Sample records for gasoline reduce toxicity

  1. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  2. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  3. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015...liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  5. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart? 80... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 ...attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

  7. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  8. Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

  9. Optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon compositions for reducing exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yitao; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon compositions on raw exhaust emissions and combustion processes were studied on an engine test bench. The optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon composition was discussed. As olefins content increased from 10.0% to 25.0% in volume, the combustion duration was shortened by about 2 degree crank angle (degrees CA), and the engine-out THC emission was reduced by about 15%. On the other hand, as aromatics content changed from 35.0% to 45.0%, the engine-out NOx emissions increased by 4%. An increment in olefins content resulted in a slight increase in engine-out CO emission, while the aromatics content had little effect on engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO emissions. Over the new European driving cycle (NEDC), the THC, NOx and CO emissions of fuel with 25.0% olefins and 35.0% aromatics were about 45%, 21% and 19% lower than those of fuel with 10.0% olefins and 40.0% aromatics, respectively. The optimized gasoline compositions for new engines and new vehicles have low aromatics and high olefins contents. PMID:19999967

  10. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  11. Measurements of toxic exhaust emissions from gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner-Selph, M.A.

    1989-11-01

    Exhaust emission rates of selected toxic substances were determined for two gasoline-powered passenger cars. These substances, which have appeared on California Air Resources Board Toxic Air Contaminant list or have been candidates for the lists, include volatile and semi-volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, phenols, nitrobenzene, dialkylnitrosamines, and a number of other unregulated emissions. Regulated gaseous emissions and fuel economy were also measured. A literature search was performed to determine if any of these compounds had previously been measured in the exhaust of gasoline-powered vehicles and if appropriate analytical procedures were available. When unavailable, procedures were developed for sampling and analyzing the unregulated toxic emissions compounds. The two vehicles were then tested to determine the emission rates of the targeted compounds. In the tests, a 1987 Ford Taurus equipped with a 3-way plus oxidation catalyst and a 1986 Toyota Camry equipped with a 3-way catalyst only were operated over the Federal Test Procedure, the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. The test fuel was a regular unleaded gasoline without ethanol or methanol, and was obtained from California.

  12. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  13. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S H; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  14. Process for increasing octane and reducing sulfur content of olefinic gasolines

    SciTech Connect

    Patridge, R.D.; Schobert, M.A.; Wong, S.S.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a process for producing a gasoline of reduced sulfur content. It comprises contacting a catalytically cracked olefinic gasoline having an initial boiling point of at least 180{degrees} F and an initial sulfur content of at least 50 ppm and containing an initial content of olefins and aromatics and having an initial octane number with a catalyst composition comprising a noble metal component and a large pore zeolite having a framework silica alumina ratio of at least 50, at a temperature from 750{degrees} F to 1200{degrees} F, an elevated pressure up to 1435 psig and a space velocity (LHSV) of 0.1 to 20, to reduce the olefinic content of the gasoline while reducing its sulfur content to a value below the initial sulfur content without reducing the initial octane number and increasing the content of aromatics to a value above that of the initial aromatics content, and recovering a gasoline having a sulfur content lower than the initial sulfur content, an olefins content lower than the initial olefins content, and an aromatics content which exceeds the initial aromatics content.

  15. Reducing US oil-import dependence: A tariff, subsidy, or gasoline tax

    SciTech Connect

    Yuecel, M.K. (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, TX (USA)); Dahl, C. (Louisiana State Univ. (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Low oil prices and rising oil imports have caused growing concern about U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply shocks. The authors devise a measure of vulnerability and use it to compare three policies that have been proposed to reduce U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply disruptions: a 25% oil-import tariff, a $5-per-barrel subsidy to domestic oil producers, and an increase in the gasoline tax from 9 cents to 25 cents per gallon. They find that the tariff would make the United States less vulnerable to disruptions. By increasing both consumer and producer prices, the tariff lowers consumption while encouraging domestic production. The increased gasoline tax could either lower or raise vulnerability. If domestic supply is not very responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax increases vulnerability. If domestic supply is responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax reduces vulnerability. The subsidy encourages increased consumption and production, leading to a faster depletion of the resource base. Hence, the subsidy would make the United States more vulnerable to oil-supply shocks. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: reproductive toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Gray, Thomas M; Steup, David; Roberts, Linda G; O'Callaghan, James P; Hoffman, Gary; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Vapor condensates of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline-blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for reproductive toxicity in rats at target concentrations of 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3), 6h/day, 7days/week. BGVC and G/MTBE were assessed over two generations, the others for one generation. BGVC and G/MTBE F1 offspring were evaluated for neuropathology and changes in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein content. No neurotoxicity was observed. Male kidney weight was increased consistent with light hydrocarbon nephropathy. In adult rats, decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight were seen. Spleen weight decreased in adults and pups exposed to G/TBA. No pathological changes to reproductive organs occurred in any study. Decreased food consumption was seen in G/TAME lactating females. Transient decreases in G/TAME offspring weights were observed during lactation. Except for a minor increase in time to mating in G/TBA which did not affect other reproductive parameters, there were no adverse reproductive findings. The NOAEL for reproductive and offspring parameters was 20,000mg/m(3) for all vapor condensates except for lower offspring NOAELs of 10,000mg/m(3) for G/TBA and 2000mg/m(3) for G/TAME. PMID:24813181

  17. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25

    ; grass ergot, urination, ataxia, prostration dallisgrass ergot causes acute ergot of cereal Chronic - Gangrene symptoms. grains Colubrina texensis Hogplum Hepatic toxin Symptoms similar to Livestock poisoning is rare. lechuguilla poisoning Conium Poison...TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University...

  18. ?-Helix targeting reduces amyloid-? peptide toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nerelius, C.; Sandegren, A.; Sargsyan, H.; Raunak, R.; Leijonmarck, H.; Chatterjee, U.; Fisahn, A.; Imarisio, S.; Lomas, D. A.; Crowther, D. C.; Strömberg, R.; Johansson, J.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid-? peptide (A?) can generate cytotoxic oligomers, and their accumulation is thought to underlie the neuropathologic changes found in Alzheimer's disease. Known inhibitors of A? polymerization bind to undefined structures and can work as nonspecific aggregators, and inhibitors that target conformations that also occur in larger A? assemblies may even increase oligomer-derived toxicity. Here we report on an alternative approach whereby ligands are designed to bind and stabilize the 13–26 region of A? in an ?-helical conformation, inspired by the postulated A? native structure. This is achieved with 2 different classes of compounds that also reduce A? toxicity to cells in culture and to hippocampal slice preparations, and that do not show any nonspecific aggregatory properties. In addition, when these inhibitors are administered to Drosophila melanogaster expressing human A?1–42 in the central nervous system, a prolonged lifespan, increased locomotor activity, and reduced neurodegeneration is observed. We conclude that stabilization of the central A? ?-helix counteracts polymerization into toxic assemblies and provides a strategy for development of specific inhibitors of A? polymerization. PMID:19458258

  19. Gasoline conservation: a procedure for measuring and reducing the driving of college students

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, R. M.; Hake, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The study sought to motivate college students to reduce the number of miles they drove each day and thus save gasoline. Students in two psychology classes were divided by class into two groups. The experimental group was offered various combinations of prizes such as cash, a tour of a mental-health facility, car servicing, and a university parking sticker for reducing driving. The value of the prize received was scaled in terms of per cent reduction in driving. The contrast group received no inducements. The condition in which the experimental group's mileage reduction was reinforced was counterbalanced by two baseline conditions. Several special recording procedures were used to reduce and detect the possibility of subjects altering their odometers, the source of the driving data. Experimental subjects reduced their average daily mileage by 20% relative to the initial baseline; the contrast group did not change. During the one-month reinforcement condition, the 12 experimental subjects saved some 170 gallons (worth $102) of gasoline. PMID:16795548

  20. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  1. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  2. Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-04-05

    Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Partial hepatectomy reduces both metabolism and toxicity of benzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sammett; E. W. Lee; J. J. Kocsis; R. Snyder

    1979-01-01

    Removal of 70–80% of the liver reduced both the metabolism and the toxicity of benzene in rats. Metabolism was evaluated by measuring the levels of urinary metabolites in both sham?operated and partially hepatectomized rats given 2200 mg\\/kg [H]benzene sc. Toxicity was evaluated by measuring the incorporation of Fe into circulating erythrocytes according to the method of Lee et al. The

  4. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shing Tet Leong; S Muttamara; Preecha Laortanakul

    2002-01-01

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of

  5. Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, D E; Arnold, J D; ten Hove, W; Boyle, J

    1996-04-01

    Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). The major metabolites of the oxidative demethylation of MTBE in vivo were methanol and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), whereas formaldehyde and TBA were the principal products of hepatic microsomal oxidation by cytochrome P-450. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats treated with intragastric MTBE in corn oil gave an initial disposition T1/2 for MTBE of 0.32 h. The decline in the serum drug versus time curve for MTBE in rats was accompanied by a progressive increase in serum methanol concentrations to levels more than 50-200 times those of the parent compound. Repeated exposure of MTBE vapor by inhalation in rats resulted in dose-dependent increases in MTBE in the blood, brain, and adipose tissue compartments. Blood concentrations of TBA were also dose dependent and provided an estimate of the total amount of MTBE distributed to peripheral drug metabolizing compartments. Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 microgram/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 microgram/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 microgram/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 microgram/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitative safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. PMID:8614015

  6. Gasoline Taxes and Consumer Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanjun Li; Joshua Linn; Erich Muehlegger

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline taxes can be employed to correct externalities associated with automobile use, to reduce dependency on foreign oil, and to raise government revenue. Our understanding of the optimal gasoline tax and the efficacy of existing taxes is largely based on empirical analysis of consumer responses to gasoline price changes. In this paper, we directly examine how gasoline taxes affect consumer

  7. Air pollution: EPA's efforts to reduce and end the use of lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has relied on data generated by the U.S. Army and U.S. Postal Service to support its lead phasedown program. Both organizations had switched large fleets of vehicles from leaded to unleaded gasoline and experienced no mechanical or operating problems. In response to concerns expressed by the Congress, the Department of Agriculture, and the farm community about the impacts of low-lead gasoline or its possible ban on farm equipment, EPA agreed to reevaluate the standards. EPA expects that by January 1987, it will determine whether the low-lead standard needs to be changed to prevent adverse effects on farm machinery and what the final action should be on its proposal for a ban.

  8. Microbial desulfurization of gasoline by free whole-cells of Rhodococcus erythropolis XP.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Ma, Cuiqing; Zhou, Wenjuan; Wang, Ying; Cai, Xiaofeng; Tao, Fei; Zhang, Quan; Tong, Mingyou; Qu, Jingyao; Xu, Ping

    2006-05-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis XP could grow well with condensed thiophenes, mono-thiophenic compounds and mercaptans present in gasoline. Rhodococcus erythropolis XP was also capable of efficiently degrading the condensed thiophenes in resting cell as well as biphasic reactions in which n-octane served as a model oil phase. Free whole cells of R. erythropolis XP were adopted to desulfurize fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and straight-run (SR) gasoline oils. About 30% of the sulfur content of FCC gasoline and 85% of sulfur in SR gasoline were reduced, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis with atomic emission detection also showed depletion of sulfur compounds in SR gasoline. Rhodococcus erythropolis XP could partly resist the toxicity of gasoline and had an application potential to biodesulfurization of gasoline. PMID:16640586

  9. Saffron Reduced Toxic Effects of its Constituent, Safranal, in Acute and Subacute Toxicities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Toktam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Saffron and its constituents are widely used around the world as a spice and medicinal plant. Different constituents in medicinal herbs are thought to have the potential to induce useful and/or adverse effects. So, efforts have been made to find the best and most valuable tools to reduce their adverse effects. Objectives: According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), it is believed that administration of whole herbs exhibits more activity and fewer side effects than isolated constituents. Since toxicological studies have indicated that safranal is more toxic than other active components in saffron stigma, thus this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of co-administration of saffron extract and safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity, rats received safranal (1.2 mL/kg, IP) plus saffron aqueous extract (25-100 mg/kg, IP). One and four days after the treatment, percentage of mortality was assessed. In subacute toxicity, rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1) safranal (0.2 mL/kg, IP), Groups 2, 3 and 4) safranal plus saffron aqueous extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IP) Groups 5 and 6) Paraffin and normal saline, as solvents of safranal and saffron aqueous extract, respectively. Treatments were continued for 21 days. For sub-acute toxicity, the percentages of lethality as well as some biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that four days co-treatment of safranal and saffron significantly reduced mortality, so that the effect was more obvious in lower doses. Sub-acute toxicity studies showed that saffron could increase survival in rats so that no mortality was observed at dose of 10 mg/kg. Our data also indicated that the levels of triglyceride, BUN and ALT significantly increased after sub-acute interaperitoneal (IP) administration of safranal (0.2 mL/kg/day) and co-treatment of saffron aqueous extract (5 and 10 mg/kg) plus safranal significantly improved all toxic effects of safranal on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: The co-administration of saffron aqueous extract and safranal reduced toxic effects of safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities. PMID:24644432

  10. Biodegradation of gasoline by gellan gum-encapsulated bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Moslemy, Peyman; Neufeld, Ronald J; Guiot, Serge R

    2002-10-20

    Encapsulated cell bioaugmentation is a novel alternative solution to in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of such a remediation strategy based on the performance of encapsulated cells in the biodegradation of gasoline, a major groundwater contaminant. An enriched bacterial consortium, isolated from a gasoline-polluted site, was encapsulated in gellan gum microbeads (16-53 microm diameter). The capacity of the encapsulated cells to degrade gasoline under aerobic conditions was evaluated in comparison with free (non-encapsulated) cells. Encapsulated cells (2.6 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead) degraded over 90% gasoline hydrocarbons (initial concentration 50-600 mg x L(-1)) within 5-10 days at 10 degrees C. Equivalent levels of free cells removed comparable amounts of gasoline (initial concentration 50-400 mg x L(-1)) within the same period but required up to 30 days to degrade the highest level of gasoline tested (600 mg x L(-1)). Free cells exhibited a lag phase in biodegradation, which increased from 1 to 5 days with an increase in gasoline concentration (200-600 x mg L(-1)). Encapsulation provided cells with a protective barrier against toxic hydrocarbons, eliminating the adaptation period required by free cells. The reduction of encapsulated cell mass loading from 2.6 to 1.0 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead caused a substantial decrease in the extent of biodegradation within a 30-day incubation period. Encapsulated cells dispersed within the porous soil matrix of saturated soil microcosms demonstrated a reduced performance in the removal of gasoline (initial concentrations of 400 and 600 mg x L(-1)), removing 30-50% gasoline hydrocarbons compared to 40-60% by free cells within 21 days of incubation. The results of this study suggest that gellan gum-encapsulated bacterial cells have the potential to be used for biodegradation of gasoline hydrocarbons in aqueous systems. PMID:12209773

  11. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Axial Thruster and ACS Thruster Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  12. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  13. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  14. Reducing groundwater pollution by toxic substances: Procedures and policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Waterstone

    1987-01-01

    One major source of water-related health problems is the improper disposal of toxic substances in the environment. Toxic materials leaching from unregulated and unlined pits, ponds, lagoons, and landfills have created a widespread environmental nightmare in the United States and many other parts of the world. At present, there are two major and interrelated components of this problem in the

  15. RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

  16. Unusual lipid structures selectively reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B

    SciTech Connect

    Janoff, A.S.; Boni, L.T.; Popescu, M.C.; Minchey, S.R.; Cullis, P.R.; Madden, T.D.; Taraschi, T.; Gruner, S.M.; Shyamsunder, E.; Tate, M.W.; Mendelsohn, R.; Bonner, D. (Liposome Company, Inc., Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Ribbon-like structures result when amphotericin B interacts with lipid in an aqueous environment. At high ratios of amphotericin to lipid these structures, which are lipid-stabilized amphotericin aggregates, become prevalent resulting in a dramatic attenuation of amphotericin-mediated mammalian cell, but not fungal cell, toxicity. Studies utilizing freeze-etch electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, {sup 31}P NMR, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy revealed that this toxicity attenuation is related to the macromolecular structure of the complexes in a definable fashion. It is likely that amphotericin in this specific form will have a much improved therapeutic utility.

  17. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  18. Reducing levels of toxic RNA with small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Coonrod, Leslie A.; Nakamori, Masayuki; Wang, Wenli; Carrell, Samuel; Hilton, Cameron L.; Bodner, Micah J.; Siboni, Ruth B.; Docter, Aaron G.; Haley, Michael M.; Thornton, Charles A.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy. DM is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a toxic gain of function RNA. The toxic RNA is produced from expanded non-coding CTG/CCTG repeats, and these CUG/CCUG repeats sequester the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of RNA binding proteins. The MBNL proteins are regulators of alternative splicing, and their sequestration has been linked with mis-splicing events in DM. A previously reported screen for small molecules found that pentamidine was able to improve splicing defects associated with DM. Biochemical experiments and cell and mouse model studies of the disease indicate that pentamidine and related compounds may work through binding the CTG*CAG repeat DNA to inhibit transcription. Analysis of a series of methylene linker analogs of pentamidine revealed that heptamidine reverses splicing defects and rescues myotonia in a DM1 mouse model. PMID:24028068

  19. Temperature determines toxicity: bisphenol A reduces thermal tolerance in fish.

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous pollutant around the globe, but whether environmental concentrations have toxic effects remains controversial. BPA interferes with a number of nuclear receptor pathways, including several that mediate animal responses to environmental input. Because thermal acclimation is regulated by these pathways in fish, we hypothesized that the toxicity of BPA would change with ambient temperature. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ecologically relevant and artificially high concentrations of BPA at two acclimation temperatures, and tested physiological responses at two test temperatures that corresponded to acclimation temperatures. We found ecologically relevant concentrations of BPA (20 ?g l(-1)) impair swimming performance, heart rate, muscle and cardiac SERCA activity and gene expression. We show many of these responses are temperature-specific and non-monotonic. Our results suggest that BPA pollution can compound the effects of climate change, and that its effects are more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for. PMID:25514059

  20. The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own

    E-print Network

    O'Gara, Bruce A.

    The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox higher doses produce harm (Driver and Georgeou, 2003; Miller et al., 2005). Lumbriculus variegatus

  1. Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic…

  2. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed. PMID:25644031

  3. Reduced oxygen tolerance and toxicity of petroleum products to juvenile American shad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlin E. Tagatz

    1961-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on juvenile American shad,Alosa sapidissima, to indicate tolerance to reduced oxygen, toxicity of petroleum products, and toxicity of petroleum products with accompanying\\u000a low dissolved oxygen. All mortalities in reduced oxygen tests occurred at dissolved oxygen values of less than 2 ppm with\\u000a lethal concentrations varying with the rate of reduction. No mortalities occurred when dissolved oxygen was

  4. Electric car Gasoline car

    E-print Network

    ENAC/ Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares of an electric vehicle? Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares preferences. · Identification of population segments with a strong interest for electric cars. · Forecasting

  5. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  6. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  7. Reduce Toxic Exposures: Get Involved and Take Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the connection between many chemical exposures and learning and other developmental disabilities (LDD). National and local groups are developing new programs around the country that are making this connection--and taking action with regard to policy, education and research efforts. They are working towards reducing…

  8. WR-2721 reduces intestinal toxicity from concurrent gemcitabine and radiation treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thinh P. Phan; Christopher H. Crane; Nora A. Janjan; Eduord Vrdoljak; Luka Milas; Kathy A. Mason

    2001-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background. The nucleoside analog gemcitabine is a potent radiosensitizer of both tumor and normal mucosa, so severe toxic reactions\\u000a have resulted from its combination with radiation in some clinical treatment schedules for pancreatic cancer. WR-2721 (amifostine)\\u000a has been shown to reduce normal tissue toxicity produced from both radiation treatment and some chemotherapeutics. The aim\\u000a of this study was to

  9. Geriatric Assessment Intervention in Reducing Chemotherapy Toxicity in Older Patients With Advanced Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized clinical trial compares geriatric assessment intervention in reducing chemotherapy toxicity in older patients with advanced cancer. A geriatric assessment may identify risk factors for chemotherapy toxicity and may improve treatment for older patients with advanced cancer.

  10. Multiplying therapies and reducing toxicity in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Massey, Paul R; Prasad, Vinay; Figg, William D; Fojo, Tito

    2015-07-01

    Prior to 2011, only 2 systemic treatments were approved for the treatment of melanoma and these had limited efficacy. In the past 4 years, 6 novel agents have received FDA approval. Herein, we will focus on 4 recently published NEJM papers reporting the results of clinical trials, comprising 4 agents targeting the MAPK pathway: the BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the MEK inhibitors trametinib and cobimetenib. These have been developed in parallel with a class of immunologic mediators often referred to as "immune checkpoint inhibitors." These recent studies represent a marked acceleration of progress in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. While it was hoped that combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors would significantly mitigate drug resistance, such combinations have yielded only modestly better results than monotherapy. However, these combinations were successful in reducing the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and keratocanthomas. Therefore, combination therapies are clearly warranted. Thus far there are only limited data addressing the value of combinations of immunotherapeutic agents: a phase 1 trial of concurrent nivolumab plus ipilimumab suggested enhanced activity that may not depend on BRAF mutation status. Despite the attention and publicity given to the progress achieved in the therapy of melanoma, the majority of patients with metastatic disease still have a poor prognosis. Even novel combination regiments of BRAF and MEK inhibitors achieve complete response in only 13% of patients and a median PFS of 11.4 months in all patients. Better therapies remain desperately needed, especially for the 30-40% of patients with wild-type BRAF, for whom BRAF/MAPK inhibition offers no benefit. In the latter benefit is expected from emerging immunotherapies either singly or in combinations. The extent to which immunotherapies will add to regimens targeting BRAF remains to be determined. PMID:26016850

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine in reducing radiation-induced skin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jennifer J; Cui, Tengjiao; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Allen, Glenn O; Li, Jie; Takita, Cristiane; Lally, Brian E

    2014-08-01

    Radiation therapy-induced acute and late effects, particularly skin toxicities, have significant impact on cancer patients' quality of life and long-term survival. To date, no effective topical agents have been routinely used in the clinical setting to prevent skin toxicity. Using SKH-hr1 hairless mice, we investigated two complementary and alternative medicine in their effects on inflammation and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced skin toxicity: Calendula officinalis (CO) and Ching Wan Hung (CWH). They were applied immediately following each IR dosing of 10 Gy/day for 4 days. Skin toxicity and inflammatory factors were evaluated at multiple time points up to 15 days post-radiation. Serum interleukin (IL)-1?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were significantly induced by radiation. Both CO and CWH significantly inhibited IR-induced MCP1 (p < 0.01), KC (p < 0.05), and G-CSF (p < 0.001). IR-induced erythema and blood vessel dilation were significantly reduced by CWH (p < 0.001) but not by CO at day 10 post-IR. Both agents inhibited IR-induced IL-1? (p < 0.01), MCP1 (p < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (p < 0.05). There were continuous inhibitory effects of CWH on IR-induced skin toxicities and inflammation. In contrast, CO treatment resulted in skin reactions compared to IR alone. Our results suggest that both CO and CWH reduce IR-induced inflammation and CWH reduced IR-induced erythema. In summary, CWH showed promising effects in reducing IR-related inflammation and skin toxicities, and future proof-of-principal testing in humans will be critical in evaluating its potential application in preventing IR-induced skin toxicities. PMID:24792319

  12. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  13. Attenuating the toxicity of cisplatin by using selenosulfate with reduced risk of selenium toxicity as compared with selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinsong [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)], E-mail: zjszyzzc@mail.hf.ah.cn; Peng Dungeng; Lu Hongjuan; Liu Qingliang [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)

    2008-02-01

    It has been reported that high doses of sodium selenite can reduce side effects of cisplatin (CDDP) without compromising its antitumor activity, thus substantially enhancing the cure rate in tumor-bearing mice. However, the toxicity of selenite at high doses should be a concern. The present study revealed that selenosulfate had much lower toxicity, but possessed equal efficacy in selenium (Se) utilization, as compared with selenite at similar doses when used for the intervention of CDDP. In addition, Se accumulation in whole blood and kidney of mice treated with selenosulfate was highly correlated with the survival rate of mice treated with CDDP (both r > 0.96 and both p < 0.05), suggesting that whole blood Se is a potential clinical biomarker to predict host tolerance to CDDP. In either Se-deficient or -sufficient mice bearing solid tumors of hepatoma 22 (H22), selenosulfate did not disturb the therapeutic effect of CDDP on tumors but effectively attenuated the toxicity of CDDP. Furthermore, in a highly malignant cancer model, with Se-sufficient mice bearing ascitic H22 cells, 8 or 10 mg/kg CDDP alone only achieved a null or 25% cure rate, whereas coadministration of selenosulfate with the above two doses of CDDP achieved cure rates of 87.5% or 75%. These results together argue for consideration of selenosulfate as an agent to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP.

  14. Abeta peptide toxicity is reduced after treatments decreasing phosphatidylethanolamine content in differentiated neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Emanuela; Bulbarelli, Alessandra; Lonati, Elena; Orlando, Antonina; Re, Francesca; Gregori, Maria; Masserini, Massimo

    2011-05-01

    We investigated whether the toxicity of oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta1-42) upon differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, can be affected by changes of membrane lipid composition. An immunostaining technique, using lipids extracted from the cells and separated by thin layer chromatography, suggested that Abeta preferentially binds to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), one of the major lipids in the cell extract. For this reason, we utilized treatments with putative inhibitors of phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis (choline, phosphocholine, R59949) to decrease its proportion in the cell membrane; choline treatment (2.5 mM, 24 h) showed the best performance, reducing phosphatidylethanolamine content from 5.7 to 3.3 ?g phosphorous/mg protein. Either the extent of Abeta binding or its toxicity decreased onto choline-treated cells. These data may open the possibility to develop future strategies aiming to reduce Abeta toxicity in Alzheimer disease. PMID:21287268

  15. Gasoline for your car

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book answerers the questions frequently asked about gasoline such as its principal quality features, octane, volatility, factors that influence knocking characteristics, various gasoline additives and their functions. It also offers suggestions on how to save gasoline.

  16. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF A REDUCED VOLUME MARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST METHOD USING AMPHIPOD AMPELISCA ABDITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has standardized methods for performing acute marine amphipod sediment toxicity tests. A test design reducing sediment volume from 200 to 50 ml and overlying water from 600 to 150 ml was recently proposed. An interlaboratory comparison wa...

  17. INCREASED TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT 'SALMO GAIRDNERI' RESULTING FROM REDUCED CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The median lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow-through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6-8.6 mg/L, the fo...

  18. A Community-Based Initiative to Reduce Children's Exposure to Toxics in Household Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Anne Berlin; Luskin, Jack

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design/methodology/approach--The program model was based on the…

  19. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  20. Effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the toxicity of a coal liquefaction product to juvenile channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kenna, M.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the acute toxicity of a representative coal liquefaction product. Acute bioassays with juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were used to compare the toxicities of raw (nonupgraded) H-Coal oil, four samples of the same H-Coal oil subjected to different degrees of upgrading by hydrotreatment, and a petroleum crude oil. Channel catfish were chosen because they have considerable commercial and sport fisheries value and are likely to be abundant in large rivers where commercial coal liquefaction facilities will be located.

  1. Humic acids reduce the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to fish

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.E.; Oris, J.T.

    1999-09-01

    The effects of dissolved humic materials (DHM) on the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were studied in single-treatment evaluations in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight (UV-A = 140.2 {+-} 2.6 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, UV-B = 6.40 {+-} 0.21 {micro}W/cm{sup 2})(mean {+-} SE). Five concentrations of fluoranthene and five concentrations of DHM were achieved. The presence of DHM reduced the acute photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene. Regression analysis revealed that median lethal times (LT50) were directly related to DHM concentration and inversely related to fluoranthene water concentration. The presence of DHM also reduced fluoranthene bioaccumulation, and LT50 values were inversely related to fluoranthene body residues. These findings demonstrate that (1) the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene is dependent on body residue and (2) site-specific environmental parameters that affect uptake and/or elimination can determine the rates of mortality due to photoinduced toxicity.

  2. Barrier cream application reduces the formation of DNA adducts in lung tissue of mice dermally exposed to used gasoline engine oil.

    PubMed

    Drexelius, R J; Carwardine, K; Jaeger, M; Talaska, G

    1999-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that auto mechanics are at higher risk for lung and urinary bladder cancer. Used gasoline engine oils (UGEO), a common exposure for many mechanics, are carcinogenic and increase carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in the skin and lungs of mice treated topically. The ability of a barrier cream to reduce dermal absorption of carcinogens in UGEO was evaluated. Groups of five animals were treated topically for 5 days with 25 microliters/day UGEO. A barrier cream was applied to two groups prior to exposure. Skin of both groups was washed with a commercial hand cleaner, the first group, one hour after UGEO application, the other, eight hours after application. Two other groups did not receive barrier creams before UGEO application, but were washed at one or eight hours after the oil was applied. Another group was treated with UGEO five times but was never washed; other groups consisted of barrier cream and commercial cleaner controls. Skins and lungs were harvested 24 hours after the final exposure and DNA isolated. Carcinogen-DNA adduct levels were determined by 32P-postlabelling followed by thin-layer chromatography to separate the adducts and scintillation counting to quantify the adduct level. Pre-application of barrier cream reduced markedly the carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in both skin and lung tissue of mice treated with UGEO and washed at eight hours. In the lung, this reduction was statistically significant. Adduct levels in both tissues were approximately the same in the groups washed at one hour, indicating that if the skin is washed promptly after exposure, barrier cream application is unnecessary. If, however, washing does not take place until several hours after exposure, the pre-application of barrier cream appears to significantly reduce the DNA adduct levels. These data are of practical importance to mechanics who may be working with oily parts for extended periods. PMID:10633955

  3. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

  4. Role of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Reducing Toxicity in Dose Escalation for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.al-mamgani@erasmusmc.nl; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated to a total dose of 78 Gy with either a three-conformal radiotherapy technique with a sequential boost (SEQ) or a simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 78 prostate cancer patients participating in the randomized Dutch trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy were the subject of this analysis. They were all treated at the same institution to a total dose of 78 Gy. The median follow-up was 76 and 56 months for the SEQ and SIB-IMRT groups, respectively. The primary endpoints were acute and late GI and GU toxicity. Results: A significantly lower incidence of acute Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity occurred in patients treated with SIB-IMRT compared with SEQ (20% vs. 61%, p = 0.001). For acute GU toxicity and late GI and GU toxicity, the incidence was lower after SIB-IMRT, but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference were found in the 5-year freedom from biochemical failure rate (Phoenix definition) between the two groups (70% for the SIB-IMRT group vs. 61% for the SEQ group, p = 0.3). The same was true for the 5-year freedom from clinical failure rate (90% vs. 72%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that SIB-IMRT reduced the toxicity without compromising the outcome in patients with localized prostate cancer treated to 78 Gy radiation.

  5. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 ?g g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 ?g g and died at 200 ?g Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 ?g g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. PMID:22751058

  6. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Kristan L.S.; Dodd, Andrea A.; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles, observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 hours and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 hours in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the broncheoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung. PMID:24008224

  7. Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles suppress breast cancer cells growth with reduced myelosuppression toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing; Han, Jing; Cong, Wenshu; Ge, Ying; Ma, Dandan; Dai, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaping; Bi, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Docetaxel is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug widely used to treat multiple solid tumors; however, its toxicity and side effects limit its clinical efficacy. Herein, docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DSNs) were developed to reduce systemic toxicity of docetaxel while still keeping its anticancer activity. To evaluate its anticancer activity and toxicity, and to understand the molecular mechanisms of DSNs, different cellular, molecular, and whole genome transcription analysis approaches were utilized. The DSNs showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the commercial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere®) and induced more apoptosis at 24 hours after treatment in vitro. DSNs can cause the treated cancer cells to arrest in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner similar to Taxotere. They can also suppress tumor growth very effectively in a mice model with human xenograft breast cancer. Systemic analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray and subsequent verification experiments suggested that both DSNs and Taxotere regulate gene expression and gene function, including DNA replication, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Some of these genes expressed differentially at the protein level although their messenger RNA expression level was similar under Taxotere and DSN treatment. Moreover, DSNs improved the main side effect of Taxotere by greatly lowering myelosuppression toxicity to bone marrow cells from mice. Taken together, these results expound the antitumor efficacy and the potential working mechanisms of DSNs in its anticancer activity and toxicity, which provide a theoretical foundation to develop and apply a more efficient docetaxel formulation to treat cancer patients. PMID:25378924

  8. Reduced dose-limiting toxicity of intraperitoneal mitoxantrone chemotherapy using cardiolipin-based anionic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rae Sung; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Han Young; Han, Su-Eun; Na, Jinhee; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Young Bong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2010-12-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy confers limited clinical benefit as a result of the dose-limiting toxicity of anticancer drugs. We aimed to develop optimized liposomes for mitoxantrone (MTO) administration that provide high encapsulation efficiency and increase the therapeutic index. Cationic MTO was loaded onto anionic liposomes by electrostatic surface complexation. The anticancer activity was evaluated in a peritoneal carcinomatosis model. The retention of MTO at the tumor site was monitored by molecular imaging. MTO loading efficiencies by electrostatic complexation were >95% for all anionic liposomes but <5% for neutral liposomes. Among anionic liposomes, cardiolipin liposomes (CLs) exhibited the strongest binding affinity for MTO, the highest anticancer activity, and the lowest toxicity. MTO delivered by CLs showed prolonged retention at tumor sites. Unlike free MTO showing significant cardiotoxicity, MTO administered in CLs provided negligible cardiotoxicity. CL-mediated delivery may increase the therapeutic index of MTO chemotherapy by prolonged retention and reduced cardiotoxicity. PMID:20570638

  9. 40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined? 80.825 Section 80.825... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.825 How is...

