, we designed ophthalmic formulations containing 0.5% IMC nanoparticles using zirconia beads and Bead Smash 12 (IMCnano eye drops; particle size 76 ± 59 nm, mean ± S.D.), and investigated the corneal toxicity of these IMCnano eye drops. IMCnano eye drops are tolerated better by a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T) than commercially available NDSAIDs preparations (IMC, pranoprofen, diclofenac, bromfenac and nepafenac eye drops), and corneal wound healing in rat eyes with debrided corneal epithelium instilled with IMCnano eye drops is significantly better than that of eyes instilled with commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the accumulation of IMC in HCE-T cells treated with the IMCnano eye drops for 30 min was 19.9% that of the accumulation from commercially available IMC eye drops. On the other hand, the corneal penetration of IMC from IMCnano eye drops was significantly greater than in the case of the commercially available IMC eye drops in both in vivo and in vitro studies using rabbit corneas. Taken together, we hypothesize that a nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of IMC eye drops, probably because the accumulation of IMC from IMCnano eye drops in the eye is lower than that from commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the nanoparticle formulation may allow a decrease in the amount of IMC used due to the increase in bioavailability, resulting in reduced drug toxicity. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing less toxic eye drops. PMID:24598350

Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

2014-05-01

37

Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2012-04-01

38

Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.  

PubMed

Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 ?g g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 ?g g and died at 200 ?g Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 ?g g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. PMID:22751058

Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

2012-01-01

39

Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

2013-10-01

40

High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury. PMID:22558569

Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M.; Al-Dekheil, Ali; Babkr, Ali; Farahna, Mohammed; Mousa, Hassan M.

2010-01-01

41

Quercetin protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatorenal toxicity by reducing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

High or toxic doses of acetaminophen (APAP), a mild analgesic and antipyretic drug, can cause life-threatening hepatic and renal dysfunction. This study is designed to investigate the potential protective role of quercetin to attenuate the hepatorenal toxicity induced by a high single oral dose (3g/kg) of APAP in rats. Three main groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used: quercetin, APAP and quercetin plus APAP-receiving animals. Corresponding control animals were also used. Interestingly, oral supplementation of quercetin (15mg/kg/day) prior to APAP intoxication dramatically reduced APAP-induced hepatorenal toxicity as evidenced by measuring serum lipid profile, total protein, urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP, G-GT and liver tissue content of TC and TG. Quercetin treatment markedly prevented the generation of TBARS and PCC with substantial improvement in terms of GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in both liver and kidney homogenates. The relationship between quercetin and NO levels which is still a matter of debate, was also investigated. NO levels in serum, liver and kidney tissues were significantly inhibited in quercetin pre-treated animals. Furthermore, quercetin administration significantly inhibited the reduction of liver and kidney contents of ATP parcels associated with this hepatorenal toxicity. These results suggest that the protective role of quercetin in the prevention of APAP-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats was associated with the decrease of oxidative and nitrosative stress in hepatic and renal tissues as well as its capacity to improve the mitochondrial energy production. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25547049

El-Shafey, Mostafa M; Abd-Allah, Gamil M; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Mariee, Amr D

2015-03-01

42

Recombinant human arginase toxicity in mice is reduced by citrulline supplementation.  

PubMed

Human recombinant arginase I cobalt coupled to polyethylene glycol 5000 (HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000) achieved potent in vitro depletion of arginine from tissue culture medium and cytotoxicity to many cancer cell lines. The recombinant enzyme also produced tumor growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma xenografts. Although these results were promising, the therapeutic index was narrow. Toxicities were seen in normal cells in tissue culture. In vivo normal tissue injury occurred at doses twice the effective dose. The current study was conducted to define, in greater detail, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacodynamics, and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of twice-weekly intraperitoneal HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000 in Balb/c mice. Animal weight and survival were monitored, serum arginine levels measured, and complete blood cell counts, chemistries, necropsies, and histologies were performed. In addition, methods to ameliorate the HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000 adverse effects were tested. Supplemental l-citrulline was given concurrently with the arginase drug. The HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000 MTD in mice was 5 mg/kg twice weekly, and DLTs included weight loss and marrow necrosis. No other organ damage or changes in blood cell counts or chemistries were observed. Arginase reduced serum arginine levels from 60 µM to 4 to 6 µM. Supplemental l-citrulline given per os or daily subcutaneously reduced and delayed toxicities, and l-citrulline given twice daily subcutaneously completely prevented animal toxicities. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize that HuArg I [Co]-PEG5000, particularly with supplemental l-citrulline, may be an attractive therapeutic agent for argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient tumors. PMID:22348173

Mauldin, Jeremy P; Zeinali, Ideen; Kleypas, Keri; Woo, Jung Hee; Blackwood, Rebecca S; Jo, Chan-Hee; Stone, Everett M; Georgiou, George; Frankel, Arthur E

2012-02-01

43

Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and ~ 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

Gou, MaLing; Shi, HuaShan; Guo, Gang; Men, Ke; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Lan; Li, ZhiYong; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan

2011-03-01

44

Successful unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation for class 3 ?-thalassemia major using a reduced-toxicity regimen.  

PubMed

Unrelated umbilical CB transplant for class 3 ?-thalassemia major is associated with an increased risk of mortality and non-engraftment. We describe two patients who underwent successful unrelated umbilical CB transplant using a novel reduced-toxicity preparative regimen. This regimen may be sufficiently immunosuppressive and myeloablative to ensure engraftment with reduced risks of toxicity and mortality. Close monitoring of HHV-6 viral load is advised for patients undergoing transplant with this regimen. PMID:24330091

Soni, Sandeep; Breslin, Nancy; Cheerva, Alexandra

2014-03-01

45

Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol produced from biomass has high octane number and gives lower emissions. Therefore, it is used as alternative fuel in the gasoline engines. In this study, ethanol was used as fuel at high compression ratio to improve performance and to reduce emissions in a small gasoline engine with low efficiency. Initially, the engine whose compression ratio was 6\\/1 was tested

M. Bahattin Celik

2008-01-01

46

Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.co [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M. [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

2010-07-01

47

High-dose parenteral ascorbate enhanced chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer and reduced toxicity of chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Ascorbate (vitamin C) was an early, unorthodox therapy for cancer, with an outstanding safety profile and anecdotal clinical benefit. Because oral ascorbate was ineffective in two cancer clinical trials, ascorbate was abandoned by conventional oncology but continued to be used in complementary and alternative medicine. Recent studies provide rationale for reexamining ascorbate treatment. Because of marked pharmacokinetic differences, intravenous, but not oral, ascorbate produces millimolar concentrations both in blood and in tissues, killing cancer cells without harming normal tissues. In the interstitial fluid surrounding tumor cells, millimolar concentrations of ascorbate exert local pro-oxidant effects by mediating hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation, which kills cancer cells. We investigated downstream mechanisms of ascorbate-induced cell death. Data show that millimolar ascorbate, acting as a pro-oxidant, induced DNA damage and depleted cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), activated the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, and resulted in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition and death in ovarian cancer cells. The combination of parenteral ascorbate with the conventional chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel synergistically inhibited ovarian cancer in mouse models and reduced chemotherapy-associated toxicity in patients with ovarian cancer. On the basis of its potential benefit and minimal toxicity, examination of intravenous ascorbate in combination with standard chemotherapy is justified in larger clinical trials. PMID:24500406

Ma, Yan; Chapman, Julia; Levine, Mark; Polireddy, Kishore; Drisko, Jeanne; Chen, Qi

2014-02-01

48

Development of novel aminoglycoside (NB54) with reduced toxicity and enhanced suppression of disease-causing premature stop mutations  

PubMed Central

Nonsense mutations promote premature translational termination and represent the underlying cause of a large number of human genetic diseases. The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin has the ability to allow the mammalian ribosome to read past a false-stop signal and generate full-length functional proteins. However, severe toxic side effects along with the reduced suppression efficiency at subtoxic doses limit the use of gentamicin for suppression therapy. We describe here the first systematic development of the novel aminoglycoside 2 (NB54) exhibiting superior in vitro readthrough efficiency to that of gentamicin in seven different DNA fragments derived from mutant genes carrying nonsense mutations representing the genetic diseases Usher syndrome, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Hurler syndrome. Comparative acute lethal toxicity in mice, cell toxicity and the assessment of hair cell toxicity in cochlear explants further indicated that 2 exhibits far lower toxicity than that of gentamicin. PMID:19309154

Nudelman, Igor; Rebibo-Sabbah, Annie; Cherniavsky, Marina; Belakhov, Valery; Hainrichson, Mariana; Chen, Fuquan; Schacht, Jochen; Pilch, Daniel S.; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Baasov, Timor

2009-01-01

49

Gasoline detergent additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gasoline fuel composition. It comprises a major portion of a gasoline fuel and a minor amount, as a gasoline detergent additive, of a Mannich coupled product of bis-polyisobutylene succinimide of an amine, prepared by: reacting an alkenyl succinimide acid anhydride with an amine to form a bis-succinimide; treating the bis-succinimide with nonylphenol in the presence of

S. Herbstman; T. E. Hayden; T. E. Nalesnik; N. Benfaremo

1991-01-01

50

The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposure on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 24h LC50 for copper exposure, with 100?M Trolox elevating the LC50 by almost seven-fold (from 0.36 to 2.43?M). Copper exposure (0.2?M) for

Bruce A. O’Gara; Phillip M. Murray; Erik M. Hoyt; Tifany Leigh-Logan; Michael B. Smeaton

2006-01-01

51

Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

2013-07-01

52

Effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the toxicity of a coal liquefaction product to juvenile channel catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

H-Coal is a process for the direct liquefaction of coal under hlgh temperatures and pressures to produce synthetic petroleumsubstitute fuels. Because it can convert hlgh-sulfur coal to low-sulfur fuel oii or transportation fuels, commercialization of the H-Coal process could supplement the existing supply of petroleum-based oll and gasoline. However, because coal-derived olls contain many organic compounds, such as phenols and

Glenn F. Cada; Margaret Kenna

1985-01-01

53

Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats  

PubMed Central

Despite the reports on safety concerns regarding the relationship between aluminum salts and neurological and bone disease, many countries continue to use aluminum as phosphate binders among patients with renal failure. In search for a diet supplement that could reduce aluminum toxicity related to renal failure, we carried out this prospective animal study in which the fenugreek seeds were assessed for their effects on rats nephrotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Oral AlCl3 administration during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via drinking water) led to plasma biochemical changes, an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a decrease of total antioxidant status (TAS), and an induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the blood and brain, in addition to kidney atrophy and morphological alterations at the level of Bowman's capsule, the glomerulus and different sorts of tubules, reminiscent of some known kidney disease. The treatment with the whole fenugreek seed powder (FSP) (5% in the diet) during the last 2 months showed its effectiveness in restoring normal plasma values of urea, creatinine, ALP and glucose, as well as re-increasing the TAS, inhibiting LPO and alleviating histopathological changes in the injured kidneys. This study highlights the induced nephrotoxicicity, as well as the related toxicity in the brain and bone, by chronic oral ingestion of the aluminum salts. However, the maintenance of a diet supplemented with fenugreek seeds could offer protection for the kidney, bone and brain, at the same time. PMID:24353832

Bakhta, Hayfa; Haouas, Zohra; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

2013-01-01

54

Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats.  

PubMed

Despite the reports on safety concerns regarding the relationship between aluminum salts and neurological and bone disease, many countries continue to use aluminum as phosphate binders among patients with renal failure. In search for a diet supplement that could reduce aluminum toxicity related to renal failure, we carried out this prospective animal study in which the fenugreek seeds were assessed for their effects on rats nephrotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Oral AlCl3 administration during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via drinking water) led to plasma biochemical changes, an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a decrease of total antioxidant status (TAS), and an induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the blood and brain, in addition to kidney atrophy and morphological alterations at the level of Bowman's capsule, the glomerulus and different sorts of tubules, reminiscent of some known kidney disease. The treatment with the whole fenugreek seed powder (FSP) (5% in the diet) during the last 2 months showed its effectiveness in restoring normal plasma values of urea, creatinine, ALP and glucose, as well as re-increasing the TAS, inhibiting LPO and alleviating histopathological changes in the injured kidneys. This study highlights the induced nephrotoxicicity, as well as the related toxicity in the brain and bone, by chronic oral ingestion of the aluminum salts. However, the maintenance of a diet supplemented with fenugreek seeds could offer protection for the kidney, bone and brain, at the same time. PMID:24353832

Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Bakhta, Hayfa; Haouas, Zohra; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

2013-12-01

55

Persulfate Oxidation of Gasoline Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is a promising remediation technology that can be potentially applied to a wide range of organic contaminants. Gasoline compounds are of particular interest because they extensively impact the soil and groundwater, and are highly persistent and toxic. In this investigation, destruction of specific gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and naphthalene), and fractions (F1 and F2) by activated and inactivated persulfate was studied at the bench-scale. Aqueous phase batch reactors (25 mL) for inactivated systems employed persulfate at two concentrations (1 or 20 g/L), and activated systems were conducted with a persulfate concentration of 20 g/L. In the activated systems, the ability of hydrogen peroxide or chelated-ferrous as an activator was examined at two experimental conditions (peroxide molar ratio 0.1 and 1.0 with respect to persulfate; and citric acid chelated ferrous at 150 and 600 mg/L). All treatments and controls contained an initial gasoline concentration of approximately 25 mg/L and were run in triplicate. Sampling for gasoline compounds was conducted over <28 day reaction period. The controls showed insignificant degradation for all the gasoline compounds and fractions examined while inactivated persulfate at 1 g/L showed little (<10%) decrease in the concentration of gasoline compounds over the 28 day reaction period. Inactivated persulfate at 20 g/L demonstrated a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of BTEX (>99%), TMB (>94%) and naphthalene (>71%). Oxidation of the F1 fraction (>94%) was more pronounced than the F2 fraction (>80%), and >93% TPH was oxidized. Use of peroxide as an activator at a molar ratio of 0.1 improved the destruction of TMBs (>99%) and naphthalene (>85%) while maintaining the high removal of BTEX (>99%) compounds. Increase in activator strength (molar ratio 1.0) decreased the destruction of xylenes (>86%) and TMBs (>81%). The decrease in concentration of all the compounds was higher for a molar ratio of 1.0 (<27%) as compared with a molar ratio of 0.1 (<11%). The activation by ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of compounds (except naphthalene) as compared with unactivated or peroxide activated persulfate. 1,3,5-TMB was completed oxidized after 4 days using higher chelated ferrous concentration and after 12 days using lower chelated ferrous concentration for persulfate activation. In general, increase in chelated ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of the gasoline compounds. While oxidation of F1 fraction was similar for two ferrous activation conditions, the oxidation of F2 fraction was lower when ferrous activation at 600 mg/L was employed. Use of persulfate at high dosages by itself or in combination with higher doses of chelated ferrous or optimum doses of peroxide as an activator seems to be a viable option for remediation of gasoline compounds examined in this study. Persulfate appears to be particularly effective in the oxidation of BTEX compounds, but may require ferrous activation for a complete oxidation of TMBs and peroxide activation for oxidation of naphthalene.

Sra, K.; Thomson, N.; Barker, J.

2009-05-01

56

Opposing Influence of Intracellular and Membrane Thiols on the Toxicity of Reducible Polycations  

PubMed Central

Toxicity of polycations has been recognized since their first use in gene delivery. Bioreducible polycations attract attention because of their improved safety due to selective intracellular degradation by glutathione (GSH). Here we present a systematic study of the toxicity of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s (PAA). PAA with increasing content of disulfide bonds were synthesized by Michael addition. Toxicity of PAA was evaluated in two cell lines with different innate levels of intracellular GSH. Increasing the content of disulfide bonds decreased the toxicity of PAA, with more significant decrease observed in cells with high GSH. Depleting intracellular GSH by diethyl maleate resulted in increased toxicity of bioreducible PAA. In contrast, increasing the GSH concentrations by growing cells in hypoxic conditions resulted in further decreased toxicity compared with cells grown in normoxic conditions. The presence of exofacial plasma membrane thiols selectively increased toxicity of bioreducible PAA while having no effect on non-degradable controls. These results improve our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of polycation toxicity. They also shed light on the opposing effects of different cellular thiol pools on the toxicity of bioreducible polycations. PMID:23948163

Wu, Chao; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Jun; Oupický, David

2013-01-01

57

Steroid premedication markedly reduces liver and bone marrow toxicity of trabectedin in advanced sarcoma.  

PubMed

Trabectedin is a marine-derived cytoxic alkaloid which has shown promising antitumour activity in a variety of human malignancies including sarcoma. Fifty-four patients with advanced sarcoma (age 43 yrs, range 18-70), all pretreated with prior chemotherapy, were enrolled on a named individual basis for treatment with trabectedin. Diagnosis was adult soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in 46 patients, Ewing's family tumour (EFT) in 4, and osteosarcoma (OS) in 4. The initial 23 patients (total number of courses administered: 68) did not receive premedication prior to trabectedin, while the other 31 patients (total number of courses administered: 134) received premedication with dexamethasone 4 mg po bid 24 hours before therapy. Incidence of toxicity (grade 3-4), expressed as percentage of courses, was as follows: in patients without dexamethasone, elevation of transaminases 34%, neutropenia 24% and thrombocytopenia 25%; in patients with prior dexamethasone, elevation of transaminases 2%, neutropenia 2% and no thrombocytopenia. The median received dose intensity of trabectedin was superimposable in the two groups (404 microg and 400 microg per week, respectively), as well as progression-free survival (19% at 6 months). Among STS patients, 9% had objective responses. In this unselected patient series, premedication with dexamethasone strongly reduced drug-induced hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression. PMID:16737808

Grosso, F; Dileo, P; Sanfilippo, R; Stacchiotti, S; Bertulli, R; Piovesan, C; Jimeno, J; D'Incalci, M; Gescher, A; Casali, P G

2006-07-01

58

Approaches to reducing toxicity of parenteral anticancer drug formulations using cyclodextrins.  

PubMed

Mitomycin C (MMC) is a clinically useful anticancer drug which can cause severe dermatological problems upon injection. It can cause delayed erythema and/or ulceration occurring either at or distant from the injection site for weeks or even months after administration. In an attempt to reduce the skin necrosis, complexation of MMC with cyclodextrins was studied in order to help increase patient compliance and acceptance. The complexation of MMC with 2-Hydroxypropylbetacyclodextrin (HPBCD) in the presence and absence of mannitol was studied and it was found that the mannitol present in the commercial formulation caused an increase in the binding of MMC to HPBCD. Isotonicity adjustment of hypotonic MMC formulations by the addition of normal saline did not change the degree of complexation with MMC. The complexed formulations were then tested to determine their antitumor efficacy using the B-16 melanoma cell model. No difference in antitumor activity between the complexed and uncomplexed MMC formulations was observed. Different MMC formulations were tested for their potential to produce skin irritation and/or toxicity using intradermal injections in a BALB/c mouse model in order to find the most suitable formulation. The skin ulceration studies indicated that there were no significant differences between the isotonic MMC solution and isotonic formulations of MMC complexed with HPBCD. PMID:10927914

Bhardwaj, R; Dorr, R T; Blanchard, J

2000-01-01

59

Amyloid ?-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of ?-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the ?-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of ?-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust ?-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid ?-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-? peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, ?2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, ?-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

2012-11-01

60

Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

2013-03-01

61

Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model.  

PubMed

CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein-RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (?) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with ? or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamics and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for ?-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. ? modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25303993

deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K; Guenza, Marina G; Berglund, J Andrew

2014-11-10

62

Gasoline, Asbestos, and Dioxin  

SciTech Connect

New data on the health hazards of gasoline, chrysotile asbestos, and dioxin were presented at the annual conference of the Collegium Ramazzini, an international group of scientists dedicated to the study of issues of environmental and occupational health. Presented data highlighted the inconsistencies and gaps in the hypothesis linking accumulation of alpha-2[sub u]-globulin, a protein synthesized in the livers of male rats, and gasoline-induced carcinogenicity in the male rat kidney. Although the hypothesis explains some rat male kidney tumors caused by some chemicals, new data support the view that alternative mechanisms must be operating for gasoline.

Not Available

1994-02-01

63

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

64

Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish  

PubMed Central

A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a?ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln?LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln?LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

2013-01-01

65

The effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of Hypericum japonicum Thunb. extract in murine liver cancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Chinese herbs are potential sources of antitumor drugs with immunoregulatory activity and few adverse effects. In the present study, we investigated whether the Hypericum japonicum Thunb. (HJT) extract enhanced the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment in murine liver tumor xenografts and reduced toxicity of chemotherapy in hepatoma H22-bearing mice. Tumor weight and inhibition rate, thymus and spleen indices, as well as white blood cell (WBC) count were calculated. The phagocytic function of macrophages was assessed by observing peritoneal macrophages phagocytized chicken red blood cells (RBC). Body weight and toxic reactions of the chemotherapeutic and life prolongation rate were investigated in the mice. Results demonstrated that the HJT extract significantly enhanced the tumor inhibition rate of 5-FU, improved the immune function, reduced the toxic effects and prolonged the survival time in the tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results indicated that the HJT extract has a synergistic tumor-inhibiting effect with 5-FU, is able to reduce the toxic side effects and is likely to be safe and efficacious for use in antitumor therapy. PMID:24649182

Zhang, Hong-Bo; Lu, Ping; Cao, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Meng, Xiang-Lei

2013-03-01

66

Combustion of gasolines in premixed laminar flames European certified and California phase 2 reformulated gasoline.  

PubMed

Two gasoline qualities, European unleaded certified gasoline (EUCG) and California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (P2 RFG), were analysed. EUCG contained about twice the amount of alkyl benzenes compared to P2 RFG and a large amount of cyclohexane. As a balance, P2 RFG contained higher amounts of isooctane and MTBE. The gasolines were burned in a premixed laminar flame burner at 1 atm and at about stoichiometric fuel/air ratio. The species profiles were measured using on-line GC/MS. About 40 compounds were be detected in the gasoline flames. The EUCG resulted in formation of more reactive and toxic compounds. The combustion profiles of the fuel components showed a similar slope, which suggests that the fuel components burn quite independently of each other. Ethene and propene were the dominating species produced from the two gasolines. Commonly, substantial amounts of higher alkenes were found. Combustion of P2 RFG produced higher amounts of isobutene, propene, propyne, propadiene and methanol compared to combustion of EUCG. The high amount of isobutene is reasonably a result of high concentration of isooctane and MTBE in the fuel. The high amount of methanol formed is probably due to the MTBE present in the gasoline. EUCG produced significantly higher amounts of 1,3-butadiene, which quite likely is formed from the cyclohexane in the fuel. The benzene profiles from both gasolines shows an almost constant level up to 800 microm from the burner surface; this is probably due to formation of benzene from alkyl benzenes. PMID:11513414

Håkansson, A; Strömberg, K; Pedersen, J; Olsson, J O

2001-08-01

67

A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine.  

PubMed

Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. PMID:25686952

Oskuee, Reza Kazemi; Dosti, Fatemeh; Gholami, Leila; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan

2015-04-01

68

Gasoline engine choking arrangement  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

Armes, P.W.

1987-10-13

69

Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as

Sara Safari Kish; Alimorad Rashidi; Hamid Reza Aghabozorg; Leila Moradi

2010-01-01

70

Trigger-responsive, fast-degradable poly(?-amino ester)s for enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced toxicity.  