  10. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  11. Structural mediation on polycation nanoparticles by sulfadiazine to enhance DNA transfection efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Long, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Shangcong; Tang, Minjie; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongxin; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2015-04-15

    Reducing the toxicity while maintaining high transfection efficiency is an important issue for cationic polymers as gene carriers in clinical application. In this paper, a new zwitterionic copolymer, polycaprolactone-g-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methyacrylate-co-sulfadiazine methacrylate) (PC-SDZ) with unique pH-sensitivity, was designed and prepared. The incorporation of sulfadiazine into poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) chains successfully mediates the surface properties including compacter shell structure, lower density of positive charges, stronger proton buffer capability, and enhanced hydrophobicity, which lead to reduction in toxicity and enhancements in stability, cellular uptake, endosome escape, and transfection efficiency for the PC-SDZ2 nanoparticles (NPs)/DNA complexes. Excellent transfection efficiency at the optimal N/P ratio of 10 was observed for PC-SDZ2 NPs/DNA complexes, which was higher than that of the commercial reagent-branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by CCK8 measurement, and the results showed significant reduction in cytotoxicity even at high concentration of complexes after sulfadiazine modification. Therefore, this work may demonstrate a new way of structural mediation of cationic polymer carriers for gene delivery with high efficiency and low toxicity. PMID:25801088

  12. Endogenous polyamines reduce the toxicity of soluble a? peptide aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinghui; Mohammed, Inayathulla; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Hiruma, Yoshitaka; Gräslund, Astrid; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Polyamines promote the formation of the A? peptide amyloid fibers that are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that polyamines interact with nonaggregated A? peptides, thereby reducing the peptide's hydrophobic surface. We characterized the associated conformational change through NMR titrations and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that even low concentrations of spermine, sperimidine, and putrescine fully protected SH-SY5Y (a neuronal cell model) against the most toxic conformational species of A?, even at an A? oligomer concentration that would otherwise kill half of the cells or even more. These observations lead us to conclude that polyamines interfere with the more toxic prefibrillar conformations and might protect cells by promoting the structural transition of A? toward its less toxic fibrillar state that we reported previously. Since polyamines are present in brain fluid at the concentrations where we observed all these effects, their activity needs to be taken into account in understanding the molecular processes related to the development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24750033

  13. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an automated fiber placement machine and the successful fabrication of a carbon fiber plate with an integrated microvascular channel is demonstrated.

  14. Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity – Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity. PMID:24073244

  15. Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-01

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

  16. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.co [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M. [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  17. Efficacy of activated diatomaceous clay in reducing the toxicity of zearalenone in rats and piglets.

    PubMed

    Denli, M; Blandon, J C; Guynot, M E; Salado, S; Pérez, J F

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an activated diatomaceous clay (ADC) in reducing the toxic effects of zearalenone (ZEA) in the diet of rats and piglets. In the rat experiment, 90 Sprague-Dawley female weanling rats with an initial BW of 45 ± 1.0 g were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments for 28 d in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (0 or 6 mg ZEA/kg feed and 0, 1, and 5 g ADC/kg feed). In the piglet experiment, 64 female piglets ([Large White × Landrace] × Pietrain with an initial BW of 14.9 ± 1.65 kg) were fed 1 of 8 experimental diets for 26 d in a CRD design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 0.8 mg ZEA/kg feed and 0, 1, 2, and 5 g ADC/kg feed). The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined at the end of each experiment. At the conclusion of studies, serum samples were collected and rats and piglets were euthanized to determine visceral organ weights. The diet contaminated with ZEA did not alter the growth of rats and the relative weight of liver and kidneys. However, ZEA increased ( < 0.05) the relative weight of uterus, ovaries, and spleen and decreased ( < 0.05) the serum activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase compared to the control group. Supplementation of ADC in the rat diets counteracted ( < 0.05) the observed toxic effects of ZEA on the uterus and ovaries weight. The diet contaminated with ZEA (0.8 mg/kg feed) increased ( < 0.05) the weight of the uterus and ovaries in piglets but did not modify the serum biochemical variables or the relative weight of other visceral organs. The addition of 5 g ADC/kg to the contaminated feed reduced the toxic effects of ZEA on uterus and ovary weights to that of the control group. Zearalenone (10.5 ?g/kg bile) and ?-zearalenol (5.6 ?g/kg bile) residues were detected in the bile of piglets fed the ZEA treatment. Supplementation of ADC to diets contaminated with ZEA reduced ( = 0.001) ZEA content in bile compared to the ZEA treatments. The results of these experiments indicate that a long-term consumption of ZEA-contaminated diets stimulated growth of the reproductive tract in rats and piglets and the presence of ZEA residue in bile in piglets. These effects may be counteracted by the addition of ADC to the diet. PMID:26020748

  18. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines? 80.1030 Section 80.1030...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners with Individual Toxics Baselines § 80.1030 What are...

  19. Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum).

    PubMed

    Markich, Scott J

    2013-01-15

    There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50)=134 ?g L(-1)U at 20 mg CaCO(3 )L(-1) hardness, increasing to 547 ?g L(-1) U at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K=6.25 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness, decreasing to log K=5.64 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO(2)(2+), UO(2)OH(+), UO(2)(OH)(2)) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) and UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer), and consequently, less U bound to physiologically active cell surface sites. In the absence of a biotic ligand model for U, the results of this study (together with previous work) reinforce the need for a more flexible, hardness-dependent, U guideline for the protection of selected freshwater biota. PMID:23220392

  20. Sulfur and olefin management in the gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Nocca, J.L.; Gialella, R.M. [IFP Enterprises, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Cosyns, J.; Burzynski, J.P. [IFP, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1995-09-01

    As transportation fuel composition is fine-tuned, sulfur and olefin concentration in the gasoline will come under increased scrutiny. This paper presents various options to limit sulfur and olefins with special emphasis on FCC Gasoline Desulfurization and C{sub 5} Skeletal Isomerization. Hydrodesulfurization of the C{sub 6} + FCC gasoline and processing of the FCC C{sub 5} cut in a Tame/Skeletal Isomerization complex is shown to meet the most stringent olefin and sulfur specifications while substantially reducing RVP and increasing refinery based oxygenates production.

  1. Gasoline from alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Morgan; J. P. Warner; S. Yurchak

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing

  2. Gasoline from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

    1981-03-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

  3. Desulfurization of gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1974-01-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install

  4. Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G; Tao, J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.915 How...

  6. The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. O’Gara; Phillip M. Murray; Erik M. Hoyt; Tifany Leigh-Logan; Michael B. Smeaton

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposure on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 24h LC50 for copper exposure, with 100?M Trolox elevating the LC50 by almost seven-fold (from 0.36 to 2.43?M). Copper exposure (0.2?M) for

  7. Evaluation of Mobil OCTGAIN{trademark} technology for the manufacture of reformulated gasoline via LP modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Poddar; K. Chum; R. Ragsdale; T. L. Hilbert; M. S. Sarli

    1995-01-01

    Sulfur and olefins content of gasoline come primarily from the cat-cracked blendstock. Therefore hydrotreating cat cracked naphtha is a straight forward approach to reduce sulfur and olefin contents of gasoline and thereby reduce auto exhaust emission. However, this approach reduces the Octane number of gasoline which requires addition of Octane enhancer like MTBE to meet the stringent requirement of 1990

  8. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  9. Nanotitanium dioxide toxicity in mouse lung is reduced in sanding dust from paint

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known of how the toxicity of nanoparticles is affected by the incorporation in complex matrices. We compared the toxic effects of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle UV-Titan L181 (NanoTiO2), pure or embedded in a paint matrix. We also compared the effects of the same paint with and without NanoTiO2. Methods Mice received a single intratracheal instillation of 18, 54 and 162 ?g of NanoTiO2 or 54, 162 and 486 ?g of the sanding dust from paint with and without NanoTiO2. DNA damage in broncheoalveolar lavage cells and liver, lung inflammation and liver histology were evaluated 1, 3 and 28 days after intratracheal instillation. Printex 90 was included as positive control. Results There was no additive effect of adding NanoTiO2 to paints: Therefore the toxicity of NanoTiO2 was reduced by inclusion into a paint matrix. NanoTiO2 induced inflammation in mice with severity similar to Printex 90. The inflammatory response of NanoTiO2 and Printex 90 correlated with the instilled surface area. None of the materials, except of Printex 90, induced DNA damage in lung lining fluid cells. The highest dose of NanoTiO2 caused DNA damage in hepatic tissue 1 day after intratracheal instillation. Exposure of mice to the dust from paints with and without TiO2 was not associated with hepatic histopathological changes. Exposure to NanoTiO2 or to Printex 90 caused slight histopathological changes in the liver in some of the mice at different time points. Conclusions Pulmonary inflammation and DNA damage and hepatic histopathology were not changed in mice instilled with sanding dust from NanoTiO2 paint compared to paint without NanoTiO2. However, pure NanoTiO2 caused greater inflammation than NanoTiO2 embedded in the paint matrix. PMID:22300483

  10. Reduced toxicity of diuron to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in the presence of black carbon.

    PubMed

    Knauer, Katja; Sobek, Anna; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2007-06-15

    Black carbon (BC) is known to act as supersorbent for many organic contaminants. Its presence in surface waters at a level of a few mg/L, which may occur, e.g., after storm events in urban areas, might result in a reduced bioavailability of many contaminants and thus greatly impact their potential toxicity. Photosynthesis-inhibiting phenyl urea derivatives, such as diuron, are widely used as herbicides and diuron is regularly measured in European freshwater systems. In this study, the toxicity of diuron to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was investigated in the presence of BC in its native and combusted form. As a toxicity endpoint, the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence was determined and used to indicate the bioavailability of diuron. Fifty milligrams native BC/L reduced effects of 5mugdiuron/L on photosynthesis by 10+/-2%, whereas photosynthesis was completely restored in the presence of the same concentration of combusted BC, suggesting a significantly enhanced adsorption of diuron to the BC fraction compared to the organic carbon fraction. Assuming an environmentally realistic concentration of approximately 1.5mg of combusted BC/L, diuron toxicity would be reduced by approximately 20% in surface waters due to the presence of BC. Higher BC concentrations after storm events might reduce the toxicity even further. A calculation of the Freundlich sorption coefficient K(F,BC,tox) via the toxicity endpoint, resulted in a log K(F,BC,tox) of the combusted BC of 5.7, which is comparable to values obtained by classical sorption experiments. This study contributes to a refined risk assessment of micropollutants in surface waters taking into account the presence of potentially relevant sorbents and, consequently, reduced bioavailability. PMID:17482288

  11. Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2007-01-01

    Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

  12. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. Ti = Toxics value of gasoline batch i produced...815(b). (d) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of gasoline is determined...80.45. (1) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of reformulated...

  13. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. Ti = Toxics value of gasoline batch i produced...815(b). (d) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of gasoline is determined...80.45. (1) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of reformulated...

  14. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. Ti = Toxics value of gasoline batch i produced...815(b). (d) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of gasoline is determined...80.45. (1) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of reformulated...

  15. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. Ti = Toxics value of gasoline batch i produced...815(b). (d) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of gasoline is determined...80.45. (1) The toxics value, Ti , of each batch of reformulated...

  16. Amyloid ?-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of ?-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the ?-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of ?-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust ?-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid ?-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-? peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, ?2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, ?-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  17. Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

    2013-03-01

    The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

  18. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of porphyran reduced gold nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Venkatpurwar; Vishal Mali; Subhash Bodhankar; Varsha Pokharkar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a toxicologic profile of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) (surface plasmon resonance at 520?nm and average particle size 14?±?2?nm) synthesized using novel polysaccharide porphyran isolated from marine red algae. The toxicology profile includes in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo sub-acute oral toxicity study (OECD guideline 407) of porphyran-reduced AuNP. In vitro cytotoxicity study of porphyran-reduced AuNP (10,

  19. Plasma amino acids of wether lambs supplemented with novel feed products to reduce locoweed toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweed is a toxic legume that impairs performance and may cause death in grazing livestock. Novel feed and supplement products are needed that counter or minimize the toxic effects of locoweed. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 3 proprietary feed product formulations on plasma amino aci...

  20. Bioalcohols as Alternatives to Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2009-01-01

    Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The four major constituent groups of gasoline are olefins, aromatics, paraffins, and napthenes. The main alternative fuels include alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity for operation gasoline-type vehicles. Ethanol and methanol are biofuels that provide alternatives to gasoline. Bioethanol is

  1. A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine.

    PubMed

    Oskuee, Reza Kazemi; Dosti, Fatemeh; Gholami, Leila; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. PMID:25686952

  2. Gasoline-induced mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.L.; Swanson, B.Z. Jr.; Lutins, N.D.

    1980-02-01

    Gasoline-induced mucositis may become more common because of fuel shortages or increased fuel cost. Dentists should, therefore, consider this oral irritant in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions.

  3. Role of antioxidants and phytochemicals on acrylamide mitigation from food and reducing its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kahkeshani, Niloofar; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, the presence of acrylamide in lots of fried and baked foods raises concerns due to its potential to cause toxicity and cancer in animals and human. Consequently, a number of papers have focused on evaluation of various chemicals in reduction of acrylamide in various food sources, as well as decreasing its related toxicities. In addition, plants are important sources of diverse metabolites demonstrating either possible effectiveness in acrylamide toxicity or reduction of acrylamide content in food sources. In this paper, we have criticized all relevant studies in terms of acrylamide mitigation from food by phytochemicals and antioxidants, and the influence of herbal medicines and phyto-pharmaceuticals on reduction of acrylamide toxicity in both animals and human. PMID:26028700

  4. Gasoline engine choking arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Armes, P.W.

    1987-10-13

    In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

  5. Trigger-responsive, fast-degradable poly(?-amino ester)s for enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaojian; Zheng, Nan; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(?-amino ester)s (PBAEs) represent an important class of cationic gene delivery materials which, however, suffer from uncontrolled DNA release due in part to the slow degradation of their polyester backbone. Additionally, PBAEs with high molecular weight (MW) also show considerable toxicities. In this study, we designed and developed PBAEs with trigger-responsive domains built in polymer backbones that can be rapidly cleaved upon external UV light triggering to promote intracellular DNA release as well as reduce material toxicity. Photo-responsive PBAEs were prepared via polyaddition of (2-nitro-1,3-phenylene)bis(methylene) diacrylate and a bisfunctional amine. The nitrobenzene moiety was placed in each repeating unit of the PBAE to allow fast response to external UV irradiation, and thus the ester linkers were cleaved and the polymers were degraded within several minutes upon UV irradiation. Cationic PBAEs with high MWs were able to mediate effective intracellular gene delivery, while upon UV irradiation post-transfection, enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced material toxicity were observed, which collectively contributed to greatly improved transfection efficiencies in various mammalian cell types tested. This strategy allows precise manipulation of material toxicity and gene release profiles of PBAEs, and thus provides an effective design approach to address critical issues in non-viral gene delivery. PMID:24674461

  6. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract action in scavenging free radicals and reducing mutagenicity and toxicity of cigarette smoke in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang G. Wang; Ya Dai; Dong L. Li; Kuo Y. Ma

    2010-01-01

    In this study, ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) was added to sample cigarettes, including in the filter (0.8 mg\\/cigarette) and\\/or the cut filler (0.8 mg\\/cigarette). The effects of GBE in scavenging free radicals and reducing mutagenicity and toxicity of cigarette smoke in vivo were investigated. Smoke analysis results indicated that GBE eliminated up to 30% of free radicals. Biological experiments,

  7. A new approach to reduce toxicities and to improve bioavailabilities of platinum-containing anti-cancer nanodrugs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Ye, Qing; Lu, Maggie; Lo, Ya-Chin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Wei, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Wang, Shian-Jy; Bain, Daniel J; Ho, Chien

    2015-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) drugs are the most potent and commonly used anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Nanoformulation of Pt drugs has the potential to improve the delivery to tumors and reduce toxic side effects. A major challenge for translating nanodrugs to clinical settings is their rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), hence increasing toxicities on off-target organs and reducing efficacy. We are reporting that an FDA approved parenteral nutrition source, Intralipid 20%, can help this problem. A dichloro (1, 2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum (II)-loaded and hyaluronic acid polymer-coated nanoparticle (DACHPt/HANP) is used in this study. A single dose of Intralipid (2?g/kg, clinical dosage) is administrated [intravenously (i. v.), clinical route] one hour before i.v. injection of DACHPt/HANP. This treatment can significantly reduce the toxicities of DACHPt/HANP in liver, spleen, and, interestingly, kidney. Intralipid can decrease Pt accumulation in the liver, spleen, and kidney by 20.4%, 42.5%, and 31.2% at 24-hr post nanodrug administration, respectively. The bioavailability of DACHPt/HANP increases by 18.7% and 9.4% during the first 5 and 24?hr, respectively. PMID:26039249

  8. A New Approach to Reduce Toxicities and to Improve Bioavailabilities of Platinum-Containing Anti-Cancer Nanodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Ye, Qing; Lu, Maggie; Lo, Ya-Chin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Wei, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Wang, Shian-Jy; Bain, Daniel J.; Ho, Chien

    2015-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) drugs are the most potent and commonly used anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Nanoformulation of Pt drugs has the potential to improve the delivery to tumors and reduce toxic side effects. A major challenge for translating nanodrugs to clinical settings is their rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), hence increasing toxicities on off-target organs and reducing efficacy. We are reporting that an FDA approved parenteral nutrition source, Intralipid 20%, can help this problem. A dichloro (1, 2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum (II)-loaded and hyaluronic acid polymer-coated nanoparticle (DACHPt/HANP) is used in this study. A single dose of Intralipid (2?g/kg, clinical dosage) is administrated [intravenously (i. v.), clinical route] one hour before i.v. injection of DACHPt/HANP. This treatment can significantly reduce the toxicities of DACHPt/HANP in liver, spleen, and, interestingly, kidney. Intralipid can decrease Pt accumulation in the liver, spleen, and kidney by 20.4%, 42.5%, and 31.2% at 24-hr post nanodrug administration, respectively. The bioavailability of DACHPt/HANP increases by 18.7% and 9.4% during the first 5 and 24?hr, respectively. PMID:26039249

  9. Motor gasolines, summer 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. The analytical data for 1583 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0 grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.5 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.0 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  10. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  11. NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins such

    E-print Network

    NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins, warranting fish consumption advisories in all five Great Lakes. In addition, chemicals of emerging concern

  12. Reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for pediatric hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Koichi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Sakashita, Kazuo; Kurata, Takashi; Saito, Shoji; Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Koike, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens often cause severe regimen-related toxicity (RRT). Furthermore, many patients suffer from poor quality of life in accordance with the increase in long-term survivors. We therefore devised a reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning (RTMAC) regimen consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), fludarabine (FLU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) for pediatric hematological malignancies. A retrospective single-center analysis was performed on patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aged ?20 years, who had received an 8-Gy TBI/FLU/CY RTMAC regimen followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Thirty-one patients underwent first allo-HSCT after an RTMAC regimen. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), MDS (n = 4), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1) and acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (n = 2). While 3 patients showed early hematological relapse, the remaining 28 patients achieved engraftments. None of the patients developed grade 4 or 5 toxicities during the study period. The 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival were 80% [95% confidence interval: CI, 61-91%] and 71% [95% CI, 52-84%], respectively. Our RTMAC regimen would be less toxic and offers a high probability of survival for children with hematological malignancies. PMID:25373730

  13. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J E

    1975-01-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  14. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed

    Berger, J E

    1975-04-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  15. Anaerobic biodegradation of gasoline oxygenates in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Yeh; J. T. Novak

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA)-three chemicals used as gasoline additives. The biodegradation under sulfate reducing, methanogenic and denitrifying conditions was measured in static soil and water microcosms using soils of different origin and varying characteristics. The results indicate that TBA was the easiest compound

  16. Gasoline Fuel Blends for Otto Engines and Gasoline Fuel Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Demirbas; A. Sahin-Demirbas

    2010-01-01

    Gasoline is a volatile mixture of flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived chiefly from crude petroleum, which is used principally as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. Methanol and ethanol as alcohol fuels are technically and economically suitable for internal combustion engines. The octane number of gasoline

  17. FCC gasoline desulfurization by pervaporation: Effects of gasoline components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Kong; Ligang Lin; Jinrong Yang; Deqing Shi; Huimin Qu; Kekun Xie; Linying Li

    2007-01-01

    Detailed investigations of the influence of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline components on membrane performance have been rarely conducted. This is related to the fact that gasoline is a complex mixture composed of hundreds of components. It is also necessary to investigate the composition change of gasoline components during membrane treatment, since the research is helpful in analyzing the octane

  18. Strategies to reduce late-stage drug attrition due to mitochondrial toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A Dykens; Lisa D Marroquin; Yvonne Will

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the etiology of drug-induced toxicities and negative side-effect profiles. Early identification of mitochondrial liabilities for new chemical entities is therefore crucial for avoiding late-stage attrition during drug development. Limitations of traditional methods for assessing mitochondrial dysfunction have discouraged routine evaluation of mitochondrial liabilities. To circumvent this bottleneck, a high-throughput screen has been developed that

  19. Abeta Peptide Toxicity is Reduced After Treatments Decreasing Phosphatidylethanolamine Content in Differentiated Neuroblastoma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Cazzaniga; Alessandra Bulbarelli; Elena Lonati; Antonina Orlando; Francesca Re; Maria Gregori; Massimo Masserini

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether the toxicity of oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta1-42) upon differentiated human neuroblastoma\\u000a SH-SY5Y cells, can be affected by changes of membrane lipid composition. An immunostaining technique, using lipids extracted\\u000a from the cells and separated by thin layer chromatography, suggested that Abeta preferentially binds to phosphatidylethanolamine\\u000a (PE), one of the major lipids in the cell extract. For this reason,

  20. Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Michael [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)], E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Dickie, Graeme [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); O'Brien, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Keller, Jacqui; Tpcony, Lee [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during RT. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible if they had disease localized to the primary site and lymph nodes, with high-risk features. RT was delivered to the primary site and lymph nodes to a dose of 50 Gy and weekly carboplatin (area under the curve of 2) was given during RT. This was followed by three cycles of carboplatin and etoposide. A total of 18 patients were entered into the study, and their data were compared with the data from 53 patients entered into the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study. Results: Involved lymph nodes (Stage II) were present in 14 patients (77%). Treatment was completed as planned in 16 patients. The weekly carboplatin dose was delivered in 17 patients, and 15 were able to complete all three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide. Grade 3 and 4 neutrophil toxicity occurred in 7 patients, but no cases of febrile neutropenia developed. Compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 protocol (19 of 53 cases of febrile neutropenia), the reduction in the febrile neutropenia rate (p = 0.003) and decrease in Grade 3 skin toxicity (p = 0.006) were highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that weekly carboplatin at this dosage is a safe way to deliver synchronous chemotherapy during RT for MCC and results in a marked reduction of febrile neutropenia and Grade 3 skin toxicity compared with the three weekly regimen.

  1. Toxicity of nitrite toward mesophilic and thermophilic sulphate-reducing, methanogenic and syntrophic populations in anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Caroline; Colleran, Emer

    2005-02-01

    The various problems associated with treating sulphate-containing wastewaters stem inherently from successful competitive interactions between sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and other bacteria involved in the process, resulting in the formation of H(2)S. Prevention of in-reactor sulphide generation by use of specific SRB inhibitors presents a potential solution. Nitrite has been reported to be a specific inhibitor of SRB but its possible toxicity to syntrophic and methanogenic members of the anaerobic consortium has not been investigated. In batch activity and toxicity tests, under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, nitrite, at concentrations of up to 150 mg L(-1), was found to be ineffective as a specific inhibitor of SRB, and was also shown to have an inhibitory effect on the activity of syntrophic and methane-producing bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic digester sludge samples. PMID:15759145

  2. Improved Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity of Doxorubicin Encapsulated in Sulfatide-Containing Nanoliposome in a Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia; Shigdar, Sarah; Fang, Ding Zhi; Xiang, Dognxi; Wei, Ming Q.; Danks, Andrew; Kong, Lingxue; Li, Lianghong; Qiao, Liang; Duan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    As a glycosphingolipid that can bind to several extracellular matrix proteins, sulfatide has the potential to become an effective targeting agent for tumors overexpressing tenasin-C in their microenvironment. To overcome the dose-limiting toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX), a sulfatide-containing nanoliposome (SCN) encapsulation approach was employed to improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects of free DOX. This study analysed in vitro characteristics of sulfatide-containing nanoliposomal DOX (SCN-DOX) and assessed its cytotoxicity in vitro, as well as biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy, and systemic toxicity in a human glioblastoma U-118MG xenograft model. SCN-DOX was shown to achieve highest drug to lipid ratio (0.5?1) and a remarkable in vitro stability. Moreover, DOX encapsulated in SCN was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention over free DOX in U-118MG cells. This simple two-lipid SCN-DOX nanodrug has favourable pharmacokinetic attributes in terms of prolonged circulation time, reduced volume of distribution and enhanced bioavailability in healthy rats. As a result of the improved biodistribution, an enhanced treatment efficacy of SCN-DOX was found in glioma-bearing mice compared to the free drug. Finally, a reduction in the accumulation of DOX in the drug's principal toxicity organs achieved by SCN-DOX led to the diminished systemic toxicity as evident from the plasma biochemical analyses. Thus, SCN has the potential to be an effective and safer nano-carrier for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors with elevated expression of tenascin-C in their microenvironment. PMID:25072631

  3. Omeprazole, a specific gastric secretion inhibitor on oxynticopeptic cells, reduces gizzard erosion in broiler chicks fed with toxic fish meals.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, J P; Neira, M; Lopez, C; Chiong, M; Ocaranza, M P; Gallardo, R; Rutman, M; Blamey, J; Lavandero, S

    1997-07-01

    The relation between gizzard erosion-black vomit (GE-BV) and gastric secretion is not completely understood. A pharmacological approach to reduce the presence of GE-BV in chicks due to fish meal in diets is also unknown. In this study the use of omeprazole, a H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor, and fish meals of different biotoxicological characteristics, showed that: 1) Omeprazole decreased total gastric acid content, GE scores and severe GE (SGE) cases, in a dose-dependent manner. This reduction was significant at levels higher than 20 mg omeprazole/Kg body weight (BW)/day (p < 0.01). The addition of 50 mg omeprazole/kg BW/day almost completely prevented the incidence of SGE cases and reduced in 50% GE score in chicks (p < 0.01). 2) A significant reduction in specific mortality, near 90%, was also seen with all toxic fish meals when omeprazole (50 mg/Kg BW/day) was added to experimental diets in comparison to control groups. However, no mortality was observed when omeprazole was added to diets containing non-toxic fish meals. 3) In chicks fed with toxic fish meals, addition of different amounts of omeprazole to diets changed the relative weight of proventriculus (p < 0.01) and gizzard (p < 0.05). Maximum effect was obtained with omeprazole concentration higher than 50 mg/Kg BW/day. 4) Omeprazole did not change feed intake in chicks fed with toxic fish meal. However, in some fish meal a reduction on weight gain was observed with the addition of omeprazole. PMID:9297806

  4. Batteries: Lower cost than gasoline?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew Werber; Michael Fischer; Peter V. Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    We compare the lifecycle costs of an electric car to a similar gasoline-powered vehicle under different scenarios of required driving range and cost of gasoline. An electric car is cost competitive for a significant portion of the scenarios: for cars of lower range and for higher gasoline prices. Electric cars with ?150km range are a technologically viable, cost competitive, high

  5. Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups and fed 0%, 12%, 36% ethanol, or 36% ethanol plus folic acid (10 mg folic acid/L) diets. After 5 weeks, chronic consumption of the 36% ethanol diet significantly increased plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) (P < 0.05) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (P < 0.05), triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05), Hcy (P < 0.001), and low density lipoprotein conjugated dienes (CD) (P < 0.05) but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) (P < 0.001). These changes were prevented partially by folic acid supplementation. The 12% ethanol diet had no apparent effect on most parameters. Plasma Hcy concentration was well correlated with plasma ALT (r = 0.612**), AST (r = 0.652*), CD (r = 0.495*), and TRAP (r = -0.486*). The results indicate that moderately elevated Hcy is associated with increased oxidative stress and liver injury in alcohol-fed rats, and suggests that folic acid supplementation appears to attenuate hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption possibly by decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:22259676

  6. Method for determining corrosivity of gasolines containing synthetic components

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, S.R.; Burmistrov, O.A.; Ivleva, O.F.; Vazhnik, E.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is discussed for evaluation of the corrosivity of gasolines containing synthetic components (SCs). The weight loss is determined on a metal plate after holding in contact with fuel in sealed bombs for 6 h at 80/sup 0/C. The test method presented here has been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of various metals and alloys in commercial gasoline and in experimental gasolines containing SCs and the results are shown. The results were confirmed in an evaluation of the corrosivity of gasolines with SCs by means of a potentiometric technique in which polarization curves were taken. The method developed here offers a means for reducing the corrosivity of gasolines with SCs either in pure form or with additives.

  7. Sodium nitroprusside toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster: delayed pupation, reduced adult emergence, and induced oxidative/nitrosative stress in eclosed flies.

    PubMed

    Lozinsky, Oleksandr V; Lushchak, Oleh V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was tested on the Drosophila melanogaster model system. Fly larvae were raised on food supplemented with SNP at concentrations of 0.01-1.5 mM. Food supplementation with SNP caused a developmental delay in flies and reduced adult eclosion. Biochemical analyses such as levels of oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes were carried out on 2-day-old flies emerged from control and SNP-fed larvae. Larval exposure to SNP resulted in lower activities of aconitase and catalase in adult flies relative to the control cohort. However, larval treatment with SNP led to higher carbonyl protein content and higher activities of superoxide dismutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase in flies. Among the parameters tested, aconitase activity and developmental end points may be useful early indicators of toxicity caused by SNP. The study also suggests that the toxicity of SNP may arise not just from its direct effects, but also from its decomposition products such as nitric oxide and iron ions. PMID:22692768

  8. Toxicity of reduced nitrogen in eelgrass (Zostera marina) is highly dependent on shoot density and pH.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, T; Smolders, A J P; Rijkens, B G A; van Nes, E H; van Katwijk, M M; Roelofs, J G M

    2008-12-01

    In sheltered, eutrophicated estuaries, reduced nitrogen (NHx), and pH levels in the water layer can be greatly enhanced. In laboratory experiments, we studied the interactive effects of NHx, pH, and shoot density on the physiology and survival of eelgrass (Zostera marina). We tested long-term tolerance to NHx at pH 8 in a 5-week experiment. Short-term tolerance was tested for two shoot densities at both pH 8 and 9 in a 5-day experiment. At pH 8, eelgrass accumulated nitrogen as free amino acids when exposed to high loads of NHx, but showed no signs of necrosis. Low shoot density treatments became necrotic within days when exposed to NHx at pH 9. Increased NH3 intrusion and carbon limitation seemed to be the cause of this, as intracellular NHx could no longer be assimilated. Remarkably, experiments with high shoot densities at pH 9 showed hardly any necrosis, as the plants seemed to be able to alleviate the toxic effects of high NHx loads through joint NHx uptake. Our results suggest that NHx toxicity can be important in worldwide observed seagrass mass mortalities. We argue that the mitigating effect of high seagrass biomass on NHx toxicity is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to alternative stable states in field conditions. PMID:18813957

  9. Fipronil toxicity in northern bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus: reduced feeding behaviour and sulfone metabolite formation.

    PubMed

    Kitulagodage, Malsha; Isanhart, John; Buttemer, William A; Hooper, Michael J; Astheimer, Lee B

    2011-04-01

    Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide registered for agricultural use in many countries. Avian exposure to fipronil occurs mainly by ingesting contaminated insects or seeds. There is little information regarding the toxicological effects of fipronil in avian species and even less research documenting avian behavioural responses to fipronil ingestion. We examined the effects of a single oral dose of fipronil in northern bobwhite quail, the most fipronil-sensitive species tested to date, in respect to signs of intoxication and the metabolic fate of fipronil. Fipronil-treated birds did not eat or drink following pesticide administration, and as a result lost a significant amount of body mass. Treated birds also appeared withdrawn and did not respond to disturbance within the first hour after treatment. Identifiable signs of fipronil toxicity were not observed until at least 2d after treatment. Chemical analyses indicated a difference between fipronil and fipronil-sulfone residue distribution and bioaccumulation, with significantly higher (30- to 1000-fold) tissue concentrations of the sulfone detected at all time points from 8 to 96 h post-dose in brain, liver and adipose tissues. Tissue sulfone concentrations increased significantly in fipronil-treated birds, peaking at 72 h post-dose. Body mass decreased at all time points in dosed birds. The coincidence of the particular intoxication symptoms with the time course of rise in brain sulfone levels after fipronil dosing gives insight into possible mechanisms of toxicity in this highly sensitive species. PMID:21227481

  10. Glucocorticoids reduce intracellular calcium concentration and protects neurons against glutamate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Holmström, Kira M.; Chetsawang, Banthit; Abramov, Andrey Y.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones which act through the glucocorticoid receptor. They regulate a wide variety of biological processes. Two glucocorticoids, the naturally occurring corticosterone and chemically produced dexamethasone, have been used to investigate the effect of glucocorticoids on Ca2+-signalling in cortical co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes. Dexamethasone and to a lesser degree corticosterone both induced a decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in neurons and astrocytes. The effect of both compounds can be blocked by inhibition of the plasmamembrane ATPase, calmodulin and by application of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, while inhibition of NMDA receptors or the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump had no effect. Glucocorticoid treatment further protects against detrimental calcium signalling and cell death by modulating the delayed calcium deregulation in response to glutamate toxicity. At the concentrations used dexamethasone and corticosterone did not show cell toxicity of their own. Thus, these results indicate that dexamethasone and corticosterone might be used for protection of the cells from calcium overload. PMID:23340218

  11. Geranylgeranylacetone blocks doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity and reduces cancer cell growth and invasion through RHO pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sysa-Shah, Polina; Xu, Yi; Guo, Xin; Pin, Scott; Bedja, Djahida; Bartock, Rachel; Tsao, Allison; Hsieh, Angela; Wolin, Michael S; Moens, An; Raman, Venu; Orita, Hajime; Gabrielson, Kathleen L

    2014-07-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapy for solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, but its use is limited due to cardiotoxicity. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an antiulcer agent used in Japan for 30 years, has no significant adverse effects, and unexpectedly reduces ovarian cancer progression in mice. Because GGA reduces oxidative stress in brain and heart, we hypothesized that GGA would prevent oxidative stress of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity and improve doxorubicin's chemotherapeutic effects. Nude mice implanted with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were studied after chronic treatment with doxorubicin, doxorubicin/GGA, GGA, or saline. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to monitor systolic heart function and xenografts evaluated. Mice were euthanized and cardiac tissue evaluated for reactive oxygen species generation, TUNEL assay, and RHO/ROCK pathway analysis. Tumor metastases were evaluated in lung sections. In vitro studies using Boyden chambers were performed to evaluate GGA effects on RHO pathway activator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced motility and invasion. We found that GGA reduced doxorubicin cardiac toxicity, preserved cardiac function, prevented TUNEL-positive cardiac cell death, and reduced doxorubicin-induced oxidant production in a nitric oxide synthase-dependent and independent manner. GGA also reduced heart doxorubicin-induced ROCK1 cleavage. Remarkably, in xenograft-implanted mice, combined GGA/doxorubicin treatment decreased tumor growth more effectively than doxorubicin treatment alone. As evidence of antitumor effect, GGA inhibited LPA-induced motility and invasion by MDA-MB-231 cells. These anti-invasive effects of GGA were suppressed by geranylgeraniol suggesting GGA inhibits RHO pathway through blocking geranylation. Thus, GGA protects the heart from doxorubicin chemotherapy-induced injury and improves anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in breast cancer. PMID:24737026

  12. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  13. Phytoremediation potential of willow trees for aquifers contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline.

    PubMed

    Corseuil, H X; Moreno, F N

    2001-08-01

    Ethanol-blended gasoline has been used in Brazil for 20 years and, probably, is going to be more widely used in North America due to the MtBE environmental effects on groundwater. The potential impacts caused by the presence of ethanol in UST spills are related to the co-solvency effect and the preferential degradation of ethanol over the BTEX compounds. These interactions may increase the length of dissolved hydrocarbon plumes and the costs associated with site remediation. This study investigates the advantages of phytoremediation to overcome the problems associated with the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminanted with gasoline-ethanol mixtures. Experiments were performed under lab conditions with cuttings of Willow tree (Salix babylonica) cultivated hydroponically. Results showed that the cuttings were able to reduce ethanol and benzene concentrations by more than 99% in less than a week. The uptake of both contaminants was confirmed by blank controls and was significantly related to cuttings transpiration capacity. Sorption onto roots biomass also markedly affected the behavior of contaminants in solution. Experiments to evaluate plants' toxicity to ethanol indicated that plants were only affected when aqueous ethanol concentration reached 2000mgl(-1). Results suggest that phytoremediation can be a good complement to intrinsic remediation in shallow aquifer sites contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline spills. PMID:11471702

  14. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  15. Failure of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion to Reduce Diazinon-induced Acute Toxicity: a Pilot Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Etemad, Leila; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is a synthetic organophosphorus (OPs) insecticide widely used in agricultural and household applications. OPs, particularly DZN, are highly lipid soluble liquids. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to reduce toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. We evaluated the antidote effect of ILE on acute toxicity of DZN. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats weighting 200-250 g were treated orally with dose of 480 mg/ kg of DZN gavaged at the volume of 0.5 mL/kg. Thirty minutes after administration of DZN, two groups were treated by either ILE 10% (ILE10) or normal saline (NS) (16 mL/kg) (NS16) that were infused for the duration of 15 minutes. Another two groups were also treated by either ILE 20% (ILE20) or NS (10 mL/kg: NS10) as above. The changes in body weight, diarrhea score, muscular power, fasciculation, convulsions and mortality rate of the animals were all monitored immediately after infusions and then every 6 h up to 48 h. There was no significant difference in animals mean weight between different groups during the observation period. In addition, during the 48-hour observation we could not find any difference in muscular power and diarrhea score between groups of ILE20-NS10 and ILE10-NS16 in comparison with each other, and neither ILE 10% nor ILE %20 could not reduce mortality rate of animals or increase the survival time of rats. In conclusion, ILE seems to be unable to reverse DZN acute toxicity and it might be due to conversion of DZN to potent and less lipid soluble agent. PMID:24523769

  16. Reduced toxicity, myeloablative conditioning with BU, fludarabine, alemtuzumab and SCT from sibling donors in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M; Jin, Z; Baker, C; Geyer, M B; Radhakrishnan, K; Morris, E; Satwani, P; George, D; Garvin, J; Del Toro, G; Zuckerman, W; Lee, M T; Licursi, M; Hawks, R; Smilow, E; Baxter-Lowe, L A; Schwartz, J; Cairo, M S

    2014-07-01

    BU and CY (BU/CY; 200?mg/kg) before HLA-matched sibling allo-SCT in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with ~85% EFS but is limited by the acute and late effects of BU/CY myeloablative conditioning. Alternatives include reduced toxicity but more immunosuppressive conditioning. We investigated in a prospective single institutional study, the safety and efficacy of a reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen of BU 12.8-16?mg/kg, fludarabine 180?mg/m(2), alemtuzumab 54?mg/m(2) (BFA) before HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation in pediatric recipients with symptomatic SCD. Eighteen patients, median age 8.9 years (2.3-20.2), M/F 15/3, 15 sibling BM and 3 sibling cord blood (CB) were transplanted. Mean whole blood and erythroid donor chimerism was 91% and 88%, at days +100 and +365, respectively. Probability of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 17%. Two-year EFS and OS were both 100%. Neurological, pulmonary and cardiovascular function were stable or improved at 2 years. BFA RTC and HLA-matched sibling BM and CB allo-SCT in pediatric recipients result in excellent EFS, long-term donor chimerism, low incidence of GVHD and stable/improved organ function. PMID:24797180

  17. Reduced Digestive Vacuolar Accumulation of Chloroquine is Not Linked to Resistance to Chloroquine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Mynthia; Paguio, Michelle F.; Xie, Changan; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) accumulation studies in live malaria parasites are typically done at low nM [CQ], and definition of CQ resistance (CQR) has been via growth inhibition assays vs low dose CQ (i.e. via IC50 ratios). These data have led to the near universally accepted idea that reduced parasite CQ accumulation is the underlying basis of CQR. Surprisingly, when quantifying CQR via cytocidal CQ activity and examining CQ accumulation at medically relevant LD50 doses, we find reduced CQ accumulation is not the underlying cause of CQR. PMID:19883122

  18. High-calcium flue gas desulfurization products reduce aluminum toxicity in an Appalachian soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell, R.R.; Ritchey, K.D. [USDA-ARS, Beaver, WV (United States)

    1996-11-01

    An acid Appalachian soil was amended with two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, one consisting of wallboard-quality gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}) and the other containing CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O as a major component. Soil columns treated with FGD by-products were leached with deionized H{sub 2}O under unsaturated conditions. Aluminum amounts leached increased 25-fold over the control when CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O FGD by-product was incorporated into the soil. Leachate pH decreased with FGD product treatment, but bulk soil pH increased, and exchangeable Al and total soil acidity decreased. Mean 4-d root lengths of sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seedlings grown in the leached soils were as much as 440 and 310% the value of the control for CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O and CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O treatments, respectively. Mechanisms by which mitigation of Al toxicity occurs with addition of high-Ca FGD by-products to acid soils are discussed. 48 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Carcinogenic potential of gasoline and diesel engine oils.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Plutnick, R T

    1989-10-01

    Used gasoline engine oils are carcinogenic in mouse skin and mutagenic in Salmonella. The toxicity of fresh gasoline engine oils and that of fresh and used diesel engine oils are less well defined. The present studies examined the dermal carcinogenic potential of a series of fresh and used oils from both gasoline and diesel engines. The used oils represented a variety of operating conditions. The objective of the study was to assess the potential carcinogenic hazards associated with exposure to these materials. The majority of the used gasoline engine oils tested were carcinogenic although one oil, collected after a relatively short drainage interval, was inactive in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. Additionally, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were elevated in the used oils in comparison to the fresh oils. The fresh gasoline engine oils and both the fresh and used diesel engine oil samples were noncarcinogenic, and there was little evidence of elevated PAH levels in the used diesel engine oils. The carcinogenic potency of used oils from gasoline engines was related to drainage interval, but other factors such as contribution of the fuel due to blowby and driving cycle may also have been important. The used diesel engine oils were not carcinogenic even after extended use. PMID:2612787

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects mice from endotoxin toxicity and reduces tumor necrosis factor production.

    PubMed Central

    Danenberg, H D; Alpert, G; Lustig, S; Ben-Nathan, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated an immunomodulating activity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) different from that described for glucocorticoids. The present study was designed to test DHEA's activity in endotoxic shock and to investigate its effect on endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Mortality of CD-1 mice exposed to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 800 micrograms per mouse) was reduced from 95 to 24% by treatment with a single dose of DHEA, given 5 min before LPS. LPS administration resulted in high levels of TNF, a response that was significantly blocked by DHEA, both in vivo and in vitro. DHEA treatment also reduced LPS-induced increments in serum corticosterone levels, a parameter considered not to be mediated by TNF. In another experimental model, mice sensitized with D-galactosamine, followed by administration of recombinant human TNF, were subjected to 89% mortality rate, which was reduced to 55% in DHEA-treated mice. These data show that DHEA protects mice from endotoxin lethality. The protective effect is probably mediated by reduction of TNF production as well as by effecting both TNF-induced and non-TNF-induced phenomena. PMID:1444309

  1. Gasoline: No end in sight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cook

    1995-01-01

    In early 1989, ARCO launched the world`s first reformulated gasoline: EC-1 Regular. The decisions made by the company prior to the production of EC-1 are reviewed. Gasoline is the primary transportation fuel in America. Nearly 98% of the 190 million vehicles in this country run on gasoline or diesel fuel. EC-1 Regular was designed for use in old cars without

  2. Photoimmunotherapy and irradiance modulation reduce chemotherapy cycles and toxicity in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis: perspective and results

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Imran; Dinh, Tri A.; Yu, Weiping; Chang, Yuchiao; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-01-01

    Significant toxicities from multiple cycles of chemotherapy often cause delays or early termination of treatment, leading to poor outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. Complementary modalities that potentiate the efficacy of traditional agents with fewer cycles and less toxicity are needed. Photodynamic therapy is a mechanistically-distinct modality that synergizes with chemo and biologic agents. A combination regimen with a clinically relevant chemotherapy cocktail (cisplatin + paclitaxel) and anti-EGFR targeted photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is evaluated in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis. Mice received either 1 or 2 chemotherapy cycles followed by PIT with a chlorine6-Erbitux photoimmunoconjugate and 25 J/cm2 light. PIT + 1 cycle of chemotherapy significantly reduced tumor burden, comparable to multiple chemotherapy cycles. Relative to 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the addition of PIT did not cause significant mouse weight loss, whereas 2 cycles of chemotherapy led to a significant reduction in weight. Irradiance-dependence on PIT efficacy was a function of the conjugation chemistry, providing an additional variable for optimization of PIT outcome. PMID:23626376

  3. 40 CFR 80.990 - What are the toxics reporting requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What are the toxics reporting requirements? 80.990...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.990 What are the toxics reporting requirements?...

  4. Animal model for the study of methanol toxicity: Comparison of folate-reduced rat responses with published monkey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.W.; Garner, C.D.; Terzo, T.S. (General Motors North American Operations, Warren, MI (United States))

    1994-01-01

    We attempted to develop a rodent model that exhibits characteristics of human methanol toxicities such as acidosis and visual dysfunction, which are correlated with an accumulation of formate, a toxic metabolite of methanol. Initially three groups of Long-Evans rats with different levels of liver folate were prepared and examined for formate accumulation after methanol administration (3.5 g/kg). The folate-reduced (FR) rats prepared by feeding a folate-deficient diet with 1% succinylsulfathiazole yielded blood formate levels equivalent to those found in methanol-intoxicated humans and developed signs of the visual system toxicity (a manuscript on the latter aspect is in preparation). Responses of FR rats to a variety of methanol exposure scenarios were then investigated, and the results were compared with those reported in the literature for monkeys. Formate accumulation and/or lethality were used as toxic parameters for this comparative evaluation. In FR rats dosed orally with 3 g/kg, the blood formate concentration was 9.2 mmol/L at 24 h postadministration and increased to 15.6 mmol/L at 48 h. The same dose given to monkeys yielded a plateau of 7.4 mmol/L at 12 h after methanol administration, and stayed at this level for an additional 12 h. After a 6-h exposure to 1200 ppm and 2000 ppm methanol, the blood formate concentrations in FR rats were increased by 370% and 636% above the endogenous level, respectively. However, blood formate did not accumulate above the endogenous level when monkeys were exposed to methanol up to 2000 ppm for 6 h. Under acute inhalation exposure conditions, FR rats exposed to 3000 ppm methanol, 20 h/d, could not survive more than 4 d. Moreover, monkeys survived for more than 4 d even after an exposure to 10,000 ppm. Thus, these results indicate that FR rats are more sensitive to methanol challenges than monkeys, and suggest that the FR rat could be a congruous animal model for evaluating the health effects of methanol in humans.

  5. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part I. Carcinogenicity of motor fuels: gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. (UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Community Medicine, Piscataway (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Studies in humans and animals have shown that gasoline contains a number of cancer-causing and toxic chemicals such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, isoparaffins, methyltert-butylether, and others. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in its Monograph Supplement 7 (1987) concludes that in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard agents for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals as if they present a carcinogenic risk to humans.' Epidemiological studies in humans provide important evidence of potential increased risk of leukemia, lymphatic tissue cancers, cancers of the brain, liver, and other organs and tissues. Recently (July, 1990) the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH) recommended that the TLV-TWA for benzene be reduced from 1 ppm to 0.1 ppm (ACGIH, 1990). The Collegium Ramazzini and others have also recommended that the exposure level for 1,3-Butadiene be reduced from 1,000 ppm to below 0.2 ppm. This recommendation is based on the findings that were presented at the Symposium on Toxicology, Carcinogenesis, and Human Health Aspects of 1,3-Butadiene (Environ. Health Perspec., 1990). Thus, studies on health effects resulting from very low levels of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and other cancer-causing chemicals--components of gasoline--necessitate that all avoidable exposure to gasoline or gasoline vapors be avoided.

  6. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 – 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis.

  7. A Single Mutation in the Non-Amyloidogenic Region of IAPP (Amylin) Greatly Reduces Toxicity†

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Hartman, Kevin; Reid, Kendra R.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2009-01-01

    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin) is a 37-residue peptide secreted with insulin by beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The aggregation of the peptide into either amyloid fibers or small soluble oligomers has been implicated in the death of beta-cells during type 2 diabetes through disruption of the cellular membrane. The actual form of the peptide responsible for beta-cell death has been a subject of controversy. Previous research has indicated that the N-terminal region of the peptide (residues 1-19) is primarily responsible for the membrane disrupting effect of the hIAPP peptide and induces membrane disruption to a similar extent as the full-length peptide without forming amyloid fibers when bound to the membrane. The rat version of the peptide, which is both non-cytotoxic and non-amyloidogenic, differs from the human peptide by only one amino acid residue: Arg18 in the rat version while His18 in the human version. To elucidate the effect of this difference, we have measured in this study the effects of the rat and human versions of IAPP1-19 on islet cells and model membranes. Fluorescence microscopy shows a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels of islet cells after the addition of hIAPP1-19 indicating disruption of the cellular membrane, while the rat version of the IAPP1-19 peptide is significantly less effective. Circular dichroism experiments and dye leakage assays on model liposomes show rIAPP1-19 is deficient in binding to and disrupting lipid membranes at low but not at high peptide to lipid ratios, indicating that the ability of rIAPP1-19 to form small aggregates necessary for membrane binding and disruption is significantly less than hIAPP1-19. At pH 6.0, where H18 is likely to be protonated, hIAPP1-19 resembles rIAPP1-19 in its ability to cause membrane disruption. Differential scanning calorimetry suggests a different mode of binding to the membrane for rIAPP1-19 compared to hIAPP1-19. Human IAPP1-19 has a minimal effect on the phase transition of lipid vesicles, suggesting a membrane orientation of the peptide in which the mobility of the acyl chains of the membrane is relatively unaffected. Rat IAPP1-19, however, has a strong effect on the phase transition of lipid vesicles at low concentrations suggesting the peptide does not easily insert into the membrane after binding to the surface. Our results indicate the modulation of the peptide orientation in the membrane by His18 plays a key role in the toxicity of non-amyloidogenic forms of hIAPP. PMID:18989933

  8. Antiprion drugs 6-aminophenanthridine and guanabenz reduce PABPN1 toxicity and aggregation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Barbezier, Nicolas; Chartier, Aymeric; Bidet, Yannick; Buttstedt, Anja; Voisset, Cécile; Galons, Hervé; Blondel, Marc; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Simonelig, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset syndrome characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles. OPMD is caused by extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Insoluble nuclear inclusions form in diseased muscles. We have generated a Drosophila model of OPMD that recapitulates the features of the disorder. Here, we show that the antiprion drugs 6-aminophenanthridine (6AP) and guanabenz acetate (GA), which prevent formation of amyloid fibers by prion proteins in cell models, alleviate OPMD phenotypes in Drosophila, including muscle degeneration and nuclear inclusion formation. The large ribosomal RNA and its activity in protein folding were recently identified as a specific cellular target of 6AP and GA. We show that deletions of the ribosomal DNA locus reduce OPMD phenotypes and act synergistically with sub-effective doses of 6AP. In a complementary approach, we demonstrate that ribosomal RNA accelerates in vitro fibril formation of PABPN1 N-terminal domain. These results reveal the conserved role of ribosomal RNA in different protein aggregation disorders and identify 6AP and GA as general anti-aggregation molecules. PMID:21204267

  9. Molecular mechanisms of reduced nerve toxicity by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the phoxim-exposed brain of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Wang, Binbin; Li, Fanchi; Ma, Lie; Ni, Min; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Bombyx mori (B. mori), silkworm, is one of the most important economic insects in the world, while phoxim, an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, impact its economic benefits seriously. Phoxim exposure can damage the brain, fatbody, midgut and haemolymph of B. mori. However the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates in phoxim-exposed B. mori can be improved by Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). In this study, we explored whether TiO2 NPs treatment can reduce the phoxim-induced brain damage of the 5th larval instar of B. mori. We observed that TiO2 NPs pretreatments significantly reduced the mortality of phoxim-exposed larva and relieved severe brain damage and oxidative stress under phoxim exposure in the brain. The treatments also relieved the phoxim-induced increases in the contents of acetylcholine (Ach), glutamate (Glu) and nitric oxide (NO) and the phoxim-induced decreases in the contents of norepinephrine (NE), Dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and reduced the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities and the activation of total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) in the brain. Furthermore, digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis and real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assay revealed that TiO2 NPs pretreatment inhibited the up-regulated expression of ace1, cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bm109 and down-regulated expression of BmIap caused by phoxim; these genes are involved in nerve conduction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. TiO2 NPs pretreatment also inhibited the down-regulated expression of H+ transporting ATP synthase and vacuolar ATP synthase under phoxim exposure, which are involved in ion transport and energy metabolism. These results indicate that TiO2 NPs pretreatment reduced the phoxim-induced nerve toxicity in the brain of B. mori. PMID:24971466

  10. Data on Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  11. Desulfurization of Gasoline by Pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debarati Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide concerns over the environment have stimulated increasing interest both in academic and industry for the deep desulfurization of gasoline. Due to some inherent disadvantages associated with the conventional hydrodesulfurization, several non-conventional techniques are being tried by researchers. Pervaporation is such a recently developed technology for gasoline desulfurization. Its efficiency has attracted worldwide attention. Compared with conventional sulfur removal technology

  12. HACE1 reduces oxidative stress and mutant Huntingtin toxicity by promoting the NRF2 response

    PubMed Central

    Rotblat, Barak; Southwell, Amber L.; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E.; Skotte, Niels H.; Metzler, Martina; Franciosi, Sonia; Leprivier, Gabriel; Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; Barokas, Adi; Deng, Yu; Tang, Tiffany; Mathers, Joan; Cetinbas, Naniye; Daugaard, Mads; Kwok, Brian; Li, Liheng; Carnie, Christopher J.; Fink, Dieter; Nitsch, Roberto; Galpin, Jason D.; Ahern, Christopher A.; Melino, Gerry; Penninger, Josef M.; Hayden, Michael R.; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in late onset diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington disease. Therefore, uncovering regulators of the antioxidant stress responses is important for understanding the course of these diseases. Indeed, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidative stress response, is deregulated in both cancer and neurodegeneration. Similar to NRF2, the tumor suppressor Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain and Ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin–protein ligase 1 (HACE1) plays a protective role against stress-induced tumorigenesis in mice, but its roles in the antioxidative stress response or its involvement in neurodegeneration have not been investigated. To this end we examined Hace1 WT and KO mice and found that Hace1 KO animals exhibited increased oxidative stress in brain and that the antioxidative stress response was impaired. Moreover, HACE1 was found to be essential for optimal NRF2 activation in cells challenged with oxidative stress, as HACE1 depletion resulted in reduced NRF2 activity, stability, and protein synthesis, leading to lower tolerance against oxidative stress triggers. Strikingly, we found a reduction of HACE1 levels in the striatum of Huntington disease patients, implicating HACE1 in the pathology of Huntington disease. Moreover, ectopic expression of HACE1 in striatal neuronal progenitor cells provided protection against mutant Huntingtin-induced redox imbalance and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, by augmenting NRF2 functions. These findings reveal that the tumor suppressor HACE1 plays a role in the NRF2 antioxidative stress response pathway and in neurodegeneration. PMID:24516159

  13. Does the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles reduce copper toxicity? A factorial approach with the benthic amphipod Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Zubrod, Jochen P; Feckler, Alexander; Merkel, Tobias; Lüderwald, Simon; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2015-08-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) may adsorb co-occurring chemical stressors, such as copper (Cu). This interaction has the potential to reduce the concentration of dissolved Cu due to surface binding to the nanoparticles. The subsequent sedimentation of nano-TiO2 agglomerates may increase the exposure of benthic species towards the associated Cu. This scenario was assessed by employing the amphipod Gammarus fossarum as model species and taking advantage of a 2×2-factorial design investigating absence and presence of 2mg nano-TiO2/L and 40?g Cu/L (n=45; t=24d) in darkness, respectively. Nano-TiO2 alone did not affect mortality and leaf consumption, whereas Cu alone caused high mortality (>70%), reduced leaf consumption (25%) and feces production (30%) relative to the control. In presence of nano-TiO2, Cu-induced toxicity was largely eliminated. However, independent of Cu, nano-TiO2 decreased the gammarids' assimilation and weight. Hence, nano-TiO2 may be applicable as Cu-remediation agent, while its potential long-term effects need further attention. PMID:26037100

  14. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-gallate modulates early events in huntingtin misfolding and reduces toxicity in Huntington's disease models.

    PubMed

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Duennwald, Martin; Markovic, Phoebe; Wacker, Jennifer L; Engemann, Sabine; Roark, Margaret; Legleiter, Justin; Marsh, J Lawrence; Thompson, Leslie M; Lindquist, Susan; Muchowski, Paul J; Wanker, Erich E

    2006-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatments of limited effectiveness are available. Preventing early misfolding steps and thereby aggregation of the polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing protein huntingtin (htt) in neurons of patients may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to postpone the onset and progression of HD. Here, we demonstrate that the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) potently inhibits the aggregation of mutant htt exon 1 protein in a dose-dependent manner. Dot-blot assays and atomic force microscopy studies revealed that EGCG modulates misfolding and oligomerization of mutant htt exon 1 protein in vitro, indicating that it interferes with very early events in the aggregation process. Also, EGCG significantly reduced polyQ-mediated htt protein aggregation and cytotoxicity in an yeast model of HD. When EGCG was fed to transgenic HD flies overexpressing a pathogenic htt exon 1 protein, photoreceptor degeneration and motor function improved. These results indicate that modulators of htt exon 1 misfolding and oligomerization like EGCG are likely to reduce polyQ-mediated toxicity in vivo. Our studies may provide the basis for the development of a novel pharmacotherapy for HD and related polyQ disorders. PMID:16893904

  15. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  16. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit P.; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by AsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, e?ux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (AsIII). SA also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  17. NIRs monitor critical gasoline parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, G.A. (Rosemount Analytical Inc., Orrville, OH (United States))

    1994-02-01

    To meet the Clean Air Act (CAA), US refiners must control blending concentrations for several regulated-gasoline components and maintain minimum octane number ratings. A gasoline blending system's criteria focus on reliability, accuracy and cost. In the process of specifying a blending system, one first identify the pros and cons of knock engines and near-infrared (NIR) analyzers. A better understanding of operating principles can help one find the most cost-effective system for the plant and crude slate. The paper describes a continuous, on-line monitor; on-line gasoline analysis; economics, restrictions, designing for measurement, a new NIR form, and an example AOTF-based NIR analyzer.

  18. A comparison of Reduced Life Expectancy (RLE) model with Haber's Rule to describe effects of exposure time on toxicity.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vibha; Yu, Qiming J; Connell, Des W

    2015-09-01

    The Reduced Life Expectancy (RLE) Model (LC50 = [ln(NLE) - ln(LT50)]/d) has been proposed as an alternative to Haber's Rule. The model is based on a linear relationship between LC50 (Lethal Exposure Concentration) and lnLT50 (Lethal Exposure Time) and uses NLE (Normal Life Expectancy) as a limiting point as well as a long term data point (where d is a constant). The purposes of this paper were to compare the RLE Model with Haber's Rule with available toxicity data and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. When LT50 is relatively short and LC50 is high, Haber's Rule is consistent with the RLE model. But the difference between the two was evident in the situation when LT50 is relatively long and LC50 is low where the RLE model is a marked departure from Haber's Rule. The RLE Model can be used to appropriately evaluate long term effects of exposure. PMID:25898234

  19. Application of an inverse neural network model for the identification of optimal amendment to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils Nour HATTABa,b,c* , Mikael MOTELICA potentially be applied with a high level of success to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Before: Soil contamination, Copper, Amendment optimization, Artificial neural networks (ANN), Inverse modeling

  20. Compost amendment of Cu–Zn minespoil reduces toxic bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and promotes establishment and biomass production of Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan O'Dell; Wendy Silk; Peter Green; Victor Claassen

    2007-01-01

    A series of lab and greenhouse studies were undertaken to understand how Cu and Zn toxicity influences Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.) growth, to what degree an organic amendment (yard waste compost) may reduce Cu and Zn bioavailability in Cu–Zn minespoil and promote plant growth in combination with fertilizer, and how the vertical distribution of compost in the minespoil influences

  1. Manganese in the U.S. gasoline supply.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H; Solomon, G

    1997-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese compound recently approved for use in the United States as a gasoline additive. MMT use is expected to increase. This Commentary analyzes the impact of MMT use on population exposure to manganese, the health effects associated with manganese exposure, and the possibility that MMT use will lead to toxicity in the population. Although MMT use would result in only a small increment in most people's manganese exposure, certain populations will be disproportionately exposed. Although manganese is an essential nutrient at low levels, high-level manganese exposure leads to a characteristic severe nervous system toxicity. Pulmonary toxicity also occurs at high levels of exposure, and developmental toxicity to fetuses is an important concern based on more limited data. Selected subpopulations may be especially susceptible to the toxic effects of manganese. The critical question is whether the additional population exposure to manganese that would result from widespread MMT use would lead to toxic effects. Currently available evidence does not permit firm conclusions. Common sense and prudence therefore dictate that MMT not be used until further data are available and its safety is confirmed. Several measures are recommended to address the impending use of MMT in the U.S. gasoline supply. PMID:8986262

  2. Gasoline sulfur control may be required. Gasoline production and sulfur content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motte

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the comparative costs for reducing the sulfur content of current unleaded gasoline supplies in the U.S. to avoid sulfate pollution in use with three-way exhaust-gas catalysts, indicates that hydrodesulfurization of the fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) feed, which is mainly 316°⁻⁵³⁸sup 0\\/C straight-run gas oil containing 1000-4000 ppm sulfur, would cost a total of $3-$5 billion and would

  3. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose homeostasis). These observations suggest a LOEL of 3000ppm of E85 for vertical activity, LOELs of 9000ppm of E0 and E85 for maternal food consumption, and NOELs of 9000ppm for the other endpoints reported here. The ethanol content of the vapors did not consistently alter the pattern of behavioral, immunological, or physiological responses to the fuel vapors. The concentrations of the vapors used here exceed by 4-6 orders of magnitude typical exposure levels encountered by the public. PMID:25724818

  4. Gasoline blending optimization cuts use of expensive components

    SciTech Connect

    White, J. (Lindsey Oil Refinery Ltd., Humberside (United Kingdom)); Hall, F. (Foxboro Co., MA (United States))

    1992-11-09

    A gasoline blending optimization project has allowed Lindsey Oil Refinery Ltd., Humberside, England, to reduce quality giveaway and maximize use of the cheapest blending components. In June 1989, Lindsey Oil awarded a contract for a gasoline blending optimizer. The contract was part of an offsites modernization project, which also included an upgrade of the tank gauging system, automation of a rail loading facility, and improvement of product movement monitoring. The modernization project was largely justified by anticipated benefit from optimized blend control of the gasoline and gas oil blending operations. The optimization targets included reducing quality giveaway and maximizing the use of the cheapest blend components. Fina Plc. and Total Oil (Great Britain) Ltd., joint owners of Lindsey Oil Refinery, required that there be an acceptable return on investment.

  5. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P < 0.05). The total number and average body weight (BW) of fetuses at 70 DIP, the number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the average BW of piglet at birth, the number of piglets born alive, the born alive litter weight, and born alive piglet BW at farrowing were also decreased by ZEN exposure (P < 0.05). The increased expressions of P53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in the uterus and placenta of sows at 70 DIP, the placenta and fetal uterus at farrowing, and the piglet uterus at weaning (P < 0.05). Adding 1% MHNTs decreased the residue of ZEN in maternal and fetal tissues. The number of fetuses and the average fetus BW at 70 DIP, the total number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the born alive piglet BW at farrowing, the average piglet BW, the litter weaned weight, and the average day gain at weaning were increased by adding 1% MHNTs, compared with the ZEN-treated group (P < 0.05). The MHNTs significantly reduced the damage to the fat in the colostrum and the protein and lactose in the milk induced by the ZEN-contaminated feed (P < 0.05). Modified halloysite nanotubes could be used as adsorbent in the feed to reduce the toxic effects of ZEN. PMID:25528463

  6. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  7. Health effects of gasoline refueling vapors and measured exposures at service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Page, N.P.; Mehlman, M. (Page Associates Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Liquid gasoline is a complex mixture of at least 150 hydrocarbons with about 60-70% alkanes (paraffins), 25-30% aromatics, and 6-9% alkenes. In order to evaluate the potential for health effects from inhaling gasoline vapors, it is essential to understand the major differences in the composition of vapors versus liquid gasoline. The small chain, low carbon-numbered components are more volatile and thus in higher percentages in the vapor phase than the larger and heavier molecules. It is noteworthy that the concentrations of aromatics (the more toxic of the gasoline components), are depleted to about 2% in the vapor phase, with the light paraffins (the less toxic) enriched to about 90%. Actual measurements of vapor exposure at service stations confirm that the vapor composition is primarily to low weight alkanes although benzene is also emitted and represents the chemical of greatest concern. A perceived health concern from inhaling gasoline vapors is the potential for carcinogenicity based on the induction of kidney tumors in male rats and liver tumors in female mice exposed to wholly-vaporized gasoline. However, the results of the animal studies are of questionable relevance for human risk assessment due to the unique mechanism operative only in the male rat and since the exposure was to wholly-vaporized gasoline rather than the gasoline vapor mixture to which humans are exposed. Recent research supports the hypothesis that branched-chain-alkanes bind to a globulin specific to make rats, alpha 2-u-globulin. The protein complex can not be degraded in the usual manner so that protein accumulation occurs in renal cells, leading to cytotoxicity, death, proliferation, and with prolonged exposure, kidney cancer. The results of epidemiology studies fail to link an increase in cancer to exposure to gasoline vapors. 47 references.