PubMed

Poly(?-amino ester)s (PBAEs) represent an important class of cationic gene delivery materials which, however, suffer from uncontrolled DNA release due in part to the slow degradation of their polyester backbone. Additionally, PBAEs with high molecular weight (MW) also show considerable toxicities. In this study, we designed and developed PBAEs with trigger-responsive domains built-in polymer backbones that can be rapidly cleaved upon external UV light triggering to promote intracellular DNA release as well as reduce material toxicity. Photo-responsive PBAEs were prepared via polyaddition of (2-nitro-1,3-phenylene)bis(methylene) diacrylate and a bifunctional amine. The nitrobenzene moiety was placed in each repeating unit of the PBAE to allow fast response to external UV irradiation, and thus the ester linkers were cleaved and the polymers were degraded within several minutes upon UV irradiation. Cationic PBAEs with high MWs were able to mediate effective intracellular gene delivery, while upon UV irradiation post-transfection, enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced material toxicity were observed, which collectively contributed to greatly improved transfection efficiencies in various mammalian cell types tested. This strategy allows precise manipulation of material toxicity and gene release profiles of PBAEs, and thus provides an effective design approach to address critical issues in non-viral gene delivery. PMID:24674461

Deng, Xiaojian; Zheng, Nan; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

2014-06-01

71

Zero valent iron reduces toxicity and concentrations of organophosphate pesticides in contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

The potential of zero valent iron (ZVI) for remediation of contaminated groundwater from an abandoned chemical disposal site was examined through batch and column experiments. The key contaminants were organophosphate pesticides but the chemical analysis also comprised additional 22 compounds including synthesis intermediates and degradation products of organophosphates. The ZVI treatment showed that all the contaminants were degraded with the exception of two diesters (phosphorothioates). The most rapid reduction was found for methyl parathion, ethyl parathion and malathion, which had first-order degradation rate constants on the order of 10(-3) min(-1). In the study, acute toxicity towards freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna) was included to evaluate the overall efficiency of ZVI treatment of the complex mixture. The acute toxicity tests with D. magna showed that the untreated groundwater was highly toxic. Thus, 50% of the daphnids were unable to swim upon 24h exposure to groundwater diluted 770 times. ZVI facilitated degradation resulted in a complete toxicity removal for the first four pore volumes, where after a three times dilution caused 50% inhibition of the mobility of the daphnids. The rapid degradation of the highly toxic organophosphates combined with the significant decrease in the ecotoxicological potential shows a promising potential for site remediation of organophosphates with ZVI technologies. PMID:23021613

Fjordbøge, Annika S; Baun, Anders; Vastrup, Troels; Kjeldsen, Peter

2013-01-01

72

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section...80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. (a) For...following shall apply: (1) Each gasoline pump stand from which oxygenated...

2010-07-01

73

Reformulated gasoline study, executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of adopting alternative standards for reformulated gasoline (RFG) in New York State has been studied for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority). In addition to Federal RFG (EPA 1) and EPA II, California Air Resources Board RFG (CARB 2) and a modified Federal low sulfur RFG (LS-EPA II) were investigated. The effects of these alternative RFGs on petroleum refinery gasoline production costs, gasoline distribution costs, New York State air quality and the New York State economy were considered. New York has already adopted the California low emission vehicle (LEV) and other emission control programs that will affect vehicles and maintenance. From 1998 to 2012 without the introduction of any type of RFG, these programs are estimated to reduce New York State mobile source summer emissions by 341 tons per day (or 40%) of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and by 292 tons per day (or 28%) of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and to reduce winter emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by 3,072 tons per day (or 39%). By 2012, the planned imposition of Federal RFG will produce further reductions (percent of 1998 levels) of 10 %, 4 % and 11%, respectively, for NMHC, NO{sub x} and CO. If New York State goes beyond EPA II and adopts CARB 2 specifications, further reductions achieved in 2012 are estimated to be very small, equaling 2% or less of 1998 levels of NMHC and NO{sub x} emissions, while CO emissions would actually increase by about 2%. When compared to EPA II over the same time frame, LS-EPA II would produce negligible (less than 1%) reductions in each of the above emissions categories.

Cunningham, R.E.; Michalski, G.W. [Turner, Mason & Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Baron, R.E.; Lyons, J.M.

1994-10-01

74

The potential for low petroleum gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

1996-06-01

75

Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

76

Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing

Sen, Bisakha

2012-01-01

77

Desulfurization of gasoline.  

PubMed Central

Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

Berger, J E

1975-01-01

78

Desulfurization of gasoline.  

PubMed

Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

Berger, J E

1975-04-01

79

Science Nation: Green Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the help of the National Science Foundation (NSF), George Huber has been working to unlock the solar energy that's stored in cellulose. Recently, he received additional NSF funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, which he says will allow his team to continue developing new processes that can economically produce renewable gasoline and diesel fuels from domestically produced non-food biomass resources. Huber, along with a team of dedicated researchers at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, has figured out how to make gasoline from woodchips that are loaded with cellulose and the energy stored in that cellulose.

80

Neurotoxic effects of gasoline and gasoline constituents.  

PubMed Central

This overview was developed as part of a symposium on noncancer end points of gasoline and key gasoline components. The specific components included are methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl tertiary butyl ether, tertiary amyl methyl ether, butadiene, benzene, xylene, toluene, methyl alcohol, and ethyl alcohol. The overview focuses on neurotoxic effects related to chronic low-level exposures. A few general conclusions and recommendations can be made based on the results of the studies to date. a) All the compounds reviewed are neuroactive and, as such, should be examined for their neurotoxicity. b) For most of the compounds, there is a substantial margin of safety between the current permissible exposure levels and levels that would be expected to cause overt signs of neurotoxicity in humans. This is not the case for xylene, toluene, and methanol, however, where neurologic effects are observed at or below the current Threshold Limit Value. c) For most of the compounds, the relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle neurotoxic effects has not been studied. Studies therefore should focus on examining the dose-response relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle changes in central nervous system function. PMID:8020437

Burbacher, T M

1993-01-01

81

NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins such  

E-print Network

in animals and humans. Lake sturgeon were historically one of the most important fish in the Great LakesNOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins

82

Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during

Michael Poulsen; Euan Walpole; Jennifer Harvey; Graeme Dickie; Peter O'Brien; Jacqui Keller; Lee Tripcony; Danny Rischin

2008-01-01

83

Improved Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity of Doxorubicin Encapsulated in Sulfatide-Containing Nanoliposome in a Glioma Model  

PubMed Central

As a glycosphingolipid that can bind to several extracellular matrix proteins, sulfatide has the potential to become an effective targeting agent for tumors overexpressing tenasin-C in their microenvironment. To overcome the dose-limiting toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX), a sulfatide-containing nanoliposome (SCN) encapsulation approach was employed to improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects of free DOX. This study analysed in vitro characteristics of sulfatide-containing nanoliposomal DOX (SCN-DOX) and assessed its cytotoxicity in vitro, as well as biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy, and systemic toxicity in a human glioblastoma U-118MG xenograft model. SCN-DOX was shown to achieve highest drug to lipid ratio (0.5?1) and a remarkable in vitro stability. Moreover, DOX encapsulated in SCN was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention over free DOX in U-118MG cells. This simple two-lipid SCN-DOX nanodrug has favourable pharmacokinetic attributes in terms of prolonged circulation time, reduced volume of distribution and enhanced bioavailability in healthy rats. As a result of the improved biodistribution, an enhanced treatment efficacy of SCN-DOX was found in glioma-bearing mice compared to the free drug. Finally, a reduction in the accumulation of DOX in the drug's principal toxicity organs achieved by SCN-DOX led to the diminished systemic toxicity as evident from the plasma biochemical analyses. Thus, SCN has the potential to be an effective and safer nano-carrier for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors with elevated expression of tenascin-C in their microenvironment. PMID:25072631

Lin, Jia; Shigdar, Sarah; Fang, Ding Zhi; Xiang, Dognxi; Wei, Ming Q.; Danks, Andrew; Kong, Lingxue; Li, Lianghong; Qiao, Liang; Duan, Wei

2014-01-01

84

Improved pharmacokinetics and reduced toxicity of brucine after encapsulation into stealth liposomes: role of phosphatidylcholine  

PubMed Central

Objective: Brucine was encapsulated into stealth liposomes using the ammonium sulfate gradient method to improve therapeutic index. Materials and methods: Four brucine stealth liposomal formulations were prepared, which were made from different phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with different phase transition temperatures (Tm). The PCs used were soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), and distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC). The stabilities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicities of these liposomal formulations were evaluated and compared. Results: Size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of brucine-loaded stealth liposomes (BSL) were not influenced by PC composition. In vitro release studies revealed that drug release rate increased with decreased Tm of PCs, especially with the presence of rat plasma. After intravenous administration, the area under the curve (AUC) values of BSL-SPC, BSL-DPPC, BSL-HSPC, and BSL-DSPC in plasma were 7.71, 9.24, 53.83, and 56.83-fold as large as that of free brucine, respectively. The LD50 values of brucine solution, BSL-SPC, BSL-DPPC, BSL-HSPC, and BSL-DSPC following intravenous injection were 13.17, 37.30, 37.69, 51.18, and 52.86 mg/kg, respectively. It was found in calcein retention experiments that the order of calcein retention in rat plasma was SPC < DPPC << HSPC < DSPC stealth liposomes. Conclusion: PC composition could exert significant influence on the stabilities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicities of brucine-loaded stealth liposomes. DSPC or HSPC with Tm above 50°C should be used to prepare the stealth liposomal formulation for the intravenous delivery of brucine. However, it was found in the present paper that the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of BSL were not influenced by the PC composition when the Tm of the PC was in the range of ?20°C to 41°C. PMID:22904620

Chen, Jun; Yan, Guo-jun; Hu, Rong-rong; Gu, Qian-wen; Chen, Ming-lei; Gu, Wei; Chen, Zhi-peng; Cai, Bao-chang

2012-01-01

85

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

86

Fucoidan reduces the toxicities of chemotherapy for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFIRI) has become a standard regimen for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. Numerous studies have reported that long-term use of FOLFOX or FOLFIRI leads to better survival for these patients. Thus, control of the toxicity of these drugs may be crucial to prolonging survival. Fucoidan is one of the major sulfated polysaccharides of brown seaweeds and exhibits a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of fucoidan on suppressing the toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. A total of 20 patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer scheduled to undergo treatment with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI were randomly allocated into a fucoidan treatment group (n=10) and a control group without fucoidan treatment (n=10). Results showed that fucoidan regulated the occurrence of fatigue during chemotherapy. Chemotherapy with fucoidan was continued for a longer period than chemotherapy without fucoidan. Additionally, the survival of patients with fucoidan treatment was longer than that of patients without fucoidan, although the difference was not significant. Thus, fucoidan may enable the continuous administration of chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer, and as a result, the prognosis of such patients is prolonged. PMID:22866084

IKEGUCHI, MASAHIDE; YAMAMOTO, MANABU; ARAI, YOSUKE; MAETA, YOSHIHIKO; ASHIDA, KEIGO; KATANO, KUNIYUKI; MIKI, YASUNARI; KIMURA, TAKAYUKI

2011-01-01

87

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01

88

Olive oil hydroxytyrosol reduces toxicity evoked by acrylamide in human Caco-2 cells by preventing oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Humans are exposed to dietary acrylamide (AA) during their lifetime, it is therefore necessary to investigate the mechanisms associated with AA-induced toxic effects. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to AA cytotoxicity, thus, dietary antioxidants might have a protective role in colonic cells against AA toxicity. We have recently reported that hydroxytyrosol (HTy), a natural antioxidant abundant in olive oil, is able to enhance the cellular antioxidant defence capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluate the protective role of HTy on alterations of the redox balance induced by AA in Caco-2 intestinal cells. AA cytotoxicity was counteracted by HTy by powerfully reducing ROS generation, recovering the excited enzyme antioxidant defences and decreasing phospho-Jun kinase concentration and caspase-3 activity induced by AA. Therefore, AA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis are closely related to oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and the olive oil natural dietary antioxidant HTy was able to contain AA toxicity by improving the redox status of Caco-2 cells and by partly restraining the apoptotic pathway activated by AA. PMID:21777647

Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Martín, María Ángeles; Ramos, Sonia; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2011-10-01

89

Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice.  

PubMed

Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell-derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell-deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Abrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

2011-10-01

90

Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice  

PubMed Central

Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell–derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell–deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Åbrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

91

Application of an inverse neural network model for the identification of optimal amendment to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils  

E-print Network

to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils Nour HATTABa,b,c* , Mikael MOTELICA potentially be applied with a high level of success to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Before

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

2003-04-01

93

[Metabolism of recombinant CHO-GS cell reducing of toxic effect of ammonia].  

PubMed

The toxic effect of ammonia on rCHO-GS cell decreased obviously due to the transfection of GS system in serum-free culture. The maximum cell density, 15.6 x 10(5) cells/mL was obtained in the culture with 1.42 mmol/L ammonia. The growth of rCHO-GS cell was inhibited with an increased ammonia concentration. However, a cell density of 8.9 x 10(5) cells/mL was obtained when the concentration of ammonia was 12.65mmol/L. The intracellar metabolic pathways were affected due to the decrease of the toxic effect of ammonia on rCHO-GS cell. With the increase of initial ammonia concentration from 0.36mmol/L to 12.65mmol/L, the yield coefficients of cell to glucose and lactate to glucose decreased. The activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased by 43%, 140% and 25%, respectively, indicating that the utilization of glucose increased and the glycolysis pathway was more prone to efficient energy metabolism pathway. An increased activity of glutamate-pyruvate aminotransferase (GPT) showed that the conversation from glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate was shifted to glutamate-pyruvate transamination pathway. The deamination pathway was inhibited due to a decreased activity of glutamate dehydrogenase. In addition, the number of cells in G0/G1 phase increased and the specific production rate of recombinant protein increased by 2.1-fold with the increase of initial ammonia concentration from 0.36mmol/L to 12.65mmol/L. PMID:16572847

Zhang, Fang; Yi, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Xiang-Ming; Zhang, Yuan-Xing

2006-01-01

94

Failure of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion to Reduce Diazinon-induced Acute Toxicity: a Pilot Study in Rats  

PubMed Central

Diazinon (DZN) is a synthetic organophosphorus (OPs) insecticide widely used in agricultural and household applications. OPs, particularly DZN, are highly lipid soluble liquids. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to reduce toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. We evaluated the antidote effect of ILE on acute toxicity of DZN. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats weighting 200-250 g were treated orally with dose of 480 mg/ kg of DZN gavaged at the volume of 0.5 mL/kg. Thirty minutes after administration of DZN, two groups were treated by either ILE 10% (ILE10) or normal saline (NS) (16 mL/kg) (NS16) that were infused for the duration of 15 minutes. Another two groups were also treated by either ILE 20% (ILE20) or NS (10 mL/kg: NS10) as above. The changes in body weight, diarrhea score, muscular power, fasciculation, convulsions and mortality rate of the animals were all monitored immediately after infusions and then every 6 h up to 48 h. There was no significant difference in animals mean weight between different groups during the observation period. In addition, during the 48-hour observation we could not find any difference in muscular power and diarrhea score between groups of ILE20-NS10 and ILE10-NS16 in comparison with each other, and neither ILE 10% nor ILE %20 could not reduce mortality rate of animals or increase the survival time of rats. In conclusion, ILE seems to be unable to reverse DZN acute toxicity and it might be due to conversion of DZN to potent and less lipid soluble agent. PMID:24523769

Moshiri, Mohammad; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Etemad, Leila; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2013-01-01

95

High-calcium flue gas desulfurization products reduce aluminum toxicity in an Appalachian soil  

SciTech Connect

An acid Appalachian soil was amended with two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, one consisting of wallboard-quality gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}) and the other containing CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O as a major component. Soil columns treated with FGD by-products were leached with deionized H{sub 2}O under unsaturated conditions. Aluminum amounts leached increased 25-fold over the control when CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O FGD by-product was incorporated into the soil. Leachate pH decreased with FGD product treatment, but bulk soil pH increased, and exchangeable Al and total soil acidity decreased. Mean 4-d root lengths of sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seedlings grown in the leached soils were as much as 440 and 310% the value of the control for CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O and CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O treatments, respectively. Mechanisms by which mitigation of Al toxicity occurs with addition of high-Ca FGD by-products to acid soils are discussed. 48 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Wendell, R.R.; Ritchey, K.D. [USDA-ARS, Beaver, WV (United States)

1996-11-01

96

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

2013-05-01

97

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times. PMID:23375214

Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

2013-05-01

98

ACAT inhibition reduces the progression of pre-existing, advanced atherosclerotic mouse lesions without plaque or systemic toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters in plaque foam cells. Complete deficiency of macrophage ACAT has been shown to increase atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice due to cytotoxicity from free cholesterol accumulation, while we previously showed that partial ACAT inhibition by Fujirebio compound F1394 decreased early atherosclerosis development. In this report, we tested F1394 effects on pre-established, advanced lesions of apoE-/- mice. Methods & Results ApoE-/- mice on Western diet for 14 weeks developed advanced plaques, and were either sacrificed (“Baseline”), or continued on Western diet without or with F1394 and sacrificed after 14 more weeks. F1394 was not associated with systemic toxicity. Compared to the baseline group, lesion size progressed in both groups; however, F1394 significantly retarded plaque progression, and reduced plaque macrophage, free and esterified cholesterol, and tissue factor contents compared to the untreated group. Apoptosis of plaque cells was not increased, consistent with the decrease in lesional free cholesterol, plaque necrosis was not increased, and efferocytosis (phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells) was not impaired. The effects of F1394 were independent of changes in plasma cholesterol levels. Conclusions Partial ACAT inhibition by F1394 lowered plaque cholesterol content and had other antiatherogenic effects in advanced lesions in apoE-/- mice without overt systemic or plaque toxicity, suggesting the continued potential of ACAT inhibition for the clinical treatment of atherosclerosis in spite of recent trial data. PMID:23139293

Rong, James X.; Blachford, Courtney; Feig, Jonathan E.; Bander, Ilda; Mayne, Jeffrey; Kusunoki, Jun; Miller, Christine; Davis, Matthew; Wilson, Martha; Dehn, Shirley; Thorp, Edward; Tabas, Ira; Taubman, Mark B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Fisher, Edward A.

2013-01-01

99

Photoimmunotherapy and irradiance modulation reduce chemotherapy cycles and toxicity in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis: perspective and results  

PubMed Central

Significant toxicities from multiple cycles of chemotherapy often cause delays or early termination of treatment, leading to poor outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. Complementary modalities that potentiate the efficacy of traditional agents with fewer cycles and less toxicity are needed. Photodynamic therapy is a mechanistically-distinct modality that synergizes with chemo and biologic agents. A combination regimen with a clinically relevant chemotherapy cocktail (cisplatin + paclitaxel) and anti-EGFR targeted photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is evaluated in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis. Mice received either 1 or 2 chemotherapy cycles followed by PIT with a chlorine6-Erbitux photoimmunoconjugate and 25 J/cm2 light. PIT + 1 cycle of chemotherapy significantly reduced tumor burden, comparable to multiple chemotherapy cycles. Relative to 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the addition of PIT did not cause significant mouse weight loss, whereas 2 cycles of chemotherapy led to a significant reduction in weight. Irradiance-dependence on PIT efficacy was a function of the conjugation chemistry, providing an additional variable for optimization of PIT outcome. PMID:23626376

Rizvi, Imran; Dinh, Tri A.; Yu, Weiping; Chang, Yuchiao; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Hasan, Tayyaba

2013-01-01

100

Office of Transportation and Air Quality: GASOLINE FUELS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers the user a variety of informational links that specifically address the testing, standards and regulations with which the gasoline manufacturers must comply. Since its implementation, one of the primary causes championed by the EPA has been to reduce emissions and pollutants by automobiles. In 1973 it called for a gradual phase-down of lead in gasoline, the primary fuel source for much of the transportation industry, culminating with passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of the 1990

2007-09-24

101

Passive volatilization behaviour of gasoline in unsaturated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasoline behaviour in the unsaturated zone is difficult to predict as a number of soil factors, gasoline properties and environmental conditions will determine the eventual fate of a spill. These factors include the diffusive and convective processes that contribute to passive volatilization. To gain a better insight into passive volatilization and how it can impact the clean-up of a contaminated site, batch column experiments were completed. Three soils were tested at varying initial gasoline contents, water contents, and at room and sub-zero temperatures. The results indicate that immiscible phase movement to the surface is a significant contributor to passive volatilization. However, the immiscible phase movement ceases once the gasoline content has dropped below a threshold level. The driving force necessary for immiscible phase movement is maintained by gasoline precipitation at the soil surface. Higher soil water contents inhibited the volatilization of gasoline as water impacted both the diffusive and wicking movement of the gasoline. Sub-zero temperatures reduced volatilization and extended the time to cessation of wicking behaviour.

Gidda, Tej; Stiver, Warren H.; Zytner, Richard G.

1999-07-01

102

Antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity of methanol extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

2014-11-01

103

The development of response surface pathway design to reduce animal numbers in toxicity studies  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes the development of Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design, assesses its performance and effectiveness in estimating LD50, and compares RSP with Up and Down Procedures (UDPs) and Random Walk (RW) design. Methods A basic 4-level RSP design was used on 36 male ICR mice given intraperitoneal doses of Yessotoxin. Simulations were performed to optimise the design. A k-adjustment factor was introduced to ensure coverage of the dose window and calculate the dose steps. Instead of using equal numbers of mice on all levels, the number of mice was increased at each design level. Additionally, the binomial outcome variable was changed to multinomial. The performance of the RSP designs and a comparison of UDPs and RW were assessed by simulations. The optimised 4-level RSP design was used on 24 female NMRI mice given Azaspiracid-1 intraperitoneally. Results The in vivo experiment with basic 4-level RSP design estimated the LD50 of Yessotoxin to be 463 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 383–535). By inclusion of the k-adjustment factor with equal or increasing numbers of mice on increasing dose levels, the estimate changed to 481 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 362–566) and 447 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 378–504 ?g/kgBW), respectively. The optimised 4-level RSP estimated the LD50 to be 473 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 442–517). A similar increase in power was demonstrated using the optimised RSP design on real Azaspiracid-1 data. The simulations showed that the inclusion of the k-adjustment factor, reduction in sample size by increasing the number of mice on higher design levels and incorporation of a multinomial outcome gave estimates of the LD50 that were as good as those with the basic RSP design. Furthermore, optimised RSP design performed on just three levels reduced the number of animals from 36 to 15 without loss of information, when compared with the 4-level designs. Simulated comparison of the RSP design with UDPs and RW design demonstrated the superiority of RSP. Conclusion Optimised RSP design reduces the number of animals needed. The design converges rapidly on the area of interest and is at least as efficient as both the UDPs and RW design. PMID:24661560

2014-01-01

104

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

Bernard Lachance; Agnès Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

2004-01-01

105

Physical exercise prior and during treatment reduces sub-chronic doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anti-cancer agent whose clinical usage results in a cumulative and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. We have previously shown that exercise performed prior to DOX treatment reduces the resulting cardiac(mito) toxicity. We sought to determine the effects on cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) when used prior and during DOX treatment. Male-young Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=6 per group): SAL+SED (saline sedentary), SAL+TM (12-weeks TM), SAL+FW (12-weeks FW), DOX+SED (7-weeks of chronic DOX treatment 2mg/kg per week), DOX+TM and DOX+FW. DOX administration started 5weeks after the beginning of the exercise protocol. Heart mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations, mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption and membrane potential), semi-quantification of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and their in-gel activity, as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress (SIRT3, p66shc and UCP2), biogenesis (PGC1? and TFAM), acetylation and markers for oxidative damage (carbonyl groups, MDA,SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD activity) were evaluated. DOX treatment resulted in ultrastructural and functional alterations and decreased OXPHOS. Moreover, DOX decreased complex I activity and content, mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM), increased acetylation and oxidative stress. TM and FW prevented DOX-induced alteration in OXPHOS, the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in complex V activity and in complex I activity and content. DOX-induced decreases in TFAM and SIRT3 content were prevented by TM only. Both chronic models of physical exercise performed before and during the course of sub-chronic DOX treatment translated into an improved mitochondrial bioenergetic fitness, which may result in part from the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. PMID:25446396

Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Santos-Alves, Estela; Mariani, Diogo; Rizo-Roca, David; Padrão, Ana I; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, J Ramon; Ferreira, Rita; Oliveira, Paulo J; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António

2015-01-01

106

Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.  