  8. Regimen-related toxicity following reduced-intensity stem-cell transplantation (RIST): comparison between Seattle criteria and National Cancer Center Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) version 2.0.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, M; Kami, M; Hori, A; Imataki, O; Hamaki, T; Murashige, N; Kobayashi, K; Kishi, Y; Kojima, R; Kim, S-W; Kusumi, E; Yuji, K; Miyakoshi, S; Mori, S; Tanosaki, R; Taniguchi, S; Takaue, Y

    2004-11-01

    Acute regimen-related toxicity (RRT) is minimal in reduced-intensity stem-cell transplantation (RIST). However, the Seattle RRT grading (Bearman et al), developed in the context of conventional-intensity transplantation, is frequently applied to RIST. We compared the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) version 2.0 with the Seattle criteria after RIST in 86 patients. RRT within 30 days of transplant graded by both sets of criteria were significantly associated with the outcome confirming the predictive value of both the systems. A total of 15 patients died of disease progression, and 12 of transplant-related mortality: RRT (n = 2), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (n = 7), infection (n = 1), and others (n = 2). GVHD-related deaths primarily resulted from infections after steroid treatment (n = 6) and bronchiolitis obliterans (n = 1). This study shows that NCI-CTC is appropriate in toxicity evaluation of RIST, and that its application to RIST enables a toxicity comparison between RIST and other types of cancer treatments. Since GVHD is a significant problem in RIST, modifications are required to evaluate immunological complications following RIST. PMID:15361909

  9. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Neil B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Stein, Nicholas F. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves hematologic toxicity in particular. Although the long-term efficacy of current treatment options remains disappointing, the improved therapeutic index of IMRT may aid in generalizing its use and allowing the addition of novel approaches such as intraperitoneal immunotherapy.

  10. Potential Remobilization of Toxic Anions during Reduction of Arsenated and Chromated Schwertmannite by the Dissimilatory Fe(III)Reducing Bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Regenspurg; Anita Gößner; Stefan Peiffer; Kirsten Küsel

    2002-01-01

    Schwertmannite, an iron(III)-oxyhydroxysulfate formed in acidic mining-impacted stream or lake waters often contaminated with toxic elements like arsenate or chromate, is able to incorporate high amounts of these oxyanions. Detoxification of the water might be achieved if precipitated arsenated or chromated schwertmannite is fixed in the sediment. However, under reduced conditions, reductive dissolution of iron oxides mediated by the activity

  11. Desulphurisation of a gasoline fraction from partially cracked naphtha

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, L.H.; Rotkowski, A.; Sulaiman, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    A substantial desulphurisation of an 80-180/sup 0/C gasoline fraction obtained from a partially, thermally cracked naphtha was possible by the use of a high iron clay. The operation was carried out by the contact of the gasoline vapours with a fixed-bed of the clay in a laboratory assembled quartz tube reactor. It was possible to reduce the sulphur content of the gasoline fraction from 0.3 wt% to 0.03 wt% at a temperature of 600/sup 0/ and a space velocity of 1.0 h/sup -1/. Analysis of the clay samples are given and the results on its role in desulphyrisation may point to some important potentials.

  12. Prediction of the reduced glutathione (GSH) reactivity of dental methacrylate monomers using NMR spectra - Relationship between toxicity and GSH reactivity.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2009-11-01

    It has been established that the toxicity of acrylate and methacrylate monomers is driven by their reactivity towards glutathione (GSH). With this relationship, the objective of this study was to predict the GSH reactivity of dental methacrylate monomers, and hence their toxicity, using the (13)C-NMR chemical shifts of beta-carbon (delta(Cbeta)) and the (1)H-NMR shifts of the protons attached to beta-carbon (delta(Ha), delta(Hb)). The different nucleophiles were chosen to compare the different nucleophilic reactions involving acrylate and methacrylate monomers. In conjunction with the use of literature data for monomer/GSH reactivity, significant linear relationships between GSH reactivity (log K) and delta(Cbeta )or delta(Ha )were observed (p<0.001). As for the oral LD(50 )values of some dental dimethacrylates in mice, they were estimated using linear regression curve fitting of GSH reactivity-toxicity response data. Results revealed an acceptable correlation between the oral LD(50 )values of acrylates and methacrylates and GSH reactivity (p<0.05, outlier: HEMA). In conclusion, the present findings suggested that NMR spectra might be useful for predicting the toxicity of dental methacrylates. PMID:20019424

  13. Copper nanoparticle (CuNP) nanochain arrays with a reduced toxicity response: a biophysical and biochemical outlook on Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Satakshi; Chandra, Sourov; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2015-03-18

    Copper deficiency or toxicity in agricultural soil circumscribes a plant's growth and physiology, hampering photochemical and biochemical networks within the system. So far, copper sulfate (CS) has been used widely despite its toxic effect. To get around this long-standing problem, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized, characterized, and tested on mung bean plants along with commercially available salt CS, to observe morphological abnormalities enforced if any. CuNPs enhanced photosynthetic activity by modulating fluorescence emission, photophosphorylation, electron transport chain (ETC), and carbon assimilatory pathway under controlled laboratory conditions, as revealed from biochemical and biophysical studies on treated isolated mung bean chloroplast. CuNPs at the recommended dose worked better than CS in plants in terms of basic morphology, pigment contents, and antioxidative activities. CuNPs showed elevated nitrogen assimilation compared to CS. At higher doses CS was found to be toxic to the plant system, whereas CuNP did not impart any toxicity to the system including morphological and/or physiological alterations. This newly synthesized polymer-encapsulated CuNPs can be utilized as nutritional amendment to balance the nutritional disparity enforced by copper imbalance. PMID:25686266

  14. Determination of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Tl in gasoline as emulsion by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with analyte addition and isotope dilution calibration techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana D Saint'Pierre; Lúcia F Dias; Sandra M Maia; Adilson J Curtius

    2004-01-01

    The presence of some elements can be undesirable in gasoline, not only by the possibility of damage of the motor parts and poor performance of the fuel, but also because of the pollution caused by the release of toxic metals to the atmosphere by the combustion of the fuel. The gasoline sample preparation as emulsion is an adequate method for

  15. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  17. Determination of a Threshold Dose to Reduce or Eliminate CdTe-Induced Toxicity in L929 Cells by Controlling the Exposure Dose

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaorun; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shanshan; Kong, Lu; Xue, Yuying

    2013-01-01

    With the widespread use of quantum dots (QDs), the likelihood of exposure to quantum dots has increased substantially. The application of quantum dots in numerous biomedical areas requires detailed studies on their toxicity. In this study, we aimed to determine the threshold dose which reduced or eliminated CdTe-induced toxicity in L929 cells by controlling the exposure dose. We established a cellular model of acute exposure to CdTe QDs. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of CdTe QDs (2.2 nm and 3.5 nm) followed by illustrative cytotoxicity analysis. The results showed that low concentrations of CdTe QDs (under 10 µg/mL) promoted cell viability, caused no obvious effect on the rate of cell apoptosis, intracellular calcium levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, while high concentrations significantly inhibited cell viability. In addition, reactive oxygen species in the 10 µg/mL-treated group was significantly reduced compared with the control group. In summary, the cytotoxicity of CdTe QDs on L929 cell is dose-dependent, time-dependent and size-dependent. Low concentrations of CdTe QDs (below 10 µg/mL) may be nontoxic and safe in L929 cells, whereas high concentrations (above 10 µg/mL) may be toxic resulting in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in L929 cells. PMID:23577063

  18. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks and possibly cancers. PMID:12562634

  19. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 ?M), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (?-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (?-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants. PMID:23479061

  20. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  1. Chromium(VI) Reducing Native Microorganisms for Remediation of Chromium Eco-toxicity in Environment of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iftekhar M. Rafiqullah; AMM Maruf Hossain; Mohammad Ilias; M. Mozammel Hoq

    2009-01-01

    Feeds and fertilizer production from tanned skin-cut wastes is the most direct phenomenon of chromi- um eco-toxicity leading to food chain contamination in Bangladesh. Tanning industries of Hazaribagh at Dhaka process some 220 t of hide per day with release of 600-1000 Kg tanned skin-cut waste (SCW) per ton processed hide. The SCW is protein-rich and unscientifically used to produce

  2. Neuroprotective effect of steroidal alkaloids on glutamate-induced toxicity by preserving mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Marcos; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Teixeira, João P; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-03-01

    Several evidences suggest that enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time whether both extracts from tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves and their isolated steroidal alkaloids (tomatine and tomatidine) afford neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Steroidal alkaloids from tomato are well known for their cholinesterases' inhibitory capacity and the results showed that both purified extracts and isolated compounds, at non-toxic concentrations for gastric (AGS), intestinal (Caco-2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells, have the capacity to preserve mitochondria membrane potential and to decrease reactive oxygen species levels of SH-SY5Y glutamate-insulted cells. Moreover, the use of specific antagonists of cholinergic receptors allowed observing that tomatine and tomatidine can interact with nicotinic receptors, specifically with the ?7 type. No effect on muscarinic receptors was noticed. In addition to the selective cholinesterases' inhibition revealed by the compounds/extracts, these results provide novel and important insights into their neuroprotective mechanism. This work also demystifies the applicability of these compounds in therapeutics, by demonstrating that their toxicity was overestimated for long time. PMID:24373792

  3. Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

  4. Toll-like receptor-5 agonist Entolimod broadens the therapeutic window of 5-fluorouracil by reducing its toxicity to normal tissues in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharov, Bojidar M.; Brackett, Craig M.; Veith, Jean M.; Johnson, Christopher P.; Gitlin, Ilya I.; Toshkov, Ilia A.; Gleiberman, Anatoli S.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Burdelya, Lyudmila G.

    2014-01-01

    Myelosuppression and gastrointestinal damage are common side effects of cancer treatment limiting efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. The Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist Entolimod has demonstrated efficacy in mitigating damage to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues caused by radiation. Here, using 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) treated mice as a model of chemotherapy-induced side effects, we demonstrated significant reduction in the severity of 5-FU-induced morbidity and increased survival accompanied by the improved integrity of intestinal tissue and stimulated the restoration of hematopoiesis. Entolimod-stimulated IL-6 production was essential for Entolimod's ability to rescue mice from death caused by doses of 5-FU associated with hematopoietic failure. In contrast, IL-6 induction was not necessary for protection and restoration of drug-damaged gastrointestinal tissue by Entolimod. In a syngeneic mouse CT26 colon adenocarcinoma model, Entolimod reduced the systemic toxicity of 5-FU, but did not reduce its antitumor efficacy indicating that the protective effect of Entolimod was selective for normal, non-tumor, tissues. These results suggest that Entolimod has clinical potential to broaden the therapeutic window of genotoxic anticancer drugs by reducing their associated hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicities. PMID:24583651

  5. Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

  6. Sodium silicate as alternative to liming-reduced aluminium toxicity for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in unstable mixing zones.

    PubMed

    Teien, Hans-Christian; Kroglund, Frode; Atland, Ase; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Salbu, Brit

    2006-04-01

    When acid aluminium (Al) rich water is limed, unstable mixing zones are formed until equilibrium is reached. In such mixing zones transient high molecular mass positively charged Al-species (HMM Al(i)) being extremely gill reactive are produced, causing toxic effects in fish. The transient HMM Al(i)-species are formed due to hydrolysis and polymerization of low molecular positively charged Al-species (LMM Al(i)), e.g. initiated by liming and the subsequent increase in pH. To counteract the toxicity of transient Al polymers in such mixing zones, sodium silicate, forming non-toxic hydroxyaluminosilicate (HAS) complexes, can be used as alternative to liming. In the present work the effect of sodium silicate on polymerization of LMM Al(i) in unstable mixing zones and subsequent gill reactivity and mortality of fish was compared to results obtained from liming. Diluted sodium silicate (<1.5 g l(-1)) and lime slurry (Ca(OH)(2)), respectively, were continually added to acidified Al-rich water in six different channel-tank systems, to obtain mixing zones with pH 5.9, 6.0 and 6.4, respectively. Utilising in situ size and charge fractionation techniques and following the exposure of Atlantic presmolt (Salmo salar L.) kept in cages at defined stations along the channel-tank systems, changes of Al-species in the mixing zones, the gill reactivity of Al-species and thus Al toxicity could be followed downstream the confluences (time of reaction after mixing: 1-100 min). By increasing the pH of the acid water to 6.0 or 6.4 by sodium silicate, the detoxification of Al was faster than using lime. Using sodium silicate, the transformation of LMM Al(i), the formation of HMM Al(i), the Al deposition in fish gills and fish mortality were lower than using lime. The formation of neutral LMM Al-species (Al(o)) was, however, higher and the formation of colloidal Al-species (Al(c)) lower in the presence of silicate compared to lime. Furthermore, the Al deposition in fish gills and fish mortality decreased by increasing concentration of sodium silicate dosed. Thus, sodium silicate is a good alternative to liming, and under certain circumstances when aging of water may represent a problem (e.g. aquaculture) sodium silicate should be the preferred agent. PMID:16225906

  7. Gasoline Price Pass-through

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has extensively studied the relationships between wholesale and retail markets for transportation fuels. This article represents a return to gasoline markets, where EIA first performed this type of analysis and modeling in 1997. The current effort takes advantage of improvements and enhancements to our approach over the intervening years, resulting in more detailed and accurate results.

  8. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ? We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ? We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ? We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin after intravenous anticalin administration. ? We provide clinical data on outcome improvement after anticalin administration.

  9. [98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-02-29

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

  10. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  11. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Before and during the United States' summer driving season, concern over the country's gasoline supply can potentially influence the direction of the petroleum market. There are three causes of concern: a persistent lack of gasoline-producing capacity; a patchwork of as many as 18 different kinds of gasoline specifications; and the introduction of stringent new specifications for reformulated gasoline. However, gasoline

  12. Exogenous sodium nitroprusside and glutathione alleviate copper toxicity by reducing copper uptake and oxidative damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Seraj, Zeba Islam; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) regulate a variety of physiological processes and stress responses; however, their involvement in mitigating Cu toxicity in plants has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the interactive effect of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and GSH on Cu homeostasis and Cu-induced oxidative damage in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 12-day-old seedlings were subjected to 100 ?M CuSO4 alone and in combination with 200 ?M SNP (an NO donor) and 200 ?M GSH. Cu exposure for 48 h resulted in toxicity symptoms such as stunted growth, chlorosis, and rolling in leaves. Cu toxicity was also manifested by a sharp increase in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline (Pro) content, and rapid reductions in biomass, chlorophyll (Chl), and relative water content (RWC). Cu-caused oxidative stress was evident by overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide (O2 (•-)) and H2O2). Ascorbate (AsA) content decreased while GSH and phytochelatin (PC) content increased significantly in Cu-stressed seedlings. Exogenous SNP, GSH, or SNP?+?GSH decreased toxicity symptoms and diminished a Cu-induced increase in LOX activity, O2 (•-), H2O2, MDA, and Pro content. They also counteracted a Cu-induced increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II activities, which paralleled changes in ROS and MDA levels. These seedlings also showed a significant increase in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and AsA and PC content compared with the seedlings stressed with Cu alone. Cu analysis revealed that SNP and GSH restricted the accumulation of Cu in the roots and leaves of Cu-stressed seedlings. Our results suggest that Cu exposure provoked an oxidative burden while reduced Cu uptake and modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems by adding SNP and GSH play an important role in alleviating Cu toxicity. Furthermore, the protective action of GSH and SNP?+?GSH was more efficient than SNP alone. PMID:24752795

  13. Synthesis, identification and in vivo studies of tumor-targeting agent peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer with similar efficacy but reduced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Methods PDOX was synthesized using doxorubicin (DOX) attaching to a CTSB-cleavable dipeptide Ac-Phe-Lys and a para-amino-benzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) spacer. PC model was established by injecting VX2 tumor cells into the gastric sub-mucosa of 40 rabbits, which then were randomized into 4 groups: the Control (n?=?10) without treatment, the HIPEC (n?=?10) receiving cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the PDOX (n?=?10) and the DOX (n?=?10) receiving systemic chemotherapy with PDOX 50.0 mg/kg or DOX 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, after CRS?+?HIPEC. Results The median overall survivals (OS) were 23.0 d (95% CI: 19.9 d - 26.1 d) in the Control, 41.0 d (36.9 d - 45.1 d) in the HIPEC, 65.0 d (44.1 d - 71.9 d) in the PDOX, and 58.0 d (39.6 d - 54.4 d) in the DOX. Compared with the Control, the OS was extended by 70% in the HIPEC (p?toxicities with marked reduction of white blood cells and platelets, as well as cardiac toxicities with significant increases in creatine kinase mb isoenzyme, evident myocardium coagulation necrosis, significant nuclear degeneration, peri-nucleus mitochondria deletion, mitochondria-pyknosis, and abnormal intercalated discs. But these toxicities were not evident in the PDOX. Conclusions PDOX is a newly synthesized tumor-targeting prodrug of DOX. Compared with DOX, PDOX has similar efficacy but reduced hematological and cardiac toxicities in treating rabbit model of gastric PC. PMID:24588871

  14. A new approach to deep desulfurization of gasoline by electrochemically catalytic oxidation and extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenbo Wang; Shujun Wang; Yuanhao Wang; Hongyan Liu; Zhenxin Wang

    2007-01-01

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, a new desulfurization process for gasoline was obtained by means of electrochemically catalytic oxidation and extraction with an electrochemical fluidized-bed reactor. The particle group anode was activated carbon-supported lead dioxide (?-PbO2\\/C). The electrolyte was aqueous NaOH solution, and copper pillar was cathode in the electrochemical reactions. The ?-PbO2\\/C particle group

  15. Hydrodesulfurization and hydroconversion of heavy FCC gasoline on PtPd\\/H-USY zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szabolcs Magyar; Jen? Hancsók; Dénes Kalló

    2005-01-01

    In the search for catalysts suitable for upgrading fractions of FCC gasoline, PtPd\\/USY zeolite was investigated. The objectives of the work were to reduce simultaneously the sulfur, nitrogen and aromatic contents of heavy FCC gasoline having various sulfur (30–203 ppmw) and 28 ppmw nitrogen contents. The process conditions were the following: temperature: 200–300 °C; pressure: 30 bar; liquid hourly space

  16. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose response using different monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senden, R. J.; DeJean, P.; McAuley, K. B.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies.

  17. Selective adsorption toward toxic metal ions results in selective response: electrochemical studies on a polypyrrole/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Xing; Yang, Qing; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2012-02-21

    Highly selective adsorption of a polypyrrole/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite toward Hg(2+) results in electrochemically selective detection of Hg(2+). This interesting finding is of practical utility compared to the biotechniques and surface functionalization-based methods. PMID:22158837

  18. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp inhibitor by a reduction-sensitive liposome to overcome multidrug resistance, enhance anti-tumor efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2014-12-10

    Abstract To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy with high efficiency and safety, a reduction-sensitive liposome (CL-R8-LP), which was co-modified with reduction-sensitive cleavable PEG and octaarginine (R8) to increase the tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and lysosome escape, was applied to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor of verapamil (VER) in this study. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX and VER in the binary-drug loaded CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was about 95 and 70% (w/w), respectively. The uptake efficiencies, the cytotoxicity, and the apoptosis and necrosis-inducing efficiency of CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) were much higher than those of DOX and the other control liposomes in MCF-7/ADR cells or tumor spheroids. Besides, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was proven to be uptaken into MCF-7/ADR cells by clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, followed by efficient lysosomal escape. In vivo, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7/ADR tumor and reduce the toxicity of DOX and VER, which could be ascribed to increased accumulation of drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells and reduced distribution in normal tissues. In summary, the co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and P-gp inhibitors by our reduction-sensitive liposome was a promising approach to overcome MDR, improve anti-tumor effect and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25491241

  19. Biodegradation of gasoline ether oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Ether oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) are added to gasoline to improve fuel combustion and decrease exhaust emissions. Ether oxygenates and their tertiary alcohol metabolites are now an important group of groundwater pollutants. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the microorganisms, enzymes and pathways involved in both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds. This review also aims to illustrate how these microbiological and biochemical studies have guided, and have helped refine, molecular and stable isotope-based analytical approaches that are increasingly being used to detect and quantify biodegradation of these compounds in contaminated environments. PMID:23116604

  20. Prevention of chemically induced urinary bladder cancers by naproxen: protocols to reduce gastric toxicity in humans do not alter preventive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lubet, Ronald A; Scheiman, James M; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M Margaret; Boring, Daniel L; Steele, Vernon E; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2015-04-01

    The COX inhibitors (NSAID/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2-specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present study examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of naproxen. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder-specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/kg body weight/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/kg body weight/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN-treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), naproxen alone or combined with omeprazole-prevented cancers, yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN -: treated rats were administered naproxen: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily naproxen/1week vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily naproxen/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C, and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19%, and 96% of rats (P < 0.01). Short-term naproxen treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols that should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) in clinical prevention trials. PMID:25762530

  1. BEAM-alemtuzumab reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoproliferative diseases: GVHD, toxicity, and survival in 65 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rowena D. Faulkner; Charles Craddock; Jennifer L. Byrne; Prem Mahendra; Andrew P. Haynes; Hugh G. Prentice; Michael Potter; Antonio Pagliuca; Aloysius Ho; Stephen Devereux; Grant McQuaker; Ghulam Mufti; John Liu; Nigel H. Russell

    2003-01-01

    We report the outcomes of reduced-inten- sity allogeneic stem cell transplantation us- ing BEAM-alemtuzumab conditioning (carmustine, etoposide, cytosine arabino- side, melphalan, and alemtuzumab 10 mg\\/d on days 5t o1) in 6 United Kingdom transplant centers. Sixty-five pa- tients with lymphoproliferative diseases underwent sibling (n 57) or matched unrelated donor (n 8) transplantation. Sustained donor engraftment occurred in 60 (97%) of

  2. Compost amendment of Cu-Zn minespoil reduces toxic bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and promotes establishment and biomass production of Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.).

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Ryan; Silk, Wendy; Green, Peter; Claassen, Victor

    2007-07-01

    A series of lab and greenhouse studies were undertaken to understand how Cu and Zn toxicity influences Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.) growth, to what degree an organic amendment (yard waste compost) may reduce Cu and Zn bioavailability in Cu-Zn minespoil and promote plant growth in combination with fertilizer, and how the vertical distribution of compost in the minespoil influences rooting depth. Root Cu and Zn toxicity thresholds were determined to be 1 mgL(-1) and 10 mgL(-1) in solution, respectively. The compost amendment had exceptionally high Cu and Zn binding capacities (0.17 and 0.08 g metal g C(-1), for Cu and Zn, respectively) that were attributed to high compost humic and fulvic acid concentrations. Maximum plant biomass was achieved when minespoil was amended with compost and fertilizer in combination. Fertilizer alone had no effect on plant growth. Mixing compost into the minespoil was essential to promote adequate rooting depth. PMID:17240016

  3. Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). PMID:17629620

  4. Evaluation of Mobil OCTGAIN{trademark} technology for the manufacture of reformulated gasoline via LP modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Poddar, S.K.; Chum, K.; Ragsdale, R. [Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Hilbert, T.L.; Sarli, M.S. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Sulfur and olefins content of gasoline come primarily from the cat-cracked blendstock. Therefore hydrotreating cat cracked naphtha is a straight forward approach to reduce sulfur and olefin contents of gasoline and thereby reduce auto exhaust emission. However, this approach reduces the Octane number of gasoline which requires addition of Octane enhancer like MTBE to meet the stringent requirement of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and to produce Reformulated Gasoline (RFG). The paper examines the economic incentives of an innovative process technology which was developed and commercialized by Mobil known as OCTGAIN. The process utilizes fixed bed low pressure hardware and uses a Mobil proprietary catalyst system to produce catalytically cracked (CC) gasoline component with thorough desulfurization and olefin reduction and practically no loss in Octane number. The economic evaluation of the OCTGAIN technology was conducted with Bechtel`s proprietary linear programming software, Process Industry Modeling System by introducing an OCTGAIN process block to a typical PADD-3 refinery configuration for gasoline production and satisfying RFG specifications. The results of the evaluation which involved twenty case studies, show that within the limitations of the study scope, the introduction of OCTGAIN technology creates a definite economic incentive over conventional hydrofinishing of CC naphtha. The profitability of OCTGAIN technology is dependent on the aromatics component of the gasoline pool. The economic advantage of OCTGAIN technology is realized primarily by higher production of premium gasoline and the ability to process lower cost high sulfur crude. The process also allows a better utilization of the FCCU and hydrocracker, if the refinery operation permits.

  5. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-01-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  6. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  7. Historical Gasoline Composition Data 1976 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  8. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENICITY OF UNLEADED GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the document the likelihood that unleaded gasoline vapors are carcinogenic to humans is evaluated. From carcinogenicity data in animals, an estimate is made of the magnitude of cancer risk a person would experience, under the assumption that gasoline vapors are carcinogenic. A...

  10. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE GASOLINE AND OXYFUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the ubiquity of gasoline for several decades and more recent modifications in fuel formulations to achieve ?cleaner? gasoline, a quantitative comparative assessment of the health risks related to these fuels remains to be performed. Under authority of Clean Air Act secti...

  11. Treatment of Late Stage Disease in a Model of Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fever: T-705 Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity Suggests an Alternative to Ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Brian B.; Smee, Donald F.; Wong, Min-Hui; Hall, Jeffery O.; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Bailey, Kevin W.; Stevens, John R.; Furuta, Yousuke; Morrey, John D.

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of arenaviruses are known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever (HF), a severe and life-threatening syndrome characterized by fever, malaise, and increased vascular permeability. Ribavirin, the only licensed antiviral indicated for the treatment of certain arenaviral HFs, has had mixed success and significant toxicity. Since severe arenaviral infections initially do not present with distinguishing symptoms and are difficult to clinically diagnose at early stages, it is of utmost importance to identify antiviral therapies effective at later stages of infection. We have previously reported that T-705, a substituted pyrazine derivative currently under development as an anti-influenza drug, is highly active in hamsters infected with Pichinde virus when the drug is administered orally early during the course of infection. Here we demonstrate that T-705 offers significant protection against this lethal arenaviral infection in hamsters when treatment is begun after the animals are ill and the day before the animals begin to succumb to disease. Importantly, this coincides with the time when peak viral loads are present in most organs and considerable tissue damage is evident. We also show that T-705 is as effective as, and less toxic than, ribavirin, as infected T-705-treated hamsters on average maintain their weight better and recover more rapidly than animals treated with ribavirin. Further, there was no added benefit to combination therapy with T-705 and ribavirin. Finally, pharmacokinetic data indicate that plasma T-705 levels following oral administration are markedly reduced during the latter stages of disease, and may contribute to the reduced efficacy seen when treatment is withheld until day 7 of infection. Our findings support further pre-clinical development of T-705 for the treatment of severe arenaviral infections. PMID:19008960

  12. Transplantation-related mortality, graft failure, and survival after reduced-toxicity conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 100 consecutive pediatric recipients.

    PubMed

    Satwani, Prakash; Jin, Zhezhen; Duffy, Deirdre; Morris, Erin; Bhatia, Monica; Garvin, James H; George, Diane; Bradley, Mary Brigid; Harrison, Lauren; Petrillo, Kristen; Schwartz, Joseph; Foley, Sandra; Hawks, Ria; Baxter-Lowe, Lee Ann; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2013-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with myeloablative conditioning is associated with a 10%-40% risk of day +100 transplantation-related mortality (TRM). We evaluated the feasibility and safety of reduced-toxicity conditioning and allo-HSCT in 100 consecutive children and adolescent recipients (mean age, 9.2 ± 6.8 years). The mean duration of follow-up was 1278 ± 1042 days. Fifty patients had malignant disease. The median time to neutrophil recovery was 18 days, and the median time to platelet recovery was 43 days. Median donor chimerism in engrafted patients was 98% on day +100 and 98% on day +365. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.1%-27.9%), and that of chronic GVHD was 13.5% (95% CI, 6.6%-20.4%). TRM was 3% (95% CI, 0%-6.4%) by day +100 and 13.6% (95% CI, 6.7%-20.5%) for the entire study period. The incidence of primary graft failure (PGF) was 16% overall, 31.4% after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT), and 0% after allo-HSCT with matched unrelated or matched sibling donors (P < .0001). The incidence of PGF in UCBT recipients was 46.7% (14 of 30) in chemotherapy-naive recipients, versus 9.5% (2 of 21) in non-chemotherapy-naive recipients (P = .019). Five-year event-free survival was 59.5% ± 5%, and 5-year overall survival was 72.9% ± 5%. Only PGF and poor-risk disease status were significantly associated with decreased overall survival (P = .03). Reduced-toxicity conditioning allo-HSCT in pediatric recipients is associated with low TRM; however, chemotherapy-naive UCBT recipients have a significantly higher incidence of PGF. PMID:23253557

  13. The reaction kinetics of gasoline sulfur compounds: Catalytic mechanisms for sulfur reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, R.H.; Gatte, R.R.; Albro, T.G.; Wormsbecher, R.F. [W.R. Grace & Co. Conn, Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    One of the key elements of reformulated gasoline is the reduction of the sulfur compounds produced by fluid catalytic cracking. This paper probes the reaction kinetics of refractory gasoline-range thiophene derivatives (thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene, and alkylthiophenes) in an effort to determine the mechanisms of sulfur compound cracking in the FCC unit. The gasoline-range sulfur compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with an atomic emission detector. The authors` results show that the FCC catalysts affects the cracking of sulfur compounds through both hydrogen transfer and zeolite pore restriction mechanisms. An experimental FCC catalyst is shown to reduce gasoline sulfur content in the Davidson Circulating Riser (DCR{sup TM}) pilot unit. Model compound tests show that the activity of the catalyst is due to both its catalytic and adsorptive properties. Tetrahydrothiophene, which is produced from thiophenes by hydrogen transfer, is completely removed by the experimental catalyst.

  14. ACTH (Acthar Gel) Reduces Toxic SOD1 Protein Linked to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Transgenic Mice: A Novel Observation

    PubMed Central

    Arrat, Hasan; Lukas, Thomas J.; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology and pathology that makes the development of new therapies difficult. ACTH has neurotrophic and myotrophic effects, but has not been tested in an ALS mouse model. The G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS was used to test the ability of this drug to delay ALS-like symptoms. We showed that within a specific dose range, ACTH significantly postponed the disease onset and paralysis in the mouse model. To our surprise and of greater significance is that ACTH significantly reduced the levels of soluble SOD1 in the spinal cord and CNS tissues of G93A-SOD1 treated mice as well as cultured fibroblasts. PMID:25955410

  15. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  16. Stimulation of sigma receptors with afobazole blocks activation of microglia and reduces toxicity caused by amyloid-?25-35.

    PubMed

    Behensky, Adam A; Yasny, Ilya E; Shuster, Alexander M; Seredenin, Sergei B; Petrov, Andrey V; Cuevas, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of senile dementia in the United States. Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) and the effects of this peptide on microglial cells contribute greatly to the etiology of AD. Experiments were carried out to determine whether the pan-selective ?-receptor agonist afobazole can modulate microglial response to the cytotoxic A? fragment, A?25-35. Treatment with afobazole decreased microglial activation in response to A?, as indicated by reduced membrane ruffling and cell migration. The effects of afobazole on A?25-35-evoked migration were concentration dependent and consistent with ?-receptor activation. When afobazole was coapplied with either BD-1047 [N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine dihydrobromide] or rimcazole, which are ?-1- and ?-2-selective antagonists, respectively, the inhibition of A?25-35-induced migration by afobazole was reduced. Prolonged exposure of microglia to A?25-35 resulted in glial cell death that was associated with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and the death protease caspase-3. Coapplication of afobazole with A?25-35 decreased the number of cells expressing both Bax and caspase-3 and resulted in a concomitant enhancement in cell survival. Although afobazole inhibited activation of microglia cells by A?25-35, it preserved normal functional responses in these cells after exposure to the amyloid peptide. Intracellular calcium increases induced by ATP were depressed in microglia after 24-hour exposure to A?25-35. However, coincubation in afobazole returned these responses to near control levels. Therefore, stimulation of ?-1 and ?-2 receptors by afobazole prevents A?25-35 activation of microglia and inhibits A?25-35-associated cytotoxicity, suggesting that afobazole may be useful for AD therapeutics. PMID:24006337

  17. Manganese in gasoline. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Karlan, M S; Khan, M K

    1999-03-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to reduce potential health risks from the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in gasoline. Information for this report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with medical and public health experts. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the public health impact of MMT use. While limited evidence indicates that general-population exposures to manganese from the use of MMT in gasoline are low, more research is needed to determine possible health effects from long-term, low-dose exposures to MMT and its combustion products. Until such data are available, educational and informational strategies should be developed to improve public awareness of the health and environmental issues surrounding MMT use. PMID:10091136

  18. Nanomedicine for therapeutic drug therapy: Approaches to increase the efficacy of drug therapy with nanoemulsion delivery and reduce the toxicity of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambalapally, Swetha Reddy

    The advancement of nanotechnology has paved the way for novel nanoscale materials for use in a wide range of applications. The use of these nanomaterials in biomedicine facilitates the improvement of existing technologies for disease prevention and treatment through diagnostics, tumor detection, drug delivery, medical imaging and vaccine development. Nanotechnology delivery systems for therapeutic uses includes the formulation of nanoparticles in emulsions. These novel delivery systems can improve drug efficacy by their ability to enhance bioavailability, minimize drug side effects, decrease drug toxicity, provide targeted site delivery and increase circulation of the drug in the blood. Additionally, these delivery systems also improve the drug stability and encapsulation efficiency. In the Introduction, this thesis will describe a novel technique for the preparation of nanoemulsions which was utilized in drug delivery and diagnostic applications. This novel Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) method is a solvent and polymer-free and low energy requiring emulsification method, typically utilizing oils stabilized by nonionic surfactants to prepare water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The correlation between the particle size, zeta potential and the emulsion stability is described. The use of this nanoemulsion delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals by utilizing in vitro systems was investigated. Using the PIT method, a self assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) of gamma Tocotrienols (gammaT3), a component of Vitamin E family has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol accumulation in HepG-2 cells. The nanoemulsion is stable and the particle size is around 20 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.065. The effect of the nano gammaT3 on the metabolism of cholesterol, HMG-CoA activity and Apo-B levels were evaluated in an in vitro system utilizing HepG2 cells. A new class of nanoparticles, Quantum dots (QDs) has shown immense potential as novel nanomaterials used as fluorescent labels. They have been studied extensively due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. The study of their applications has led to their use as novel platforms for delivery into living systems for use in medical imaging. The second part of this thesis discusses the toxicity of the various semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe and InP. The results show the toxicity of CdSe and InP QDs in in vitro cultures of whole skin biopsies exposed to similar concentrations. This forms the basis for further studies involving QDs and approaches to reduce the toxicity of these nanoparticles. Finally, ligand exchange mediated Solutol HS-15 modified CdSe QDs were prepared for the first time. The modified CdSe QDs demonstrated long term stability and reduced cytotoxicity. Such behavior is interpreted as arising from decreased aggregation of the QDs due to the incorporation of the surfactant.

  19. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; Dorandeu, Fréderic

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. PMID:22245128

  20. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality. PMID:25982734

  1. Environmental implications on the oxygenation of gasoline with ethanol in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Vera, M; Díaz, L; Guzmán, E; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2001-05-15

    Motor vehicle emission tests were performed on 12 in-use light duty vehicles, made up of the most representative emission control technologies in Mexico City: no catalyst, oxidative catalyst, and three way catalyst. Exhaust regulated (CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons) and toxic (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene) emissions were evaluated for MTBE (5 vol %)- and ethanol (3, 6, and 10 vol %)-gasoline blends. The most significant overall emissions variations derived from the use of 6 vol % ethanol (relative to a 5% MTBE base gasoline) were 16% decrease in CO, 28% reduction in formaldehyde, and 80% increase in acetaldehyde emissions. A 26% reduction in CO emissions from the oldest fleet (< MY 1991, without catalytic converter), which represents about 44% of the in-use light duty vehicles in Mexico city, can be attained when using 6 vol% ethanol-gasoline, without significant variation in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions, when compared with a 5% vol MTBE-gasoline. On the basis of the emissions results, an estimation of the change in the motor vehicle emissions of the metropolitan area of Mexico city was calculated for the year 2010 if ethanol were to be used instead of MTBE, and the outcome was a considerable decrease in all regulated and toxic emissions, despite the growing motor vehicle population. PMID:11393966

  2. Toxic Synovitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Toxic Synovitis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Toxic ... two, and causes no long-term problems. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis (also known as transient synovitis ) ...

  3. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0–t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

  4. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  5. Constitutive Androgen Receptor-Null Mice Are Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Parathion: Association with Reduced Cytochrome P450-Mediated Parathion MetabolismS?

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Linda C.; Hernandez, Juan P.

    2010-01-01

    Constitutive androgen receptor (CAR) is activated by several chemicals and in turn regulates multiple detoxification genes. Our research demonstrates that parathion is one of the most potent, environmentally relevant CAR activators with an EC50 of 1.43 ?M. Therefore, animal studies were conducted to determine whether CAR was activated by parathion in vivo. Surprisingly, CAR-null mice, but not wild-type (WT) mice, showed significant parathion-induced toxicity. However, parathion did not induce Cyp2b expression, suggesting that parathion is not a CAR activator in vivo, presumably because of its short half-life. CAR expression is also associated with the expression of several drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (P450). CAR-null mice demonstrate lower expression of Cyp2b9, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp3a11 primarily, but not exclusively in males. Therefore, we incubated microsomes from untreated WT and CAR-null mice with parathion in the presence of esterase inhibitors to determine whether CAR-null mice show perturbed P450-mediated parathion metabolism compared with that in WT mice. The metabolism of parathion to paraoxon and p-nitrophenol (PNP) was reduced in CAR-null mice with male CAR-null mice showing reduced production of both paraoxon and PNP, and female CAR-null mice showing reduced production of only PNP. Overall, the data indicate that CAR-null mice metabolize parathion slower than WT mice. These results provide a potential mechanism for increased sensitivity of individuals with lower CAR activity such as newborns to parathion and potentially other chemicals due to decreased metabolic capacity. PMID:20573718

  6. Weigh options for meeting future gasoline sulfur specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.E.

    1997-03-01

    The most frequently mentioned methods for reducing pool gasoline sulfur to the 50-ppm range are FCC feed hydrotreating and desulfurization of heavy cat naptha (HCN). Of these, cat feed hydrotreating (CFH) is preferred because of the compelling economics of improved FCC gasoline yield. Also, the additional C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} olefin yield opens up the possibility of additional production of sulfur-free alkylate and oxygenate. In addition to the obvious yield benefits, the ability to upgrade lower quality, higher sulfur stocks for inclusion in the FCC charge slate, while lowering flue gas SO{sub x} emissions, is also advantageous to the refiner. However, depending o the level of FCC feed sulfur and the severity of hydrotreating used, it may not be possible to meet 50-ppm sulfur in the gasoline pool. Two possible solutions to this problem are to use: (1) a very severe cat feed hydrotreating operation (i.e., 98%-plus desulfurization), (2) partial conversion hydrocracking.

  7. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.910 How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? (a)(1) A...

  8. Species profiles and normalized reactivity of volatile organic compounds from gasoline evaporation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; Lü, Sujun; Shao, Min; Lee, Frank S. C.; Yu, Jianzhen

    2013-11-01

    In China, fast increase in passenger cars and gasoline consumption with yet quite limited vapor recovery during gasoline distribution has procured growing concern about gasoline evaporation as an important emission source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly in megacities hard-hit by air quality problems. This study presents VOC species profiles related to major pathways of gasoline evaporative loss in China, including headspace displacement, refueling operations and spillage/leakage. Apart from liquid gasoline and headspace vapors, gasoline vapors emitted when refueling cars in service stations or tank trucks in oil marketing depots were also sampled in situ with vapor recovery units (VRUs) turning on/off. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons accounted for 55-66, 21-35 and 4-8% in refueling vapors, 59-72, 18-28 and 4-10% in headspace vapors and 33-51, 8-15 and 38-48% in liquid gasoline samples, respectively. During refueling with VRUs turning on, total VOCs in vapors were less than one fifth of that with VRUs turning off, and aromatic hydrocarbons had higher weight percentages of about 8% in contrast with that of about 4% during refueling with VRUs turning off. Refueling vapors, especially for that with VRUs turning off, showed a larger fraction of light hydrocarbons including C3-C5 light alkenes when compared to headspace vapors, probably due to splashing and disturbance during filling operation. In refueling or headspace vapors the ratios of i-pentane/benzene, i-pentane/toluene, and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether)/benzene ranged 8.7-57, 2.7-4.8, and 1.9-6.6, respectively; and they are distinctively much higher than those previously reported in vehicle exhausts. Calculated normalized reactivity or ozone formation potential of the gasoline vapors in China ranged 3.3-4.4 g O3 g-1 VOC, about twice that of gasoline headspace vapors reported in USA as a result of larger fractions of alkenes in China's gasoline vapors. The results suggested that reducing VOC emission from gasoline distribution sector would particularly benefit ground-level ozone control in China.

  9. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... purposes for centuries. • Lead was widely used in paint and gasoline in the U.S. until the 1970’s. • ... were built before 1978 are likely to have paint that contains lead. If this paint is disturbed, ...

  10. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  11. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1980 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23, page 229, Standard No. D 439-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered suitable as a denaturant. (For incorporation by reference, see §...

  12. Survey of American (USA) gasolines (2008).

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    The regulations for gasoline's content vary depending on the time of year and physical location within the United States while the refinery and distribution system mixes product batches; this results in variability of content. ASTM E1618 requires both the aromatic and alkane EIP patterns of gasoline to compare with references. A survey was conducted by collecting gasoline from Florida to Oregon, from 85 to 93 octane. Samples were analyzed in accordance with ASTM E1618 in various states of evaporation. The range of differences found in the 90% evaporated alkane EIPs is presented and showed a continuum of response when the n-alkane response was compared with the branched alkane response. Similarly, the ratio of the alkane EIP to the aromatic EIP also showed a continuum of response at the 90% evaporated state. Gasoline samples with unusual characteristics are also discussed. PMID:25288158

  13. Desulfurization mechanism of FCC gasoline: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Zhao; Yan Chen; Jinsen Gao; Yu Chen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the most important developments on the desulfurization mechanism of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) gasoline.\\u000a First, the origin of sulfur compounds in FCC gasoline and the current developed desulfurization approaches and technologies\\u000a are briefly introduced, and then the researches on desulfurization mechanism are summarized from experimental and theoretical\\u000a perspectives. Further researches on the desulfurization mechanism will lay a

  14. Chemical fingerprinting of unevaporated automotive gasoline samples.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2003-06-24

    The comparison of two or more samples of liquid gasoline (petrol) to establish a common origin is a difficult problem in the forensic investigation of arsons and suspicious fires. A total of 35 randomly collected samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and lead replacement), were examined. The high-boiling fraction of the gasoline was targeted with a view to apply the techniques described herein to evaporated gasoline samples in the future.A novel micro solid phase extraction (SPE) technique using activated alumina was developed to isolate the polar compounds and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a 200microl sample of gasoline. Samples were analysed using full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and potential target compounds identified. Samples were then re-analysed directly, without prior treatment, using GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode for target compounds that exhibited variation between gasoline samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the chromatographic data. The first two principal components (PCs) accounted for 91.5% of the variation in the data. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) performed on the PCA results showed that the 35 samples tested could be classified into 32 different groups. PMID:12842350

  15. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  16. Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline. 2. Comparison of unevaporated and evaporated automotive gasoline samples.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2004-02-10

    Analysis of the C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene compounds present in automotive gasoline using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS (SIM)) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate between different samples of gasoline. Phase one of this study explored the ability of this method to differentiate gasoline samples at different levels of evaporation. A total of 35 random samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and lead replacement), were collected in Sydney, Australia and examined. The high-boiling C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene compounds present in the gasoline were used to chemically fingerprint each sample at different levels of evaporation. Samples of 25, 50, 75 and 90% evaporated gasoline (by weight) were generated from the 35 samples of unevaporated gasoline. Analysis of the data by PCA followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that the 35 samples formed 18 unique groups, irrespective of the level of evaporation. Good discrimination between gasoline samples that were collected on the same day was obtained. Phase two of this study examined the change in gasoline samples over time. The C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene composition in 96 samples of gasoline collected from three service stations over a 16-week period was examined using the method described. In most cases, it was found that the C(0)- to C(2)-naphthalene profile changed from week to week, and from station to station. In a comparison of all 96 samples together it was found that the majority could be differentiated from one another. The application of the method to forensic casework is discussed. PMID:15013165

  17. Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    Liederman, D.; Kuo, J.C.W.; Lee, W.; Yurchak, S.

    1982-09-01

    This paper explains that 2 major concerns in the development of the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process are heat removal from the reactor and the formation of durene (1-,2-,4-,5-tetramethylbenzene). Conversion of methanol to gasoline is highly exothermic (about 1510-1740 kJ/kg of methanol converted) and the adiabatic temperature rise would be almost 600C. Within Mobil, 2 types of reactor configurations were adopted for development: an adiabatic fixed-bed and a fluid-bed reactor. The fixed-bed reactor is ready for immediate commercialization and is more suitable for smaller scale operation. The fluid-bed reactor is under development and possesses the following potential advantages over the fixed-bed reactor: reaction heat removal is simplified by using the superior heat transfer characteristics of a fluid bed; when coupled with alkylation, the fluid bed gives a higher gasoline yield than the fixed bed; and constant catalyst activity, gasoline selectivity, and gasoline quality can be maintained with the fluid-bed operation. Fixed-bed is cyclic.

  18. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline. PMID:22432307

  19. Effects of the calcium channel blocker verapamil and sulphydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol on atractyloside toxicity in precision-cut rat renal cortical and liver slices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K Obatomi; R. O Blackburn; P. H Bach

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl-containing agent and verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker as possible cytoprotectants against the atractyloside-induced toxicity were characterized in rat kidney and liver slices in vitro using multiple markers of toxicity. Precision-cut slices (200 ?m thick) were either incubated with atractyloside (2 mm) or initially preincubated with either DTT (5 mm) or VRP (100

  20. Portuguese refiner starts up new gasoline complex

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-03-13

    Petroleos de Portugal S.A. (Petrogal) has started up a new $85 million gasoline complex at its Sines, Portugal, refinery. The complex includes HF alkylation and Hydrisom units. The refinery also has completed an overall $650 million upgrade that includes a new visbreaker and vacuum column. Petrogal says the project has increased gasoline production to about 30,000 b/d. Major units constructed for the overall refinery expansion included: a 35,000 b/sd FCCU; a 26,000 b/sd visbreaker; a 45,000 b/sd vacuum distillation unit; two extractive mercaptan columns; an amylene treater; a sulfur-recovery system; and an 8,000 b/sd alkylation complex. The paper describes the gasoline complex, laboratory, safety, control room operation, and start-up.

  1. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  2. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2) a 98-species version including nitric oxide formation reactions. Development of reduced mechanisms is necessary because the detailed mechanism is computationally prohibitive in three-dimensional CFD and chemical kinetics simulations. Simulations of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS), a GCI strategy, have been performed using CONVERGE with the 96-species reduced mechanism developed in this work for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. Comparison is made to experimental data from the Sandia HCCI/GCI engine at a compression ratio 14:1 at intake pressures of 1 bar and 2 bar. Analysis of the heat release and temperature in the different equivalence ratio regions reveals that sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge occurs in order of increasing equivalence ratio for 1 bar intake pressure and in order of decreasing equivalence ratio for 2 bar intake pressure. Increased low- and intermediate-temperature heat release with increasing equivalence ratio at 2 bar intake pressure compensates for decreased temperatures in higher-equivalence ratio regions due to evaporative cooling from the liquid fuel spray and decreased compression heating from lower values of the ratio of specific heats. The presence of low- and intermediate-temperature heat release at 2 bar intake pressure alters the temperature distribution of the mixture stratification before hot-ignition, promoting the desired sequential auto-ignition. At 1 bar intake pressure, the sequential auto-ignition occurs in the reverse order compared to 2 bar intake pressure and too fast for useful reduction of the maximum pressure rise rate compared to HCCI. Additionally, the premixed portion of the charge auto-ignites before the highest-equivalence ratio regions. Conversely, at 2 bar intake pressure, the premixed portion of the charge auto-ignites last, after the higher-equivalence ratio regions. More importantly, the sequential auto-ignition occurs over a longer time period for 2 bar intake pressure than at 1 bar intake pressure such that a sizable reduction in the maximum pressure rise rate compared to HCCI can be ac

  3. Modeling the impact of ethanol on the persistence of benzene in gasoline-contaminatedgroundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molson, J. W.; Barker, J. F.; Frind, E. O.; Schirmer, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the persistence of benzenein gasoline-contaminated aquifers is simulated using a multicomponent reactivetransport model. The conceptual model includes a residual gasoline sourcewhich is dissolving at the water table into an aquifer containing a limitedamount of dissolved oxygen. The coupled processes include nonaqueous phaseliquid (NAPL) source dissolution, transport of the dissolved components, andcompetitive aerobic biodegradation. Comparisons are made between dissolvedbenzene plumes from a gasoline spill and those from an otherwise equivalentspill containing 10% ethanol (gasohol). Simulations have shown that undersome conditions a 10% ethanol component in gasoline can extend the traveldistance of a benzene plume by up to 150% relative to that from an equivalentethanol-free gasoline spill. The increase occurs because ethanol preferentiallyconsumes oxygen, which reduces the biodegradation rate of benzene. The impactis limited, however, because sufficient oxygen disperses behind the ethanolplume into the slightly retarded benzene plume. A sensitivity analysis fortwo common spill scenarios showed that background oxygen concentrations andbenzene retardation have the most significant influence on ethanol-inducedbenzene persistence. The results are highly relevant in light of the increasinguse of ethanol-enhanced fuels throughout the world and the forthcoming banof methyl tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) in California and its probable replacementby ethanol by the end of 2002.

  4. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level.

  5. Study of health hazards in use of methanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Kasparov, A.A.; Golovkova, N.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.

    1986-07-01

    The hygienic evaluation of mehanol for use as an additive to gasoline was performed under conditions of city driving of automotive vehicles operating on the blends MGB and BM 15-93 (the gasoline base stock had an octane number of 66). The workers handling MGB were examined for personality traits, emotional and volitional state, and anxiety level; also, certain features of psychic activity were evaluated (mental capability, attention, memory). The results show that a situation peceding the start of work with MGB was responsible for most of the freases in subjective indexes characterizing the emotion state, and the mobility and rate of occurence of psychic functions in comparison to background activity. The results indicate the possibility of using MGB to replace leaded and unleaded gasoline, since such replacement will reduce the environmental pollution by fuel combustion products, and the level of air pollution in the workplace will remain low.

  6. Gasoline emissions dominate over diesel in formation of secondary organic aerosol mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; Brock, C. A.; Stark, H.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Hall, K.; Holloway, J. S.; Kuster, W. C.; Perring, A. E.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Szidat, S.; Wagner, N. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zotter, P.; Parrish, D. D.

    2012-03-01

    Although laboratory experiments have shown that organic compounds in both gasoline fuel and diesel engine exhaust can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the fractional contribution from gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions to ambient SOA in urban environments is poorly known. Here we use airborne and ground-based measurements of organic aerosol (OA) in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin, California made during May and June 2010 to assess the amount of SOA formed from diesel emissions. Diesel emissions in the LA Basin vary between weekdays and weekends, with 54% lower diesel emissions on weekends. Despite this difference in source contributions, in air masses with similar degrees of photochemical processing, formation of OA is the same on weekends and weekdays, within the measurement uncertainties. This result indicates that the contribution from diesel emissions to SOA formation is zero within our uncertainties. Therefore, substantial reductions of SOA mass on local to global scales will be achieved by reducing gasoline vehicle emissions.

  7. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

  8. Coproduction of durene and gasoline from synthesis gas and alcohols and separation of durene gasoline mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, P. E.; Yan, T. Y.

    1985-06-18

    Durene is recovered from a mixture rich in durene and containing hydrocarbons boiling in the gasoline range by cooling the mixture to a point where crystallization occurs and separating the crystallized durene. The durene subsequently is washed with a wash fluid. The wash fluid which can be methanol, is returned to a process wherein it is converted to gasoline and durene. The separated mother liquor is added to the gasoline fraction. The original mixture is obtained by the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas and methanol or by other means.

  9. Estimating gasoline demand in Iran using different soft computing techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Assari; A. Ghanbarzadeh; M. A. Behrang; E. Assareh

    2009-01-01

    Present study develops two scenarios to analyse gasoline consumption and makes future projections based on the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA). The gasoline consumption is estimated based on the basic indicators of the population, gross domestic product (GDP), import, export, gasoline production and number of cars figures. Two different exponential and linear estimation models are developed for

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

  12. OCTGAIN[trademark], a new unique gasoline desulfurization process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Sarli; D. L. Fletcher; T. L. Hilbert; G. G. Karsner; S. S. Shih; P. Xayariboun

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 require the reformulation of gasoline. Indeed Reformulated Gasoline, RefGas and RFG have become a part of the lexicon of the refining industry. Experimental data from the Auto\\/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program shows that a reduction in gasoline sulfur content may be one of the best ways to achieve the target reductions

  13. 40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline and conventional gasoline fuel parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...methods: (1) Through December 31, 2015, the sulfur content of gasoline must...80.47. (2) Through December 31, 2015, the sulfur content of butane must be...section. (3) Through December 31, 2015, any refiner or importer may use...

  14. SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

  15. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  16. DISCOUNTS FOR CASH IN RETAIL GASOLINE MARKETING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN M. Barron; MICHAEL E. Staten; JOHN Umbeck

    1992-01-01

    Before introducing cash discounting in retail gasoline markets, major oil companies offered proprietary credit cards as an unpriced service to their customers. This paper analyzes the origins of cash discounting in order to determine why oil companies introduced explicit pricing of the credit service in 1982 only to begin discouraging it by the end of the decade. Sharp increases in

  17. Oxidative desulphurization study of gasoline and kerosene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shakirullah; Waqas Ahmad; Imtiaz Ahmad; M. Ishaq

    2010-01-01

    Desulphurization of gasoline and kerosene was carried out using organic and inorganic oxidants. Among the organic oxidants used were hydrogen peroxide in combination with acetic acid, formic acid, benzoic acid and butyric acid, while inorganic oxidants used included potassium permanganate and sodium perchlorate. The oxidation of each petroleum oil was carried out in two steps; the first step consisted of

  18. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  19. Alternate fuels versus gasoline: A market niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    America travel on oil. Although many other fuels have the capability of moving the nation's cars, trucks, and buses, none have been able to carve out a significant market niche in the United States, notes Deborah Gordon of the Union of Concerned Scientists in Berkeley, California. The inherent advantages of gasoline as a motor fuel are well known: cost, availability,

  20. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  1. Gasoline contributes more than diesel to secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    Gasoline-powered vehicles contribute more to secondary organic aerosol formation than diesel-fueled vehicles do, a new study shows. Organic compounds in gasoline fuel and diesel exhaust can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which negatively affect air quality, visibility, and health and have impacts on climate; however, few studies have investigated the relative contribution of gasoline and diesel to secondary aerosols. Traffic studies have found that the ratio of gasoline-to diesel-powered vehicles changes on weekends. For instance, in the Los Angeles, Calif., area, diesel emissions are about 54% lower on weekends than on weekdays, though gasoline emissions are about the same.

  2. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a medication prescribed to certain heart patients. Digitalis toxicity is a complication of digitalis therapy, or it ... Digitalis toxicity can be caused by high levels of digitalis in the body. It may also be caused by ...

  3. Asbestos Toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be displayed correctly. Information for the Community: Asbestos Toxicity File Formats Help: How do I view different ... updated: April 19, 2007 Content source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR Home Privacy Policy ...

  4. Toxic megacolon

    MedlinePLUS

    Toxic megacolon occurs as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease , and infections of the colon. The term "toxic" means that this complication occurs with infection or ...

  5. The uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methyl tertiary-butyl ether inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor.

    PubMed

    Benson, Janet M; Tibbetts, Brad M; Barr, Edward B

    2003-06-13

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the tissue uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in rats and to determine the effects of coinhalation of the volatile fraction of unleaded gasoline on these parameters. Male F344 rats were exposed nose-only once for 4 h to 4, 40, or 400 ppm 14C-MTBE and to 20 and 200 ppm of the light fraction of unleaded gasoline (LFG) containing 4 and 40 ppm 14C-MTBE, respectively. To evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of LFG on the fate of inhaled MTBE, rats were exposed for 7 consecutive days to 20 and 200 ppm LFG followed on d 8 by exposure to LFG containing 14C-MTBE. Three subgroups of rats were included for evaluation of respiratory parameters, rates and routes of excretion, and tissue distribution and elimination. MTBE and its chief metabolite, tertiary-butyl alcohol, were quantitated in blood and kidney (immediately after exposure), and the major urinary metabolites, 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid and 2-methyl-1,2- propanediol, were identified and quantified in urine. Inhalation of MTBE alone or as a component of LFG had no concentration-dependent effect on respiratory minute volume. The initial body burdens (IBBs) of MTBE equivalents achieved after 4 h of exposure to MTBE did not increase linearly with exposure concentration. MTBE equivalents rapidly distributed to all tissues examined, with the largest percentages distributed to liver. Between 40 and 400 ppm, there was a significant reduction in percentage of the IBB present in the major organs examined, both immediately and 72 h after exposure. At 400 ppm, the elimination rates of MTBE equivalents from tissues changed significantly. Furthermore, at 400 ppm there was a significant decrease in the elimination half-time of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath and a significant increase in the percentage of the IBB of MTBE equivalents eliminated as VOCs in breath. LFG coexposure significantly decreased the percentage of the MTBE equivalent IBBs in tissues and increased rates of elimination of MTBE equivalents. The study results indicate that the uptake and fate of inhaled MTBE are altered upon increasing exposure levels from 4 to 400 ppm, suggesting that toxic effects observed previously upon repeated inhalation of concentrations of 400 ppm or greater may not necessarily be linearly extrapolated to effects that might occur at lower concentrations. Furthermore, coexposure to LFG, whether acute or repeated, decreases tissue burdens of MTBE equivalents and enhances the elimination rate of MTBE and its metabolites, thereby potentially reducing the toxic effects of the MTBE compared to when it is inhaled alone. PMID:12775515

  6. Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

    2006-04-01

    Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine. PMID:17913184

  7. A method of limiting pressure build-up in motorcycle gasoline tanks due to tank deformation in an accident

    SciTech Connect

    Erza, M.A.; Erza, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Most motorcycle accidents are angle collisions, constituting 57% of the multi vehicle accidents. In some of these collisions, the motorcycle gasoline tank is dented, decreasing the internal volume and increasing the internal pressure. If this happens when the gasoline tank is full, or nearly full, the pressure build-up can be quite severe, blowing off the gasoline tank cap and drenching the rider with gasoline. The gasoline ofte ignites, burning the rider severely. This pressure build-up can be reduced considerably by a simple device which traps air in the tank and consists of a short tube inserted in the tank filler hole projecting downwards a short distance. This paper shows how the corresponding pressure reduction can be calculated as a function of tank volume, indentation ratio and length of tube, to enable a designer to make the necessary trade-offs in the design. This device can be easily retrofitted to an existing motorcycle gasoline tank to increase its crash worthiness.

  8. Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

  9. Reduced Toxicity of Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 2c in Mice Compared to Stx2d Is Associated with Instability of Stx2c Holotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Bunger, Joshua C.; Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; Maynard, Ernest L.; O’Brien, Alison D.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is an AB5 ribotoxin made by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). These organisms cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC make two types of Stxs, Stx1 and/or Stx2. Stx2 has one prototype (a) and six subtypes (b–g), but only STEC that make Stx2a, and/or Stx2c, or Stx2d are associated with severe disease. However, Stx2c is about 10-fold less toxic than Stx2d in vivo despite only two amino acid differences in the A subunit at positions 291 and 297. We made mutations at these two sites to create intermediate toxins between Stx2c and Stx2d, and determined the 50% cytotoxic dose on Vero cells before and after heat treatment, and the 50% lethal dose in mice of the toxins. We found that serine 291 was associated with increased toxicity in vivo and that either amino acid change from that in Stx2c to that in Stx2d increased heat stability. We also assessed the secondary structure of Stx2c and Stx2d by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The CD studies suggest that Stx2c has a less-ordered secondary structure than Stx2d. We conclude that both amino acids at positions 291 and 297 in Stx2c contribute to its decreased stability and in vivo toxicity compared to Stx2d. PMID:26110507

  10. Mechanisms of ouabain toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael C. Valente; Luiz S. Capella; Robson Q. Monteiro; Vivian M. Rumjanek; Aníbal G. Lopes; Márcia A. M. Capella

    2003-01-01

    The suggested involvement of ouabain in hypertension raised the need for a better understanding of its cellular action, but the mechanisms of ouabain toxicity are only now being uncovered. In the present study, we show that reduced glutathione (GSH) protected ouabain-sensitive (OS) cells from ouabain-induced toxicity and that the inhibition of GSH synthesis by D,L-buthionine- (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) sensitized ouabain-resistant (OR)

  11. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

  12. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  13. Methanol as a gasoline extender: a critique.

    PubMed

    Wigg, E E

    1974-11-29

    The tests conducted with the three vehicles at different emission control levels suggest that, in the area of fuel economy and emissions, potential benefits with methanol blends are related to carburetion and are only significant in the case of the rich-operating cars built before emission control standards were imposed. Theoretical considerations related to methanol's leaning effect on carburetion support this conclusion. Potential advantages for methanol in these areas are therefore continuously diminishing as the older cars leave the roads. At present, these older cars use only about one-fourth of the totalc motor gasoline consumed and, before methanol could be used on a large scale, this fraction would be much smaller. The use of methanol in gasoline would almost certainly create severe product quality problems. Water contamination could lead to phase separation in the distribution system and possibly in the car tank as well, and this would require additional investment in fuel handling and blending equipment. Excess fuel volatility in hot weather may also have adverse effects on car performance if the methanol blends include typical concentrations of butanes and pentanes. Removal of these light hydrocarbon components would detract from methanol's role as a gasoline extender and if current fuel volatility specifications were maintained, its use could lead to a net loss in the total available energy for use in motor fuels. Car performance problems associated with excessively lean operation would also be expected in the case of a significant proportion of late-model cars which are adjusted to operate on lean fuel-air mixtures. If methanol does become available in large quantities, these factors suggest that it would be more practical to use it for purposes other than those related to the extending of motor gasoline, such as for gas turbines used for electric power generation. In this case, the "pure" methanol would act as a cleanburning fuel, having none of the potentially severe product quality problems associated with its use in motor gasoline, while the fuel oil or natural gas cLirrently burned in these tuLrbines CotLild be diverted to other ulses. PMID:17838586

  14. Production of durene and gasoline from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, P. E.; Yan, T. Y.

    1985-06-18

    Synthesis gas is catalytically converted to a feedstock comprising durene and gasoline. Durene is recovered from the feedstock by cooling it to a point where crystallization occurs and separating the crystallized durene. The durene subsequently is washed with a wash fluid. The wash fluid which can be methanol, is returned to a process wherein it is converted to gasoline and durene. The separated mother liquor is added to the gasoline fraction.

  15. FCC gasoline desulfurization using a ZSM-5 catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisette Jaimes; Miguel Badillo; Hugo de Lasa

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of gasoline hydrocarbon components on thiophene conversion over H-ZSM5 zeolite. Experiments are carried out in a CREC fluidized riser simulator under mild conditions using thiophene\\/hydrocarbon mixtures as representatives of gasoline. Results show a high and selective thiophene conversion, forming H2S, aromatics, alkyl-thiophenes, benzothiophene, and coke. It is also found that gasoline octane number is enhanced

  16. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities...Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities...Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline...

  17. Development of automated methods of identifying toxicants in the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Fort; J. Delphon; C. R. Powers; R. Helems; R. Gonzalez; E. L. Stover

    1995-01-01

    Many NPDES permits today require the development of Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) programs designed to reduce toxicity to acceptable levels when effluent toxicity is detected. The first of two approaches commonly used in the abatement of effluent toxicity is treatment without the specific identification and confirmation of the causative toxicants. The second method involves specific identification and confirmation of the

  18. NEW HAVEN TOXICS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA will be working with the New Haven Department of Health to collect data and create an inventory of toxic air pollutants in the New Haven area. Under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, EPA and cities and states are required to reduce cancer and non-cancer health risks in urb...

  19. Reduced toxicity and superior cellular response of preosteoblasts to Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and comparison with Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Challa, V S A; Mali, S; Misra, R D K

    2013-07-01

    There are serious concerns on the toxicity of vanadium in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In this regard, we describe the biological footprint of Ti-6Al-4V and compare with a viable alternate Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy, in terms of novel experimentation pertaining to cellular activity that include qualitative and quantitative analysis of Feret's diameter of cells, area, and perimeter, and proteins-actin, vinculin, and fibronectin. Interestingly, Ti-6Al-7Nb was characterized by superior cell attachment, proliferation, viability, morphology, and spread, which were significantly different from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Additionally, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated stronger vinculin signals associated with actin stress fibers in the outer regions of the cells and cellular extensions in Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. These striking observations suggest enhanced cell-substrate interaction and activity on the surface of niobium-containing titanium alloy. The significant differences in the cellular response between the two alloys clearly point to the determining role of alloying element (Nb versus V) in a conclusive manner. Based on this study, next generation of titanium alloys is proposed to focus on niobium-containing alloy. PMID:23349101

  20. Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy Efficiency And Automobile Replacement Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizao Liu

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates how gasoline prices influences the average fuel econ- omy of the existing automobile fleet. Higher fuel price affects fleet composi- tion in two ways: immediate purchase decisions of new, more fuel efficient, vehicles and scrappage of old fuel inefficient gas-guzzlers. Gasoline costs ac- count for 65% of the total operating costs of driving an automobile. Rational forward-looking

  1. How Do Gasoline Prices Affect Fleet Fuel Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanjun Li; Christopher Timmins; Roger H. von Haefen

    2009-01-01

    Exploiting a rich dataset of passenger vehicle registrations in 20 US MSAs from 1997 to 2005, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on the automotive fleet's composition. We find that high gasoline prices affect fleet fuel economy through two channels: shifting new auto purchases towards more fuel-efficient vehicles, and speeding the scrappage of older, less fuel-efficient used vehicles. Policy

  2. How Do Gasoline Prices Affect Fleet Fuel Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanjun Li; Roger von Haefen; Christopher Timmins

    2008-01-01

    Exploiting a rich data set of passenger vehicle registrations in twenty U.S. metropolitan statistical areas from 1997 to 2005, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on the automotive fleet's composition. We find that high gasoline prices affect fleet fuel economy through two channels: (1) shifting new auto purchases towards more fuel-efficient vehicles, and (2) speeding the scrappage of older,

  3. Sensor for mixing ratio of gasoline and alcohol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Miyata; Y. Matsubara

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a sensor for mixing ratio of gasoline and alcohol comprising: a transparent column, both ends of which are supported by grips; the surface of the column is posited in direct contact with a mixing liquid of gasoline and alcohol; a light emitting diode disposed so that light beams therefrom are incident on one end of the transparent

  4. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR GASOLINE LOADING OF BARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility, safety, and cost of methods to control the emission of hydrocarbon vapor during the loading of gasoline barges. Approximately 4 lb of hydrocarbons are emitted per 1000 gal. of gasoline loaded; annually about 1 mill...

  5. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CONTROLLED GASOLINE SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of geophysical surveys were conducted over two controlled releases of about 100 gallons each of gasoline. In order to clearly identify the responses associated with the gasoline plume, measurements were made before, during and after the injection. The two experiments we...