PubMed

Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

2015-02-01

107

NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins such  

E-print Network

will be used to develop an action plan to reduce mercury in the Great Lakes. Lake Sturgeon Health Assessment. Lake sturgeon were historically one of the most important fish in the Great Lakes. TodayNOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent

108

Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding, the gasoline prices follow as closely as diesel prices to ALOP. Finally, system-wide causality analysis finds linkages among markets. In summary, both physical and statistical linkages exist among the study markets. Arbitrage among these markets is limited by the logistics of transportation infrastructure and by branding agreements in wholesale contracting.

Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

109

Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina  

E-print Network

- 1 - Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina, California Abstract We examine how gasoline price volatility impacts consumers' price elasticity of demand for gasoline. Results show that volatility in prices decreases consumer demand for gasoline in the intermediate

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

110

Elevated water temperature reduces the acute toxicity of the widely used herbicide diuron to a green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.  

PubMed

In the actual environment, temperatures fluctuate drastically through season or global warming and are thought to affects risk of pollutants for aquatic biota; however, there is no report about the effect of water temperature on toxicity of widely used herbicide diuron to fresh water microalgae. The present research investigated inhibitory effect of diuron on growth and photosynthetic activity of a green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at five different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) for 144 h of exposure. As a result, effective diuron concentrations at which a 50% decrease in algal growth occurred was increased with increasing water temperature ranging from 9.2 to 20.1 ?g L(-1) for 72 h and 9.4-28.5 ?g L(-1) for 144 h. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v/F m ratio) was significantly reduced at all temperatures by diuron exposure at 32 ?g L(-1) after 72 h. Inhibition rates was significantly increased with decreased water temperature (P?

Tasmin, Rumana; Shimasaki, Yohei; Tsuyama, Michito; Qiu, Xuchun; Khalil, Fatma; Okino, Nozomu; Yamada, Naotaka; Fukuda, Shinji; Kang, Ik-Joon; Oshima, Yuji

2014-01-01

111

Improved efficacy and reduced toxicity by ultrasound-guided intrahepatic injections of helper-dependent adenoviral vector in Gunn rats.  

PubMed

Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I is caused by mutations of the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene resulting in life-threatening increase of serum bilirubin. Life-long correction of hyperbilirubinemia was previously shown with intravenous injection of high doses of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing UGT1A1 in the Gunn rat, the animal model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. However, such high vector doses can activate an acute and potentially lethal inflammatory response with elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6). To overcome this obstacle, we investigated safety and efficacy of direct injections of low HDAd doses delivered directly into the liver parenchyma of Gunn rats. Direct hepatic injections performed by either laparotomy or ultrasound-guided percutaneous injections were compared with the same doses given by intravenous injections. A greater reduction of hyperbilirubinemia and increased conjugated bilirubin in bile were achieved with 1 × 10(11) vp/kg by direct liver injections compared with intravenous injections. In sharp contrast to intravenous injections, direct hepatic injections neither raised serum IL-6 nor resulted in thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of HDAd vectors into liver parenchyma resulted in improved hepatocyte transduction and reduced toxicity compared with systemic injections and is clinically attractive for liver-directed gene therapy of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. PMID:23947957

Pastore, Nunzia; Nusco, Edoardo; Piccolo, Pasquale; Castaldo, Sigismondo; Vaníkova, Jana; Vetrini, Francesco; Palmer, Donna J; Vitek, Libor; Ng, Philip; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

2013-10-01

112

Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI  

SciTech Connect

The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2006-09-01

113

Antiknock agent for unleaded gasolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 66.095.21\\/662.75 +665.6 Because of the need to curtail harmful discharges from automotive vehicles, gasolines with improved ecological properties have been developed. The most critical ecological factor is the gasoline's content of antiknock additives based on tetraethyllead or tetramethyllead (TEL or TML). These compounds are harmful to humans and vegetation, and they have an adverse effect on the catalytic converters

E. A. Dem'yanenko; A. V. Sachivko; V. P. Tverdokhlebov; P. S. Deineko; A. M. Bakaleinik; V. M. Manaenkov; V. E. Emel'yanov; S. N. Onoichenko

1993-01-01

114

Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach  

E-print Network

Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

Muehlegger, Erich J.

2004-01-01

115

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline and conventional gasoline fuel parameters.  

...Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved October 1, 2010. ...to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved October 1, 2013. ...Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame...

2014-07-01

116

Reducing power and iron chelating property of Terminalia chebula (Retz.) alleviates iron induced liver toxicity in mice  

PubMed Central

Background The 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME) was investigated for its in vitro iron chelating property and in vivo ameliorating effect on hepatic injury of iron overloaded mice. Methods The effect of fruit extract on Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation and Fe2+ mediated pUC-18 DNA breakdown was studied in order to find the in vitro iron chelating activity. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of: blank, patient control and treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg b.w. of TCME and desirox (standard iron chelator drug with Deferasirox as parent compound). Evaluations were made for serum markers of hepatic damage, antioxidant enzyme, lipid per oxidation and liver fibrosis levels. The reductive release of ferritin iron by the extract was further studied. Results In vitro results showed considerable iron chelation with IC50 of 27.19?±?2.80 ?g/ml, and a significant DNA protection with [P]50 of 1.07?±?0.03 ?g/ml along with about 86% retention of supercoiled DNA. Iron-dextran injection (i.p.) caused significant increase in the levels of the serum enzymes, viz., alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Bilirubin, which were subsequently lowered by oral administration of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of the fruit extract by 81.5%, 105.88%, 188.08% and 128.31%, respectively. Similarly, treatment with the same dose of the extract was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of liver antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and non-enzymatic reduced glutathione, by 49.8%, 53.5%, 35.4% and 11% respectively, in comparison to the iron overloaded mice. At the same time, the fruit extract effectively lowered the iron-overload induced raised levels of lipid per oxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline and liver iron by 49%, 67%, 67% and 26%, respectively, with oral treatment of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of TCME. The fruit extract also showed potential activity for reductive release of ferritin iron. Conclusions These findings suggest that Terminalia chebula extract may contain active substances capable of lessening iron overload induced toxicity, and hence possibly be useful as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases. PMID:22938047

2012-01-01

117

Elemental selenium at nano size (Nano-Se) as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of selenium toxicity: comparison with se-methylselenocysteine in mice.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. As a promising chemopreventive agent, its use requires consumption over the long term, so the toxicity of Se is always a crucial concern. Based on clinical findings and recent studies in selenoprotein gene-modified mice, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or more selenoproteins is responsible for the chemopreventive effect of Se. Furthermore, upregulation of phase 2 enzymes by Se has been implicated as a possible chemopreventive mechanism at supranutritional dietary levels. Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), a naturally occurring organic Se product, is considered as one of the most effective chemopreventive selenocompounds. The present study revealed that, as compared with SeMSC, elemental Se at nano size (Nano-Se) possessed equal efficacy in increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, but had much lower toxicity as indicated by median lethal dose, acute liver injury, survival rate, and short-term toxicity. Our results suggest that Nano-Se can serve as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of Se toxicity. PMID:17728283

Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Xufang; Xu, Tongwen

2008-01-01

118

Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel. Plume lengths, though, would not be proportionately reduced. One implication of these results was that the concentrations would be reduced, but the number of impacted wells would remain similar. Because the simulations included emplacement of the gasoline, dissolution from contact with flowing ground water and transient transport in the aquifer, a common-sense explanation of the results was difficult to construct. A simpler model was then used for the purpose of explaining to policy-makers why the plume length reductions were less than proportionate to the reduction of the amount of MTBE. The model was simple enough (one-dimensional, steady state, constant source concentration) so that the effect of each term of the transport equation on plume length could be easily shown. The weight of evidence from using multiple models, direct explanations from the transport equation, and field observation, then provided a sufficient basis for policy makers to understand scientifically how gasoline composition affects ground water impacts. >http://www.epa.gov/athens/learn2model/part- two/onsite/length.htm

Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

2001-12-01

119

Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

2008-01-01

120

40 CFR 80.1654 - California gasoline requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false California gasoline requirements. 80.1654 Section...ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1654 California gasoline requirements. (a) California gasoline exemption. California...

2014-07-01

121

Does prophylactic treatment with proteolytic enzymes reduce acute toxicity of adjuvant pelvic irradiation? Results of a double-blind randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Does prophylactic treatment with proteolytic enzymes reduce acute toxicity of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy?Material and methods: Fifty-six patients with an indication for adjuvant pelvic irradiation after curative surgery were double-blind randomized. All patients took 3×4 capsules study medication daily during radiotherapy. Twenty-eight patients in the enzyme group (EG) received capsules containing papain, trypsin and chymotrypsin, 28 in the placebo group

Thomas Martin; Kerstin Uhder; Ralf Kurek; Sandra Roeddiger; Lida Schneider; Hans-Georg Vogt; Reinhard Heyd; Nikolaos Zamboglou

2002-01-01

122

Control of E1A under an E2F-1 promoter insulated with the myotonic dystrophy locus insulator reduces the toxicity of oncolytic adenovirus Ad-?24RGD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously described Ad-?24RGD as an enhanced-infectivity oncolytic adenovirus that targets tumors with an impaired RB pathway. The common alteration of this pathway in cancer eliminates the interaction of pRB with E2F and releases free E2F to activate E2F-responsive promoters, including the E2F-1 promoter. To improve the selectivity towards RB pathway-defective tumors and reduce the toxicity of Ad-?24RGD we aimed

M Majem; M Cascallo; N Bayo-Puxan; R Mesia; J R Germa; R Alemany

2006-01-01

123

Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

124

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

125

Anticipated and unanticipated efiects of crude oil prices and gasoline inventory changes on gasoline prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the efiect of anticipated and unanticipated changes in oil prices and gasoline inventory on US gasoline prices. We estimate empirical responses to anticipated and unanticipated changes in oil prices and gasoline inventory and show that gasoline price adjustments are faster and stronger for anticipated changes in oil prices and inventory levels than for unanticipated changes. Furthermore, this

Stanislav Radchenko; Dmitry Shapiro

126

Combustion of gasolines in premixed laminar flames European certified and California phase 2 reformulated gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two gasoline qualities, European unleaded certified gasoline (EUCG) and California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (P2 RFG), were analysed. EUCG contained about twice the amount of alkyl benzenes compared to P2 RFG and a large amount of cyclohexane. As a balance, P2 RFG contained higher amounts of isooctane and MTBE. The gasolines were burned in a premixed laminar flame burner at

Åsa Håkansson; Katarina Strömberg; Jörgen Pedersen; Jim O Olsson

2001-01-01

127

Prediction of the reduced glutathione (GSH) reactivity of dental methacrylate monomers using NMR spectra - Relationship between toxicity and GSH reactivity.  

PubMed

It has been established that the toxicity of acrylate and methacrylate monomers is driven by their reactivity towards glutathione (GSH). With this relationship, the objective of this study was to predict the GSH reactivity of dental methacrylate monomers, and hence their toxicity, using the (13)C-NMR chemical shifts of beta-carbon (delta(Cbeta)) and the (1)H-NMR shifts of the protons attached to beta-carbon (delta(Ha), delta(Hb)). The different nucleophiles were chosen to compare the different nucleophilic reactions involving acrylate and methacrylate monomers. In conjunction with the use of literature data for monomer/GSH reactivity, significant linear relationships between GSH reactivity (log K) and delta(Cbeta )or delta(Ha )were observed (p<0.001). As for the oral LD(50 )values of some dental dimethacrylates in mice, they were estimated using linear regression curve fitting of GSH reactivity-toxicity response data. Results revealed an acceptable correlation between the oral LD(50 )values of acrylates and methacrylates and GSH reactivity (p<0.05, outlier: HEMA). In conclusion, the present findings suggested that NMR spectra might be useful for predicting the toxicity of dental methacrylates. PMID:20019424

Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

2009-11-01

128

Fluconazole Coadministration Concurrent with Cyclophosphamide Conditioning May Reduce Regimen-Related Toxicity Post-myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

In a previous study comparing fluconazole and itraconazole administered as antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, we found that fluconazole administration concurrent with cyclophosphamide (CY)-based conditioning was associated with fewer early toxicities compared to itraconazole. Fluconazole inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9, which is involved with the activation of CY, and so might provide protection from CY-related toxicities. To investigate this further, we compared CY and CY-metabolite data from patients who received fluconazole (n=56) concurrent with CY-containing conditioning in patients who did not (n=17). The fluconazole group had greater exposure to CY, and lower peak serum concentration of CY-metabolite 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. In a separate cohort, we examined outcomes in patients randomized to receive either fluconazole (n=152) or placebo (n=147) concurrent with CY-containing conditioning in a prior randomized trial. Patients who received fluconazole experienced less hepatic and renal toxicity, and had lower mortality. No difference in relapsed malignancy was apparent. These data support the hypothesis that fluconazole, when co-administered with CY, decreases CY-related toxicities by inhibiting cytochrome P450 2C9 metabolism. PMID:17580253

Upton, Arlo; McCune, Jeannine; Kirby, Katharine A.; Leisenring, Wendy; McDonald, George; Batchelder, Ami; Marr, Kieren A

2009-01-01

129

A new approach to gasoline octane modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

m Abstract- The mathematical model for predicting the octane number of gasoline blends is presented. The model is based on the analysis of gasoline fuels from different naphtha process streams and takes into account the intermolecular interaction between hydrocarbons and oxygenates in gasoline blends. The octane number is correlated to a total of 69 hydrocarbons measured by gas chromatography. The

Smyshlyaeva Julia Alexandrovna; Duong Chi Tuyen

2011-01-01

130

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

EIA Publications

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01

131

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

132

Thermal analysis of a poppet valve gasoline engine for two- and four-stroke operation.  

E-print Network

??The modern four-stroke, poppet valve, direct injection, gasoline engine has improved combustion efficiency, reduced emissions and greater engine performance when compared to the port-fuel injected… (more)

Gonzalez, Alexis G. Del Rio

2010-01-01

133

Determination of a Threshold Dose to Reduce or Eliminate CdTe-Induced Toxicity in L929 Cells by Controlling the Exposure Dose  

PubMed Central

With the widespread use of quantum dots (QDs), the likelihood of exposure to quantum dots has increased substantially. The application of quantum dots in numerous biomedical areas requires detailed studies on their toxicity. In this study, we aimed to determine the threshold dose which reduced or eliminated CdTe-induced toxicity in L929 cells by controlling the exposure dose. We established a cellular model of acute exposure to CdTe QDs. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of CdTe QDs (2.2 nm and 3.5 nm) followed by illustrative cytotoxicity analysis. The results showed that low concentrations of CdTe QDs (under 10 µg/mL) promoted cell viability, caused no obvious effect on the rate of cell apoptosis, intracellular calcium levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, while high concentrations significantly inhibited cell viability. In addition, reactive oxygen species in the 10 µg/mL-treated group was significantly reduced compared with the control group. In summary, the cytotoxicity of CdTe QDs on L929 cell is dose-dependent, time-dependent and size-dependent. Low concentrations of CdTe QDs (below 10 µg/mL) may be nontoxic and safe in L929 cells, whereas high concentrations (above 10 µg/mL) may be toxic resulting in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in L929 cells. PMID:23577063

Liu, Xiaorun; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shanshan; Kong, Lu; Xue, Yuying

2013-01-01

134

Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

2014-05-20

135

Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats. PMID:19930677

2009-01-01

136

Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

2014-01-01

137

Sorption and phase distribution of ethanol and butanol blended gasoline vapours in the vadose zone after release.  

PubMed

The sorption and phase distribution of 20% ethanol and butanol blended gasoline (E20 and B20) vapours have been examined in soils with varying soil organic matter (SOM) and water contents via laboratory microcosm experiments. The presence of 20% alcohol reduced the sorption of gasoline compounds by soil as well as the mass distribution of the compounds to soil solids. This effect was greater for ethanol than butanol. Compared with the sorption coefficient (Kd) of unblended gasoline compounds, the Kd of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 54% for pentane, 54% for methylcyclopentane (MCP) and 63% for benzene, while the Kd of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 38% for MCP and 49% for benzene. The retardation factor (R) of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 53% for pentane, 53% for MCP and 48% for benzene, while the R of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 37% for MCP and 38% for benzene. For all SOM and water contents tested, the Kd and R of all gasoline compounds were in the order of unblended gasoline > B20 > E20, indicating that the use of high ethanol volume in gasoline to combat climate change could put the groundwater at greater risk of contamination. PMID:25079274

Ugwoha, Ejikeme; Andresen, John M

2014-03-01

138

Structure-function analysis and insights into the reduced toxicity of Abrus precatorius agglutinin I in relation to abrin.  

PubMed

Abrin and agglutinin-I from the seeds of Abrus precatorius are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins that inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The two toxins share a high degree of sequence similarity; however, agglutinin-I is weaker in its activity. We compared the kinetics of protein synthesis inhibition by abrin and agglutinin-I in two different cell lines and found that approximately 200-2000-fold higher concentration of agglutinin-I is needed for the same degree of inhibition. Like abrin, agglutinin-I also induced apoptosis in the cells by triggering the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, although at higher concentrations as compared with abrin. The reason for the decreased toxicity of agglutinin-I became apparent on the analysis of the crystal structure of agglutinin-I obtained by us in comparison with that of the reported structure of abrin. The overall protein folding of agglutinin-I is similar to that of abrin-a with a single disulfide bond holding the toxic A subunit and the lectin-like B-subunit together, constituting a heterodimer. However, there are significant differences in the secondary structural elements, mostly in the A chain. The substitution of Asn-200 in abrin-a with Pro-199 in agglutinin-I seems to be a major cause for the decreased toxicity of agglutinin-I. This perhaps is not a consequence of any kink formation by a proline residue in the helical segment, as reported by others earlier, but due to fewer interactions that proline can possibly have with the bound substrate. PMID:16772301

Bagaria, Ashima; Surendranath, Kalpana; Ramagopal, Udupi A; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Karande, Anjali A

2006-11-10

139

Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels on Learning and Memory  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential toxicity of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels to the developing nervous system is of concern. We previously reported an absence of effect on learning and memory as seen in a trace fear conditioning task and water maze task in offspring of dams exposed prenatally to the...

140

THE INFLUENCE OF THE GASOLINE OXYGENATE ETHANOL ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BTX BIODEGRADATION. (R823420)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microb...

141

Gasoline Price Pass-through  

EIA Publications

Over the past several years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has extensively studied the relationships between wholesale and retail markets for transportation fuels. This article represents a return to gasoline markets, where EIA first performed this type of analysis and modeling in 1997. The current effort takes advantage of improvements and enhancements to our approach over the intervening years, resulting in more detailed and accurate results.

2003-01-01

142

Processing of kansui roots stir-baked with vinegar reduces kansui-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity by decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and regulating the cell apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1) after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2) was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS), ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb. PMID:24896263

Yan, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Guo, Jianming; Cao, Yudan; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Ding, Anwei; Duan, Jin-Ao

2014-01-01

143

Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.  

PubMed

Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

2013-10-01

144

Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats  

SciTech Connect

Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ? We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ? We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ? We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin after intravenous anticalin administration. ? We provide clinical data on outcome improvement after anticalin administration.

Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

2012-09-15

145

Evaluation of two mycotoxin binders to reduce toxicity of broiler diets containing ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin contaminated grain.  

PubMed

In order to assess ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) binding ability of two commercial sorbents, both in vitro and in vivo trials with broilers were performed. Crude OA and T-2 extracts from contaminated grain were used to assess in vitro binding ability of two sorbents (Zeotek [Zk] and Mycofix [Mx]), by quantifying free mycotoxin through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. For in vivo trial, a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used for this experiment, being the factors: adsorbents (none, Zk, and Mx), OA (0 and 567 parts per billion [ppb]) and T-2 (0 and 927 ppb). OA and T-2 contaminated wheat and corn, respectively, were added to sorghum-soybean meal diets to meet 567 ppb of OA and 927 ppb of T-2. Mycotoxins were fed alone or combined in treatments. After 21 days, blood chemistry, gross, and histological evaluations were performed. Relative weights of liver, kidney, and bursa of Fabricius were obtained. Zk had the highest OA and T-2 in vitro binding ability (100% and 8.67%, respectively). Chickens fed OA with or without sorbents had a lower body weight and feed intake reduction. However, those birds fed T-2 were partly protected by a sorbent. Birds fed both toxins showed toxic additive effects, and no protection of any adsorbent was observed. A significant reduction in plasma proteins, albumin, and globulins was a characteristic observed in all birds fed diets with OA both with or without adsorbents. Uric acid level in blood was increased in all chickens fed OA-contaminated diets. Histological findings observed in birds fed OA-contaminated diets were necrosis of kidney tubular cells, swollen and necrotic hepatocytes, bile ducts hyperplasia, and increased diameter of proventriculus glands. In birds that received T-2 alone, only the liver, with the same kind of lesions, was affected. According to these results, it can be concluded that there is not a relation between in vitro and in vivo trials. OA toxic effects could not be counteracted by any sorbent. T-2 toxicity could be partially counteracted by an adsorbent used in this research. PMID:14562898

García, A R; Avila, E; Rosiles, R; Petrone, V M

2003-01-01

146

Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

2013-01-02

147

Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

2014-09-01

148

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

149

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01

150

Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

2010-03-01

151

Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation  

E-print Network

Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

Muehlegger, Erich J

2005-01-01

152

Persulfate Persistence and Treatability of Gasoline Compounds.  

E-print Network

??Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) such as gasoline are ubiquitous organic compounds present at contaminated sites throughout the world. Accidental spills and leakage from underground storage tanks… (more)

Sra, Kanwartej Singh

2010-01-01

153

Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats  

PubMed Central

Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m3 for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

2011-01-01

154

Synthesis, identification and in vivo studies of tumor-targeting agent peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer with similar efficacy but reduced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Methods PDOX was synthesized using doxorubicin (DOX) attaching to a CTSB-cleavable dipeptide Ac-Phe-Lys and a para-amino-benzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) spacer. PC model was established by injecting VX2 tumor cells into the gastric sub-mucosa of 40 rabbits, which then were randomized into 4 groups: the Control (n?=?10) without treatment, the HIPEC (n?=?10) receiving cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the PDOX (n?=?10) and the DOX (n?=?10) receiving systemic chemotherapy with PDOX 50.0 mg/kg or DOX 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, after CRS?+?HIPEC. Results The median overall survivals (OS) were 23.0 d (95% CI: 19.9 d - 26.1 d) in the Control, 41.0 d (36.9 d - 45.1 d) in the HIPEC, 65.0 d (44.1 d - 71.9 d) in the PDOX, and 58.0 d (39.6 d - 54.4 d) in the DOX. Compared with the Control, the OS was extended by 70% in the HIPEC (p?toxicities with marked reduction of white blood cells and platelets, as well as cardiac toxicities with significant increases in creatine kinase mb isoenzyme, evident myocardium coagulation necrosis, significant nuclear degeneration, peri-nucleus mitochondria deletion, mitochondria-pyknosis, and abnormal intercalated discs. But these toxicities were not evident in the PDOX. Conclusions PDOX is a newly synthesized tumor-targeting prodrug of DOX. Compared with DOX, PDOX has similar efficacy but reduced hematological and cardiac toxicities in treating rabbit model of gastric PC. PMID:24588871

2014-01-01

155

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

Lammert, M.

2008-06-01

156

Acute toxicity of heavy metals to acetate-utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria: EC100 and EC50.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage from abandoned mines and acid mine pit lakes is an important environmental concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of acid mine drainage, knowledge of acute metal toxicity levels for SRB is essential for the proper functioning of the treatment system for acid mine drainage. Quantification of heavy metal toxicity to mixed cultures of SRB is complicated by the confounding effects of metal hydroxide and sulfide precipitation, biosorption, and complexation with the constituents of the reaction matrix. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that measurements of dissolved metal concentrations could be used to determine the toxicity parameters for mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The effective concentration, 100% (EC100), the lowest initial dissolved metal concentrations at which no sulfate reduction is observed, and the effective concentration, 50% (EC50), the initial dissolved metal concentrations resulting in a 50% decrease in sulfate reduction, for copper and zinc were determined in the present study by means of nondestructive, rapid physical and chemical analytical techniques. The reaction medium used in the experiments was designed specifically (in terms of pH and chemical composition) to provide the nutrients necessary for the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB and to preclude chemical precipitation of the metals under investigation. The toxicity-mitigating effects of biosorption of dissolved metals were also quantified. Anaerobic Hungate tubes were set up (at least in triplicate) and monitored for sulfate-reduction activity. The onset of SRB activity was detected by the blackening of the reaction mixture because of formation of insoluble ferrous sulfide. The EC100 values were found to be 12 mg/L for copper and 20 mg/L for zinc. The dissolved metal concentration measurements were effective as the indicators of the effect of the heavy metals at concentrations below EC100. The 7-d EC50 values obtained from the difference between the dissolved metal concentrations for the control tubes (tubes not containing copper or zinc) and tubes containing metals were found to be 10.5 mg/L for copper and 16.5 mg/L for zinc. Measurements of the turbidity and pH, bacterial population estimations by means of a most-probable number technique, and metal recovery in the sulfide precipitate were found to have only a limited applicability in these determinations. PMID:11764146

Utgikar, V P; Chen, B Y; Chaudhary, N; Tabak, H H; Haines, J R; Govind, R

2001-12-01

157

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

2012-07-01

158

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

2013-07-01

160

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

2011-07-01

161

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

2014-07-01

162

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy  

E-print Network

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We consumer preferences for fuel efficiency. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

163

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

164

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2011-10-01

165

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2010-10-01

166

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2012-10-01

167

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

2013-10-01

168

30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461 Section 57.4461 ...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground...

2012-07-01

169

30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461 Section 57.4461 ...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground...

2010-07-01

170

30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461 Section 57.4461 ...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground...

2011-07-01

171

30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.  

... false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461 Section 57.4461 ...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground...

2014-07-01

172

30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461 Section 57.4461 ...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground...

2013-07-01

173

Co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp inhibitor by a reduction-sensitive liposome to overcome multidrug resistance, enhance anti-tumor efficiency and reduce toxicity.  

PubMed

Abstract To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy with high efficiency and safety, a reduction-sensitive liposome (CL-R8-LP), which was co-modified with reduction-sensitive cleavable PEG and octaarginine (R8) to increase the tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and lysosome escape, was applied to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor of verapamil (VER) in this study. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX and VER in the binary-drug loaded CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was about 95 and 70% (w/w), respectively. The uptake efficiencies, the cytotoxicity, and the apoptosis and necrosis-inducing efficiency of CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) were much higher than those of DOX and the other control liposomes in MCF-7/ADR cells or tumor spheroids. Besides, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was proven to be uptaken into MCF-7/ADR cells by clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, followed by efficient lysosomal escape. In vivo, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7/ADR tumor and reduce the toxicity of DOX and VER, which could be ascribed to increased accumulation of drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells and reduced distribution in normal tissues. In summary, the co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and P-gp inhibitors by our reduction-sensitive liposome was a promising approach to overcome MDR, improve anti-tumor effect and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25491241

Tang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

2014-12-10

174

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01

175

Evaluation of Mobil OCTGAIN{trademark} technology for the manufacture of reformulated gasoline via LP modeling  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur and olefins content of gasoline come primarily from the cat-cracked blendstock. Therefore hydrotreating cat cracked naphtha is a straight forward approach to reduce sulfur and olefin contents of gasoline and thereby reduce auto exhaust emission. However, this approach reduces the Octane number of gasoline which requires addition of Octane enhancer like MTBE to meet the stringent requirement of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and to produce Reformulated Gasoline (RFG). The paper examines the economic incentives of an innovative process technology which was developed and commercialized by Mobil known as OCTGAIN. The process utilizes fixed bed low pressure hardware and uses a Mobil proprietary catalyst system to produce catalytically cracked (CC) gasoline component with thorough desulfurization and olefin reduction and practically no loss in Octane number. The economic evaluation of the OCTGAIN technology was conducted with Bechtel`s proprietary linear programming software, Process Industry Modeling System by introducing an OCTGAIN process block to a typical PADD-3 refinery configuration for gasoline production and satisfying RFG specifications. The results of the evaluation which involved twenty case studies, show that within the limitations of the study scope, the introduction of OCTGAIN technology creates a definite economic incentive over conventional hydrofinishing of CC naphtha. The profitability of OCTGAIN technology is dependent on the aromatics component of the gasoline pool. The economic advantage of OCTGAIN technology is realized primarily by higher production of premium gasoline and the ability to process lower cost high sulfur crude. The process also allows a better utilization of the FCCU and hydrocracker, if the refinery operation permits.

Poddar, S.K.; Chum, K.; Ragsdale, R. [Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Hilbert, T.L.; Sarli, M.S. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1995-09-01

176

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE GASOLINE AND OXYFUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite the ubiquity of gasoline for several decades and more recent modifications in fuel formulations to achieve ?cleaner? gasoline, a quantitative comparative assessment of the health risks related to these fuels remains to be performed. Under authority of Clean Air Act secti...

177

Octane number prediction for gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been developed to determine the Research Octane Number (RON) of gasoline blends produced in a Greek refinery. The developed ANN models use as input variables the volumetric content of seven most commonly used fractions in the gasoline production and their respective RON numbers. The model parameters (ANN weights) are presented such that the model

Nikos Pasadakis; Vassilis Gaganis; Charalambos Foteinopoulos

2006-01-01

178

Predict octane number for gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers,

A. H. Zahed; S. A. Mullah; M. D. Bashir

1993-01-01

179

What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?  

EIA Publications

This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

2014-01-01

180

Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

2004-01-01

181

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1065.710 Section 1065.710 Protection of Environment...Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline...section. Table 1 of § 1065.710—Test Fuel Specifications for...point °C 49-57 37-48 ASTM D86-07a. 50% point...

2012-07-01

182

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1065.710 Section 1065.710 Protection of Environment...Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline...section. Table 1 of § 1065.710—Test Fuel Specifications for...point °C 49-57 37-48 ASTM D86-07a. 50% point...

2010-07-01

183

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1065.710 Section 1065.710 Protection of Environment...Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline...section. Table 1 of § 1065.710—Test Fuel Specifications for...point °C 49-57 37-48 ASTM D86-07a. 50% point...

2011-07-01

184

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1065.710 Section 1065.710 Protection of Environment...Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline...section. Table 1 of § 1065.710—Test Fuel Specifications for...point °C 49-57 37-48 ASTM D86-07a. 50% point...

2013-07-01

185

Historical Gasoline Composition Data 1976 - 2010  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

186

Gasoline dispensing and vapor recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a gasoline dispensing and vapor recovery nozzle, and adaptors and fittings as may be required to modify certain gasoline tank fill pipes to consistent geometry and dimensions, such fittings including extension to the liquid conveying portion of the dispensing nozzle and extension of the venturi vent tube of the automatic shut-off system of the nozzle, thereby permitting

Lofquist; A. A. Jr

1979-01-01

187

Gene transfer of mutant mouse cholinesterase provides high lifetime expression and reduced cocaine responses with no evident toxicity.  

PubMed

Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with (3)H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3 × 10(11) particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (10(10) particles) to 20,000 fold (10(13) particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7 × 10(12) particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7 × 10(12) particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose. PMID:23840704

Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J; Russell, Stephen J; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

2013-01-01

188

Gene Transfer of Mutant Mouse Cholinesterase Provides High Lifetime Expression and Reduced Cocaine Responses with No Evident Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with 3H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3×1011 particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (1010 particles) to 20,000 fold (1013 particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7×1012 particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7×1012 particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose. PMID:23840704

Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

2013-01-01

189

Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.  

PubMed

Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ? potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ? 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants. PMID:24231324

Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

2013-12-15

190

Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). PMID:17629620

Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2008-03-01

191

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from matched related and unrelated donors in thalassemia major patients using a reduced toxicity fludarabine-based regimen.  

PubMed

The only radical cure for thalassemia major patients today is the replacement of the defective hematopoietic system by allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The major obstacles for the application of allo-SCT even from matched family members have been the transplant-related morbidity and mortality and graft failure that is usually associated with the recurrence of the thalassemia hematopoiesis. The outcome of allo-SCT from HLA-identical family donors is largely dependent on the age of the recipient as well as on pretransplant parameters reflecting the degree of organ damage from iron overload. In this study we report our experience of allo-SCT from matched related and unrelated donors, using a reduced toxicity conditioning consisting of fludarabine, busulfan or more recently busulfex and antithymocyte globulin, in a cohort of 20 patients with thalassemia major. The regimen-related toxicity was minimal, while the incidence of acute grade II-IV and chronic GVHD was 25 and 25%, respectively. With a median follow-up period of 39 months (range: 5-112 months) the overall survival was 100%, while thalassemia-free survival was 80%. Although the results of our study look promising, larger cohorts of patients and prospective clinical trials are required to confirm the benefits of our approach as a possible better alternative to the existing protocols. PMID:17846604

Resnick, I B; Aker, M; Tsirigotis, P; Shapira, M Y; Abdul-Hai, A; Bitan, M; Gesundheit, B; Amar, A; Ackerstein, A; Samuel, S; Slavin, S; Or, R

2007-11-01

192

Treatment of late stage disease in a model of arenaviral hemorrhagic fever: T-705 efficacy and reduced toxicity suggests an alternative to ribavirin.  

PubMed

A growing number of arenaviruses are known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever (HF), a severe and life-threatening syndrome characterized by fever, malaise, and increased vascular permeability. Ribavirin, the only licensed antiviral indicated for the treatment of certain arenaviral HFs, has had mixed success and significant toxicity. Since severe arenaviral infections initially do not present with distinguishing symptoms and are difficult to clinically diagnose at early stages, it is of utmost importance to identify antiviral therapies effective at later stages of infection. We have previously reported that T-705, a substituted pyrazine derivative currently under development as an anti-influenza drug, is highly active in hamsters infected with Pichinde virus when the drug is administered orally early during the course of infection. Here we demonstrate that T-705 offers significant protection against this lethal arenaviral infection in hamsters when treatment is begun after the animals are ill and the day before the animals begin to succumb to disease. Importantly, this coincides with the time when peak viral loads are present in most organs and considerable tissue damage is evident. We also show that T-705 is as effective as, and less toxic than, ribavirin, as infected T-705-treated hamsters on average maintain their weight better and recover more rapidly than animals treated with ribavirin. Further, there was no added benefit to combination therapy with T-705 and ribavirin. Finally, pharmacokinetic data indicate that plasma T-705 levels following oral administration are markedly reduced during the latter stages of disease, and may contribute to the reduced efficacy seen when treatment is withheld until day 7 of infection. Our findings support further pre-clinical development of T-705 for the treatment of severe arenaviral infections. PMID:19008960

Gowen, Brian B; Smee, Donald F; Wong, Min-Hui; Hall, Jeffery O; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Bailey, Kevin W; Stevens, John R; Furuta, Yousuke; Morrey, John D

2008-01-01

193

Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities  

SciTech Connect

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

194

Copper chloride induces antioxidant gene expression but reduces ability to mediate H2O2 toxicity in Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu)-based biocides are currently used as control measures for both fungal and bacterial diseases in agricultural fields. In this communication, we show that exposure of the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris to nonlethal concentrations of Cu(2+) ions (75 µM) enhanced expression of genes in OxyR, OhrR and IscR regulons. High levels of catalase, Ohr peroxidase and superoxide dismutase diminished Cu(2+)-induced gene expression, suggesting that the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides is responsible for Cu(2+)-induced gene expression. Despite high expression of antioxidant genes, the CuCl2-treated cells were more susceptible to H2O2 killing treatment than the uninduced cells. This phenotype arose from lowered catalase activity in the CuCl2-pretreated cells. Thus, exposure to a nonlethal dose of Cu(2+) renders X. campestris vulnerable to H2O2, even when various genes for peroxide-metabolizing enzymes are highly expressed. Moreover, CuCl2-pretreated cells are sensitive to treatment with the redox cycling drug, menadione. No physiological cross-protection response was observed in CuCl2-treated cells in a subsequent challenge with killing concentrations of an organic hydroperoxide. As H2O2 production is an important initial plant immune response, defects in H2O2 protection are likely to reduce bacterial survival in plant hosts and enhance the usefulness of copper biocides in controlling bacterial pathogens. PMID:24385479

Sornchuer, Phornphan; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

2014-02-01

195

Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice  

SciTech Connect

Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ? During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ? Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ? Glial activation is not fully suppressed.

Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

2012-03-01

196

Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. PMID:22245128

Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; Dorandeu, Fréderic

2012-03-01

197

Alkylate is key for cleaner burning gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Alkylate is a key component in cleaner burning gasoline. The alkylation process reacts light olefins (propylene, butylenes, and amylenes) with isobutane in the presence of a strong acid catalyst. The alkylate that is produced consists of branched paraffins having a low Reid vapor pressure (Rvp), high research and motor octane numbers (RON & MON), low sulfur content, and a good driveability index (DI). Therefore, alkylation removes olefinic, high Rvp components from the gasoline pool and converts them to an ideal, high octane blendstock for cleaner burning gasoline.

Peterson, J.R. [STRATCO, Inc., Leawood, KS (United States)

1996-12-31

198

Listeria monocytogenes strains selected on ciprofloxacin or the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride exhibit reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, benzalkonium chloride, and other toxic compounds.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a leading agent for severe food-borne illness and death in the United States and other nations. Even though drug resistance has not yet threatened therapeutic interventions for listeriosis, selective pressure associated with exposure to antibiotics and disinfectants may result in reduced susceptibility to these agents. In this study, selection of several L. monocytogenes strains on either ciprofloxacin (2 ?g/ml) or the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC; 10 ?g/ml) led to derivatives with increased MICs not only to these agents but also to several other toxic compounds, including gentamicin, the dye ethidium bromide, and the chemotherapeutic drug tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. The spectrum of compounds to which these derivatives exhibited reduced susceptibility was the same regardless of whether they were selected on ciprofloxacin or on BC. Inclusion of strains harboring the large plasmid pLM80 revealed that MICs to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin did not differ between the parental and plasmid-cured strains. However, ciprofloxacin-selected derivatives of pLM80-harboring strains had higher MICs than those derived from the plasmid-cured strains. Susceptibility to the antimicrobials was partially restored in the presence of the potent efflux inhibitor reserpine. Taken together, these data suggest that mutations in efflux systems are responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype of strains selected on ciprofloxacin or BC. PMID:22003016

Rakic-Martinez, Mira; Drevets, Douglas A; Dutta, Vikrant; Katic, Vera; Kathariou, Sophia

2011-12-01

199

The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

[1] With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NOx) control devices to reduce air pollution,''modern'diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NOx below

Mark Z. Jacobson; John H. Seinfeld; Greg R. Carmichael; David G. Streets

2003-01-01

200

Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats  

PubMed Central

After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0–t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

2014-01-01

201

Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats.  

PubMed

After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0-t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

2014-01-01

202

Econometric Modeling of Gasoline Consumption: A Cointegration Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies econometric models to investigate determinants of gasoline consumption (GC) in postwar Lebanon (1993–1999). The impact of gasoline price (P) and car registration (CR) on gasoline consumption is investigated through three models, namely, the static, autoregressive, and partial adjustment models. Analysis results showed the statistical significance of the price, at the 10% level, in affecting gasoline consumption and

E. A. Badr; G. E. Nasr; G. L. Dibeh

2008-01-01

203

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi

2010-01-01

204

Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

Stephens, Edgar R.

1977-01-01

205

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

EIA Publications

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

2008-01-01

206

Predict octane number for gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1993-05-01

207

Species profiles and normalized reactivity of volatile organic compounds from gasoline evaporation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, fast increase in passenger cars and gasoline consumption with yet quite limited vapor recovery during gasoline distribution has procured growing concern about gasoline evaporation as an important emission source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly in megacities hard-hit by air quality problems. This study presents VOC species profiles related to major pathways of gasoline evaporative loss in China, including headspace displacement, refueling operations and spillage/leakage. Apart from liquid gasoline and headspace vapors, gasoline vapors emitted when refueling cars in service stations or tank trucks in oil marketing depots were also sampled in situ with vapor recovery units (VRUs) turning on/off. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons accounted for 55-66, 21-35 and 4-8% in refueling vapors, 59-72, 18-28 and 4-10% in headspace vapors and 33-51, 8-15 and 38-48% in liquid gasoline samples, respectively. During refueling with VRUs turning on, total VOCs in vapors were less than one fifth of that with VRUs turning off, and aromatic hydrocarbons had higher weight percentages of about 8% in contrast with that of about 4% during refueling with VRUs turning off. Refueling vapors, especially for that with VRUs turning off, showed a larger fraction of light hydrocarbons including C3-C5 light alkenes when compared to headspace vapors, probably due to splashing and disturbance during filling operation. In refueling or headspace vapors the ratios of i-pentane/benzene, i-pentane/toluene, and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether)/benzene ranged 8.7-57, 2.7-4.8, and 1.9-6.6, respectively; and they are distinctively much higher than those previously reported in vehicle exhausts. Calculated normalized reactivity or ozone formation potential of the gasoline vapors in China ranged 3.3-4.4 g O3 g-1 VOC, about twice that of gasoline headspace vapors reported in USA as a result of larger fractions of alkenes in China's gasoline vapors. The results suggested that reducing VOC emission from gasoline distribution sector would particularly benefit ground-level ozone control in China.

Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; Lü, Sujun; Shao, Min; Lee, Frank S. C.; Yu, Jianzhen

2013-11-01

208

Desulfurization mechanism of FCC gasoline: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the most important developments on the desulfurization mechanism of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) gasoline.\\u000a First, the origin of sulfur compounds in FCC gasoline and the current developed desulfurization approaches and technologies\\u000a are briefly introduced, and then the researches on desulfurization mechanism are summarized from experimental and theoretical\\u000a perspectives. Further researches on the desulfurization mechanism will lay a

Liang Zhao; Yan Chen; Jinsen Gao; Yu Chen

2010-01-01

209

Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981  

SciTech Connect

Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

1982-06-01

210

Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.  

PubMed

The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

Sawyer, R F

1993-12-01

211

Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.  

PubMed Central

The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

Sawyer, R F

1993-01-01

212

Analysis of PAMS data to evaluate reformulated gasoline effects  

SciTech Connect

The reformulation of motor vehicle fuel began in late 1992 in California and in early 1995 outside California. Under the Environmental Protection Agency Office of Mobile Sources sponsorship, the authors evaluated the use of Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station (PAMS) data to provide some early confirmation of reformulated gasoline`s (RFG) ambient air quality benefits in a number of regions around the country. This paper describes the analysis used to: (a) determine if the PAMS measurements indicate real reductions in ambient concentrations of ozone precursors and toxics, rather than fluctuations and (b) determine to what extent these reductions in ambient concentrations can be linked to the implementation of the RFG program. The study on which the paper is based includes the following elements: (1) determine if the PAMS or other data are sufficient in quantity, quality, and scope to warrant further investigation at this time; (2) identify various ambient species and indicators which might reflect changes in fuel composition due to the introduction of RFG -- the ambient species and indicators might include specific species concentrations, species mass or mole fractions, and ratios of species concentrations; (3) if the data set is sufficient, determine if statistically significant differences can be detected using measurements collected before and after the introduction of RFG; and (4) evaluate the consistency among the results using various species, indicators, and auxiliary data sets, and using various analysis methods. Results of this investigation indicate that RFG is impacting ambient hydrocarbon levels.

Main, H.H.; Roberts, P.T.; Reiss, R.; Chinkin, L.R. [Sonoma Technology, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

213

Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a ?-1,3-glucanase from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor?L.) show reduced callose deposition and increased tolerance to aluminium toxicity.  