  6. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron Smith July 12, 2012 Abstract Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of US gasoline, up from 3% in 2003-level blend mandates, and supported by direct subsidies such as the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit. Some

  7. Detection\\/ estimation of adulteration in gasoline and diesel using ultrasonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Sharma; A. K. Gupta

    2007-01-01

    The exhaust gases from fast increasing number of automobiles is a major source of urban air pollution in third world countries. Adulteration of gasoline and diesel further aggravates the problem. For the prevention of adulteration, monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point, therefore, is essential. In this paper the feasibility of detection\\/estimation of adulteration in gasoline and diesel using

  8. On the hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvette Brunet; Damien Mey; Guy Pérot; Christophe Bouchy; Fabrice Diehl

    2005-01-01

    The possible origins of sulfur impurities in FCC gasoline are reviewed and discussed. Their mechanism of formation during the FCC process as well as their mechanism of transformation on hydrotreating catalysts are also examined.The article focuses on the desulfurization of FCC gasoline by means of catalytic processes considering the fact that deep desulfurization must be achieved (in accordance with new

  9. The Desulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Gasoline by Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shen; Z. Mei; B. Shen; H. Ling

    2011-01-01

    Desulfurization of fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was investigated in a lab scale extractive distillation column. Before the extractive distillation, fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was distillated into light and heavy fractions. Then, the light fraction was desulfurized by extractive distillation using dimethylformamide as the solvent. Factors impacting the desulfurization efficiency of the extractive distillation were studied. Under optimal desulfurization conditions, distillate

  10. Human primordial germ cell formation is diminished by exposure to environmental toxicants acting through the AHR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kee, Kehkooi; Flores, Martha; Cedars, Marcelle I; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2010-09-01

    Historically, effects of environmental toxicants on human development have been deduced via epidemiological studies because direct experimental analysis has not been possible. However, in recent years, the derivation of human pluripotent stem cells has provided a potential experimental system to directly probe human development. Here, we used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to study the effect of environmental toxicants on human germ cell development, with a focus on differentiation of the founding population of primordial germ cells (PGCs), which will go on to form the oocytes of the adult. We demonstrate that human PGC numbers are specifically reduced by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of toxicants common in air pollutants released from gasoline combustion or tobacco smoke. Further, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of PAH exposure are mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and BAX pathway. This study demonstrates the utility of hESCs as a model system for direct examination of the molecular and genetic pathways of environmental toxicants on human germ cell development. PMID:20562217

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  12. A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7?mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. Methods/design This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years) and non-smokers 28–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years, plus minimum 5?years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Discussion Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and give insights into study design for clinical assessment of potential MRTPs. Trial registration The study was registered in the Current Controlled Trials database under the reference ISRCTN81286286. PMID:23895296

  13. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Miche, Hélène; Keller, Catherine

    2012-03-30

    Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha(-1). ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat. PMID:22301080

  14. Toxic Newts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

  15. An Anti-Human Thymocyte Globulin-Based Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen Is Associated with a Higher Quality of Life and Lower Organ Toxicity without Affecting Lymphocyte Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zheng-Ping; Ding, Jia-Hua; Chen, Bao-An; Li, Yu-Feng; Ding, Bang-He; Qian, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Reduced-intensity (RIT) conditioning regimens are gaining increased attention as a result of their advantages and efficacy. However, no data are available regarding whether these regimens improve patient quality of life (QoL). In our study, health-related QoL (HRQoL) was retrospectively assessed in 111 patients with hematological malignancies. Analysis of the Quality of Life Questionnaire indicated that 35 of the RIT patients were able to perform their normal work and returned to their baseline levels of function 2 to 3 months after transplantation. In the myeloablative (MA) group, only 24 patients were able to resume work, and these patients returned to their baseline levels of function 6 to 8 months after transplantation (68.6% vs. 40.0%, P?=?0.004). Grade III–IV organ toxicity occurred in 20% of the RIT patients and in 52% of the MA patients (P?=?0.001), and the cumulative incidences of grades III–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 13.7% and 35.0% in RIT and MA patients, respectively (P?=?0.015). In conclusion, the RIT conditioning regimens were well tolerated by the patients, with a low incidence of transplant-related mortality (TRM) and serious acute GVHD. In addition, these regimens minimized procedure-related toxicity, improved QoL and did not influence lymphocyte reconstitution; however, OS was similar for both regimens because the relapse rate was relatively increased in the RIT groups. PMID:24040055

  16. Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline. Part 3. Comparison of unevaporated automotive gasoline samples from Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2004-02-10

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS (SIM)) method was used to discriminate samples of unevaporated gasoline collected from Auckland, New Zealand and Sydney, Australia. This method was applied to 28 samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and premium plus unleaded), that were collected from service stations in Auckland, New Zealand in summer (February) and winter (August). The 14 samples of summer gasoline collected in New Zealand could be divided into seven unique groups. The 14 samples of winter gasoline from New Zealand could be divided into 14 unique groups. The 14 samples collected in New Zealand during February 2002 were then compared to 24 samples of unevaporated gasoline collected from service stations in Sydney, Australia during the same month. Most of the samples could be differentiated based on their country of origin. PMID:15013167

  17. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

  18. Lead in children's blood is mainly caused by coal-fired ash after phasing out of leaded gasoline in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Zhang, Guilin; Tan, Mingguang; Yan, Chonghuai; Li, Xiaolin; Li, Yulan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    2010-06-15

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic element to the human body. After phasing out of leaded gasoline we find that the blood lead level of children strongly correlates with the lead concentration in atmospheric particles, and the latter correlates with the coal consumption instead of leaded gasoline. Combined with the (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratio measurements, we find that the coal consumption fly ash is a dominate source of Pb exposure to children in Shanghai, rather than vehicle exhaust, metallurgic dust, paint dust, and drinking water. Those particles are absorbed to children's blood via breathing and digesting their deposition on ground by hand-to-mouth activities. Probably the same situation occurs in other large cities of developing countries where the structure of energy supply is mainly based on coal-combustion. PMID:20536267

  19. Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern

    E-print Network

    Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins

  20. OCTGAIN[trademark], a new unique gasoline desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sarli, M.S.; Fletcher, D.L.; Hilbert, T.L.; Karsner, G.G.; Shih, S.S. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Xayariboun, P. (Mobil Oil Corp., Joliet, IL (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 require the reformulation of gasoline. Indeed Reformulated Gasoline, RefGas and RFG have become a part of the lexicon of the refining industry. Experimental data from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program shows that a reduction in gasoline sulfur content may be one of the best ways to achieve the target reductions in automobile emissions. FCC gasoline is the primary contributor to gasoline sulfur content in most refineries. Conventional means of sulfur reduction require the refiner to commit to a large capital investment for FCC feed hydrotreating or sustain a large octane loss if the FCC gasoline is hydrodesulfurized. OCTGAIN[trademark] process technology provides an innovative solution. While it requires only simple fixed bed, low pressure hydrotreater hardware, a proprietary Mobil catalyst system allows for unique reaction chemistry. It provides thorough desulfurization and olefin reduction of cracked gasoline components with no loss in octane. Indeed in some cases the octane of the desulfurized product can exceed that of the feed to the process. The process is commercially proven with over two years operating experience since the first demonstration run.

  1. Ovatodiolide sensitizes aggressive breast cancer cells to doxorubicin, eliminates their cancer stem cell-like phenotype, and reduces doxorubicin-associated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bamodu, Oluwaseun Adebayo; Huang, Wen-Chien; Tzeng, David T W; Wu, Alexander; Wang, Liang Shun; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Chao, Tsu-Yi

    2015-08-10

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is chemotherapy-refractory and associated with poor clinical prognosis. Doxorubicin (Doxo), a class I anthracycline and first-line anticancer agent, effective against a wide spectrum of neoplasms including breast carcinoma, is associated with several cumulative dose-dependent adverse effects, including cardiomyopathy, typhilitis, and acute myelotoxicity. This study evaluated the usability of Ovatodiolide (Ova) in sensitizing TNBC cells to Doxo cytotoxicity, so as to reduce Doxo effective dose and consequently its adverse effects. TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and HS578T were used. Pre-treatment of the TNBC cells with 10 µM Ova 24 h before Doxo administration increased the Doxo anticancer effect (IC50 1.4 µM) compared to simultaneous treatment with Doxo ( IC50 1.8 µM), or Doxo alone (IC50 9.2 µM). Intracellular accumulation of Doxo was lowest in Ova pre-treated cells at all Doxo concentrations, when compared with Doxo or simultaneously treated cells. In comparison to the Doxo-only group, cell cycle analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells treated concurrently with 2.5?µM Ova and 1.25?µM Doxo showed increased percentage of cells arrested at G0/G1; however, pre-treatment with the same concentration of Ova 24?h before Doxo showed greater tumor growth inhibition, with a 2.4-fold increased percentage of cells in G0/G1 arrest, greater Doxo-induced apoptosis, and significantly reduced intracellular Doxo accumulation. Additionally, Ova-sensitized TNBC cells also lost their cancer stem cell-like phenotype evidenced by significant dissolution, necrosis of formed mammospheres. Taken together, these findings indicate that Ova sensitizes TNBC cells to Doxo and potentiates doxorubicin-induced elimination of the TNBC cancer stem cell-like phenotype. PMID:25976769

  2. Cryoprotectant toxicity neutralization.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Gregory M

    2010-07-01

    Cryoprotectant toxicity is a fundamental limiting factor for the successful cryopreservation of living systems by both freezing and vitrification, and the ability to negate it would be attractive. Past attempts to demonstrate "cryoprotectant toxicity neutralization" (CTN) have had many ups and downs. First convincingly introduced by Baxter and Lathe in 1971, the concept that certain amides can block toxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) was contradicted by direct experiments in 1990. But in 1995, the opposite mode of CTN, in which Me(2)SO blocked the damaging effects of formamide, was robustly demonstrated. Recent experiments have verified the original 1995 results and extended them to urea and acetamide, but no CTN was detected for N-methylamides (N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, and N-methylacetamide). On the theory that the latter amides and acetamide might serve as low-toxicity structural analogs of formamide, urea, or Me(2)SO, competition experiments were carried out between them and formamide or urea, but CTN was not observed for these amide-amide systems. The idea that the N-methylamides might have non-specific rather than specific toxicity was supported by the fact that the concentrations of these amides that cause toxicity are similar to the concentrations that denature model proteins. Clear examples of neutralization of the toxicity of glycerol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, or Me(2)SO are presently lacking, but effects of the latter that depend on sulfhydryl oxidation have been reversed with reducing agents. In summary, CTN is a useful phenomenon with significant theoretical and practical implications. PMID:19501081

  3. What Renders TAU Toxic

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Jürgen; Xia, Di; Leinenga, Gerhard; Chew, Yee Lian; Nicholas, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    TAU is a microtubule-associated protein that under pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) forms insoluble, filamentous aggregates. When 20?years after TAU’s discovery the first TAU transgenic mouse models were established, one declared goal that was achieved was the modeling of authentic TAU aggregate formation in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. However, as we review here, it has become increasingly clear that TAU causes damage much before these filamentous aggregates develop. In fact, because TAU is a scaffolding protein, increased levels and an altered subcellular localization (due to an increased insolubility and impaired clearance) result in the interaction of TAU with cellular proteins with which it would otherwise either not interact or do so to a lesser degree, thereby impairing their physiological functions. We specifically discuss the non-axonal localization of TAU, the role phosphorylation has in TAU toxicity and how TAU impairs mitochondrial functions. A major emphasis is on what we have learned from the four available TAU knock-out models in mice, and the knock-out of the TAU/MAP2 homolog PTL-1 in worms. It has been proposed that in human pathological conditions such as AD, a rare toxic TAU species exists which needs to be specifically removed to abrogate TAU’s toxicity and restore neuronal functions. However, what is toxic in one context may not be in another, and simply reducing, but not fully abolishing TAU levels may be sufficient to abrogate TAU toxicity. PMID:23772223

  4. Cost of benzene reduction in gasoline to the petroleum refining industry. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Turner; J. R. Felten; J. R. Kittrell

    1978-01-01

    This report assesses the cost to the U.S. petroleum industry of removing benzene from the two largest contributors to the benzene levels in the gasoline pool - refinery reformates and FCC gasoline. Predictions were made of the 1981 gasoline pool composition and the benzene content of gasoline component streams. A process route was selected for each stream and the benzene

  5. Gasoline Tax as a Corrective Tax: Estimates for the United States, 1970-1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Haughton; Soumodip Sarkar

    1996-01-01

    Gasoline consumption creates externalities, through pollution, road congestion, accidents, and import dependence. What effect would a higher gasoline tax have on the related magnitudes: gasoline consumption, miles driven, and road fatalities? In this paper, separate models are estimated for gasoline use per mile, miles driven per driver, and fatalities per mile driven. We use data from 50 U.S. states and

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS IN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in gasoline specifications worldwide affect demand for all major gasoline-blending components. The purpose of this study is to compare different gasoline formulations based on the accounting of the environmental impacts due to hydrocarbon emissions during the gasoline pro...

  7. A review on removal of sulfur components from gasoline by pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Reza Mortaheb; Farnoosh Ghaemmaghami; Babak Mokhtarani

    Desulfurization of gasoline has gained growing importance because of tighter limits of less than 10ppm sulfur in gasoline in recent regulations. On the other hand, preserving octane rating in gasoline is the most concern subject of the manufacturers. This review focuses on the desulfurization of gasoline by means of pervaporation (PV) process. The process as a new technology has drawn

  8. Feed and process effects on the in situ reduction of sulfur in FCC gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Valla; A. A. Lappas; I. A. Vasalos; C. W. Kuehler; N. J. Gudde

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of various types of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstocks (VGO, FCC gasoline and FCC gasoline cuts) on sulfur compound distribution in the gasoline produced from FCC process. A bench scale short contact time microactivity test unit (SCT-MAT) and an FCC pilot plant unit were found to be satisfactory for the gasoline sulfur studies.

  9. Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Chunxiao; Han, Xiukun; Fu, Mingliang; Yu, Linxiao; Shah, Asad Naeem

    2010-08-01

    Carbonyl compound emissions from two passenger cars fueled with different methanol/gasoline blends (M15 and M100) and operated with three-way catalytic converters (TWC) were investigated. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The hydrazones formed on the cartridge were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with a variable wavelength detector. The results show that when cars were fueled with methanol/gasoline blends, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions decreased by 9-21% and 1-55% respectively, while nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions increased by 175-233%. Compared with gasoline vehicles, formaldehyde emissions with M15 and M100 were two and four times higher respectively, and total carbonyls with M15 and M100 increased by 3% and 104% respectively. With the use of the new TWC, both regulated gas pollutants and formaldehyde decreased. The new TWC caused a decrease of 5% and 31% in formaldehyde concentration for M15 and M100, respectively. Specific reactivity (SR) with the new TWC was reduced from 5.92 to 5.72 for M15 and from 7.00 to 6.93 for M100, indicating that M15 and M100 with the new TWC were friendlier to the environment. PMID:20510438

  10. Effect of oxygenates blending with gasoline to improve fuel properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh Shayan, Soheil; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Ommi, Fathollah

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of oxygenate additives into gasoline for the improvement of physicochemical properties of blends. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Methanol, Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and Tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) blend into unleaded gasoline with various blended rates of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Physicochemical properties of blends are analyzed by the standard American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Methanol, TBA, and TAA increase density of the mixtures, but MTBE decreases density. The addition of oxygenates lead to a distortion of the base gasoline's distillation curves. The Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline is found to increase with the addition of the oxygenated compounds. All oxygenates improve both motor and research octane numbers. Among these four additives, TBA shows the best fuel properties.

  11. CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE LOADING BY REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the capabilities of refrigeration systems, operated at three temperatures, to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from truck loading at bulk gasoline terminals. Achievable VOC emission rates were calculated for refrigeration sy...

  12. Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Benjamin James

    In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is found that the Internet data tend to accurately identify features of cycles that can be distinguished using company-operated, major brand station prices, while features that require individual independent station data or very high frequency data might not be well-identified.

  13. Boron toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross O. Nable; Gary S. Bañuelos; Jeffrey G. Paull

    1997-01-01

    Whilst of lesser prevalence than B deficient soils, B-rich soils are important, causing B toxicity in the field and decreased crop yields in different regions of the world. The highest naturally occurring concentrations of soil B are in soils derived from marine evaporites and marine argillaceous sediment. In addition, various anthropogenic sources of excess B may increase soil B to

  14. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  15. The Problem of Cross-border Shopping for Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Puwein

    1996-01-01

    Passenger car traffic between Austria and its neighboring countries is very intensive; drivers can easily exploit differentials in gasoline prices. In 1994, about 64 million gasoline-powered cars, 11 million diesel-powered cars, 1.2 million buses, and 3.2 million trucks entered Austria. These numbers include both Austrian and foreign-owned vehicles. These vehicles constitute a potential for exploiting price differences of about 1.2

  16. Antiknoek additive compositions and unleaded gasoline containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Graiff, L.B.; Laity, J.L.

    1984-03-20

    A method of operating a spark ignition internal combustion engine with unleaded gasoline is disclosed wherein methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as a primary antiknock compound and from about 5 to about 60 moles of benzoylacetone or methyl benzoylacetone per mole of manganese is used as a co-antiknock compound. These co-antiknock compounds are particularly suitable because they do not react with wet rusted steel in gasoline distribution systems, nor with terneplate surface coatings in automobile fuel storage tanks.

  17. of Piezo-Electri c Injection for Gasoline DI Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Laget

    The drive for substantial CO2 reductions in gasoline engines in the light of the Kyoto Protocol and higher fuel efficiencies has increased research into Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. Moreover, using recently developed piezo-electric injection, stratified combustion can be achieved. This make possible combustion with low global fuel\\/air equivalence ratio which allows both a fuel saving and a decrease of

  18. Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

  19. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

    1998-11-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  20. Production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel from nonpetroleum resources

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.; Avidan, A.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1986-04-01

    In late 1985, the New Zealand Gas-to-Gasoline Complex was successfully streamed producing high octane gasoline from natural gas. The heart of this complex is the Mobil fixed-bed Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) section which represents one of several newly developed technologies for production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuels. All of these technologies are based on production of methanol by conventional technology, followed by conversion of the methanol to transportation fuel. The fixed-bed (MTG) process has been developed and commercialized. The fluid-bed version of the MTG process, which is now also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane number advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant in Wesseling, Federal Republic of Germany. The project was funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and by the industrial participants: Mobil, Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. This fluid-bed MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid-bed process for selective conversion of methanol to olefins (MTO). The MTO process can be combined with Mobil's commercially available olefins conversion process (Mobil-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate, MOGD) for coproduction of high quality gasoline and distillate via methanol. This MTO process was also successfully demonstrated at the Wesseling semiworks with this project being completed in late 1985.

  1. Clean gasoline via VRDS/RFCC

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.E. (Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (US)); Brown, E.C.; Silverman, M.A. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-01

    The need to convert the bottom of the barrel into clean transportation fuels continues to gain importance as crudes become heavier and demand shifts away from heavy, high-sulfur fuel oil products. Increasingly, the emphasis is on processes that can completely convert the residue to lighter products. This paper reports that thermal processes, such as coking-based technologies, suffer from the disadvantages of producing a large amount of low value byproduct (coke or low Btu gas) and require extensive further processing of product liquids. The combination of residuum hydrotreating or hydrodesulfurization (RDS) and residuum fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) has gained wide acceptance due to the direct production of gasoline with only small amounts of low value byproducts. Moreover, the increasingly severe government regulations on diesel fuel quality together with a growth in demands suggests a combination of vacuum gas oil hydrocracking (VGO HDC), vacuum residuum hydrotreating (VRDS) and RFCC. A joint study by Chevron Research and Technology Co. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (S and W) has shown that vacuum residuum (VR) can be economically upgraded using Chevron's VRDS process into feedstock for the S and W FCC process, even if all of the VGO is processed separately by hydrocracking.

  2. Development of toxicant identification procedures for whole sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Besser, J.M. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Ankley, G.T.; Norberg-King, T.J.; West, C.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    To effectively assess and manage contaminated sediments, identifying the specific contaminants responsible for sediment toxicity is highly desirable. Though effective toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods are well established for water column toxicity, new TIE methodologies are needed that address the special characteristics of whole sediment toxicity tests. Much of the effort to date has focused on the assessment of ammonia toxicity. Whereas pH manipulation is a key tool used to characterize ammonia toxicity in water column TIE, control of pH in interstitial water is much more challenging. Direct addition of hard acid has shown undesirable side effects (e.g., liberation and oxidation of iron), while CO{sub 2}-enrichment is limited in penetration of fine-grained sediments. Biological buffers (MES and POPSO) incorporated into the sediment are effective at altering interstitial pH without causing direct toxicity to Chironomus tentans, Lumbriculus variegatus, and to a lesser extent Hyalella azteca, but the range of pH control achieved has been small ({+-} 0.5 units). Introduction of aquatic plants reduces ammonia concentrations in the water column, but may not provide sufficient control of interstitial water. To date, the most promising results have been achieved using zeolite; adding zeolite to sediment produces moderate reductions in interstitial ammonia concentrations and is non-toxic to the organisms referenced above. Attempts to induce microbial removal of ammonia have been unsuccessful thus far. This presentation will review these and other sediment TIE methods currently under development in laboratories.

  3. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  4. TRITIUM PERMEATION AND TRANSPORT IN THE GASOLINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM COUPLED WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS (HTGRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes scoping analyses on tritium behaviors in the HTGR-integrated gasoline production system, which is based on a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) plant. In this system, the HTGR transfers heat and electricity to the MTG system. This system was analyzed using the TPAC code, which was recently developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The global sensitivity analyses were performed to understand and characterize tritium behaviors in the coupled HTGR/MTG system. This Monte Carlo based random sampling method was used to evaluate maximum 17,408 numbers of samples with different input values. According to the analyses, the average tritium concentration in the product gasoline is about 3.05×10-3 Bq/cm3, and 62 % cases are within the tritium effluent limit (= 3.7x10-3 Bq/cm3[STP]). About 0.19% of released tritium is finally transported from the core to the gasoline product through permeations. This study also identified that the following four parameters are important concerning tritium behaviors in the HTGR/MTG system: (1) tritium source, (2) wall thickness of process heat exchanger, (3) operating temperature, and (4) tritium permeation coefficient of process heat exchanger. These four parameters contribute about 95 % of the total output uncertainties. This study strongly recommends focusing our future research on these four parameters to improve modeling accuracy and to mitigate tritium permeation into the gasol ine product. If the permeation barrier is included in the future study, the tritium concentration will be significantly reduced.

  5. Shellfish Toxicity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnold, Thomas

    This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

  6. Relationship between Composition and Toxicity of Motor Vehicle Emission Samples

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Eide, Ingvar; Seagrave, JeanClare; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the statistical relationship between particle and semivolatile organic chemical constituents in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust samples, and toxicity as measured by inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. Exhaust samples were collected from “normal” and “high-emitting” gasoline and diesel light-duty vehicles. We employed a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS; also known as projection to latent structures) to evaluate the relationships between chemical composition of vehicle exhaust and toxicity. The PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents covarying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The specific nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons important for mutagenicity were the same chemicals that have been implicated by decades of bioassay-directed fractionation. These chemicals were not related to lung toxicity, which was associated with organic carbon and select organic compounds that are present in lubricating oil. The results demonstrate the utility of the PCA/PLS approach for evaluating composition–response relationships in complex mixture exposures and also provide a starting point for confirming causality and determining the mechanisms of the lung effects. PMID:15531438

  7. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  8. Likelihood ratio methods for forensic comparison of evaporated gasoline residues.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, P; Bolck, A; Peschier, L J C; Berger, C E H; Hendrikse, J N

    2014-12-01

    In the investigation of arson, evidence connecting a suspect to the fire scene may be obtained by comparing the composition of ignitable liquid residues found at the crime scene to ignitable liquids found in possession of the suspect. Interpreting the result of such a comparison is hampered by processes at the crime scene that result in evaporation, matrix interference, and microbial degradation of the ignitable liquid. Most commonly, gasoline is used as a fire accelerant in arson. In the current scientific literature on gasoline comparison, classification studies are reported for unevaporated and evaporated gasoline residues. In these studies the goal is to discriminate between samples of several sources of gasoline, based on a chemical analysis. While in classification studies the focus is on discrimination of gasolines, for forensic purposes a likelihood ratio approach is more relevant. In this work, a first step is made towards the ultimate goal of obtaining numerical values for the strength of evidence for the inference of identity of source in gasoline comparisons. Three likelihood ratio methods are presented for the comparison of evaporated gasoline residues (up to 75% weight loss under laboratory conditions). Two methods based on distance functions and one multivariate method were developed. The performance of the three methods is characterized by rates of misleading evidence, an analysis of the calibration and an information theoretical analysis. The three methods show strong improvement of discrimination as compared with a completely uninformative method. The two distance functions perform better than the multivariate method, in terms of discrimination and rates of misleading evidence. PMID:25498926

  9. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25

    Whorled Glycosides See Assc!epias subverticillata This plant is poisonous at all verticillata milkweed stages of growth. Astragalus Ravine, emory Misertoxin Collapse of leg muscles when This plant is easily confused emoryanus loco animal attempts sudden... with nontoxic species. movement, general incoordin- ation of hind legs, labored breathing Astragalus spp. Locoweed Unknown Slow staggering gait, rough Very large amounts are coat, staring look, emaciation, necessary for poisoning. muscle incoordination Avena...

  10. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  11. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  12. Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine 

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jiafeng

    2014-08-05

    Diesel/gasoline dual-fuel combustion uses both gasoline and diesel fuel in diesel engines to exploit their different reactivities. This operation combines the advantages of diesel fuel and gasoline while avoiding their disadvantages, attains...

  13. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  14. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  15. RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION (TIE) METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A common method for determining whether contaminants in sediments represent an environmental risk is to perform toxicity tests. Toxicity tests indicate if contaminants in sediments are bioavailable and capable of causing adverse biological effects (e.g., mortality, reduced growt...

  16. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  17. Relation of pediatric blood lead levels to lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Billick, I.H.; Curran, A.S.; Shier, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Analysis of a large data set of pediatric blood lead levels collected in New York City (1970 to 1976) shows a highly significant association between geometric mean blood lead levels and the amount of lead present in gasoline sold during the same period. This association was observed for all age and ethnic groups studied, and it suggests that possible exposure pathways other than ambient air should be considered. Even without detailed knowledge of the exact exposure pathways, sufficient information now exists for policy analysis and decisions relevant to controls and standards related to lead in gasoline and its effect on subsets of the population.

  18. Catalytic hydrodesulfurization of an organic sulfur compound contained in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Nowack, G.P.

    1982-02-09

    The catalytic hydrodesulfurization of an organic sulfur compound contained in gasoline is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising catalytic grade alumina and a catalytic component at least one member of which is selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and tungsten. A catalytic promoter may also be present in the catalyst composition with at least one member of the catalytic promoter being selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt and nickel. A suitable nitrogen compound is also contacted with the catalyst composition to at least partially suppress the saturation of olefins in the gasoline during the hydrodesulfurization process.

  19. Oxygenated gasoline release in the unsaturated zone, Part 2: Downgradient transport of ethanol and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Doulatyari, Behnam; Molson, John W.; Barker, James F.

    2011-07-01

    In the event of a gasoline spill containing oxygenated compounds such as ethanol and MTBE, it is important to consider the impacts these compounds might have on subsurface contamination. One of the main concerns commonly associated with ethanol is that it might decrease the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, leading to an increase in the hydrocarbon dissolved plume lengths. The first part of this study (Part 1) showed that when gasoline containing ethanol infiltrates the unsaturated zone, ethanol is likely to partition to and be retained in the unsaturated zone pore water. In this study (Part 2), a controlled field test is combined with a two-dimensional laboratory test and three-dimensional numerical modelling to investigate how ethanol retention in the unsaturated zone affects the downgradient behaviour of ethanol and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Ethanol transport downgradient was extremely limited. The appearance of ethanol in downgradient wells was delayed and the concentrations were lower than would be expected based on equilibrium dissolution. Oscillations in the water table resulted in minor flushing of ethanol, but its effect could still be perceived as an increase in the groundwater concentrations downgradient from the source zone. Ethanol partitioning to the unsaturated zone pore water reduced its mass fraction within the NAPL thus reducing its anticipated impact on the fate of the hydrocarbon compounds. A conceptual numerical simulation indicated that the potential ethanol-induced increase in benzene plume length after 20 years could decrease from 136% to 40% when ethanol retention in the unsaturated zone is considered.

  20. 75 FR 74044 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Gasoline Volatility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...Additives: Gasoline Volatility, Reporting Requirements...related collection instrument or form, if applicable...Abstract: Gasoline volatility, as measured by Reid...with the applicable volatility standard must submit...time, effort, or financial resources...

  1. Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline. Results The results showed that the phase stabilities of tartaric esters for methanol-gasoline depend on the length of the alkoxy group. Several tartaric esters were found to be effective in various gasoline-methanol blends, and the tartaric esters display high capacity to depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline. Conclusion According to the results, it can be concluded that the tartaric esters have great potential to be bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives. PMID:24731649

  2. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of simulations using performance models show that the engine can deliver up to 178% improvement in fuel efficiency and operating range, and reduce the specific fuel consumption to 58% when compared to gasoline. Directions for future research and other modifications to the proposed spark assisted cycle are also described.

  3. Liquid-Vapor Phase Extraction of Gasoline for In Situ Amelioration of Contaminated Clayey Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Spencer, S.

    2008-12-01

    Liquid-vapor phase extraction (LVPE) of hydrocarbon is a recognized technique for rapid remediation of gasoline contaminated soils and waters. On site application of LVPE is, however, challenging in clayey soils. Four LVPE events were conducted during a 10-month period at a central Californian site that had been contaminated with gasoline due to leakage of underground storage tanks. The site was underlain by unconsolidated alluvial deposits and the soil profile consisted of layers of sandy clays and silty clays with low water table. The objectives of this study were to reduce floating product volume in well waters and to remove petroleum hydrocarbons within the vadose zone. Groundwater was extracted by lowering a stinger to the groundwater surface and applying vacuum. The stingers were able to extract down to 20 ft below ground surface. Vacuum was applied at 25 in of Hg pressure and the LVPE unit extracted soil vapor at the rate of 54 ft3/min. Samples were collected periodically from the extracted groundwater, treated groundwater, extracted soil vapor, and analyzed for gasoline and its constituents. The LVPE showed a moderate impact on the floating product found beneath the site. The volumes of floating product, although measurable, were reduced significantly after the extraction operations. High hydrocarbon concentrations in soil vapor at initial period of extraction events suggested that hydrocarbon vaporization followed a rapid kinetics. During first couple of extraction events, this surge was a followed by a quick decline in concentrations over time. The vaporization process appeared to have reached steady state after repetitive extraction activities. The LVPE system extracted about 288-336 (x1000) liters of groundwater and 88-358 kg of hydrocarbons during the events. In subsequent monitoring studies, significant concentrations of gasoline and its constituents were detected in the well waters. This suggested that the residual contaminant pool could replenish the mobile hydrocarbon pool despite removal operations. The radius of influence of LVPE remained within 10 ft in both saturated and unsaturated zones due to the clayey soil structure. The overall mass of petroleum hydrocarbons remaining in the vadose zone around the wells appeared to have diminished.

  4. Toxic terror

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence to either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.

  5. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  6. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  7. The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

  8. Prevention of fouling in internal combustion engines and their exhaust systems and improved gasoline compositions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for operating gasoline engines with spark plug ignition which use a gasoline fuel containing methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl which comprises: using for engines a gasoline containing methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl as an octane improver but containing no additives which include sodium or barium compounds; fouling of the spark plugs with glass-like deposits formed from the oxidation reaction

  9. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  10. Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Daniel

    Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious and Aaron Smith attack the paper "The Impact of Ethanol Production on US and Regional Gasoline Markets

  11. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. 1065.725 Section...Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of operating on a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend, create a test...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

  13. Production of low-sulfur gasoline. Final report, Nov 1972-Jun 1974

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoot

    1974-01-01

    The use of catalytic converters is intended to control carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. However, the catalysts convert some of the sulfur in gasoline into sulfuric acid mist in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact on oil refineries to produce unleaded, low-sulfur gasolines and also to desulfurize all gasolines produced for United States sales.

  14. Separation of Sulfur\\/Gasoline Mixture with Polydimethylsiloxane\\/Polyetherimide Composite Membranes by Pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changwei ZHAO; Jiding LI; Jian CHEN; Rongbin QI; Zhaokun LUAN

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide environment has resulted in a limit on the sulfur content of gasoline. It is urgent to investigate the desulfurization of gasoline. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)\\/polyetherimide (PEI) composite membranes were prepared by casting a PDMS solution onto porous PEI substrates and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The membranes were used for sulfur removal from gasoline by pervaporation. The effects of

  15. Determination of lead in gasoline by Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Scott; L. E. Holboke; Tetsuo. Hadeishi

    1983-01-01

    The use of a modified dual chamber cuvette in an electrothermal furnace combined with Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry analysis will be shown to provide a more rapid method of lead in gasoline analysis which yields results equivalent to the standard method. 1 table.