PubMed

Seventy-one cultivars of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor?L.) were screened for aluminium (Al) tolerance by measuring relative root growth (RRG). Two contrasting cultivars, ROMA (Al tolerant) and POTCHETSTRM (Al sensitive), were selected to study shorter term responses to Al stress. POTCHETSTRM had higher callose synthase activity, lower ?-1,3-glucanase activity and more callose deposition in the root apices during Al treatment compared with ROMA. We monitored the expression of 12 genes involved in callose synthesis and degradation and found that one of these, SbGlu1 (Sb03g045630.1), which encodes a ?-1,3-glucanase enzyme, best explained the contrasting deposition of callose in ROMA and POTCHETSTRM during Al treatment. Full-length cDNAs of SbGlu1 was prepared from ROMA and POTCHETSTRM and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Independent transgenic lines displayed significantly greater Al tolerance than wild-type plants and vector-only controls. This phenotype was associated with greater total ?-1,3-glucanase activity, less Al accumulation and reduced callose deposition in the roots. These results suggest that callose production is not just an early indicator of Al stress in plants but likely to be part of the toxicity pathway that leads to the inhibition of root growth. PMID:25311645

Zhang, Hui; Shi, Wu Liang; You, Jiang Feng; Bian, Ming DI; Qin, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Ryan, Peter R; Yang, Zhen Ming

2014-10-13

214

Inhibitors of TLR-4, NF-?B, and SAPK/JNK signaling reduce the toxic effect of lipopolysaccharide on RAW 264.7 cells.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine and compare the effects of three suppressors on the cytokine response in tandem with examining: the synthesis of inducible forms of heat shock proteins; HSP72 and HSP90?; activities of NF-?B and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways; and TLR4 expression. Pre-treatment with inhibitors offers promise as protective means to lower the activity of these cascades, thereby circumventing the formation of excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory molecules. Three inhibitors of TLR4, SAPK/JNK, and NF-?B signaling, namely CLI-095, SP600125, and IKK Inhibitor XII, respectively, were added to cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages before the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application. Treatments of RAW 264.7 cells with each of the inhibitors resulted in a reduced response to LPS as was visualized by a decrease of TNF-?, IL-1, and IFN-? production. In addition, inhibitors of the NF-?B and SAPK/JNK signaling reduced IL-6 production in LPS-treated cells, whereas the IKK inhibitor XII also decreased IL-10 production. Further, the NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages was significantly reduced following application of CLI-095 or IKK inhibitor XII. The results also showed that the inhibitors suppressed TLR4 production and decreased phosphorylation of NF-?B and SAPK/JNK proteins, thereby preventing the activation NF-?B and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways in LPS-activated cells. In addition, the production of inducible heat shock proteins, HSP72 and HSP90-?, was reduced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells pre-treated with inhibitors. These results suggest that inhibitors CLI-095, SP600125, and IKK inhibitor XII demonstrate potential effectiveness in the reduction of the inflammatory response by mechanisms involving both the cellular defense system and cellular signaling. In conclusion, suppressor of NF-?B cascade, IKK inhibitor XII, seems to be the most effective anti-toxic agent among studied inhibitors. PMID:22830990

Glushkova, Olga V; Parfenyuk, Svetlana B; Khrenov, Maxim O; Novoselova, Tatyana V; Lunin, Sergey M; Fesenko, Eugeny E; Novoselova, Elena G

2013-01-01

215

Mutation of threonine 34 in mouse podoplanin-Fc reduces CLEC-2 binding and toxicity in vivo while retaining antilymphangiogenic activity.  

PubMed

The lymphatic system plays an important role in cancer metastasis and inhibition of lymphangiogenesis could be valuable in fighting cancer dissemination. Podoplanin (Pdpn) is a small, transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). During mouse development, binding of Pdpn to the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets is critical for the separation of the lymphatic and blood vascular systems. Competitive inhibition of Pdpn functions with a soluble form of the protein, Pdpn-Fc, leads to reduced lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. However, the transgenic overexpression of human Pdpn-Fc in mouse skin causes disseminated intravascular coagulation due to platelet activation via CLEC-2. In the present study, we produced and characterized a mutant form of mouse Pdpn-Fc, in which threonine 34, which is considered essential for CLEC-2 binding, was mutated to alanine (PdpnT34A-Fc). Indeed, PdpnT34A-Fc displayed a 30-fold reduced binding affinity for CLEC-2 compared with Pdpn-Fc. This also translated into fewer side effects due to platelet activation in vivo. Mice showed less prolonged bleeding time and fewer embolized vessels in the liver, when PdpnT34A-Fc was injected intravenously. However, PdpnT34A-Fc was still as active as wild-type Pdpn-Fc in inhibiting lymphangiogenesis in vitro and also inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vivo. These data suggest that the function of Pdpn in lymphangiogenesis does not depend on threonine 34 in the CLEC-2 binding domain and that PdpnT34A-Fc might be an improved inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis with fewer toxic side effects. PMID:24907275

Bianchi, Roberta; Fischer, Eliane; Yuen, Don; Ernst, Ellen; Ochsenbein, Alexandra M; Chen, Lu; Otto, Vivianne I; Detmar, Michael

2014-07-25

216

Elemental Selenium at Nano Size (Nano-Se) as a Potential Chemopreventive Agent with Reduced Risk of Selenium Toxicity: Comparison with Se-Methylselenocysteine in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. As a promising chemopreventive agent, its use requires consumption over the long term, so the toxicity of Se is always a crucial concern. Based on clinical findings and recent studies in selenoprotein gene-modified mice, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or

Jinsong Zhang; Xufang Wang; Tongwen Xu

2008-01-01

217

Gasoline volatility and hot weather driveability of Japanese cars  

SciTech Connect

Hot weather driveability test procedures on a chassis dynamometer correlated with field tests were established, and the effect of gasoline volatility on driveability performance was examined using 11 Japanese cars. It was found that the 50% evaporated temperature had a larger effect on hot weather driveability than the Reid vapor pressure. Also, hot idle compensators and fuel return systems were very effective for reducing malfunctions. As to conditions which should be controlled in chassis dynamometer tests, wind velocity were important as the same as ambient temperature; however, sun loading was not.

Yoshida, E.; Nagasawa, T.; Nomura, H.; Nozaki, N.

1983-11-01

218

Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum  

SciTech Connect

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1995-10-01

219

Outcomes of Thalassemia Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation by Using a Standard Myeloablative versus a Novel Reduced-Toxicity Conditioning Regimen According to a New Risk Stratification.  

PubMed

Improving outcomes among class 3 thalassemia patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) remains a challenge. Before HSCT, patients who were ? 7 years old and had a liver size ? 5 cm constitute what the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research defined as a very high-risk subset of a conventional high-risk class 3 group (here referred to as class 3 HR). We performed HSCT in 98 patients with related and unrelated donor stem cells. Seventy-six of the patients with age < 10 years received the more conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen (cyclophosphamide, busulfan, ± fludarabine); the remaining 22 patients with age ? 10 years and hepatomegaly (class 3 HR), and in several instances additional comorbidity problems, underwent HSCT with a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen (fludarabine and busulfan). We then compared the outcomes between these 2 groups (MAC versus RTC). Event-free survival (86% versus 90%) and overall survival (95% versus 90%) were not significantly different between the respective groups; however, there was a higher incidence of serious treatment-related complications in the MAC group, and although we experienced 6 graft failures in the MAC group (8%), there were none in the RTC group. Based on these results, we suggest that (1) class 3 HR thalassemia patients can safely receive HSCT with our novel RTC regimen and achieve the same excellent outcome as low/standard-risk thalassemia patients who received the standard MAC regimen, and further, (2) that this novel RTC approach should be tested in the low/standard-risk patient population. PMID:25064743

Anurathapan, Usanarat; Pakakasama, Samart; Mekjaruskul, Pimsiri; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Songdej, Duantida; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Sanpakit, Kleebsabai; Pongtanakul, Bunchoo; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Meekaewkunchorn, Arunotai; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Ungkanont, Artit; Issaragrisil, Surapol; Andersson, Borje S; Hongeng, Suradej

2014-12-01

220

Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline. PMID:22432307

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

2011-01-01

221

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01

222

40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

2013-07-01

223

40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

2012-07-01

224

40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

2014-07-01

225

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

2010-07-01

226

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

2013-07-01

227

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

2011-07-01

228

40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

2010-07-01

229

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

2014-07-01

230

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

2012-07-01

231

40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

2011-07-01

232

Preliminary computational studies of flash boiling for fuel injectors in gasoline direct injection automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flash boiling model is being developed to capture the effects of bubble nucleation and growth inside an injector. This model will be applied to the study of flash boiling fuel injector sprays in gasoline direct injection (GDI) automotive engines. There is potential for flash boiling to reduce drop sizes, increase spray cone angles, and ultimately produce more favorable combustible

Dar-Lon Chang; Chia-fon F. Lee

2002-01-01

233

Effect of ethanol denaturant on gasoline RVP (revised). Topical report, June 21, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 require further reduction in gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP) to reduce pollution. This research focused on characterizing the effect of ethanol denaturant and water on the RVP of the final ethanol-blended fuel. Anectdotal stories tell of up to a 0.5-psi effect of ethanol denaturant on the RVP of the finished ethanol-blended gasoline. Additionally, earlier Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data indicated water could have a significant effect on the RVP. It was necessary to scientifically verify these effects using acceptable laboratory protocols.

Wu, L.; Timpe, R.C.

1993-12-01

234

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements...shall exclude denaturants and water. (c) The properties of reformulated...

2012-07-01

235

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements...shall exclude denaturants and water. (c) The properties of reformulated...

2011-07-01

236

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements...shall exclude denaturants and water. (c) The properties of reformulated...

2010-07-01

237

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements...shall exclude denaturants and water. (c) The properties of reformulated...

2013-07-01

238

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80...Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements...shall exclude denaturants and water. (c) The properties of reformulated...

2014-07-01

239

46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

2013-10-01

240

Evaluation of combustion by-products of MTBE as a component of reformulated gasoline.  

PubMed

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a gasoline oxygenate that is widely used throughout the US and Europe as an octane-booster and as a means of reducing automotive carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. The combustion by-products of pure MTBE have been evaluated in previous laboratory studies, but little attention has been paid to the combustion by-products of MTBE as a component of gasoline. MTBE is often used in reformulated gasoline (RFG), which has chemical and physical characteristics distinct from conventional gasoline. The formation of MTBE by-products in RFG is not well-understood, especially under "worst-case" vehicle emission scenarios such as fuel-rich operations, cold-starts or malfunctioning emission control systems, conditions which have not been studied extensively. Engine-out automotive dynamometer studies have compared RFG with MTBE to non-oxygenated RFG. Their findings suggest that adding MTBE to reformulated gasoline does not impact the high temperature flame chemistry in cylinder combustion processes. Comparison of tailpipe and exhaust emission studies indicate that reactions in the catalytic converter are quite effective in destroying most hydrocarbon MTBE by-product species. Since important reaction by-products are formed in the post-flame region, understanding changes in this region will contribute to the understanding of fuel-related changes in emissions. PMID:11219713

Franklin, P M; Koshland, C P; Lucas, D; Sawyer, R F

2001-01-01

241

Gasoline emissions dominate over diesel in formation of secondary organic aerosol mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although laboratory experiments have shown that organic compounds in both gasoline fuel and diesel engine exhaust can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the fractional contribution from gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions to ambient SOA in urban environments is poorly known. Here we use airborne and ground-based measurements of organic aerosol (OA) in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin, California made during May and June 2010 to assess the amount of SOA formed from diesel emissions. Diesel emissions in the LA Basin vary between weekdays and weekends, with 54% lower diesel emissions on weekends. Despite this difference in source contributions, in air masses with similar degrees of photochemical processing, formation of OA is the same on weekends and weekdays, within the measurement uncertainties. This result indicates that the contribution from diesel emissions to SOA formation is zero within our uncertainties. Therefore, substantial reductions of SOA mass on local to global scales will be achieved by reducing gasoline vehicle emissions.

Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; Brock, C. A.; Stark, H.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Hall, K.; Holloway, J. S.; Kuster, W. C.; Perring, A. E.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Szidat, S.; Wagner, N. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zotter, P.; Parrish, D. D.

2012-03-01

242

The U. S. dollar value of gasoline: Currency crisis in Europe  

SciTech Connect

The recent currency crisis in Europe puts the possibility of European economic union in further jeopardy after the Maastricht Treaty was not approved by the Netherlands earlier this Summer. The increased value of European currencies relative to the US dollar during the past Summer had little effect upon national currency gasoline prices. However, the recent currency devaluations in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, already struggling with weak economies, definitely reduce consumer buying power. Governments may use the high taxes imposed on gasoline as a buffer against higher prices, but still, consumers may buy less gasoline as their money doesn't go as far as it once did. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Sept. 25, 1992; and (2) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 1992 Edition.

Not Available

1992-09-30

243

Determination of ethanol and specific gravity in gasoline by distillation curves and multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

The partial least-squares regression method (PLS) was employed to predict the amount of ethanol and specific gravity in automotive gasoline using distillation curves (ASTM-D86). Additionally, a comparison was made between regression coefficients of all the algorithms, after selecting the number of latent variables. The low values obtained for RMSEC and RMSEP, associated with high accuracy when compared to the standard methodologies (NBR-13992, ASTM-D4052 and D1298) showed that PLS was efficient to determine the ethanol content and specific gravity in gasoline, since the model contains samples of different gasoline compositions, thus reflecting the variety of fuel in the Brazilian market. In addition, the proposed method is low cost, time reducing and easy to implement, as it utilizes the results of a routine assay carried out to evaluate the quality of automotive fuel. PMID:19362211

Aleme, Helga G; Costa, Letícia M; Barbeira, Paulo J S

2009-06-15

244

Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

Butters, R.A.

1990-09-30

245

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

246

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

247

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

248

Crude oil and gasoline prices: an asymmetric relationship?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline is the petroleum product whose price is most visible and, therefore, always under public scrutiny. Many claim there is an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices - specifically, gasoline price changes follow oil price changes more quickly when oil prices are rising than when they are falling. To explore this issue, Nathan Balke, Stephen Brown and Mine Yucel

Nathan S. Balke; Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine Yücel

1998-01-01

249

Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

250

U.S. GASOLINE COMPOSITION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents results from a 2004/2005 study of U.S. gasoline composition. Differences in composition are driven by regulation, octane requirements, refining methods, and performance needs. Major differences in composition were traced to a few compounds: benzene, MTB...

251

Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

252

Price Changes in the Gasoline Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) examines why retail gasoline prices seem to rise more quickly than they fall especially during times of high price volatility. Following a review of past studies and an analysis of regional price differences, the EIA found retail price pattern asymmetry due to normal lagged retail market responses in some Midwestern states.

253

The primary aerobic biodegradation of gasoline hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

We describe the primary aerobic biodegradation of an unleaded, unoxygenated, regular gasoline by inocula from unacclimated fresh and sea water, and from a domestic sewage treatment plant. Biodegradation was rapid and complete in all inocula, with an overall median "half-life", at approximately 70 ppm gasoline and low levels of inorganic nutrients, of 5 days. The biodegradation of 131 individual hydrocarbons in the gasoline followed a relatively consistent pattern. The larger n-alkanes and iso-alkanes, and simple and alkylated aromatic compounds were the most readily degraded compounds, followed by the smaller n-alkanes and isoalkanes and the naphthenes. The last compounds to be degraded were butane, iso-butane, and 2,2-dimethylbutane, but even these disappeared with an apparent half-life of <30 days. The fact that the aqueous concentration of many of the individual components was in the sub ppb level is a remarkable demonstration of the ability of unadapted indigenous aerobic microorganisms to respond to and effectively biodegrade gasoline range hydrocarbons. PMID:17539543

Prince, Roger C; Parkerton, Thomas F; Lee, Carolyn

2007-05-01

254

Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of five terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for a basic gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the intermediate course guide see CE 010 946.) The materials were developed for a two semester (2 hours daily)…

Jones, Marion

255

DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

256

Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

Jones, Marion

257

Competition in the retail gasoline industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers market power, thereby leading to higher prices. Low brand diversity, though, could act to facilitate collusive behavior, leading to higher prices. I find that prices are higher in markets with high brand diversity. The final chapter of the dissertation summarizes the general findings.

Brewer, Jedidiah

2007-05-01

258

Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?  

SciTech Connect

This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

NONE

1999-03-01

259

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne\\/day (2,205 U.S. ton\\/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007).

S. D. Phillips; J. K. Tarud; M. J. Biddy; A. Dutta

2011-01-01

260

[Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].  

PubMed

The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC. PMID:15515949

Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

2004-07-01

261

Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 × 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

2014-01-01

262

Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether in mice and rats.  

PubMed

This evaluation was part of a much more comprehensive testing program to characterize the mammalian toxicity potential of the gasoline oxygenator additive tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and was initiated upon a regulatory agency mandate. A developmental toxicity hazard identification study was conducted by TAME vapor inhalation exposure in two pregnant rodent species. Timed-pregnant CD(Sprague-Dawley) rats and CD-1 mice, 25 animals per group, inhaled TAME vapors containing 0, 250, 1500 or 3500 ppm for 6 h a day on gestational days 6-16 (mice) or 6-19 (rats). The developmental toxicity hazard potential was evaluated following the study design draft guidelines and end points proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Based on maternal body weight changes during pregnancy, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 250 ppm for maternal toxicity in rats and 1500 ppm for developmental toxicity in rats using the criterion of near-term fetal body weights. In mice, more profound developmental toxicity was present than in rats, at both 1500 and 3500 ppm. At the highest concentration, mouse litters revealed more late fetal deaths, significantly reduced fetal body weights per litter and increased incidences of cleft palate (classified as an external malformation), as well as enlarged lateral ventricles of the cerebrum (a visceral variation). At 1500 ppm, mouse fetuses also exhibited an increased incidence of cleft palate and the dam body weights were reduced. Therefore, the NOAEL for the mouse maternal and developmental toxicity was 250 ppm under the conditions of this study. PMID:14635263

Welsch, Frank; Elswick, Barbara; James, R Arden; Marr, Melissa C; Myers, Christina B; Tyl, Rochelle W

2003-01-01

263

Gasoline contributes more than diesel to secondary organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasoline-powered vehicles contribute more to secondary organic aerosol formation than diesel-fueled vehicles do, a new study shows. Organic compounds in gasoline fuel and diesel exhaust can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which negatively affect air quality, visibility, and health and have impacts on climate; however, few studies have investigated the relative contribution of gasoline and diesel to secondary aerosols. Traffic studies have found that the ratio of gasoline-to diesel-powered vehicles changes on weekends. For instance, in the Los Angeles, Calif., area, diesel emissions are about 54% lower on weekends than on weekdays, though gasoline emissions are about the same.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-05-01

264

An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.  

SciTech Connect

Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2011-09-01

265

Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration  

SciTech Connect

Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

1993-03-01

266

Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration  

SciTech Connect

Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

1993-03-01

267

Reduction in local ozone levels in urban São Paulo due to a shift from ethanol to gasoline use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethanol-based vehicles are thought to generate less pollution than gasoline-based vehicles, because ethanol emissions contain lower concentrations of mono-nitrogen oxides than those from gasoline emissions. However, the predicted effect of various gasoline/ethanol blends on the concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as ozone varies between model and laboratory studies, including those that seek to simulate the same environmental conditions. Here, we report the consequences of a real-world shift in fuel use in the subtropical megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, brought on by large-scale fluctuations in the price of ethanol relative to gasoline between 2009 and 2011. We use highly spatially and temporally resolved observations of road traffic levels, meteorology and pollutant concentrations, together with a consumer demand model, to show that ambient ozone concentrations fell by about 20% as the share of bi-fuel vehicles burning gasoline rose from 14 to 76%. In contrast, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations increased. We caution that although gasoline use seems to lower ozone levels in the São Paulo metropolitan area relative to ethanol use, strategies to reduce ozone pollution require knowledge of the local chemistry and consideration of other pollutants, particularly fine particles.

Salvo, Alberto; Geiger, Franz M.

2014-06-01

268

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09

269

Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments  

SciTech Connect

The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

2011-09-15

270

Determination of oxygenates in gasoline by FTIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygenates of the type C1 to C4 alcohols and MTBE have been used for improving the octane number of gasoline and helping in reduction of emissions. These oxygenates are used as substitutes for the poisonous tetraethyl lead. The ASTM D-4815 method utilizes a GC method for determining methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol (2-methyl-1-propanol), tert-butanol (2-methyl-2-propanol) and methyl tert-butyl

Asfaha Iob; Rick Buenafe; Nurredin M Abbas

1998-01-01

271

Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat  

SciTech Connect

A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

Begley, R.

1994-04-06

272

Biodegradability of volatile hydrocarbons of gasoline.  

PubMed

The biodegradability under aerobic conditions of volatile hydrocarbons (4-6 carbons) contained in gasoline and consisting of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkenes, was investigated. Activated sludge was used as the reference microflora. The biodegradation test involved the degradation of the volatile fraction of gasoline in closed flasks under optimal conditions. The kinetics of biodegradation was monitored by CO2 production. Final degradation was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of all measurable hydrocarbons (12 compounds) in the mixture after sampling the headspace of the flasks. The degradation of individual hydrocarbons was also studied with the same methodology. When incubated individually, all hydrocarbons used as carbon sources, except 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane, were completely consumed in 30 days or less with different velocities and initial lag periods. When incubated together as constituents of the light gasoline fraction, all hydrocarbons were metabolised, often with higher velocities than for individual compounds. Cometabolism was involved in the degradation of dimethyl isoalkanes. PMID:10952015

Solano-Serena, F; Marchal, R; Huet, T; Lebeault, J M; Vandecasteele, J P

2000-07-01

273

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

274

High octane gasoline components from catalytic cracking gasoline, propylene, and isobutane by disproportionation, clevage and alkylation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing high octane value gasoline which comprises in a disproportionation zone subjecting propylene and a mixture of propylene and ethylene obtained as hereinafter delineated to disproportionation conditions to produce a stream containing ethylene and a stream containing butenes, passing the ethylene-containing stream from said disproportionation zone together with a catalytic cracking gasoline to a cleavage zone under disproportionation conditions and subjecting the mixture of hydrocarbons therin to cleavage to produce said mixture of propylene and ethylene, a C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline-containing product and butenes and wherein the butenes obtained in the overall operation of the disproportionation zone and the cleavage zone are passed to an alkylation zone wherein said butenes are used to alkylate an isoparaffin to produce additional high octane value product.

Banks, R.

1980-07-08

275

Reduced rectal toxicity with ultrasound-based image guided radiotherapy using BAT™ (B-mode acquisition and targeting system) for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the effect of image guided radiotherapy with stereotactic ultrasound BAT (B-mode acquisition and targeting system)\\u000a on rectal toxicity in conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  42 sequential patients with prostate cancer undergoing radiotherapy before and after the introduction of BAT were included.\\u000a Planning computed tomography (CT) was performed with empty rectum and moderately filled bladder. The planning

Markus Bohrer; Peter Schröder; Grit Welzel; Hansjörg Wertz; Frank Lohr; Frederik Wenz; Sabine Kathrin Mai

2008-01-01

276

Carbonyls emission from ethanol-blended gasoline and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel used in engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed carbonyls emissions from ethanol-blended gasoline (containing 10% v/v, ethanol, E-10) and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel (BE-diesel) were carefully investigated on an EQ491i gasoline engine equipped with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) and a Commins-4B diesel engine. In engine-out emissions for the gasoline engine, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 66.7-99.4 mg kW -1 h -1, which was 3.1-8.2% less than those from fossil gasoline (E-0). In tailpipe emissions, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 9.2-20.7 mg kW -1 h -1, which were 3.0-61.7% higher than those from E-0. The total carbonyls emissions from BE-diesel were 1-22% higher than those from diesel at different engine operating conditions. Compared with fossil fuels, E-10 can slightly reduce CO emission, and BE-diesel can substantially decrease PM emission, while both alternative fuels increased slightly NO x emission.

Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Yuan, Juan; He, Hong

277

A Reduced-Toxicity Regimen Is Associated with Durable Engraftment and Clinical Cure of Nonmalignant Genetic Diseases among Children Undergoing Blood and Marrow Transplantation with an HLA-Matched Related Donor.  

PubMed

Blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) is a standard curative therapy for patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases. Myeloablative conditioning has been associated with significant regimen-related toxicity (RRT), whereas reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been associated with graft failure. In this prospective pilot trial conducted at 2 centers between 2006 and 2013, we report the outcome of 22 patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases who were conditioned with a novel reduced-toxicity regimen: i.v. busulfan (16 mg/kg), alemtuzumab (52 mg/m(2)), fludarabine (140 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (105 mg/kg). The median age of the study population was 3.5 years (range, 5 months to 26 years). No cases of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, severe or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or primary graft failure were reported. Median time to neutrophil engraftment (>500 cells/?L) and platelet engraftment (>20K cells/?L) were 19 (range, 12 to 50) and 23.5 (range, 14 to 134) days, respectively. The median length of follow-up was 3 years (range, .2 to 6.3). The overall survival rates were 95% at 100 days (95% confidence interval, .72 to .99) and 90% at 6 years (95% confidence interval, .68 to .98). RRT and chronic GVHD are significant barriers to BMT for patients with nonmalignant genetic diseases. This alemtuzumab-based reduced-toxicity regimen appears to be promising with durable engraftment, effective cure of clinical disease, low rates of RRT, and no observed chronic GVHD. PMID:25459642

Mahadeo, Kris Michael; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Miklos, David B; Killen, Renna; Kohn, Donald; Crooks, Gay M; Shah, Ami J; Kharbanda, Sandhya; Agarwal, Rajni; Kapoor, Neena

2015-03-01

278

Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.  

PubMed

This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container. PMID:16181732

Hasselbring, Lori C

2006-03-17

279

Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

1921-01-01

280

[Analysis of sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking gasoline].  

PubMed

Sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) gasolines from Refinery of SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company and Refinery of Shijiazhuang were analyzed by gas chromatograph connected with flame photometric detector (FPD) and atomic emission detector (AED). Twelve and 26 kinds of sulfur compounds were detected by AED in RFCC gasolines from Yanshan and Shijiazhuang respectively. Only 0 and 19 kinds of sulfur compounds were found by FPD in these two gasolines respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that AED is more sensitive and selective to sulfur compounds than FPD. It also indicated that thiophenes were the major sulfur compounds in the RFCC gasoline. In addition, mercaptan, sulfoether and disulfide species were found. PMID:12541959

Liang, Yong-mei; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yao-fang

2002-05-01

281

A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NO x emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NO x have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion efficiency, engine's speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake specific energy consumption.

He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hao, Ji-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Guang; Xiao, Jian-Hua

282

Simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol in gasoline using NIR spectroscopy: Effect of gasoline composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was employed for simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol contents in gasoline. Spectra were collected in the range from 714 to 2500nm and were used to construct quantitative models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression. Samples were prepared in the laboratory and the PLS regression models were developed using the spectral range from 1105 to

Heitor L. Fernandes; Ivo M. Raimundo Jr; Celio Pasquini; Jarbas J. R. Rohwedder

2008-01-01

283

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number and particularly lead free gasoline, from olefininc c3-c4 cuts  

SciTech Connect

Lead free gasoline of high octane number is obtained from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts as follows: propylene contained in the C/sub 3/ cut is oligomerized, at least 80% of the isobutene and less than 40% of the n-butenes of the C/sub 4/ cut are oligomerized to form an oligomerizate distilling in the gasoline range, which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the latter are subsequently alkylated to form a gasoline fraction which can be admixed with the oligomerizates of the Cnumber and the C/sub 4/ cuts to produce the desired high octane gasoline.

Hellin, M.; Juguin, B.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q. D.

1981-05-19

284

Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

2015-02-01

285

Simulating the evolution of an ethanol and gasoline source zone within the capillary fringe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blending of ethanol into gasoline as a fuel oxygenate has created the scenario where inadvertent releases of E95 into soil previously contaminated by gasoline may remobilize these pre-existing NAPLs and lead to higher dissolved hydrocarbon (BTEX) concentrations in groundwater. We contribute to the development of a risk-based corrective action framework addressing this issue by conducting two laboratory experiments involving the release of ethanol into a gasoline source zone established in the capillary fringe. We then develop and apply the numerical model CompFlow Bio to replicate three specific experimental observations: (1) depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of the gasoline fuel mixture due to a reduction in the surface tension between the gas and liquid phases, (2) further depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of ethanol, and (3) remobilization of the gasoline fuel mixture LNAPL source zone due to the cosolvent behaviour of ethanol in the presence of an aqueous phase, as well as a reduction in the interfacial tension between the aqueous/non-aqueous phases due to ethanol. While the simulated collapse of the capillary fringe was not as extensive as that which was observed, the simulated and observed remobilized non-aqueous phase distributions were in agreement following ethanol injection. Specifically, injection of ethanol caused the non-aqueous phase to advect downwards toward the water table as the capillary fringe continued to collapse, finally collecting on top of the water table in a significantly reduced area exhibiting higher saturations than observed prior to ethanol injection. Surprisingly, the simulated ethanol and gasoline aqueous phase plumes were uniform despite the redistribution of the source zone. Dissolution of gasoline into the aqueous phase was dramatically increased due to the cosolvency effect of ethanol on the non-aqueous phase source zone. We advocate further experimental studies focusing on eliminating data gaps identified here, as well as field-scale experiments to address issues associated with ethanol-BTEX biodegradation and sorption within the development of a risk-based corrective action framework.

Yu, Soonyoung; Freitas, Juliana G.; Unger, Andre J. A.; Barker, James F.; Chatzis, John

2009-02-01

286

Simulating the evolution of an ethanol and gasoline source zone within the capillary fringe.  

PubMed

Blending of ethanol into gasoline as a fuel oxygenate has created the scenario where inadvertent releases of E95 into soil previously contaminated by gasoline may remobilize these pre-existing NAPLs and lead to higher dissolved hydrocarbon (BTEX) concentrations in groundwater. We contribute to the development of a risk-based corrective action framework addressing this issue by conducting two laboratory experiments involving the release of ethanol into a gasoline source zone established in the capillary fringe. We then develop and apply the numerical model CompFlow Bio to replicate three specific experimental observations: (1) depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of the gasoline fuel mixture due to a reduction in the surface tension between the gas and liquid phases, (2) further depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of ethanol, and (3) remobilization of the gasoline fuel mixture LNAPL source zone due to the cosolvent behaviour of ethanol in the presence of an aqueous phase, as well as a reduction in the interfacial tension between the aqueous/non-aqueous phases due to ethanol. While the simulated collapse of the capillary fringe was not as extensive as that which was observed, the simulated and observed remobilized non-aqueous phase distributions were in agreement following ethanol injection. Specifically, injection of ethanol caused the non-aqueous phase to advect downwards toward the water table as the capillary fringe continued to collapse, finally collecting on top of the water table in a significantly reduced area exhibiting higher saturations than observed prior to ethanol injection. Surprisingly, the simulated ethanol and gasoline aqueous phase plumes were uniform despite the redistribution of the source zone. Dissolution of gasoline into the aqueous phase was dramatically increased due to the cosolvency effect of ethanol on the non-aqueous phase source zone. We advocate further experimental studies focusing on eliminating data gaps identified here, as well as field-scale experiments to address issues associated with ethanol-BTEX biodegradation and sorption within the development of a risk-based corrective action framework. PMID:19110339

Yu, Soonyoung; Freitas, Juliana G; Unger, Andre J A; Barker, James F; Chatzis, John

2009-02-27

287

40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section...1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, “California gasoline” means any...

2013-07-01

288

40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section...1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, “California gasoline” means any...

2014-07-01

289

40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section...1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, “California gasoline” means any...

2010-07-01

290

40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section...1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, “California gasoline” means any...

2011-07-01

291

40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section...1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, “California gasoline” means any...

2012-07-01

292

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2007. ...Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography, approved November 1, 2005. (iv...to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2004....

2012-07-01

293

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2007. ...Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography, approved November 1, 2005. (iv...to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2004....

2013-07-01

294

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2007. ...to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2004. (v...Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame...

2011-07-01

295

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2007. ...to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved November 1, 2004. (v...Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame...

2010-07-01

296

Encapsulation of cisplatin in long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes improves its antitumor effect and reduces acute toxicity  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective and potent anticancer drugs used as first-line chemotherapy against several solid tumors. However, the severe side effects and its tendency to provoke chemoresistance often limit CDDP therapy. To avoid these inconveniences, the present study’s research group developed long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP). The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effect and toxicity of SpHL-CDDP, as compared with that of free CDDP, and long-circulating and non- pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (NSpHL-CDDP), after their intravenous administration in solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice. Antitumor activity was evaluated by analysis of tumor volume and growth inhibition ratio, serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical studies. Body weight variation and the histological examination of bone marrow and kidneys were used as toxicity indicators. A significant reduction in the tumor volume and a higher tumor growth inhibition ratio was observed after SpHL-CDDP treatment, compared with free CDDP and NSpHL-CDDP treatments. In addition, complete remission of the tumor was detected in 18.2% of the mice treated with SpHL- CDDP (16 mg/kg). As such, the administration of SpHL-CDDP, as compared with free CDDP and NSpHL-CDDP, led to a decrease in the area of necrosis and in the percentage of positive CDC 47 tumor cells. A significant reduction in the VEGF serum level was also observed after SpHL-CDDP treatment, as compared with free-CDDP treatment. SpHL-CDDP administered in a two-fold higher dose than that of free CDDP presented a loss in body weight and changes in the hematopoietic tissue morphology, which proved to be similar to that of free CDDP. No changes could be verified in the renal tissue after any formulations containing CDDP had been administered. These findings showed that SpHL-CDDP allowed for the administration of higher doses of CDDP, significantly improving its antitumor effect. PMID:23091378

Leite, Elaine A; Souza, Cristina M; Carvalho-Júnior, Álvaro D; Coelho, Luiz GV; Lana, Ângela MQ; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Mônica C

2012-01-01

297

ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CONTROLLED GASOLINE SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of geophysical surveys were conducted over two controlled releases of about 100 gallons each of gasoline. In order to clearly identify the responses associated with the gasoline plume, measurements were made before, during and after the injection. The two experiments we...

298

On the hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible origins of sulfur impurities in FCC gasoline are reviewed and discussed. Their mechanism of formation during the FCC process as well as their mechanism of transformation on hydrotreating catalysts are also examined.The article focuses on the desulfurization of FCC gasoline by means of catalytic processes considering the fact that deep desulfurization must be achieved (in accordance with new

Sylvette Brunet; Damien Mey; Guy Pérot; Christophe Bouchy; Fabrice Diehl

2005-01-01

299

Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi  

E-print Network

more than 16% from 1973 to 1974 when the oil crisis occurred. International oil prices historicallyAuthor's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi Guangqing Chi a, , Arthur November 2010 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic crashes Traffic safety Age Gender Race Problem: Limited

Levinson, David M.

300

ASYMMETRIC DYNAMIC PRICING IN A LOCAL GASOLINE RETAIL MARKET &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetric-price adjustment is a common phenomenon in many markets around the world, particularly in retail gasoline markets. This paper studies the existence of this phenomenon in the retail gasoline market in the city of Santiago, Chile, using a data set of weekly gas station prices that covers a period of almost four years. We found that prices adjust asymmetrically, and

FELIPE BALMACEDA; PAULA SORUCO

2008-01-01

301

Processing and blending routes to high-quality gasoline explored  

SciTech Connect

Are there any operating techniques to ''close the gap'' between research octane number, clear (RONC) and motor octane number, clear (MONC) of FCC gasoline. Do techniques to increase octane apply equally to light and heavy gasoline fractions. This article is a question and answer format addressing these questions.

Not Available

1986-04-14

302

Determination of Ethanol in Gasoline by FT-IR Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States. Gasoline containing various percentages of ethanol is readily available in the market place. A laboratory experiment has been developed in which the percentage of ethanol in hexanes can easily be determined using the O-H and alkane C-H absorptions in an infrared spectrum. Standard…

Conklin, Alfred, Jr.; Goldcamp, Michael J.; Barrett, Jacob

2014-01-01

303

On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.  

PubMed

On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO? were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. PMID:25108721

Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

2014-08-01

304

Reduced toxicity and superior cellular response of preosteoblasts to Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and comparison with Ti-6Al-4V.  

PubMed

There are serious concerns on the toxicity of vanadium in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In this regard, we describe the biological footprint of Ti-6Al-4V and compare with a viable alternate Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy, in terms of novel experimentation pertaining to cellular activity that include qualitative and quantitative analysis of Feret's diameter of cells, area, and perimeter, and proteins-actin, vinculin, and fibronectin. Interestingly, Ti-6Al-7Nb was characterized by superior cell attachment, proliferation, viability, morphology, and spread, which were significantly different from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Additionally, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated stronger vinculin signals associated with actin stress fibers in the outer regions of the cells and cellular extensions in Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. These striking observations suggest enhanced cell-substrate interaction and activity on the surface of niobium-containing titanium alloy. The significant differences in the cellular response between the two alloys clearly point to the determining role of alloying element (Nb versus V) in a conclusive manner. Based on this study, next generation of titanium alloys is proposed to focus on niobium-containing alloy. PMID:23349101

Challa, V S A; Mali, S; Misra, R D K

2013-07-01

305

Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls  

SciTech Connect

Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

306

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

307

Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

NONE

1998-05-01

308

Chimeric antigen receptor T cells with dissociated signaling domains exhibit focused anti-tumor activity with reduced potential for toxicity in vivo  

PubMed Central

Adoptive immunotherapy using lymphocytes genetically-modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CART) holds considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. However, CAR-based therapies may involve on-target toxicity against normal tissues expressing low amounts of the targeted tumor-associated antigen (TAA). To specify T cells for robust effector function that is selective for tumor but not normal tissue, we developed a trans-signaling CAR strategy whereby T cell activation signal 1 (CD3?) is physically dissociated from costimulatory signal 2 (CD28) in two CARs of differing antigen specificity; mesothelin and a-folate receptor (FRa). Human T cells were genetically modified to co-express signal 1 (Anti-Meso scFv-CD3?) and signal 2 (Anti-FRa scFv-CD28) CARs in trans. Trans-signaling CART cells showed weak cytokine secretion against target cells expressing only one TAA in vitro, similar to first generation CART cells bearing CD3? only, but demonstrated enhanced cytokine secretion upon encountering natural or engineered tumor cells co-expressing both antigens, equivalent to that of second generation CART cells with dual signaling in cis. CART cells with dual specificity also showed potent anti-cancer activity and persistence in vivo which was superior to first generation CART cells and equivalent to second generation CARs. Importantly, second generation CART cells exhibited potent activity against cells expressing mesothelin alone, recapitulating normal tissue, whereas trans-signaling CART cells did not. Thus, a dual specificity, trans-signaling CAR approach can potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of CART cells against cancer while minimizing parallel reactivity against normal tissues bearing single antigen. PMID:24409448

Lanitis, Evripidis; Poussin, Mathilde; Klattenhoff, Alex W.; Song, Degang; Sandaltzopoulos, Raphael; June, Carl H.; Powell, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

309

The Ribavirin Analog ICN 17261 Demonstrates Reduced Toxicity and Antiviral Effects with Retention of both Immunomodulatory Activity and Reduction of Hepatitis-Induced Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels  

PubMed Central

The demonstrated utility of the nucleoside analog ribavirin in the treatment of certain viral diseases can be ascribed to its multiple distinct properties. These properties may vary in relative importance in differing viral disease conditions and include the direct inhibition of viral replication, the promotion of T-cell-mediated immune responses via an enhanced type 1 cytokine response, and a reduction of circulating alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels associated with hepatic injury. Ribavirin also has certain known toxicities, including the induction of anemia upon chronic administration. To determine if all these properties are linked, we compared the d-nucleoside ribavirin to its l-enantiomer (ICN 17261) with regard to these properties. Strong similarities were seen for these two compounds with respect to induction of type 1 cytokine bias in vitro, enhancement of type 1 cytokine responses in vivo, and the reduction of serum ALT levels in a murine hepatitis model. In contrast, ICN 17261 had no in vitro antiviral activity against a panel of RNA and DNA viruses, while ribavirin exhibited its characteristic activity profile. Importantly, the preliminary in vivo toxicology profile of ICN 17261 is significantly more favorable than that of ribavirin. Administration of 180 mg of ICN 17261 per kg of body weight to rats by oral gavage for 4 weeks generated substantial serum levels of drug but no observable clinical pathology, whereas equivalent doses of ribavirin induced a significant anemia and leukopenia. Thus, structural modification of ribavirin can dissociate its immunomodulatory properties from its antiviral and toxicologic properties, resulting in a compound (ICN 17261) with interesting therapeutic potential. PMID:10770762

Tam, Robert C.; Ramasamy, Kanda; Bard, Josie; Pai, Bharati; Lim, Charmaine; Averett, Devron R.

2000-01-01

310

GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

2003-08-24

311

New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is under study in a new NASA program. The objective of the program is to determine the feasibility of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. A catalytic hydrogen generator will be incorporated as part of the air induction system of a Lycoming turbocharged engine and will generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen will then be mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The paper summarizes the results of a systems analysis study. Calculations assuming a Beech Duke aircraft indicate that fuel savings on the order of 20% are possible. An estimate of the potential for the utilization of hydrogen enrichment to control exhaust emissions indicates that it may be possible to meet the 1979 Federal emission standards.

Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

1976-01-01

312

A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7?mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. Methods/design This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years) and non-smokers 28–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years, plus minimum 5?years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Discussion Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and give insights into study design for clinical assessment of potential MRTPs. Trial registration The study was registered in the Current Controlled Trials database under the reference ISRCTN81286286. PMID:23895296

2013-01-01

313

The chaperone-like protein 14-3-3? interacts with human ?-synuclein aggregation intermediates rerouting the amyloidogenic pathway and reducing ?-synuclein cellular toxicity.  

PubMed

Familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the abnormal neuronal accumulation of ?-synuclein (aS) leading to ?-sheet-rich aggregates called Lewy Bodies (LBs). Moreover, single point mutation in aS gene and gene multiplication lead to autosomal dominant forms of PD. A connection between PD and the 14-3-3 chaperone-like proteins was recently proposed, based on the fact that some of the 14-3-3 isoforms can interact with genetic PD-associated proteins such as parkin, LRRK2 and aS and were found as components of LBs in human PD. In particular, a direct interaction between 14-3-3? and aS was reported when probed by co-immunoprecipitation from cell models, from parkinsonian brains and by surface plasmon resonance in vitro. However, the mechanisms through which 14-3-3? and aS interact in PD brains remain unclear. Herein, we show that while 14-3-3? is unable to bind monomeric aS, it interacts with aS oligomers which occur during the early stages of aS aggregation. This interaction diverts the aggregation process even when 14-3-3? is present in sub-stoichiometric amounts relative to aS. When aS level is overwhelmingly higher than that of 14-3-3?, the fibrillation process becomes a sequestration mechanism for 14-3-3?, undermining all processes governed by this protein. Using a panel of complementary techniques, we single out the stage of aggregation at which the aS/14-3-3? interaction occurs, characterize the products of the resulting processes, and show how the processes elucidated in vitro are relevant in cell models. Our findings constitute a first step in elucidating the molecular mechanism of aS/14-3-3? interaction and in understanding the critical aggregation step at which 14-3-3? has the potential to rescue aS-induced cellular toxicity. PMID:24895406

Plotegher, Nicoletta; Kumar, Dhruv; Tessari, Isabella; Brucale, Marco; Munari, Francesca; Tosatto, Laura; Belluzzi, Elisa; Greggio, Elisa; Bisaglia, Marco; Capaldi, Stefano; Aioanei, Daniel; Mammi, Stefano; Monaco, Hugo L; Samo, Bruno; Bubacco, Luigi

2014-11-01

314

Lead in children's blood is mainly caused by coal-fired ash after phasing out of leaded gasoline in Shanghai.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic element to the human body. After phasing out of leaded gasoline we find that the blood lead level of children strongly correlates with the lead concentration in atmospheric particles, and the latter correlates with the coal consumption instead of leaded gasoline. Combined with the (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratio measurements, we find that the coal consumption fly ash is a dominate source of Pb exposure to children in Shanghai, rather than vehicle exhaust, metallurgic dust, paint dust, and drinking water. Those particles are absorbed to children's blood via breathing and digesting their deposition on ground by hand-to-mouth activities. Probably the same situation occurs in other large cities of developing countries where the structure of energy supply is mainly based on coal-combustion. PMID:20536267

Liang, Feng; Zhang, Guilin; Tan, Mingguang; Yan, Chonghuai; Li, Xiaolin; Li, Yulan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

2010-06-15

315

Emission rates and comparative chemical composition from selected in-use diesel and gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

PubMed

Emission samples for toxicity testing and detailed chemical characterization were collected from a variety of gasoline- and diesel-fueled in-use vehicles operated on the Unified Driving Cycle on a chassis dynamometer. Gasoline vehicles included normal particle mass (particulate matter [PM]) emitters (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F), "black" and "white" smokers, and a new-technology vehicle (tested at 72 degrees F). Diesel vehicles included current-technology vehicles (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F) and a high PM emitter. Total PM emission rates ranged from below 3 mg/mi up to more than 700 mg/mi for the white smoker gasoline vehicle. Emission rates of organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), elements (metals and associated analytes), ions, and a variety of particulate and semi-volatile organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], nitro-PAH, oxy-PAH, hopanes, and steranes) are reported for these vehicles. Speciated organic analysis also was conducted on the fuels and lube oils obtained from these vehicles after the emissions testing. The compositions of emissions were highly dependent on the fuel type (gasoline vs. diesel), the state of vehicle maintenance (low, average, or high emitters; white or black smokers), and ambient conditions (i.e., temperature) of the vehicles. Fuel and oil analyses from these vehicles showed that oil served as a repository for combustion byproducts (e.g., PAH), and oil-burning gasoline vehicles emitted PAH in higher concentrations than did other vehicles. These PAH emissions matched the PAH compositions observed in oil. PMID:15468666

Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; McDonald, Jacob D; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R

2004-09-01

316

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

(1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

2003-08-24

317

Antimony Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

2010-01-01

318

Toxic Newts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2003-09-26

319

The atmospheric aerosol-forming potential of whole gasoline vapor  

SciTech Connect

A series of sunlight-irradiated, smog-chamber experiments confirmed that the atmosphere organic aerosol formation potential of whole gasoline vapor can be accounted for solely in terms of the aromatic fraction of the fuel. The total amount of secondary organic aerosol produced from the atmospheric oxidation of whole gasoline vapor can be represented as the sum of the contributions of the individual aromatic molecular constituents of the fuel. The urban atmospheric, anthropogenic hydrocarbon profile is approximated well by evaporated whole gasoline, and thus these results suggest that it is possible to model atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Odum, J.R.; Jungkamp, T.P.W.; Griffin, R.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); and others

1997-04-04

320

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS IN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in gasoline specifications worldwide affect demand for all major gasoline-blending components. The purpose of this study is to compare different gasoline formulations based on the accounting of the environmental impacts due to hydrocarbon emissions during the gasoline pro...