  16. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.; Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; McBride, Allen C.; Johnson, Timothy L.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  17. Rapid Determination of Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl in Gasoline by FAAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Du; Qin Wei; Guiying Xu

    1999-01-01

    A new method using microemulsified samples is presented. The method is suitable for the determination of manganese, present as methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, in gasoline in the range 0?75?g ml. The method has the advantage of simplicity, speed and the use of aqeous standards for calibration instead of organic standards. Coexistent elements do not disturb the determination. Results obtained by this

  18. Conversion of cellulosic and waste polymer material to gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuester

    1979-01-01

    The present status and future plans for a project to convert cellulosic (biomass) and waste synthetic polymer materials to quality liquid fuels is presented. A thermal gasification approach is utilized followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis steps. Potential products include a medium quality substitute for natural gas or liquid fuel equivalents of diesel fuel, kerosene or high octane gasoline. The

  19. Epidemiologic evidence for an association between gasoline and kidney cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Enterline, P E; Viren, J

    1985-01-01

    A recent animal experiment suggests that gasoline exposure may be a cause of human kidney cancer. This is a literature review to see whether there is any epidemiologic support for these animal findings. Trends and geographic patterns in gasoline consumption and kidney cancer mortality are moderately supportive of a relationship, although this cannot be considered important evidence for a causal relationship. Most other ecological correlations are not supportive of a relationship. Eleven oil refinery populations and one population of petroleum products distribution workers have been studied. These studies taken as a group do not appear to support the notion of a relationship between gasoline exposure and kidney cancer. However, most were not designed or analyzed with this hypothesis in mind. An examination of these data which attempts to consider the ages of the populations studied provides some evidence of a small kidney cancer excess among older workers or among workers exposed for long periods. Because of the importance of gasoline and the potential for exposure by the public further study of exposed populations is needed. PMID:4085434

  20. Electronic throttle and wastegate control for turbocharged gasoline engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amey Y. Karnik; Julia H. Buckland; Jim S. Freudenberg

    2005-01-01

    Turbocharging of gasoline engines has gained renewed popularity as a means to improve fuel economy and CO2 emissions. Modern engines have advanced technology actuators such as electronic throttle and variable valve timing, in addition to wastegate. Proper control of system actuators is critical to achieving the full benefit of this technology. This paper presents system analysis and control development for

  1. The Impact of Gasoline Prices on Internet Purchases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Martens

    2011-01-01

    The proposition of a carbon tax has reinvigorated the discussion about the price elasticity of gasoline demand. This paper analyzes how consumers react to higher gas prices in a new setting, examining whether they choose Internet purchasing over in-store purchasing when gas prices increase. Prior studies of Internet purchases have focused mainly on local sales tax rates, traditional retail options,

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF VAPOR CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR GASOLINE LOADING OF BARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a program to demonstrate a safe cost-effective way to control gasoline vapors emitted during barge loading. Refrigeration, carbon adsorption, oil absorption, and incineration were reviewed in terms of their safety, economics, and performance. Two barge...

  3. BENZENE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR GASOLINE BULK STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes a study of continuous emission monitors for measuring benzene emissions from gasoline bulk storage terminals. The work was performed for the Quality Assurance Division, Source Branch, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Pacific Environmental Servi...

  4. GASOLINE COMPOSITION IN THE US (1976-2005)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition data are collected by EPA for Clean Air Act compliance requirements, by industry for various purposes and, recently, by EPA/ORD for a compositional study (Weaver et al., 2005, EPA/600/R-05/032, http://www.epa.gov/athens). Each of these data sets are potentia...

  5. GASOLINE COMPOSITION IN THE UNITED STATES (1976-2005)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition data are collected by EPA for Clean Air Act compliance requirements, by industry for various purposes and, recently, by EPA/ORD for a compositional study (Weaver et al., 2005, EPA/600/R-05/032, http://www.epa.gov/athens). Each of these data sets are potentia...

  6. Debit, credit, or cash: survey evidence on gasoline purchases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Carow; Michael E. Staten

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the consumer’s payment option to use debit, general purpose credit cards, gasoline credit cards, or cash. Based on the results from a nested multinomial logit model, we found consumers are more likely to use cash when they have less education, lower incomes, are middle-aged, and own fewer credit cards. Debit and credit card users are younger, more educated,

  7. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen fuel cell and gasoline vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A Rosen

    2006-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen and gasoline vehicles, including fuel production and utilization in vehicles powered by fuel cells and internal combustion engines, is conducted to evaluate and compare their efficiencies and environmental impacts. Fossil fuel and renewable technologies are investigated, and the assessment is divided into various stages.Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated in each step

  8. REDUCTION OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using flexible plastic membranes to control emissions from gasoline storage tanks. The emission rates and the expected life of the membranes were to be established. A demonstration pilot ...

  9. Nonleaded Gasoline: Its Impact on the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittcoff, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Explores some of the ways that lead is being replaced in the production of gasolines. Discusses the effects these changes are having on the chemical industry. Contrasts the use of ethyl alcohol from renewable sources with alcohols depending on the availability of isobutene. (TW)

  10. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...vapor control. 52.787 Section 52.787 Protection of Environment...PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor...distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...subject to the compliance schedule in this paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...vapor control. 52.787 Section 52.787 Protection of Environment...PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor...distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...subject to the compliance schedule in this paragraph...

  12. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...vapor control. 52.787 Section 52.787 Protection of Environment...PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor...distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...subject to the compliance schedule in this paragraph...

  13. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...vapor control. 52.787 Section 52.787 Protection of Environment...PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor...distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...subject to the compliance schedule in this paragraph...

  14. KINETICS OF ETHANOL BIODEGRADATION UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS IN GASOLINE SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that biodegradation of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by mi...

  15. Economic analysis of photovoltaic and gasoline pumping systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Fedrizzi; I. L. Sauer; R. Zilles

    1996-01-01

    This work presents an economic analysis of water pumping by small photovoltaic and gasoline systems for irrigation in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, were electrification achives only 15% of rural houses. Farms are characterized by small areas where rain water availability is quite small as well. For such needs, the Diesel commercial pumping systems are usually too large and

  16. LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 , R. Bounaceur1 , H. Le Gall1 , A. Pires da Cruz2 , A. The influence of ethanol as an oxygenated additive has been investigated for these two fuels and has been found

  17. FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MTBE AND OTHER GASOLINE COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter reviews the processes and interactions that control the transport and fate of MTBE and TBA in the subsurface. It describes the transport and fate of vapors of MTBE in the unsaturated zone, the partitioning of MTBE from gasoline spills directly into water, and t...

  18. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Those Blind From Birth Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) by James Garrity, MD NOTE: ... Optic Neuropathies) Papilledema Optic Neuritis Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Amblyopia Toxic amblyopia (nutritional amblyopia) is damage to ...

  19. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: The effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Medinsky; P. M. Schlosser; J. A. Bond

    1994-01-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene

  20. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle. PMID:19774326

  1. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    : Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course. Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations, which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure. PMID:24084567

  2. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course.Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations,which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure. PMID:24070500

  3. Experimental investigation of effects of bio-additives on fuel economy of the gasoline engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ChunDe Yao; ZhiHui Zhang; YuanLi Xu; Yu Huang

    2008-01-01

    The matter extracted from palm oil was considered as gasoline additive. The effect of various percentages (0.2%, 0.4% and\\u000a 0.6%) of the bio-additives on fuel economy of SI engine respectively running on prime gasoline, gasoline with known components,\\u000a ethanol gasoline, and methanol gasoline under typical urban operation condition 2000 r\\/min was investigated. The results showed\\u000a that the bio-additives can remarkably

  4. Differential toxic effects of methyl tertiary butyl ether and tert-butanol on rat fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, A; Iavicoli, I; De Paola, B; Bianchino, G; Boninsegna, A; Bergamaschi, A; Pietroiusti, A; Cittadini, A

    2009-03-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used motor vehicle fuel oxygenate since it reduces harmful emissions due to gasoline combustion. However, the significant increase in its use in recent years has raised new questions related to its potential toxicity. In fact, although available data are somehow conflicting, there is evidence that MTBE is a toxic substance that may have harmful effects on both animals and humans and an unresolved problem is the role played by MTBE metabolites, especially tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), in determining toxic effects due to MTBE exposure. In this study, the toxic effects of MTBE have been analyzed on a normal diploid rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) and compared to the effects of TBA. The results obtained suggest that both MTBE and TBA inhibit cell growth in vitro but with different mechanisms in terms of effects on the cell cycle progression and on the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. In fact, MTBE caused an accumulation of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, whereas TBA caused an accumulation in the G0/G1-phase with different effects on the expression of cyclin D1, p27Kip1, and p53. Moreover, both MTBE and TBA were also shown to induce DNA damage, as assessed in terms of oxidative DNA damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation, that appeared to be susceptible of repair by the cell DNA-repair machinery. In conclusion, these findings suggest that both MTBE and TBA can exert, by acting through different molecular mechanisms, important biological effects on fibroblasts in vitro. Further studies are warranted to shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the observed effects and on their potential significance for the in-vivo exposure. PMID:19458137

  5. Determining the PTE and formulating a Title V permitting strategy for a bulk gasoline terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, A.A.; Turner, R.S. [TRC Environmental Corporation, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Bulk gasoline terminals may take operational restrictions and maintain operational flexibility while avoiding requirements of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA-A). Title V establishes a federally enforceable renewable operating permit program for major sources. Title III regulates Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) to reduce emissions from all sources to a degree sufficient to protect the public by using Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards achieved in practice within the industry. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and HAPs are emitted from storage tanks, loading operations, and components at gasoline terminals. To calculate the potential to emit (PTE) and assess regulation applicability, maximum facility throughputs should be determined by physical limitations of the loadrack. Loadrack throughputs can be correlated to storage tanks throughputs based on type of tank and the highest volatility product stored in that tank. Component emissions should be based on continuous service of the highest volatility product. To avoid recordkeeping and reporting requirements of Title III and/or Title V, VOC and HAP emissions may be restricted to below thresholds determined by the region`s ozone attainment status by limiting loadrack throughput and/or by meeting higher control equipment efficiencies. However, careful consideration must be given to operational flexibility and the potential future expansion of the facility.

  6. Gas emissions and engine behavior when gasoline-alcohol mixtures are used.

    PubMed

    Arapatsakos, C I; Karkanis, A N; Sparis, P D

    2003-09-01

    This paper deals with the use of gasoline-methanol and gasoline-ethanol mixtures in a small four-stroke engine of internal combustion that is used for the movement of a small alternative generator. It was observed that CO and HC emissions decrease compared to gasoline when the percentage of methanol, ethanol in the fuel was increased, under different load conditions (without load conditions and under full electrical load conditions). The use of gasoline-methanol mixtures showed a higher decrease of emissions. When the mixtures of gasoline-70%methanol and gasoline-90%ethanol and 100%ethanol for which the engine malfunctioned, the rpm of the engine were not constant and the emissions were increased. It is also important that (with the existing regulation of the fuel/air ratio that refers to gasoline) the engine functioned for the case of gasoline-methanol mixtures up to a concentration of -70%methanol mixture, while for the case of gasoline-ethanol mixtures until the use of 100%ethanol. Furthermore, during the use of the mixtures of gasoline-methanol and gasoline-ethanol there was a small increase of fuel consumption when the percentage of the methanol or ethanol in the fuel was increased. PMID:14599140

  7. [Advances in studies on toxicity of aconite].

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Chang; Sun, Gui-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Ye, Zu-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2013-04-01

    Aconite has the efficacy of reviving yang for resuscitation, dispelling cold and relieving pain, which is widely used in clinic, and shows unique efficacy in treating severe diseases. However, aconite has great toxicity, with obvious cardio-toxicity and neurotoxicity. Its toxicological mechanism main shows in the effect on voltage-dependent sodium channels, release of neurotransmitters and changes in receptors, promotion of lipid peroxidation and cell apoptosis in heart, liver and other tissues. Aconite works to reduce toxicity mainly through compatibility and processing. Besides traditional processing methods, many new modern processing techniques could also help achieve the objectives of detoxification and efficacy enhancement. In order to further develop the medicinal value of aconite and reduce its side effect in clinical application, this article gives comprehensive comments on aconite's toxicity characteristics, mechanism and detoxification methods on the basis of relevant reports for aconite's toxicity and the author's experimental studies. PMID:23944022

  8. Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Evans, J.M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

  9. Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio; Emmel, Alexandre

    2005-11-11

    In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at reaction times of about 30 min. Preliminary investigations using water contaminated by gasoline suggest a good potentiality of the process for the treatment of large volumes of aqueous samples containing these polluting species. Heterogeneous photocatalysis and H2O2/UV system show lower degradation efficiency, probably due to the heterogeneous character of the TiO2-mediated system and lost of photonic efficiency of the H2O2/UV system in the presence of highly colored intermediated. PMID:16051429

  10. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  11. Canadian refiner finds simple route to reformulated gasoline production

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, B. [North Atlantic Refining Ltd., Come By Chance, Newfoundland (Canada); McDonald, G.W.G. [IONA Ltd., Sarasota, FL (United States); Perkins, J.D. [United Catalysts Inc., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1997-03-17

    North Atlantic Refining Ltd. (NARL) operates a 105,000 b/sd hydrocracking refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. NARL sells gasoline into markets in Newfoundland and the northeastern US. When the US Environmental Protection Agency instituted reformulated gasoline (RFG) requirements as part of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, NARL had to find a way to meet the specifications, even though the refinery is not within US territory. The refiner chose to add a small hydrogenation unit to treat the portion of the reformate stream containing benzene precursors. Since start-up of the unit in late 1995, it has achieved 100% benzene hydrogenation, thus allowing NARL to easily produce RFG containing less than 1.0 vol% benzene. The paper discusses procurement, hydrogen supply, catalyst, special features, start-up, operations, and process control.

  12. Desulfurization of gasoline using molecularly imprinted chitosan as selective adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yonghui; Zhang, Lei; Ying, Hanjie; Li, Zhenjiang; Lv, Hao; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2010-01-01

    For desulfurization of gasoline, novel chitosan-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared by cross-linking chitosan with epichlorohydrin in the presence of dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the template. The influence of cross-linking ratio on the specific adsorption was evaluated. The effects of the types and the amounts of porogen on selectivity of the chitosan MIP were also examined. Results showed that MIP has a higher recognition property to DBT. The maximum rebinding capacities of the MIP reached 22.69 mg g(-1) in the model solution. The adsorption behaviors of the MIP including adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters were investigated and the experimental data agreed well with the Langmuir model. The dynamical adsorption behaved in first-order kinetics. Negative values for the Gibbs free energy showed that the adsorptions were spontaneous processes. The MIP was further used to selectively adsorb organosulfur from gasoline. PMID:19050832

  13. FCC pretreating to meet new environmental regulations on gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Krenzke, L.D.; Baron, K. [UOP, Brea, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Refiners hydrotreat FCC feed for economic and environmental reasons. Processing hydrotreated FCC feed results not only in lower sulfur products and lower SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, but also in higher conversion and gasoline yield. The severity of the hydrotreating required, or desired, depends upon the feed to be processed and the controlling specification the refiner is trying to meet. These targets relate to, among other things, whether or not the product is targeted for EPA or CARB (California Air Resources Board) gasoline, and if the plant has a set restriction on SO{sub x} emissions. UOP has licensed over fifteen VGO Unionfining units for use as FCC feed pre-treaters, most of them to United States refiners. This discussion will center on the operating experience of refiners using VGO Unionfining. Of particular interest are the severity of the operation and the importance of proper reactor internals design.

  14. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guihua Wang; Joan M. Ogden; Daniel Sperling

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a lifecycle approach to analyze potential air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline use in light duty vehicles. The analysis is conducted for scenarios in 2005 and 2025 in Sacramento, California for CO, NOx, VOC, and PM10. Three natural gas-based hydrogen supply pathways are analyzed: onsite hydrogen production via small-scale steam methane reforming (SMR), central large-scale hydrogen

  15. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S

    2010-08-01

    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. PMID:20553937

  16. Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Poulopoulos; C. Philippopoulos

    2000-01-01

    The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0–11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned

  17. Desulfurization of FCC Gasoline by Solvent Extraction and Photooxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aladin Ibrahim; Shen Ben Xian; Zhou Wei

    2003-01-01

    A deep desulfurization process for FCC light gasoline has been investigated. The process is comprised of liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile, and photooxidation with ultraviolet light from a high-pressure mercury lamp. After the extraction the sulfur-containing compounds transfer from the oil to the solvent and then the solvent containing these sulfur compounds was photo-irradiated with ultraviolet light from a high pressure

  18. The Aromatization of FCC Gasoline Fraction on Modified HZSM-5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Qiu-ying; Bai Ying-zhi; Wang Hai-yan; Ma Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the FCC gasoline (75?120C fraction) is investigated and studied on the HZSM-5 type zerolite catalysts modified with zinc nitrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate which are prepared by impregnation method. The results show that Znx–HZSM-5 type zerolite catalysts have a high initial reactivity of aromatization but a rapid deactivation. Compared to Znx–HZSM-5 type zerolite catalysts, the Znx–Py–HZSM-5 type

  19. Thermoelectric module and generator for gasoline engine vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ikoma; M. Munekiyo; K. Furuya; M. Kobayashi; T. Izumi; K. Shinohara

    1998-01-01

    An advanced type thermoelectric module based on SiGe has been developed to apply it to gasoline engine vehicles. The size of the module is 20 mm square and 9.2 mm in height. The module consists of 8 couples of p- and n-type Si-Ge elements. The elements are electrically connected in series using Mo electrodes by brazing method. The maximum electric

  20. Autothermal reforming of simulated gasoline and diesel fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Kaila; A. O. I. Krause

    2006-01-01

    Autothermal reforming (ATR) of simulated fuels was studied with n-heptane, n-dodecane, toluene, and methylcyclohexane as model compounds for different fractions of gasoline and diesel on zirconia-supported Rh and Pt. A performance comparison was made on commercial nickel catalyst. No inhibiting effect was observed between the hydrocarbons on any catalyst, even though aliphatic hydrocarbons are more reactive than aromatics. The product

  1. A review of centrifugal testing of gasoline contamination and remediation.

    PubMed

    Meegoda, Jay N; Hu, Liming

    2011-08-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS) is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced. PMID:21909320

  2. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P < 0.0001). Using the data from a previous exposure assessment of residential exposure in eight geographic regions in the United States as a basis for comparison (N = 218), the broadband magnetic fields in electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles. PMID:22532300

  3. Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Regina Lopes Tiburtius; Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Alexandre Emmel

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at

  4. A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Meegoda, Jay N.; Hu, Liming

    2011-01-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS) is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced. PMID:21909320

  5. Gasoline and tourism in the Upper Midwest. [Booklet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    The effect of high gasoline prices on tourism in the Midwest is confusing as some data show Americans finding new ways to express their right to freedom of mobility through shorter and less-expensive trips, while other data reveal no impact on travel behavior. Although the tourism patterns of out-of-state visitors during 1979-80 are based on statistics that are collected differently

  6. Desulfurization of Gasoline using Molecularly Imprinted Chitosan as Selective Adsorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonghui Chang; Lei Zhang; Hanjie Ying; Zhenjiang Li; Hao Lv; Pingkai Ouyang

    2010-01-01

    For desulfurization of gasoline, novel chitosan-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared by cross-linking chitosan\\u000a with epichlorohydrin in the presence of dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the template. The influence of cross-linking ratio on the\\u000a specific adsorption was evaluated. The effects of the types and the amounts of porogen on selectivity of the chitosan MIP\\u000a were also examined. Results showed that MIP

  7. Activated sludge encapsulation in gellan gum microbeads for gasoline biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Moslemy, Peyman; Guiot, Serge R; Neufeld, Ronald J

    2004-07-01

    A two-phase dispersion technique, termed emulsification-internal gelation, is proposed for encapsulation of activated sludge in gellan gum microbeads. The influence of emulsion parameters on size distribution of microbeads was investigated. Mean diameter of microbeads varied within a range of 34-265 microm as a descending function of emulsion stirring rate (1,000-5,000 rpm), emulsification time (10-40 min), and emulsifier concentration (0-0.1% w/w), and as an ascending function of disperse phase volume fraction (0.08-0.25). Encapsulated sludge expressed a high biodegradation activity compared with non-encapsulated sludge cultures even at 4.4 times lower level of overall biomass loading. Over 90% of gasoline at an initial concentration of 35 and 70 mg l(-1) was removed by both encapsulated and non-encapsulated sludge cultures in sealed serum bottles within 7 days. Encapsulation of activated sludge in gellan gum microbeads enhanced the biological activity of microbial populations in the removal of gasoline hydrocarbons. The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of the production of size-controlled gellan gum-encapsulated sludge microbeads and their use in the biodegradation of gasoline. PMID:15133730

  8. Volatility of in-use gasoline and gasoline/methanol blends. Final report, 29 February 1984-28 September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, C.M.

    1984-09-01

    The report provides results of analyses for alcohol content, volatility, and other properties of forty in-use unleaded gasoline samples. Analyses conducted on these fuels included: methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) quantitation; Reid vapor pressure; distillation; water and lead content; and the calculation of FEVI and EI volatility indices. Twenty-two of the forty samples contained between three and five percent methanol. Most of the gasoline samples, including those not containing methanol, contained several percent TBA. Data obtained indicated the volatility of fuels containing methanol and TBA were not significantly different from that of fuels containing only TBA. The data also showed an average RVP of 13.3 and 13.6 psi respectively for these fuels, which, is above the maximum ASTM specified RVP of 11.5 psi for the Houston area at the time these samples were taken.

  9. Gossypol toxicity from cottonseed products.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Ivana Cristina N; Fonseca, Nayanna Brunna S; Oloris, Silvia Catarina S; Melo, Marília M; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-01-01

    Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.). Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal's resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects. PMID:24895646

  10. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    PubMed Central

    Gadelha, Ivana Cristina N.; Fonseca, Nayanna Brunna S.; Oloris, Silvia Catarina S.; Melo, Marília M.

    2014-01-01

    Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.). Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal's resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects. PMID:24895646

  11. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: II. Comparison of responses to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, J L; Barrett, E G; Day, K C; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Harrod, K S; Lund, A K; Reed, M D; Seagrave, J C; Campen, M J; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    The NERC Program conducted identically designed exposure-response studies of the respiratory and cardiovascular responses of rodents exposed by inhalation for up to 6 months to diesel and gasoline exhausts (DE, GE), wood smoke (WS) and simulated downwind coal emissions (CE). Concentrations of the four combustion-derived mixtures ranged from near upper bound plausible to common occupational and environmental hotspot levels. An "exposure effect" statistic was created to compare the strengths of exposure-response relationships and adjustments were made to minimize false positives among the large number of comparisons. All four exposures caused statistically significant effects. No exposure caused overt illness, neutrophilic lung inflammation, increased circulating micronuclei or histopathology of major organs visible by light microscopy. DE and GE caused the greatest lung cytotoxicity. WS elicited the most responses in lung lavage fluid. All exposures reduced oxidant production by unstimulated alveolar macrophages, but only GE suppressed stimulated macrophages. Only DE retarded clearance of bacteria from the lung. DE before antigen challenge suppressed responses of allergic mice. CE tended to amplify allergic responses regardless of exposure order. GE and DE induced oxidant stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses in aorta; WS and CE had no such effects. No overall ranking of toxicity was plausible. The ranking of exposures by number of significant responses varied among the response models, with each of the four causing the most responses for at least one model. Each exposure could also be deemed most or least toxic depending on the exposure metric used for comparison. The database is available for additional analyses. PMID:25162719

  12. Disposition, behavior, and toxicity of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junko Komura; Michiko Sakamoto

    1992-01-01

    The disposition and toxicity of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), a potential substitute for lead in gasoline, was studied to investigate the different adverse effects in ddY mice after chronic oral administration at 0.5 g\\/kg in food for 12 months. There was no significant difference in intake between the control mice and the mice exposed to MMT (MMT group), but those

  13. Chromatography-mass spectrometry and toxicity evaluation of selected contaminants in seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mezcua; M. D. Hernando; L. Piedra; A. Agüera; A. R. Fernández-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Summary  In the present work a combined analytical study involving gas and liquid-chromatography and toxicity studies were developed\\u000a for the determination of various contaminants typically present in sea water samples. The compounds investigated were Diuron,\\u000a Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), lrgarol 1051, Sea nine 211 and MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl\\u000a ether). The selected compounds are additives of boat paints and gasoline and they can

  14. Trichothecenes: structure-toxic activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghua; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Kuca, Kamil; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-07-01

    Trichothecenes comprise a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium. Among trichothecenes, type A and type B are of the most concern due to their broad and highly toxic nature. In order to address structure-activity relationships (SAR) of trichothecenes, relationships between structural features and biological effects of trichothecene mycotoxins in mammalian systems are summarized in this paper. The double bond between C-9-C-10 and the 12,13-epoxide ring are essential structural features for trichothecene toxicity. Removal of these groups results in a complete loss of toxicity. A hydroxyl group at C-3 enhances trichothecene toxicity, while this activity decreases gradually when C-3 is substituted with either hydrogen or an acetoxy group. The presence of a hydroxyl group at C-4 promotes slightly lower toxicity than an acetoxy group at the same position. The toxicity for type B trichothecenes decreases if the substituent at C-4 is changed from acetoxy to hydroxyl or hydrogen at C-4 position. The presence of hydroxyl and hydrogen groups on C-15 decreases the trichothecene toxicity in comparison with an acetoxy group attached to this carbon. Trichothecenes toxicity increases when a macrocyclic ring exists between the C-4 and C-15. At C-8 position, an oxygenated substitution at C-8 is essential for trichothecene toxicity, indicating a decrease in the toxicity if substituent change from isovaleryloxy through hydrogen to the hydroxyl group. The presence of a second epoxy ring at C-7-C-8 reduces the toxicity, whereas epoxidation at C-9-C-10 of some macrocyclic trichothecenes increases the activity. Conjugated trichothecenes could release their toxic precursors after hydrolysis in animals, and present an additional potential risk. The SAR study of trichothecenes should provide some crucial information for a better understanding of trichothecene chemical and biological properties in food contamination. PMID:23869809

  15. Prevention of fouling in internal combustion engines and their exhaust systems and improved gasoline compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a process for operating gasoline engines with spark plug ignition which use a gasoline fuel containing methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl which comprises: using for engines a gasoline containing methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl as an octane improver but containing no additives which include sodium or barium compounds; fouling of the spark plugs with glass-like deposits formed from the oxidation reaction products of sodium and/or barium and manganese is avoided.

  16. Selection and crosslinking modification of membrane material for FCC gasoline desulfurization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligang Lin; Ying Kong; Gang Wang; Huimin Qu; Jinrong Yang; Deqing Shi

    2006-01-01

    Selection and modification of membrane material is important fundamental research for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline desulfurization by membrane process. Solubility parameters of FCC gasoline components and typical polymeric membrane materials were calculated and given out. For thiophene species, which are the primary ones in FCC gasoline, solubility parameters were about 19–21 (J\\/cm3)1\\/2, while about 14–15 (J\\/cm3)1\\/2 for most hydrocarbon

  17. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  18. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's ... period, you may have heard frightening stories about toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a serious illness originally linked ...

  19. Dissolution of monoaromatic hydrocarbons into groundwater from gasoline-oxygenate mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, M.; Lemon, L.; Barker, J.F. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    The effects of the [open quotes]oxygenate[close quotes] additives methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the aqueous solubility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from gasoline were evaluated through equilibrium batch experiments. For a gasoline:water ratio of 1:10 (v/v), up to 15% MTBE or up to 85% methanol in gasoline produced no enhanced BTEX solubility. However, at higher gasoline:water ratios, aqueous methanol concentrations above 10% enhanced BTEX solubility. The initial methanol content of the gasoline and the equilibrating gasoline- to water-phase ratio controlled the aqueous methanol concentration. Partitioning theory and the experimental results were used to calculate aqueous benzene and methanol concentrations in successive batches of fresh groundwater equilibrating with the fuel and subsequent residuals. These successive batches simulated formation of a plume of contaminated groundwater. The front of the plume generated from high-methanol gasoline equilibrating with groundwater at a gasoline:water ratio of more than 1 had high methanol content and elevated BTEX concentrations. Thus, release of high-methanol fuels could have a more serious, initial impact on groundwater than do releases of methanol-free gasoline. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

  1. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size distribution remained approximately the same (50 nm) but the particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content in the fuel. In addition, increasing ethanol content significantly reduced the number concentration of 50 and 100 nm particles during gradual and WOT accelerations.

  2. Chromium toxicity in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun K. Shanker; Carlos Cervantes; Herminia Loza-Tavera; S. Avudainayagam

    2005-01-01

    Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. Toxicity of Cr to plants depends on its valence state: Cr(VI) is highly toxic and mobile whereas Cr(III) is less toxic. Since plants lack a specific transport system for Cr, it is taken up by

  3. UNIFIED AIR TOXICS WEBSITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants are also referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). They are generally defined as those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health problems. Routine toxic air pollutants are emitted by a variety of industrial sources and...

  4. How Toxic Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relative danger from toxicity of some typical chemicals. Notes that some materials in solutions have low toxicity, but in dust form have high toxicity. Suggests that more chemical compounds should be treated as the dangerous compounds they are. Lists common compounds found in the lab. (MVL)

  5. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of natural and depleted uranium: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose L. Domingo

    2001-01-01

    Although the biokinetics, metabolism, and chemical toxicity of uranium are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential toxic effects of uranium on reproduction and development in mammals. In recent years, it has been shown that uranium is a developmental toxicant when given orally or subcutaneously (SC) to mice. Decreased fertility, embryo\\/fetal toxicity including teratogenicity, and reduced

  6. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  7. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  8. Measurement of gasoline adulteration using optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Marulanda, Leonardo A.; Torres Moreno, Cesar O.; Mattos Velazque, Lorenzo

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the application of a fiber optic sensor based on bifurcated fiber bundles; in the bifurcated design, separate fibers carry the excitation and emission radiation. The physics principle is simple, the fraction of light transmitted between the receive elements in the bundle and the transmit elements in the bundles depends of the light wave passes through the gasoline; three fuel-adulterant mixtures in different proportions by volume were prepared and individually tested. The high sensitivity of laser, and the versatility of fiber-optic technology and experiment proved that the system has simple construct and high sensitivity during absorption on a transition process.

  9. Investigation on gasoline deep desulfurization for fuel cell applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Zhang; L. F. Song; J. Y. Hu; S. L. Ong; W. J. Ng; L. Y. Lee; Y. H. Wang; J. G. Zhao; R. Y. Ma

    2005-01-01

    The effect of adding some amounts of cerium into Zn–Fe–O\\/Al2O3 sorbent on its performance of removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline by adsorption was studied in this paper. It showed that the ideal compositions for the preparation of Zn–Fe–Ce–O\\/Al2O3 consisted of 4.54 wt.% ZnO, 2.25 wt.% Fe2O3 and 2.5 wt.% CeO2, respectively, shortened as AZFC0.52. Further study indicated that

  10. Impact of gasoline and diesel specifications on the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, J.A.; Ali, S.A.; Ali, M.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-03-01

    Future gasoline specifications demand reduction in aromatics, benzene, sulfur, volatility, and boiling point. In response, refiners must modify their processing conditions, catalysts, and mode of operation of catalytic reformers and isomerization units. Diesel fuel is also facing tighter specifications for cetane number, aromatic content, sulfur, and color. To meet these specifications, operational modifications include use of higher activity catalysts, higher hydrotreating severity, and two-stage processing. This paper reviews fuel legislation adopted recently worldwide, and refining technology solutions practiced and/or planned to meet the new specifications.

  11. Effect of trifluoperazine on toxicity, HIF-1? induction and hepatocyte regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra, E-mail: SCHAUDHURI@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States) [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); McCullough, Sandra S., E-mail: mcculloughsandras@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hennings, Leah, E-mail: lhennings@uams.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States) [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Brown, Aliza T., E-mail: brownalizat@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Shun-Hwa [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Simpson, Pippa M., E-mail: psimpson@mcw.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Hinson, Jack A., E-mail: hinsonjacka@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); James, Laura P., E-mail: jameslaurap@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are important mechanisms in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. The MPT inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) reduced MPT, oxidative stress, and toxicity in freshly isolated hepatocytes treated with APAP. Since hypoxia inducible factor-one alpha (HIF-1?) is induced very early in APAP toxicity, a role for oxidative stress in the induction has been postulated. In the present study, the effect of TFP on toxicity and HIF-1? induction in B6C3F1 male mice treated with APAP was examined. Mice received TFP (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) prior to APAP (200 mg/kg IP) and at 7 and 36 h after APAP. Measures of metabolism (hepatic glutathione and APAP protein adducts) were comparable in the two groups of mice. Toxicity was decreased in the APAP/TFP mice at 2, 4, and 8 h, compared to the APAP mice. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences in toxicity between the two groups. TFP lowered HIF-1? induction but also reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of hepatocyte regeneration. TFP can also inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and cytosolic and secretory PLA{sub 2} activity levels were reduced in the APAP/TFP mice compared to the APAP mice. TFP also lowered prostaglandin E{sub 2} expression, a known mechanism of cytoprotection. In summary, the MPT inhibitor TFP delayed the onset of toxicity and lowered HIF-1? induction in APAP treated mice. TFP also reduced PGE{sub 2} expression and hepatocyte regeneration, likely through a mechanism involving PLA{sub 2}. -- Highlights: ? Trifluoperazine reduced acetaminophen toxicity and lowered HIF-1? induction. ? Trifluoperazine had no effect on the metabolism of acetaminophen. ? Trifluoperazine reduced hepatocyte regeneration. ? Trifluoperazine reduced phospholipase A{sub 2} activity and prostaglandin E{sub 2} levels.