321

Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

2011-06-01

322

Expression of the E.coli 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I gene in mammalian cells reduces the toxic and mutagenic effects of methylating agents.  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the importance of 3-methyladenine in cellular sensitivity to chemical methylating agents we have constructed retroviral vectors for the integration and expression of the Escherichia coli tag gene in mammalian cells. The tag gene encodes 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase-1 which specifically removes 3-alkyladenines from DNA. The constructs were introduced into Chinese hamster V79 cells by liposome mediated transfection or into murine haemopoietic stem cells by cocultivation with a lipofected, virus-packaging cell line. In both cases, stable transfectants were selected for resistance to the antibiotic, G418, conferred by expression of the neo gene carried by the vector. Measurements of 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase activity in cell extracts showed an up to 10-fold increase in cell lines with stably integrated tag gene sequences. These cell lines were significantly more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of methylmethanesulfonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea than their parent cell lines, indicating that 3-methyladenine repair is a limiting factor in cellular resistance to these methylating agents. Furthermore, the mutation frequency induced by methylmethanesulfonate was reduced to 50% of normal by expression of 3-methyladenine I activity in the Chinese hamster cells, indicating that m3A is not only a cytotoxic but also a premutagenic lesion in mammalian cells. It is concluded that an alkylation repair gene function of a type only thought to be present in bacteria can yield a hyperresistant phenotype when transferred to mammalian cells. PMID:1425578

Klungland, A; Fairbairn, L; Watson, A J; Margison, G P; Seeberg, E

1992-01-01

323

Trichomonas vaginalis: metronidazole and other nitroimidazole drugs are reduced by the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase and disrupt the cellular redox system. Implications for nitroimidazole toxicity and resistance.  

PubMed

Infections with the microaerophilic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are treated with the 5-nitroimidazole drug metronidazole, which is also in use against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and microaerophilic/anaerobic bacteria. Here we report that in T. vaginalis the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase displays nitroreductase activity with nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, and with the nitrofuran drug furazolidone. Reactive metabolites of metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles form covalent adducts with several proteins that are known or assumed to be associated with thioredoxin-mediated redox regulation, including thioredoxin reductase itself, ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin peroxidase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Disulphide reducing activity of thioredoxin reductase was greatly diminished in extracts of metronidazole-treated cells and intracellular non-protein thiol levels were sharply decreased. We generated a highly metronidazole-resistant cell line that displayed only minimal thioredoxin reductase activity, not due to diminished expression of the enzyme but due to the lack of its FAD cofactor. Reduction of free flavins, readily observed in metronidazole-susceptible cells, was also absent in the resistant cells. On the other hand, iron-depleted T. vaginalis cells, expressing only minimal amounts of PFOR and hydrogenosomal malate dehydrogenase, remained fully susceptible to metronidazole. Thus, taken together, our data suggest a flavin-based mechanism of metronidazole activation and thereby challenge the current model of hydrogenosomal activation of nitroimidazole drugs. PMID:19415801

Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Binder, Marina; Stadlmann, Johannes; Altmann, Friedrich; Duchêne, Michael

2009-04-01

324

Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Carbonyl compound emissions from two passenger cars fueled with different methanol/gasoline blends (M15 and M100) and operated with three-way catalytic converters (TWC) were investigated. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The hydrazones formed on the cartridge were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with a variable wavelength detector. The results show that when cars were fueled with methanol/gasoline blends, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions decreased by 9-21% and 1-55% respectively, while nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions increased by 175-233%. Compared with gasoline vehicles, formaldehyde emissions with M15 and M100 were two and four times higher respectively, and total carbonyls with M15 and M100 increased by 3% and 104% respectively. With the use of the new TWC, both regulated gas pollutants and formaldehyde decreased. The new TWC caused a decrease of 5% and 31% in formaldehyde concentration for M15 and M100, respectively. Specific reactivity (SR) with the new TWC was reduced from 5.92 to 5.72 for M15 and from 7.00 to 6.93 for M100, indicating that M15 and M100 with the new TWC were friendlier to the environment. PMID:20510438

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Chunxiao; Han, Xiukun; Fu, Mingliang; Yu, Linxiao; Shah, Asad Naeem

2010-08-01

325

New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is under study in a new NASA program. The objective of the program is to determine the feasibility of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. A catalytic hydrogen generator will be incorporated as part of the air induction system of a Lycoming turbocharged engine and will generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen will then be mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The special properties of the hydrogen-enriched gasoline allow the engine to operate at ultralean fuel/air ratios, resulting in higher efficiencies and hence less fuel consumption. This paper summarizes the results of a systems analysis study. Calculations assuming a Beech Duke aircraft indicate that fuel savings on the order of 20% are possible. An estimate of the potential for the utilization of hydrogen enrichment to control exhaust emissions indicates that it may be possible to meet the 1979 Federal emission standards.

Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

1976-01-01

326

Flexfuel vehicle alcohol-gasoline blend ratios determination by optical fiber sensoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high efficiency combustion of flexfuel engine depends on the precise determination of the alcohol-gasoline ratios. Presently, commercial technique available uses the Lambda probe, a post-combustion sensor to analyze the exhaust gases (after combustion). This ratio can be measured in real-time using an optical fiber sensor. In the present research, different ratios of alcohol-gasoline blends were measured at temperatures in the range 0 to 50°C, by a Fresnel reflectometer. The sensoring principle is based on the phenomenon of light reflectivity in the interface fiber-fuel. The reflected intensity is proportional to the refractive index difference between the fiber sensor and the fuel, while the refractive index of the mixture is a function of the volumetric ratio of the substances. The real time determination of the mixture ratio of alcohol-gasoline concentrations by the reflected intensity can be used to optimize the combustion efficiency of the flexfuel engine. It can be expected that this technology can reduce both, the pollutant emissions and the fuel consumption.

Takeishi, Rafael T.; Gusken, Edmilton; Raizer, Klaus; de Souza, Henrique G. E.; Meirelles, Bernardo M.; Giacomassi, José L.; Lucio, Gustavo C.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

2008-04-01

327

A Recombinant Immunotoxin Against the Tumor-Associated Antigen Mesothelin Reengineered for High Activity, Low Off-Target Toxicity, and Reduced Antigenicity  

PubMed Central

SS1P is a recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) engineered for the targeted elimination of malignant cells that express the tumor-associated antigen mesothelin. It is comprised of an anti-mesothelin antibody Fv linked to a cytotoxic fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) that includes domains II and III of native PE. The clinical utility of SS1P is limited by its propensity to induce neutralizing antibodies and to cause a dose-limiting capillary leak syndrome (CLS) in patients. In this paper we describe a reengineered SS1P with improved properties that overcome these deficits. The redesign of SS1P consists of [1] removing the bulk of PE domain II (residues 251-273 and 284-394 of native PE), leaving only an 11-residue furin cleavage site, [2] adding a Gly-Gly-Ser peptide linker after the furin cleavage site, and [3] replacing eight highly solvent-exposed residues in the catalytic domain of PE. The new molecule, SS1-LR/GGS/8M, has cytotoxic activity comparable to SS1P on several mesothelin-expressing cell lines, and remarkably improved activity on primary cells from patients with mesothelioma. In a mouse xenograft tumor model, high doses of SS1-LR/GGS/8M elicit antitumor activity superior to the activity of SS1P at its maximum tolerated dose. In addition, SS1-LR/GGS/8M has greatly decreased ability to cause CLS in a rat model, and reduced antigenicity, or reactivity with antibodies, to the sera of patients previously treated with SS1P. PMID:23136186

Weldon, John E.; Xiang, Laiman; Zhang, Jingli; Beers, Richard; Walker, Dawn A.; Onda, Masanori; Hassan, Raffit; Pastan, Ira

2012-01-01

328

CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE LOADING BY REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the capabilities of refrigeration systems, operated at three temperatures, to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from truck loading at bulk gasoline terminals. Achievable VOC emission rates were calculated for refrigeration sy...

329

Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox  

E-print Network

It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

Wozny, Nathan

330

High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement  

E-print Network

Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2013-01-01

331

Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel  

E-print Network

-paraffins number: n for paraffins. A number of studies have been published concerning the combustion chemistry of paraffinic gasoline mechanism based on the chemistry of n-heptane and isooctanesthe two indicator fuels for octane

Utah, University of

332

Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is found that the Internet data tend to accurately identify features of cycles that can be distinguished using company-operated, major brand station prices, while features that require individual independent station data or very high frequency data might not be well-identified.

Atkinson, Benjamin James

333

Chronic cardiotoxicity of anticancer anthracyclines in the rat: role of secondary metabolites and reduced toxicity by a novel anthracycline with impaired metabolite formation and reactivity  

PubMed Central

The anticancer anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) causes cardiomyopathy upon chronic administration. There is controversy about whether DOX acts directly or after conversion to its secondary alcohol metabolite DOXol. Here, the role of secondary alcohol metabolites was evaluated by treating rats with cumulative doses of DOX or analogues – like epirubicin (EPI) and the novel disaccharide anthracycline MEN 10755 – which were previously shown to form less alcohol metabolites than DOX when assessed in vitro. DOX induced electrocardiographic and haemodynamic alterations, like elongation of Q?T or S?T intervals and suppression of isoprenaline-induced dP/dt increases, which developed in a time-dependent manner and were accompanied by cardiomegaly, histologic lesions and mortality. EPI caused less progressive or severe effects, whereas MEN 10755 caused essentially no effect. DOX and EPI exhibited comparable levels of cardiac uptake, but EPI formed ?60% lower amounts of its alcohol metabolite EPIol at 4 and 13 weeks after treatment suspension (P<0.001 vs DOX). MEN 10755 exhibited the lowest levels of cardiac uptake; hence, it converted to its alcohol metabolite MEN 10755ol ?40% less efficiently than did EPI to EPIol at either 4 or 13 weeks. Cardiotoxicity did not correlate with myocardial levels of DOX or EPI or MEN 10755, but correlated with those of DOXol or EPIol or MEN 10755ol (P=0.008, 0.029 and 0.017, respectively). DOX and EPI inactivated cytoplasmic aconitase, an enzyme containing an Fe–S cluster liable to disassembly induced by anthracycline secondary alcohol metabolites. DOX caused greater inactivation of aconitase than EPI, a finding consistent with the higher formation of DOXol vs EPIol. MEN 10755 did not inactivate aconitase, which was because of both reduced formation and impaired reactivity of MEN 10755ol toward the Fe–S cluster. Aconitase inactivation correlated (P<0.01) with the different levels of cardiotoxicity induced by DOX or EPI or MEN 10755. These results show that (i) secondary alcohol metabolites are important determinants of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, and (ii) MEN 10755 is less cardiotoxic than DOX or EPI, a behaviour attributable to impaired formation and reactivity of its alcohol metabolite. PMID:12788824

Sacco, Giuseppe; Giampietro, Rossella; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio; Bertani, Nicoletta; Graiani, Gallia; Animati, Fabio; Goso, Cristina; Maggi, Carlo A; Manzini, Stefano; Minotti, Giorgio

2003-01-01

334

Ways of raising the octane number of car gasoline (discussion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.If the entire amounts of the 62–85° C (62–105) and 85–180° C (105–180) fractions of crude oil are reformed catalytically, as is done in the Kuibyshev region, a considerable additional rise of the octane number of the car gasolines may be achieved by withdrawing the fractions of low octane number from the gasoline stock and converting these fractions chemically.2.Application of

N. P. Fedorenko; I. V. Kondrat'ev

1966-01-01

335

Gasoline analysis by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H n.m.r.) spectroscopy allows the rapid and exact quantitative determination of the composition and quality of gasolines. For this study about 140 gasolines from Austrian filling stations were analysed. The amounts of methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene and aromatics were determined quantitatively using an internal standard. These results were compared with data obtained by

Reinhard Meusinger

1996-01-01

336

Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing  

EIA Publications

This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

2001-01-01

337

Toxicity reduction of photo processing wastewaters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The photo processing industry can be characterized by treatment processes and subsequent silver recovery. The effluents generated all contain various amounts of silver. The objectives of this study were to determine toxicity of photo processing effluents and to explore their toxicity mitigation. Six samples, from small shops to a major photo processing center, were studied. Two samples (I and VI) were found to be extremely toxic, causing 100 and 99% inhibition of duckweed frond reproduction, respectively, and were used for subsequent toxicity reduction experiments. Lime and sodium sulfide were effective for the toxicity reduction of Sample VI; both reduced its toxicity to negligible. Sample I was far more toxic and was first diluted to 2.2% and then treated with 0.5 g lime/100 mL, reducing toxicity from 100% to 12% inhibition.

Wang, W.

1992-01-01

338

The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

339

Effects of basic feedstock components on FCC gasoline composition  

SciTech Connect

The effect of basic feedstock components on composition of gasoline produced from a bench scale fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit was studied. Basic compounds were isolated from 650-1000{degrees}F and >1000{degrees}F boiling ranges of Wilmington, CA, crude oil. These basic concentrates were added in varying amounts to a conventional gas oil FCC feedstock; the resulting mixtures were cracked at 970{degrees}F and a catalyst/oil ratio near 8.5. Gasoline composition was determined by GC/MS. Production of gasoline-range nitrogen-containing compounds from cracking basic feed constituents was negligible, even for feedstocks containing 50 wt% basic concentrate. However, the proportion of olefin and cycloolefin types substantially increased in gasolines from feedstocks containing 650-1000{degrees}F bases. Commensurate decreases in isoparaffins and aromatic types were also observed. The effect of high boiling (>1000{degrees}F) bases on gasoline composition was relatively small; a slight increase in aromatic content accompanied by a decrease in isoparaffin content were observed. Basic compounds appear to affect gasoline composition largely through inhibition of catalytic hydrogen transfer processes.

Green, J.B.; McWilliams, T.B.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.

1995-12-31

340

Reassessing past European gasoline lead policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the foreseeable future, the atmosphere and the environment will remain a dumping ground for various anthropogenic substances. Some substances will have negative properties, and society will sooner or later begin regulating their emissions. To that end, science must provide society with the tools for retrospectively evaluating the physical and economical impacts of past regulations, and for evaluating scenarios in which alternative future regulations are implemented.A tool for reconstructing lead air concentrations and depositions across Europe from 1958 through 1995 has been developed that incorporates detailed emissions, a regionalized history of weather events, and an atmospheric transport model. This tool was used, in conjunction with lead measurements in both biota and human blood and with economic analysis, to assess past European gasoline-lead regulations. Some of the specific questions asked in this assessment were: How did lead emissions, atmospheric concentrations, and depositions develop since the 1950s? Was the decline in air concentrations matched by corresponding declines in plants, animals, and humans? Did the regulations result in considerable economic burdens in Germany, for example?

von Storch, Hans; Hagner, Charlotte; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Feser, Frauke; Pacyna, Józef; Pacyna, Elisabeth; Kolb, Steffen

341

Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low fuel consumption (gross indicated fuel consumption <200 g/kWh). [1] Dec, J. E., Yang, Y., and Dronniou, N., 2011, "Boosted HCCI - Controlling Pressure- Rise Rates for Performance Improvements using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline," SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1169-1189. [2] Kalghatgi, G., Hildingsson, L., and Johansson, B., 2010, "Low NO(x) and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasolinelike Fuels," Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of the Asme, 132(9), p. 9. [3] Manente, V., Zander, C.-G., Johansson, B., Tunestal, P., and Cannella, W., 2010, "An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion," SAE International, 2010-01-2198. [4] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Reitz, R., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Durrett, R., Gopalakrishnan, V., Plazas, A., Peterson, R., and Szymkowicz, P., 2011, "Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime," SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1412-1430. [5] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Reitz, R., and Durrett, R., 2012, "Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection," SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(3), pp. 1109-1132.

Loeper, C. Paul

342

Combustion behavior of gasoline and gasoline/ethanol blends in a modern direct-injection 4-cylinder engine.  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range.

Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A. (Energy Systems)

2008-04-01

343

Simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol in gasoline using NIR spectroscopy: effect of gasoline composition.  

PubMed

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was employed for simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol contents in gasoline. Spectra were collected in the range from 714 to 2500 nm and were used to construct quantitative models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression. Samples were prepared in the laboratory and the PLS regression models were developed using the spectral range from 1105 to 1682 nm, showing a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.28% (v/v) for ethanol for both PLS-1 and PLS-2 models and of 0.31 and 0.32% (v/v) for methanol for the PLS-1 and PLS-2 models, respectively. A RMSEP of 0.83% (v/v) was obtained for commercial samples. The effect of the gasoline composition was investigated, it being verified that some solvents, such as toluene and o-xylene, interfere in ethanol content prediction, while isooctane, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene interfere in the methanol content prediction. Other spectral ranges were investigated and the range 1449-1611 nm showed the best results. PMID:18585150

Fernandes, Heitor L; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pasquini, Celio; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

2008-05-15

344

Toxic terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of

Whelan

1985-01-01

345

Thallium toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium (Tl+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element ‘Thallium’ (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the

Sonia Galván-Arzate; Abel Santamar??a

1998-01-01

346

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-02-01

347

TRITIUM PERMEATION AND TRANSPORT IN THE GASOLINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM COUPLED WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS (HTGRS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes scoping analyses on tritium behaviors in the HTGR-integrated gasoline production system, which is based on a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) plant. In this system, the HTGR transfers heat and electricity to the MTG system. This system was analyzed using the TPAC code, which was recently developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The global sensitivity analyses were performed to understand and characterize tritium behaviors in the coupled HTGR/MTG system. This Monte Carlo based random sampling method was used to evaluate maximum 17,408 numbers of samples with different input values. According to the analyses, the average tritium concentration in the product gasoline is about 3.05×10-3 Bq/cm3, and 62 % cases are within the tritium effluent limit (= 3.7x10-3 Bq/cm3[STP]). About 0.19% of released tritium is finally transported from the core to the gasoline product through permeations. This study also identified that the following four parameters are important concerning tritium behaviors in the HTGR/MTG system: (1) tritium source, (2) wall thickness of process heat exchanger, (3) operating temperature, and (4) tritium permeation coefficient of process heat exchanger. These four parameters contribute about 95 % of the total output uncertainties. This study strongly recommends focusing our future research on these four parameters to improve modeling accuracy and to mitigate tritium permeation into the gasol ine product. If the permeation barrier is included in the future study, the tritium concentration will be significantly reduced.

Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

2011-05-01

348

Likelihood ratio methods for forensic comparison of evaporated gasoline residues.  

PubMed

In the investigation of arson, evidence connecting a suspect to the fire scene may be obtained by comparing the composition of ignitable liquid residues found at the crime scene to ignitable liquids found in possession of the suspect. Interpreting the result of such a comparison is hampered by processes at the crime scene that result in evaporation, matrix interference, and microbial degradation of the ignitable liquid. Most commonly, gasoline is used as a fire accelerant in arson. In the current scientific literature on gasoline comparison, classification studies are reported for unevaporated and evaporated gasoline residues. In these studies the goal is to discriminate between samples of several sources of gasoline, based on a chemical analysis. While in classification studies the focus is on discrimination of gasolines, for forensic purposes a likelihood ratio approach is more relevant. In this work, a first step is made towards the ultimate goal of obtaining numerical values for the strength of evidence for the inference of identity of source in gasoline comparisons. Three likelihood ratio methods are presented for the comparison of evaporated gasoline residues (up to 75% weight loss under laboratory conditions). Two methods based on distance functions and one multivariate method were developed. The performance of the three methods is characterized by rates of misleading evidence, an analysis of the calibration and an information theoretical analysis. The three methods show strong improvement of discrimination as compared with a completely uninformative method. The two distance functions perform better than the multivariate method, in terms of discrimination and rates of misleading evidence. PMID:25498926

Vergeer, P; Bolck, A; Peschier, L J C; Berger, C E H; Hendrikse, J N

2014-12-01

349

Identifying the cause of toxicity in an algal whole effluent toxicity study - an unanticipated toxicant.  

PubMed

Toxicity was observed in whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, in three consecutive monthly studies, (NOEC=50-75%). Toxicity was not observed to Ceriodaphnia dubia or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas in concurrent studies. Selected toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests were conducted in a tiered approach to eliminate possible toxicants and progressively identify the causative agent. Filtration following alkaline adjustment (pH 10 or 11) was effective in eliminating significant growth effects and also reduced phosphate concentration. The TIE studies confirmed that the observed effluent toxicity was caused by excess ortho-phosphate in the effluent not by overstimulation or related to unfavorable N:P ratios; but due to direct toxicity. The 96-h 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of ortho-phosphate to P. subcapitata was 3.4 mg L?¹ while the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration was 4.8 mg L?¹. This study illustrates the value of multi-species testing and also provides an example of an effective TIE using algae identifying an unanticipated toxicant. PMID:21840029

Naddy, Rami B; Tapp, Kelly; Rehner, Anita B; Pillard, David A; Schrage, Laura

2011-10-01

350

Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. We investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by ???70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R.

1998-01-01

351

Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1998-11-01

352

Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants  

E-print Network

, occur. loss of use of tongue Drymaria Inkweed, unknown Loss of appetite, diarrhea, Poisoned animals generally pachyphylla thickleaf arched back and ?tucked up die before symptoms are drymary abdomen,? coma noticed. Eriogonum spp. Buckwheat Photodynamic...

McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

2000-04-25

353

The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

Kimball, Sarah L.

354

Fate of gasoline oxygenates in conventional and multilevel wells of a contaminated groundwater table in Düsseldorf, Germany.  

PubMed

In a gasoline-contaminated site in Düsseldorf, Germany a two-year monitoring program was carried out to determine the presence, behavior, and fate of 12 gasoline additives in a total of 96 samples from 14 groundwater wells. The origin of contamination was suspected to be a gasoline spill at a gas station. Target compounds were methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), its main degradation products, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl formate (TBF); other gasoline additives, oxygenate dialkyl ethers: Ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE); aromatics: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), and other compounds causing odor problems: Dicyclopentadiene and trichloroethylene. Purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry permitted detection of ng/L concentrations. Ninety of the 96 samples analyzed contained MTBE at levels varying between 0.01 to 645 microg/L. Five contaminated hot spots were identified with levels up to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) drinking water advisory values (20-40 microg/L) and one of them doubling Danish suggested toxicity level of 350 microg/L at a depth of 11 m. No significant natural attenuation was found in MTBE degradation, although samples with high levels of MTBE contained 0.1 to 440 microg/L of TBA. These levels were attributed to its presence in the contamination source more than MTBE degradation. tert-Butyl alcohol was found to be recalcitrant in groundwater. In all cases, BTEX were at low concentrations or not detected, showing less persistence than MTBE. The monitoring of the contamination plume showed that the distribution of the MTBE and TBA in the aquifer formed a similar vertical concentration profile that was influenced by the groundwater flow direction. PMID:16398114

Rosell, Monica; Lacorte, Sílvia; Forner, Claudia; Rohns, Hans-Peter; Irmscher, Rudolf; Barceló, Damià

2005-11-01

355

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

EIA Publications

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01

356

Relationship between Composition and Toxicity of Motor Vehicle Emission Samples  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated the statistical relationship between particle and semivolatile organic chemical constituents in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust samples, and toxicity as measured by inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. Exhaust samples were collected from “normal” and “high-emitting” gasoline and diesel light-duty vehicles. We employed a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS; also known as projection to latent structures) to evaluate the relationships between chemical composition of vehicle exhaust and toxicity. The PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents covarying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The specific nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons important for mutagenicity were the same chemicals that have been implicated by decades of bioassay-directed fractionation. These chemicals were not related to lung toxicity, which was associated with organic carbon and select organic compounds that are present in lubricating oil. The results demonstrate the utility of the PCA/PLS approach for evaluating composition–response relationships in complex mixture exposures and also provide a starting point for confirming causality and determining the mechanisms of the lung effects. PMID:15531438

McDonald, Jacob D.; Eide, Ingvar; Seagrave, JeanClare; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R.; Mauderly, Joe L.

2004-01-01

357

Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible fuels.

Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Institute; Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Institute; Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Institute; Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Institute; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Institute; Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Institute; McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst; Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst; Gephart, John [Johnson Timber; Starr, Jack [Cargill; Hahn, John [Cargill

2013-06-09

358

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2012-07-01

359

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2010-07-01

360

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2013-07-01

361

40 CFR 80.1641 - Alternative sulfur standards and requirements that apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

...that apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck. 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...that apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck. ...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2014-07-01

362

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2011-07-01

363

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2014-07-01

364

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...for motor gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner),...

2010-07-01

365

Conversion of organic wastes to unleaded, high-octane gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This project has demonstrated the marriage of two diverse technologies previously considered to be unrelated--the pyrolysis of organic wastes and the low-pressure polymerization of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to form polymer gasoline. This program comprised the development of a multistep chemical process to convert solid organic materials into a liquid hydrocarbon product consisting primarily of high-octane gasoline. This process selectively pyrolyzes organic wastes to form gases rich in reactive hydrocarbons such as ethylene and propylene. The pyrolysis gases are compressed and purified to result in three gaseous streams: carbon dioxide; by-product fuel gases (hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide); and reactive hydrocarbons. This last stream is further compressed and sent to the polymerization reactor where high-octane gasoline is formed.

Diebold, J.P.; Benham, C.B.; Smith, G.D.

1984-01-01

366

Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI gasoline release  

SciTech Connect

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 378 liters (100 gallons) of gasoline into a sandy acquifer. Images were made in 5 planes before and 5 times during the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial as well as the temporal development of the plume as it spread at the water table. Information of the electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used or several different frequencies to produce images. We observed little dispersion in the images either before or after the gasoline entered the acquifer. Likewise, despite some laboratory measurements of impedances, there was no evidence of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the gasoline.

Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

1996-10-01

367

Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

Donakowski, T. D.

1982-01-01

368

An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

Jaureguiberry, Florencia

369

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a

James P Szybist; Bruce G Bunting

2007-01-01

370

The Gasoline Shortage: A National Perspective; A Background Paper, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. [Committee Print  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a background document for the National Fuels and Energy Policy Study authorized by Senate Resolution 45. The purpose of this report is to identify the issues, to describe the impact of present policy on gasoline supply and demand, and to suggest potential measures to reduce the shortfall. This document is published to assist…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

371

Passive volatilization of gasoline from a wet silt-loam  

SciTech Connect

Passive volatilization is believed to have potential for the removal of gasoline and other volatile organics from contaminated soil. It has been found that the removal of these compounds occurs through two processes, air pore volatilization and liquid wicking. However, the extent to which each of these mechanisms occur, and the factors affecting which governs are not fully understood. A series of experiments were therefore undertaken to determine the effect of varying moisture content on the dominant removal process and the rate of removal of gasoline from soil.

Rogaz, A. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). School of Engineering

1995-11-01

372

Gasoline-aided production of alcohol and fuel  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline aids production of alcohol and fuel in a solvent extraction and recovery process. Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

Roth, E.R.

1984-04-10

373

Biofiltration of gasoline vapors from a soil vapor extraction system  

SciTech Connect

Biofiltration was used to treat gasoline vapors produced by soil vapor extraction (SVE) from an area contaminated by a leaking underground gasoline tank. The biofilter was installed upstream of an activated carbon unit. The biofilter removed 25--50% of the vapors in the early months of the project, when more volatile components dominated. Later, the vapors were mostly less volatile materials, and the biofilter removed 40--75%. This behavior was predicted by bench scale experiments. The biofilter was economically successful, and the project provided data for projecting the economic viability of biofilters in similar applications.

Devinny, J.S.; Chang, A.N. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Hodge, D.S.; Reynolds, F.E. Jr. [Reynolds Group, Tustin, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

374

Increase gasoline yields with a new propylene dimerization process  

SciTech Connect

A solid catalyst has been discovered that is effective for the dimerization of propylene. The UOP Hexall /SUP sm/ process utilizes this new catalyst to provide a new and better way to economically and effectively convert propylene to gasoline. The catalyst operates at mild conditions without the need for any additives, co-catalyst or product treating beyond stabilization, and it achieves very high propylene conversions to a largely hexene product. The octane properties of this product have been examined by blending it in a variety of typical gasoline streams. Expected yields and product qualities, operating requirements and projected economics are presented and compared with the widely used Catalytic Condensation (Poly) process.

Ward, D.J.; Frame, R.; Friedlander, R.H.; Imai, T.

1985-03-01

375

Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline  

PubMed Central

Background Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline. Results The results showed that the phase stabilities of tartaric esters for methanol-gasoline depend on the length of the alkoxy group. Several tartaric esters were found to be effective in various gasoline-methanol blends, and the tartaric esters display high capacity to depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline. Conclusion According to the results, it can be concluded that the tartaric esters have great potential to be bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives. PMID:24731649

2014-01-01

376

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of §...

2010-07-01

377

78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery...Wisconsin AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...addresses emissions impacts associated with...significant economic impact on a substantial...human health or environmental effects...Petroleum and Gasoline Sources;...

2013-11-04

378

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships  

E-print Network

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Abstract Many consumers are keenly aware, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships

Rothman, Daniel

379

40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel...ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel. The sampling methods specified in this section...

2010-07-01

380

40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...being GPA gasoline; (ii) A statement that the...outside the geographic phase-in area. (2...outside the geographic phase-in area; and (ii) Commingling GPA gasoline...use in the geographic phase-in...

2010-07-01

381

40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...being GPA gasoline; (ii) A statement that the...outside the geographic phase-in area. (2...outside the geographic phase-in area; and (ii) Commingling GPA gasoline...use in the geographic phase-in...

2011-07-01

382

40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.  

...being GPA gasoline; (ii) A statement that the...outside the geographic phase-in area. (2...outside the geographic phase-in area; and (ii) Commingling GPA gasoline...use in the geographic phase-in...

2014-07-01

383

40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...being GPA gasoline; (ii) A statement that the...outside the geographic phase-in area. (2...outside the geographic phase-in area; and (ii) Commingling GPA gasoline...use in the geographic phase-in...

2013-07-01

384

40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...being GPA gasoline; (ii) A statement that the...outside the geographic phase-in area. (2...outside the geographic phase-in area; and (ii) Commingling GPA gasoline...use in the geographic phase-in...

2012-07-01

385

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced from tank trucks...

2011-07-01

386

40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86...operation tests of gasoline-fueled heavy-duty engines. Diesel engines are covered in § 86.336. Cycle No....

2013-07-01

387

40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86...operation tests of gasoline-fueled heavy-duty engines. Diesel engines are covered in § 86.336. Cycle No....

2010-07-01

388

40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86...This section applies to gasoline-fueled engines only. Diesel engines are covered in § 86.341....

2012-07-01

389

40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86...This section applies to gasoline-fueled engines only. Diesel engines are covered in § 86.341....

2013-07-01

390

40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86...operation tests of gasoline-fueled heavy-duty engines. Diesel engines are covered in § 86.336. Cycle No....

2012-07-01

391

40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86...operation tests of gasoline-fueled heavy-duty engines. Diesel engines are covered in § 86.336. Cycle No....

2011-07-01

392

Oxygenated gasoline release in the unsaturated zone, Part 2: Downgradient transport of ethanol and hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

In the event of a gasoline spill containing oxygenated compounds such as ethanol and MTBE, it is important to consider the impacts these compounds might have on subsurface contamination. One of the main concerns commonly associated with ethanol is that it might decrease the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, leading to an increase in the hydrocarbon dissolved plume lengths. The first part of this study (Part 1) showed that when gasoline containing ethanol infiltrates the unsaturated zone, ethanol is likely to partition to and be retained in the unsaturated zone pore water. In this study (Part 2), a controlled field test is combined with a two-dimensional laboratory test and three-dimensional numerical modelling to investigate how ethanol retention in the unsaturated zone affects the downgradient behaviour of ethanol and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Ethanol transport downgradient was extremely limited. The appearance of ethanol in downgradient wells was delayed and the concentrations were lower than would be expected based on equilibrium dissolution. Oscillations in the water table resulted in minor flushing of ethanol, but its effect could still be perceived as an increase in the groundwater concentrations downgradient from the source zone. Ethanol partitioning to the unsaturated zone pore water reduced its mass fraction within the NAPL thus reducing its anticipated impact on the fate of the hydrocarbon compounds. A conceptual numerical simulation indicated that the potential ethanol-induced increase in benzene plume length after 20 years could decrease from 136% to 40% when ethanol retention in the unsaturated zone is considered. PMID:21652105

Freitas, Juliana G; Doulatyari, Behnam; Molson, John W; Barker, James F

2011-07-01

393

Thallium toxicity.  

PubMed

Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278). PMID:9801025

Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

1998-09-30

394

Influence of the addition of sulphate and ferric ions in a methanogenic anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating gasoline-contaminated water.  

PubMed

Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are relatively soluble aromatic compounds of gasoline. Gasoline storage tank leakages generally lead to an extensive contamination of groundwater. In the natural environment for instance, these compounds might be biodegraded under a variety of reducing potentials. The objective of this work was to examine the influence of the addition of sulphate and Fe(OH)3 in a methanogenic horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized-biomass reactor treating gasoline-contaminated water. Three different conditions were evaluated: methanogenic, sulphidogenic and sulphidogenic with the addition of ferric ions. Methanogenic condition showed the higher BTX degradation rates and the addition of sulphate negatively affected BTX removal rates with the production of H2S. However, the addition of ferric ions resulted in the precipitation of sulphur, improving BTX degradation by the consortium. Metanosphaera sp., Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosaeta concilii were identified in the consortium by means of 16S and directly related to the addition of ferric ions. PMID:16939094

Fernandes, B S; Chinalia, F A; Sarti, A; Silva, A J; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

2006-01-01

395

Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multicylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-gasoline Mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.

Cassidy, J. F.

1977-01-01

396

The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures  

SciTech Connect

In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

2008-06-01

397

Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

Tyson, K.S.

1993-11-01

398

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending  

SciTech Connect

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01

399

78 FR 72033 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...approval of the State's gasoline vapor recovery program...rule addressing the gasoline vapor recovery program...significant economic impact on a substantial number...rule addressing the gasoline vapor recovery program...Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and...

2013-12-02

400

Anticipated and unanticipated effects of crude oil prices and oil inventory changes on gasoline prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method of distinguishing between the effect of anticipated and unanticipated changes in oil prices and oil inventories on the US gasoline prices. I show that gasoline price adjustments are faster and stronger for anticipated changes in oil prices and inventory levels than for unanticipated changes. The dynamics of the gasoline price response depends on the relative

Stanislav Radchenko

2004-01-01

401

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline  

...such as from loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap. 3...gasoline, such as loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap....

2014-07-01

402

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...such as from loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap. 3...gasoline, such as loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap....

2011-07-01

403

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...such as from loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap. 3...gasoline, such as loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap....

2010-07-01

404

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...such as from loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap. 3...gasoline, such as loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap....

2013-07-01

405

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...such as from loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap. 3...gasoline, such as loss of volatile fractions of the gasoline by evaporation or leaching of the lead into the container or cap....

2012-07-01

406

Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its  

E-print Network

. Many claim to observe an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices -- specifically that gasoline prices respond more quickly when oil prices are rising than when oil prices are falling (Figure 1 econometric support for public claims of asym- metry in the movements of gasoline and crude oil prices. Bacon

407

ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

408

A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

409

Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD),

Amal A Kinawy

2009-01-01

410

Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

411

USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

412

Evaluation of motor-gasoline stability. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This report covers results of a storage program whose primary goal was the development of improved methods for evaluating motor gasoline stability. Several existing and potential predictive tests were applied to individual refinery components of gasoline, selected laboratory blends, and commercial gasolines for which ASTM D 525 induction periods ranged from 75 to 5000 minutes. Darkroom storage was conducted at 43 C, 54 C, and ambient temperatures, for various time periods with ambient storage ultimately reaching 4 years for most of the samples. Results confirm the findings of earlier researchers that ASTM D 525 is not viable as a predictive device by virtue of a low coefficient of determination between induction period and gum formed in storage at 43 C for periods up to 1 year. It is recognized, however, and ASTM D 525 is not likely to be abandoned as a specification stability test. Based upon the data generated under the four phases of this storage stability of commercial/military motor gasoline (produced for long term storage) is the ASTM D 873 Method using a 6-hour aging existent gum maximum limit of 5 mg/100 mL.

Stavinoha, L.L.; Bowden, J.N.; LePera, M.E.

1990-12-01

413

Kerosene lamps and cookstoves—The hazards of gasoline contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline contamination of kerosene has been implicated in accidental fires associated with the use of kerosene illumination lamps and cook stoves. We have investigated potential causes of accidental fires in lamps and lanterns filled with contaminated fuel through controlled tests using typical appliances and varying amounts of contamination. Studying reports of accidents, it is apparent that a common cause of

Joseph E. Shepherd; Frank A. Perez

2008-01-01

414

Determination of octane numbers for clean gasoline using dielectric spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, dielectric spectroscopy (DES) in association with partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration method was employed to determine octane numbers (research octane number or RON and motor octane number or MON) of clean gasoline samples. The factor number included in PLS model was obtained according to the lowest sum of squares of predicted residual error (PRESS) in

L. Guan; X. L. Feng; Z. C. Li; G. M. Lin

2009-01-01

415

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen fuel cell and gasoline vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen and gasoline vehicles, including fuel production and utilization in vehicles powered by fuel cells and internal combustion engines, is conducted to evaluate and compare their efficiencies and environmental impacts. Fossil fuel and renewable technologies are investigated, and the assessment is divided into various stages.Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated in each step

Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A Rosen

2006-01-01

416

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MTBE AND OTHER GASOLINE COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This book chapter reviews the processes and interactions that control the transport and fate of MTBE and TBA in the subsurface. It describes the transport and fate of vapors of MTBE in the unsaturated zone, the partitioning of MTBE from gasoline spills directly into water, and t...

417

CONVERSION OF ORGANIC WASTES TO UNLEADED, HIGH-OCTANE GASOLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project has demonstrated the marriage of two diverse technologies previously considered to be unrelated--the pyrolysis of organic wastes and the low-pressure polymerization of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to form polymer gasoline. This program comprised the development ...

418

Biodegradation of effluent contaminated with diesel fuel and gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of fuel concentration (diesel and gasoline), nitrogen concentration and culture type on the biodegradation of synthetic effluent similar to what was found at inland fuel distribution terminals. An experimental design with two levels and three variables (23) was used. The mixed cultures used in this study were obtained from lake with a history of petroleum contamination

P. A. Vieira; R. B. Vieira; F. P. de França; V. L. Cardoso

2007-01-01

419

Nonleaded Gasoline: Its Impact on the Chemical Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores some of the ways that lead is being replaced in the production of gasolines. Discusses the effects these changes are having on the chemical industry. Contrasts the use of ethyl alcohol from renewable sources with alcohols depending on the availability of isobutene. (TW)

Wittcoff, Harold

1987-01-01

420

Comparing scales of environmental effects from gasoline and ethanol production.  

PubMed

Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production. PMID:23212751

Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca A; McBride, Allen C; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Jeffrey M

2013-02-01

421

12. Detail of clutch and backup gasoline engine for powering ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Detail of clutch and backup gasoline engine for powering Stoney gates. Clutch mechanism manufactured by Baldridge Machine Company, Detroit, Michigan, ca. 1910. Instrument to the left records volume of flow through headworks. View looking south towards Stoney gates. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

422

Dual zeolite fluid cracking catalyst composition for improved gasoline octane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid cracking catalyst is described useful for the production of high octane gasoline comprising a hydrothermally or chemically stabilized Y zeolite component and a stabilized Omega zeolite component having a silica to alumina ratio greater than 15 wherein the weight ratio of the Y zeolite to the stabilized Omega zeolite is 1:3 to 20: 1, said catalyst not having

Gatte

1993-01-01

423

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies

James P Szybist; Adam D Youngquist; Robert M Wagner; Wayne Moore; Matthew Foster; Keith Confer

2010-01-01

424

REDUCTION OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using flexible plastic membranes to control emissions from gasoline storage tanks. The emission rates and the expected life of the membranes were to be established. A demonstration pilot ...

425

EVALUATION AND REPORTING OF COUNTY GASOLINE USE METHODOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews two EPA studies that investigated improvements in the allocation of state-level gasoline sales to the county level in order to improve annual county-level emissions estimates from this source category. The approaches taken in these studies are compared with the...

426

Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmetrically to Crude Oil Price Changes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test and confirm that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly to increases than to decreases in crude oil prices. Among the possible sources of this asymmetry are production\\/inventory adjustment lags and market power of some sellers. By analyzing price transmission at different points in the distribution chain, the authors attempt to shed light on these theories. Spot prices

Severin Borenstein; A. Colin Cameron; Richard Gilbert

1997-01-01

427

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: Neurotoxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. The functional observation battery (FOB) with the addition of motor activity (MA) testing, hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain tissue sections, and brain regional analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to assess behavioral changes, traditional neuropathology and astrogliosis, respectively. FOB and MA data for all agents, except G/TBA, were negative. G/TBA behavioral effects resolved during recovery. Neuropathology was negative for all groups. Analyses of GFAP revealed increases in multiplebrain regions largely limited to males of the G/EtOH group, findings indicative of minor gliosis, most significantly in the cerebellum. Small changes (both increases and decreases) in GFAP were observed for other test agents but effects were not consistent across sex, brain region or exposure concentration. PMID:24879970

O'Callaghan, James P; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; White, Russell

2014-11-01

428

DEMONSTRATION OF VAPOR CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR GASOLINE LOADING OF BARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to demonstrate a safe cost-effective way to control gasoline vapors emitted during barge loading. Refrigeration, carbon adsorption, oil absorption, and incineration were reviewed in terms of their safety, economics, and performance. Two barge...

429

KINETICS OF ETHANOL BIODEGRADATION UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS IN GASOLINE SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that biodegradation of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by mi...

430

GASOLINE COMPOSITION IN THE US (1976-2005)  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline composition data are collected by EPA for Clean Air Act compliance requirements, by industry for various purposes and, recently, by EPA/ORD for a compositional study (Weaver et al., 2005, EPA/600/R-05/032, http://www.epa.gov/athens). Each of these data sets are potentia...

431

GASOLINE COMPOSITION IN THE UNITED STATES (1976-2005)  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline composition data are collected by EPA for Clean Air Act compliance requirements, by industry for various purposes and, recently, by EPA/ORD for a compositional study (Weaver et al., 2005, EPA/600/R-05/032, http://www.epa.gov/athens). Each of these data sets are potentia...

432

MOBILIZATION OF AVIATION GASOLINE FROM A RESIDUAL SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple one-dimensional model describes the mobilization of 90 m3 of residual aviation gasoline from an 80-m diameter, O.3O6-m thick contaminated soil mass at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan. riginally deposited under a paved ground surface in Decembe...

433

Screening the toxicity and biodegradability of petroleum hydrocarbons by a rapid colorimetric method.  

PubMed

Crude oil and petroleum products have a wide variety of hazardous components with high toxicity and low biodegradability. Certain dyes change their colors by intercepting electron transfer reactions during the transformation processes. This study applied resazurin and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol indicators for a rapid screening biodegradation capability and toxicity response to various petroleum products such as motor oil, diesel, gasoline, and phenol. Colorimetry tests were performed in test tubes, and the absorbance values were measured over time. We observed different discoloration profiles after degradation tests using Bacillus subtilis inoculum. Phytotoxicity assays were also performed to compare colorimetric screening assays with a conventional toxicity testing with plants (seed germination). The results indicated that biotransformation of oils can increase its overall toxicity. Intermediate byproducts can be formed through biodegradation and thereby increase the toxicity of oils. The assessment of acute toxicity has shown that phenol is extremely toxic to petroleum-biodegrading microbial communities. Low molecular-weight gasoline was considered biodegradable, but it also exhibited a high acute toxic effect, mainly due to its high solubility and the presence of more volatile compounds that can penetrate cells and potentially damage cellular structures. PMID:25537922

Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

2015-02-01

434

Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust.  

PubMed

The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

Stupfel, M

1976-10-01

435

RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION (TIE) METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

A common method for determining whether contaminants in sediments represent an environmental risk is to perform toxicity tests. Toxicity tests indicate if contaminants in sediments are bioavailable and capable of causing adverse biological effects (e.g., mortality, reduced growt...

436

Administration of Carcinogens and other Toxic Chemicals in  

E-print Network

Administration of Carcinogens and other Toxic Chemicals in Laboratory Rodents Animal Biosafety practices, procedures, and equipment to reduce risk when introducing carcinogens and other toxic chemical agents in laboratory rodents. Specific precautions will vary depending on the particular chemical, dose

Manning, Sturt

437

Toxic terror  

SciTech Connect

A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence to either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.

Whelan, E.M.

1985-01-01

438

Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.  

PubMed

We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle. PMID:19774326

Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

2009-11-01

439

Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: Immunotoxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential immunotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) administered for 6h/day, 5days/week for 4weeks. The antibody-forming cell (AFC) response to the T-dependent antigen, sheep erythrocyte (sRBC), was used to determine the effects of the gasoline vapor condensates on the humoral components of the immune system. Exposure to BGVC, G/MTBE, G/TAME, and G/TBA did not result in significant changes in the IgM AFC response to sRBC, when evaluated as either specific activity (AFC/10(6) spleen cells) or as total spleen activity (AFC/spleen). Exposure to G/EtOH and G/DIPE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the AFC response, reaching the level of statistical significance only at the high 20,000mg/m(3) level. Exposure to G/ETBE resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the AFC response at the middle (10,000mg/m(3)) and high (20,000mg/m(3)) exposure concentrations. PMID:24793263

White, Kimber L; Peachee, Vanessa L; Armstrong, Sarah R; Twerdok, Lorraine E; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A

2014-11-01

440

Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

2009-11-01

441

Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflation and increased fuel economy have reduced the buying power of the revenues collected from state and federal motor fuel taxes. Because fuel taxes are almost always collected on a per-gallon basis, in most states they must be raised by specific acts of the legislature and it is becoming increasingly difficult to find the political support necessary to raise them.

Jeffrey Ang-Olson; Martin Wachs; Brian D. Taylor

1999-01-01

442

Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflation and increased fuel economy have reduced the buying power of the revenues collected from state and federal motor fuel taxes. Because fuel taxes are almost always collected on a per-gallon basis, m most states they must be raised by specific acts of the legislature and it is becoming increasingly difficult to find the political support necessary to raise them.

Jeffrey Ang-Olson; Martin Wachs; Brian D. Taylor

2000-01-01

443

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline

Susanne B. Jones; Yunhua Zhu

2009-01-01

444

Experimental investigation of effects of bio-additives on fuel economy of the gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matter extracted from palm oil was considered as gasoline additive. The effect of various percentages (0.2%, 0.4% and\\u000a 0.6%) of the bio-additives on fuel economy of SI engine respectively running on prime gasoline, gasoline with known components,\\u000a ethanol gasoline, and methanol gasoline under typical urban operation condition 2000 r\\/min was investigated. The results showed\\u000a that the bio-additives can remarkably

ChunDe Yao; ZhiHui Zhang; YuanLi Xu; Yu Huang

2008-01-01

445

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

SciTech Connect

A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

446

Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter.  

PubMed

The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars. PMID:25075876

Aakko-Saksa, Päivi T; Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Leena; Skyttä, Eija