  12. Comparing the Efficiency of Alternative Policies for Reducing Traffic Congestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian W. H. Parry

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the efficiency of a single lane toll, a congestion tax applied uniformly across freeway lanes, a gasoline tax, and a transit fare subsidy at reducing traffic congestion. The model incorporates a variety of conditions required to reach an efficient outcome. These include conditions for the efficient allocation of travel among competing modes, travel at peak versus off-peak

  13. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  14. Rethinking guideline toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    The guidelines for risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) and other non-pharmaceuticals were developed over three decades ago and have generally not been updated to incorporate advancements in toxicology and exposure sciences. These guidelines recommend using maximum-tolerated-dose (MTD) even when human relevance of such high doses is mostly limited due to orders of magnitude margin-of-exposure. Conducting animal studies at such high doses often requires further mode-of-action (MoA) studies elucidating human relevance. In order to improve data, ILSI/HESI-ACSA technical committee proposed a tiered approach with emphasis on determining systemic dose of parent and/or metabolite(s) in test animals as biological effects are reflective of systemic rather than administered dose. Any deviation from linearity in systemic dose (saturation of absorption or elimination) in animal studies may have profound toxic effect(s) not expected to occur in likely human exposure scenarios and should be avoided. Toxicity studies should ideally be conducted at kinetically linear doses or slightly above the point of departure from linearity or kinetically-derived maximum dose (KMD) as the systemic dose nonlinearity is a more sensitive parameter occurring much earlier than the MTD endpoints. Therefore, determining systemic dose, especially KMD, in study animals is an improvement to hazard assessment of PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals allowing toxicologists to better understand findings in animals at systemically linear as well as nonlinear doses to likely human exposures which can easily be accomplished using core study animals as outlined below. Determining systemic dose in studies will also increase the understanding of initial potential MoA of a PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals and reduce the use of animals by avoiding unnecessary additional MoA studies. PMID:25980640

  15. Fleets and fuel prices in Latin America Part II - Gasoline: Gallons of gasoline per week per passenger car selected countries in Latin America, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-31

    According to latest available statistics, one in fourteen persons in Latin America has a car and consumes 13 gallons of gasoline per week, on average. This is low but is likely to rise dramatically if current economic thinking holds.

  16. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline pumping station? 63.11087 Section 63...Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission Limitations and...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline pumping station? 63.11088 Section 63...Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission Limitations and...

  18. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  19. Chemometric classification of casework arson samples based on gasoline content.

    PubMed

    Sinkov, Nikolai A; Sandercock, P Mark L; Harynuk, James J

    2014-02-01

    Detection and identification of ignitable liquids (ILs) in arson debris is a critical part of arson investigations. The challenge of this task is due to the complex and unpredictable chemical nature of arson debris, which also contains pyrolysis products from the fire. ILs, most commonly gasoline, are complex chemical mixtures containing hundreds of compounds that will be consumed or otherwise weathered by the fire to varying extents depending on factors such as temperature, air flow, the surface on which IL was placed, etc. While methods such as ASTM E-1618 are effective, data interpretation can be a costly bottleneck in the analytical process for some laboratories. In this study, we address this issue through the application of chemometric tools. Prior to the application of chemometric tools such as PLS-DA and SIMCA, issues of chromatographic alignment and variable selection need to be addressed. Here we use an alignment strategy based on a ladder consisting of perdeuterated n-alkanes. Variable selection and model optimization was automated using a hybrid backward elimination (BE) and forward selection (FS) approach guided by the cluster resolution (CR) metric. In this work, we demonstrate the automated construction, optimization, and application of chemometric tools to casework arson data. The resulting PLS-DA and SIMCA classification models, trained with 165 training set samples, have provided classification of 55 validation set samples based on gasoline content with 100% specificity and sensitivity. PMID:24447448

  20. MODELING THE PARTITIONING OF BTEX IN WATER-REFORMULATED GASOLINE SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHANOL (R821114)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this research were to quantify the extent of cosolvency for water?gasoline mixtures containing ethanol and to identify appropriate modeling tools for predicting the equilibrium partitioning of BTEX compounds and ethanol between an ethanol-bearing gasoline and wa...

  1. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  2. Numerical analysis of buoyancy effects during the dissolution and transport of oxygenated gasoline in groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Molson; M. Mocanu; J. Barker

    2008-01-01

    Dissolution of oxygenated gasoline, as well as buoyancy-driven groundwater flow and transport of the multicomponent dissolved phase plumes, is simulated numerically in three dimensions. The simulations are based on a field experiment described by Mocanu (2007) in which three oxygenated gasoline sources were emplaced as nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) below the water table of the shallow sand aquifer at Canadian

  3. Combining NMR and GC-MS to Characterize Olefin Rich Fractions of Automotive Gasolines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. O. Silva; San Gil; C. R. Kaiser; D. A. Azevedo; L. A. D'Avila

    Gasolines obtained during FCC process (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) have better antiknocking properties, but tend to form gum, which results from olefin polymerization of conjugated dienes. Considering the low concentration of these compounds in this kind of fuel, olefin rich fractions were obtained by eluting FCC gasoline samples through packed silica gel columns impregnated with silver nitrate. Unsaturated rich fractions were

  4. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. 86.340-79 Section 86.340-79...Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.340-79 Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies...

  5. Gasoline quality prediction using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy: An artificial intelligence approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Brudzewski; A. Kesik; K. Ko?odziejczyk; U. Zborowska; J. Ulaczyk

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on analysis of 45 gasoline samples with different qualities, namely, octane number and chemical composition. Measurements of data from gas chromatography and IR (FTIR) spectroscopy are used to gasoline quality prediction and classification. The data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy C means (FCM) algorithm. The data were then analyzed following the neural network

  6. DIRECT DETERMINATION OF PHOSPHORUS IN GASOLINE BY FLAMELESS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method is presented for the determination of phosphorus in gasoline using flameless atomic absorption. Lanthanum nitrate solution is inserted in a graphite furnace prior to direct addition of gasoline. The organic matrix is charred prior to atomization of the phosphorus. Th...

  7. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  8. GASOLINE/DIESEL PM SPLIT STUDY: LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLE TESTING, DATA, AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During June 2001, the EPA participated in DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study in Riverside, California. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of diesel versus gasoline-powered exhaust to the particulate matter (PM) inventory in the South Coast Air Basin. T...

  9. Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in

    E-print Network

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Ethanol is being increasingly flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up

  10. Indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: product price vs product slate

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.; McCracken, D.J.; Forrester, R.C. III

    1980-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts process analysis and engineering evaluation studies for the Department of Energy to provide, on a consistent basis, technical and economic assessments of processes and systems for coal conversion and utilization. Such assessments permit better understanding of the relative technical and economic potential of these processes. The objective of the work described here was to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility, economic competitiveness, and environmental acceptability of selected indirect coal liquefaction processes on a uniform, consistent, and impartial basis. Particular emphasis is placed on production of methanol as a principal product or methanol production for conversion to gasoline. Potential uses for the methanol are combustion in peaking-type turbines or blending with gasoline to yield motor fuel. Conversion of methanol to gasoline is accomplished through the use of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Under the guidance of ORNL, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Houston Division, prepared four conceptual process designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to either methanol or gasoline. The conceptual designs are based on the use of consistent technology for the core of the plant (gasification through methanol synthesis) with additional processing as necessary for production of different liquid products of interest. The bases for the conceptual designs are given. The case designations are: methanol production for turbine-grade fuel; methanol production for gasoline blending; gasoline production with coproduction of SNG; and gasoline production maximized.

  11. Gasoline alkylation desulfurization over Amberlyst 35 resin: Influence of methanol and apparent reaction kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benshuai Guo; Rong Wang; Yonghong Li

    Gasoline desulfurization is receiving attention worldwide due to the increasing stringent regulations on sulfur content for environmental protection purpose. As conventional hydrotreating technology leads to significant octane number loss and processing costs, the gasoline alkylation desulfurization process, which consists of weighing down the sulfuric compounds by catalytic alkylation with olefins present in the feed and distillation followed by, is a

  12. Developing an accelerated aging system for gasoline particulate filters and an evaluation test for effects on engine performance

    E-print Network

    Jorgensen, James E. (James Eastman)

    2014-01-01

    Stringent regulations worldwide will limit the level of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline engines equipped with direct fuel injection. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one strategy for meeting PM ...

  13. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, W M; Beasley, T E; McDaniel, K L; Evansky, P A; Martin, S A; Moser, V C; Gilbert, M E; Bushnell, P J

    2015-01-01

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoline alone (E0) and gasoline with 15% or 85% ethanol (E15 and E85, respectively). Rat dams were exposed for 6.5h daily to the vapors at concentrations of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000ppm in inhalation chambers from gestational day (GD) 9 through 20. Cage controls (offspring of non-exposed dams that remained in the animal facility during these exposures) were also assessed in the E0 experiment, but showed no consistent differences from the offspring of air-exposed controls. Offspring were tested as adults with trace fear conditioning, Morris water maze, or appetitive operant responding. With fear conditioning, no significant effects were observed on cue or context learning. In the water maze, there were no differences in place learning or escaping to a visible platform. However, during the reference memory probe (no platform) male rats exposed prenatally to E85 vapor (6000 and 9000ppm) failed to show a bias for the target quadrant. Across studies, females (treated and some controls) were less consistent in this measure. Males showed no differences during match-to-place learning (platform moved each day) in any experiment and females showed only transient differences in latency and path length in the E0 experiment. Similarly, no differences were observed in delayed match-to-sample operant performance of E0 males or females; thus this test was not used to evaluate effects of E15 or E85 vapors. During choice reaction time assessments (only males were tested) decision and movement times were unimpaired by any prenatal exposure, while anticipatory responses were increased by vapors of E0 (9000ppm) and E15 (6000 and 9000ppm), and the latter group also showed reduced accuracy. E85 vapors did not disrupt any choice reaction time measure. Finally, no response inhibition deficit was observed in a differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) response schedule in males or females in the E15 or E85 experiments. In summary, prenatal exposure to these fuel blends produced few deficits in adult offspring on these cognitive tests. Significant effects found during a water maze probe trial and choice reaction time tests were observed at vapor concentrations of 6000ppm or higher, a concentration that is 4-6 orders of magnitude higher than those associated with normal automotive fueling operations and garages. Similar effects were not consistently observed in a previous study of inhaled ethanol, and thus these effects cannot be attributed to the concentration of ethanol in the mixture. PMID:25876165

  14. Quantity-based and toxicity-based evaluation of the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Lam, Carl W; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-06-15

    The U.S. EPA Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) represents an extensive, publicly available dataset on toxics and, as such, has contributed to reducing the releases and disposal of toxic chemicals. The TRI, however, reports on a wide range of releases from different sources, some of which are less likely to generate a human or ecological hazard. Furthermore, the TRI is quantity based and does not take into account the relative toxicity of chemicals. In an effort to utilize the TRI more effectively to guide environmental management and policy, this work provides an in-depth analysis of the quantity-based TRI data for year 2007 at industry sector, state, and chemical levels and couples it with toxicity potentials. These toxicity potentials are derived from the U.S. EPA's TRACI (Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts) characterization factors for cancer, non-cancer and ecotoxicity. The combination of quantity-based and toxicity-based analysis allows a more robust evaluation of toxics use and priorities. Results show, for instance, that none of the highest priority chemicals identified through the toxicity-based evaluation would have been identified if only quantity-based evaluation had been used. As the chemicals are aggregated to the state and industry sector levels, the discrepancies between the evaluation methods are less significant. PMID:20122796

  15. Review of new evidence regarding the relationship of gasoline exposure to kidney cancer and leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Enterline, P.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Four new or updated epidemiologic studies were presented at a meeting on the health effects of gasoline exposure held in Miami, Florida, November 5-8, 1991. A focus of these studies was whether there is a relationship between gasoline exposure and kidney cancer and leukemia. For gasoline distribution workers, who have a relatively high exposure, there was some evidence for a kidney cancer relationship in three studies but none in the fourth. There was evidence for an acute myelocytic leukemia relationship in three studies. The fourth study dealt only with kidney cancer. It is possible that the benzene content of gasoline was responsible for the leukemia findings. It is uncertain whether gasoline exposure is a cause of kidney cancer. 8 refs.

  16. Asymmetry in retail gasoline and crude oil price movements in the United States: An application of hidden cointegration technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afshin Honarvar

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that gasoline prices respond more quickly to crude oil price increases than decreases. Some economists and politicians believe that asymmetry in oil and gasoline price movements is the outcome of a non-competitive gasoline market requiring that governments take policy action to address “unfair pricing”. There is no consensus as to the existence, or nature, of

  17. Development of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities in Laborers after Acute Gasoline Fume Exposure in an Underground Tunneling Operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann L. Davidoff; Penelope M. Keyl; William Meggs

    1998-01-01

    In this article, investigators report on the presence and nature of chemical sensitivities and other indices of illness in a cohort of workers excavating a new subway tunnel located under a former gasoline station. The workers were exposed to gasoline fumes for up to approximately 2 mo when they inadvertently dug into soil contaminated by gasoline. The cohort was unique

  18. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc W. Melaina

    2007-01-01

    During the first decades of the 20th century, a variety of gasoline refueling methods supported early US gasoline vehicles and successfully alleviated consumer concerns over refueling availability. The refueling methods employed included cans, barrels, home refueling outfits, parking garage refueling facilities, mobile stations, hand carts and curb pumps. Only after robust markets for gasoline vehicles had been firmly established did

  19. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. M Rahman; I. M Banat; J Thahira; Tha Thayumanavan; P Lakshmanaperumalsamy

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv)

  20. Toxic optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Kesler; Pazit Pianka

    2003-01-01

    Toxic optic neuropathy is a complex, multifactorial disease potentially affecting individuals of all ages, races, places,\\u000a and economic strata. Etiology includes nutritional, environmental, toxicologic, and genetic factors. Most cases of nutritional\\u000a amblyopia are encountered in disadvantaged countries. However, toxic amblyopia related to drug treatment or alcohol abuse\\u000a is also encountered in the Western world. Typically, toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy

  1. Air pollution by gasoline exhaust fumes: effect on platelet function and blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Coppola, L; Giunta, R; Grassia, A; Misso, L; Verrazzo, G; Violano, P F; Grandillo, F; Tirelli, A

    1989-01-01

    Air pollution induced by automobile exhaust fumes seems to be involved in increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity. The effects of inhalation of such pollutant gases on platelet function and blood viscosity have not been sufficiently investigated, even if these parameters seem to be in strict correlation with cardiovascular function. Twelve healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed for 30 minutes in a closed room to air polluted by automobile fumes. Platelet aggregation, blood viscosity, HbCO levels and P50 STD were determined before and after exposure. Cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate and ECG) were also measured. At the end of the test, HbCO levels were significantly increased, but P50 STD was significantly reduced; an impairment of both platelet function and blood viscosity was observed. No significant changes in cardiovascular parameters were recorded. The decreases in platelet aggregation and blood viscosity were not directly correlated with either the increase in carbon monoxide levels or with the reduced P50 STD levels. It can be reasonably concluded that gasoline exhaust fumes could have been responsible for the observed alterations. PMID:2796827

  2. Selected chemical characteristics and acute toxicity of urban stormwater, streamflow, and bed material, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical analyses indicated that urban stormwater could degrade the quality of streamflow because of oil and grease, pesticides, dissolved trace metals, and ammonia in stormwater. Ammonia, lead, cadmium, and zinc are released by urban activities and accumulate in bed material. Ammonia could be from fertilizers, fecal matter, and other sources. Lead is probably from vehicles that use leaded gasoline. Cadmium and zinc could be from particulate metal in oil, brake pads, and other sources. Samples of the initial runoff from urban drainage basins appeared to be more toxic than flow-weighted composite samples, and stormwater was more harmful to fathead minnows than to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Streamflow samples from the Salt River were not toxic to either species. The sensitivity of fathead minnows to urban stormwater from most urban drainage basins indicated that the toxicants were detrimental to fish and could be present in stormwater throughout Phoenix. Results of toxicity identification evaluations indicated the toxicity was mostly due to organic constituents. Mortality, however, did not correlate with organophosphate pesticide concentrations. Surfactants and (or) other constituents leached from asphalt could be toxic. The most toxic bed-material samples were collected from an undeveloped drainage basin. Within urban-drainage basins, bed-material samples collected where stormwater accumulates appeared to be more toxic than samples collected from areas unaffected by stormwater. Mortality rates correlated with recoverable concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium; however these rates correlated poorly with pesticide concentrations. The bioavailability of trace metals appeared to be controlled by the adsorption properties of bed material.

  3. Chloramphenicol toxicity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D

    1977-07-01

    Twenty dogs were given chloramphenicol by mouth night and morning for 14 days: six dogs were dosed at 225 mg/kg/day, four each at 175 and 125 mg/kg/day and three each at 275 and 75 mg/kg/day. Six control dogs were given empty gelatin capsules twice daily for the same period. Dogs dosed at 75 mg/kg consumed more food and gained a little more weight than the control dogs, while those in the 175, 225 and 275 mg/kg groups ate less and lost weight. Four dogs dosed at 175 mg/kg or above became dull and depressed and virtually ceased to eat. No changes were observed in erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume or total and differential leukocyte counts during the experiment. Bone marrow examination showed suppression of erythropoiesis in four of nine dogs dosed at 225 or 275 mg/kg/day. In addition, there was evidence of decreased mitotic activity and reduced rate of granulocytopoiesis in the 275 mg/kg group. Vacuolation of marrow cells was not observed. The two toxic effects observed (depression and hypophagia on the one hand, marrow suppression on the other) occurred separately or together in individual dogs. PMID:905657

  4. Reduction of lead concentrations in vegetables grown in Tarragona Province, Spain, as a consequence of reduction of lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, M.; Rico, A.; Schuhmacher, M. [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain)] [and others] [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain); and others

    1995-12-31

    Lead concentrations were determined in 350 samples belonging to 13 different species of vegetables from Tarragona Province, Spain. The samples were subjected to lead analyses by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During the period 1989-1994, an average decrease for lead concentrations of 69% was estimated. Spinach showed the lowest reduction2 in lead content (6%), while the highest decreases were observed for onion (87%) and leek (90%). Taking into account the average consumption of vegetable foodstuffs by the population of Tarragona Province, the daily lead intake through edible vegetables was reduced from 41.5 {mu}g/d in 1989 to 10.6 {mu}g/d in 1994. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantial decline in the lead levels of vegetables from Tarragona Province. The major cause of this decline is most likely the reduced leaded gasoline consumption.

  5. Statistical discrimination of liquid gasoline samples from casework.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas D K; Gil, Mark; Pizzola, Peter A; Kubic, T A

    2008-09-01

    The intention of this study was to differentiate liquid gasoline samples from casework by utilizing multivariate pattern recognition procedures on data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A supervised learning approach was undertaken to achieve this goal employing the methods of principal component analysis (PCA), canonical variate analysis (CVA), orthogonal canonical variate analysis (OCVA), and linear discriminant analysis. The study revealed that the variability in the sample population was sufficient enough to distinguish all the samples from one another knowing their groups a priori. CVA was able to differentiate all samples in the population using only three dimensions, while OCVA required four dimensions. PCA required 10 dimensions of data in order to predict the correct groupings. These results were all cross-validated using the "jackknife" method to confirm the classification functions and compute estimates of error rates. The results of this initial study have helped to develop procedures for the application of multivariate analysis to fire debris casework. PMID:18643865

  6. Environmental contamination and human exposure to manganese--contribution of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zayed, J; Vyskocil, A; Kennedy, G

    1999-01-01

    The organomanganese compound MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline, has been used in Canada since 1976. Indeed, Canada is the only country where MMT is almost exclusively used. In October 1995, by court decision the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) granted Ethyl's waiver for the use of MMT in the United States. Paradoxically, in 1997 the federal government of Canada adopted a law (C-29) that banned both the interprovincial trade and the importation for commercial purposes of manganese-based substances, including MMT. However, MMT is currently widely used in Canada because of substantial stockpiling, and six Canadian provinces are challenging the law in the courts. Moreover, MMT has been approved for use in Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Russia, and conditionally, in New Zealand. It has been suggested by some scientists that combustion of MMT may be a significant source of exposure to inorganic Mn in urban areas. The crucial question is whether Mn contamination from industrial sources combined with the additional contamination that would result from the widespread use of MMT would lead to toxic effects. Our research efforts have attempted to assess the environmental/ecosystem Mn contamination arising from the combustion of MMT in abiotic and biotic systems as well as human exposure. The experimental evidence acquired so far provides useful information on certain environmental consequences of the use of MMT as well as raising a number of questions. Our results gave evidence indicating that roadside air, soils, plants, and animals may be contaminated by Mn. As well, some specific groups of the population could have a higher level of exposure to Mn. Nevertheless, the levels of exposure remain below international guide values. Further studies and further characterization of dose-response relationships are thus needed to provide successful implementation of evidence-based risk-assessment approaches. PMID:10029224

  7. Oxy-gasoline torch. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Under the deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) Implementation Plan of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), non-recyclable process components and debris that are removed from buildings undergoing D and D are disposed of in an on-site disposal facility (OSDF). Critical to the design and operation of the FEMP`s OSDF are provisions to protect against subsidence of the OSDF`s cap. Subsidence of the cap could occur if void spaces within the OSDF were to collapse under the overburden of debris and the OSDF cap. Subsidence may create significant depressions in the OSDF`s cap in which rainwater could collect and eventually seep into the OSDF. To minimize voids in the FEMP`s OSDF, large metallic components are cut into smaller segments that can be arranged more compactly when placed in the OSDF. Component segmentation using an oxy-acetylene cutting torch was the baseline approach used by the FEMP`s D and D contractor on Plant 1, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Services, Inc., for the dismantlement and size-reduction of large metal components. Although this technology has performed satisfactorily, improvements are sought in the areas of productivity, airborne contamination, safety, and cost. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of using an oxy-gasoline torch as an alternative to the baseline oxy-acetylene torch for segmenting D and D components. This report provides a comparative analysis of the cost and performance of the baseline oxy-acetylene torch currently used by B and W Services, Inc., and the innovative oxy-gasoline torch.

  8. Toxicity of Manganese to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Lasier; P. V. Winger; K. J. Bogenrieder

    2000-01-01

    .   Manganese is a toxic element frequently overlooked when assessing toxicity of effluents, sediments, and pore waters. Manganese\\u000a can be present at toxic levels in anoxic solutions due to increased solubility under chemically reducing conditions, and it\\u000a can remain at those levels for days in aerated test waters due to slow precipitation kinetics. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca are freshwater

  9. Use of powdered coconut charcoal as a toxicity identification and evaluation manipulation for organic toxicants in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Serbst, Jonathan R; Cook, Howard; Cantwell, Mark G; Ryba, Stephen A; Perron, Monique M; Lebo, Jon; Huckins, James; Petty, Jimmie

    2004-09-01

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endosulfan-spiked sediments by 100%. Powdered coconut charcoal also was effective in removing almost 100% of the toxicity from two field sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Powdered coconut charcoal did not change the toxicity of ammonia or metal-spiked sediments; however, there was some quantitative reduction in the concentrations of free metals (element specific) in metal-spiked sediments. Powdered coconut charcoal is an effective, relatively specific method to sequester and remove toxicity from sediments contaminated with organic contaminants. PMID:15378988

  10. Anaerobic biodegradation of known and potential gasoline oxygenates in the terrestrial subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Suflita, J.M.; Mormile, M.R. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The octane enhancer tetraethyllead has been largely phased out of automobile fuels due to environmental and health concerns. Oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol, methanol, and tert-butylalcohol provide both octane enhancement and oxygen content to gasolines. It is the authors' contention that the environmental and health risks associated with the use of gasoline oxygenates has not been fully evaluated since the fate of gasoline has not been taken into account. Gasoline is often spilled or leaks from storage facilities and contaminates surrounding environments, including aquifers. In the United States alone, tens of millions of gallons of gasoline may be released from storage tanks to the ground each year. They sought to (i) examine known and potential gasoline oxygenates for their susceptibility to anaerobic decay, (ii) identify structural features that tended to favor or retard the anaerobic destruction of these materials, and (iii) identify potential gasoline oxygenates which may be more environmentally acceptable than the additives currently employed. 31 refs., 1 tab.

  11. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 ? is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 ?C m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  12. Rapid analysis of gasoline-contaminated soil using multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Tomohiro; Hironaka, Yuki; Mori, Misako

    2013-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MPI/TOFMS) was modified for the rapid analysis of gasoline-contaminated soil. This technique uses a nanosecond laser emitting at 266 nm, and has the potential to produce the mass spectrum for gasoline 30 min after sampling. The rapidity and robustness of the method can be applied to the screening of gasoline-contaminated soils while minimizing the risk of contamination when gas chromatograph (GC) is used. GC/MPI/TOFMS was used for a simultaneous determination of aromatic compounds of gasoline in a soil sample, and this was achieved without interference. A peak for toluene can be observed from 0.02 ng of gasoline, and ten peaks of aromatic hydrocarbons, which are sensitive to measurement by a laser, can be observed from 0.65 ng of gasoline. The MPI/TOFMS had good sensitivity and selectivity, and was therefore useful for the rapid analysis of gasoline-contaminated soils. PMID:23303090

  13. Toward the development of Raman spectroscopy as a nonperturbative online monitoring tool for gasoline adulteration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Khay M; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara C; Singh, Gajendra P; Chia, Tet F; Tok, Wee L

    2013-02-01

    There is a critical need for a real-time, nonperturbative probe for monitoring the adulteration of automotive gasoline. Running on adulterated fuel leads to a substantive increase in air pollution, because of increased tailpipe emissions of harmful pollutants, as well as a reduction in engine performance. Consequently, both classification of the gasoline type and quantification of the adulteration content are of great significance for quality control. Gasoline adulteration detection is currently carried out in the laboratory with gas chromatography, which is time-consuming and costly. Here, we propose the application of Raman spectroscopic measurements for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration. In this proof-of-principle report, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Raman spectra, in conjunction with multivariate analysis methods, in classifying the base oil types and simultaneously detecting the adulteration content in a wide range of commercial gasoline mixtures, both in their native states and spiked with different adulterants. In particular, we show that Raman spectra acquired with an inexpensive noncooled detector provides adequate specificity to clearly discriminate between the gasoline samples and simultaneously characterize the specific adulterant content with a limit of detection below 5%. Our promising results in this study illustrate, for the first time, the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with multivariate analysis, as a low-cost, powerful tool for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration and opens substantive avenues for applications in related fields of quality control in the oil industry. PMID:23259604

  14. Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.M. Jr.; Morris, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms in 24 h) to the 96-h LC50 has a median value of 2.0 and is fairly uniform across species; toxicity tests of differing duration can therefore be standardized to a common duration. In general, chronic effects are difficult to detect at concentrations below one-fifth of the 96-h LC50. Most fish concentrate nitrite in fresh water; chloride in the external environment offsets the toxicity of nitrite by competing with nitrite for uptake through the chloride cells of the gills. Bicarbonate also reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but it is less than 1% as effective as chloride. Calcium reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but much less than chloride; the effects of other metal cations have not been studied. Hydrogen ion concentration of the medium has not been shown to have a discrete effect on the toxicity of nitrite except at extreme concentrations uncharacteristic of the environments in which fish ordinarily live. Nitrite toxicity is exacerbated by low oxygen concentrations because nitrite reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Very small fish seem less sensitive to nitrite than fish of intermediate or large size. Present evidence suggests that salmonids are among the fishes most sensitive to nitrite. The least-sensitive species tested thus far are the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; the largemouth bass does not concentrate nitrite.

  15. Low toxicity corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, P.; Naraghi, A.R.; Saffer, C.E. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of low toxicity corrosion inhibitors. New chemistries have been investigated with respect to corrosion protection and impact on the marine environment. The resulting chemicals, while they are effective corrosion inhibitors, present significant improvements in terms of environmental properties over current products. The discussion includes results of the corrosion inhibition, toxicity, biodegradability and partitioning studies.

  16. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82%, respectively. PMID:19728485

  17. USGS: Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The USGS's Toxic Substances Hydrology Program supplies "scientific information to improve characterization and management of contaminated sites, to protect human and environmental health, and to reduce potential future contamination problems." The website features comprehensible articles with links to supplementary materials addressing the latest research findings. Researchers can find information on computer simulations and statistical models. The website provides examples of the program's three major research components: subsurface point-source contamination; watershed and regional scale contamination; and methods development and fundamental research. Users can find a list and downloads to recent publications, a series of educational fact sheets, and an interesting photo gallery.

  18. The relationship between gasoline composition and vehicle hydrocarbon emissions: a review of current studies and future research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Schuetzle, D; Siegl, W O; Jensen, T E; Dearth, M A; Kaiser, E W; Gorse, R; Kreucher, W; Kulik, E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current studies concerning the relationship of fuel composition to vehicle engine-out and tail-pipe emissions and to outline future research needed in this area. A number of recent combustion experiments and vehicle studies demonstrated that reformulated gasoline can reduce vehicle engine-out, tail-pipe, running-loss, and evaporative emissions. Some of these studies were extended to understand the fundamental relationships between fuel composition and emissions. To further establish these relationships, it was necessary to develop advanced analytical methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons in fuels and vehicle emissions. The development of real-time techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser diode spectroscopy, and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry were useful in studying the transient behavior of exhaust emissions under various engine operating conditions. Laboratory studies using specific fuels and fuel blends were carried out using pulse flame combustors, single- and multicylinder engines, and vehicle fleets. Chemometric statistical methods were used to analyze the large volumes of emissions data generated from these studies. Models were developed that were able to accurately predict tail-pipe emissions from fuel chemical and physical compositional data. Some of the primary fuel precursors for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and C2-C4 alkene emissions are described. These studies demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between gasoline composition and tail-pipe emissions. PMID:7529705

  19. Conversion of methanol to gasoline extended project: methanol to olefins modification and operation of the demonstration plant milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.; Soto, J.; Avidan, A.; Gierlich, H.; Thiagaraja, N.

    1986-04-01

    This milestone report documents operation of the fluid-bed Methanol-to Olefins (MTO process in a 100 BPD demonstration plant. The MTO process converts methanol to light olefins over Mobil's shape selective zeolite catalyst. High octane gasoline is a coproduct. The olefin mixture produced is especially well suited for production of premium diesel or jet fuel via Mobil's Olefins to Gasoline and Distillate (MOGD) Process. The scope of this project, however, covered only the MTO process. Specific conclusions which can be drawn from the 100 BPD demonstration plant operation and the 4 BPD pilot plant pretests, are: Total olefins yield in both units were within 1 to 2 wt% when compared at similar conditions; methanol breakthrough occurred at a lower propane/propene ratio, indicating better conversion efficiency, in the 100 BPT unit; stable steady-state operation with continuous regeneration and fresh catalyst makeup was successfully demonstrated in the 100 BPD plant; lower pressure increased total olefins yield at constant methanol conversion. Pressure could not be reduced below about 2.2 bar in the 100 BPD demonstration plant, due to bottlenecks in the gas compressor and in heat removal; and higher reactor temperatures increased total olefins yield at constant methanol conversion. however, higher reactor temperatures also increased light paraffins yield.

  20. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  1. Ammonia and sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.S.; Hansen, S.R. [S.R. Hansen and Associates, Concord, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ammonia toxicity to aquatic organisms has received considerable study, with most of these studies focusing on water column organisms. However, with the development and implementation of sediment (and pore water) toxicity tests, the toxicity of ammonia to benthic infauna and other sediment toxicity test organisms has become important, especially since sediment/porewater ammonia occurs at higher concentrations than in the water column. Unfortunately, there has been very little of this type information, especially for marine/estuarine organisms. This laboratory determined the toxicity of ammonia to three key marine/estuarine test organisms: the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, the bivalve Mytilus edulis, and the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Because sediment/porewater pH can differ substantially from typical seawater pH, the toxicity evaluations covered a range of pH levels (6, 7, 8, and 9). Eohaustorius results indicate that while Total Ammonia increased in toxicity (measured as EC50) as pH increased (from 460 mg/L at pH 6, to 13 mg/L at pH 9), unionized ammonia toxicity decreased from 0.13 mg/L at pH 6 to 2.8 mg/L at pH 9. The amphipod was much less sensitive to ammonia than were the bivalve and echinoderm, with an unionized ammonia EC50 at pH 8 of 2.14 mg/L relative to 0.43 mg/L for the mussel and 0.13 mg/L for the purple urchin. These results are discussed with respect to design and interpretation of sediment toxicity test results, including an interpretation approach based on partitioning of Toxic Units (TU).

  2. Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

  3. Modeling the effect of ethanol/gasoline blend usage on ozone formation in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.M.; Meagher, J.F.

    1986-07-01

    The potential effects of ozone formation which would result if the 1985 vehicle fleet were converted from gasoline to ethanol/gasoline blends were investigated using the EKMA approach. Changes in vehicular emissions were used to calculate changes in ambient HC reactivities and ambient levels of HC, NO/sub x/ and CO for a number of scenarios. Ozone formation was then modeled for each scenario. Effects on ozone formation were not significant unless the usage of ethanol/gasoline blends resulted in deterioration of the emissions control systems. Ambient NO/sub x/HC ratios were shown to have a significant effect on ozone formation.

  4. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > ... and Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a ...

  5. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Engineering Bulletin is intended to provide site managers with information on ecological assessment and biological toxicity testing, applicability of biological toxicity testing, planning effective biological toxicity assessments, descriptions of test methods, limitations, c...

  6. Administration of Carcinogens and other Toxic Chemicals in

    E-print Network

    Manning, Sturt

    Administration of Carcinogens and other Toxic Chemicals in Laboratory Rodents Animal Biosafety Procedures Approved by: Frank A. Cantone Last revised by: Sabrina Guarino Revision date: 07/05/12 ABP_Carcinogens practices, procedures, and equipment to reduce risk when introducing carcinogens and other toxic chemical

  7. Chronic Rat Toxicity Prediction of Chemical Compounds Using Kernel Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Hinselmann; Andreas Jahn; Nikolas Fechner; Andreas Zell

    2009-01-01

    A recently published study showed the feasibility of chronic rat toxicity prediction, an important task to reduce the number of animal experiments using the knowledge of previous experiments. We bench-marked various kernel learning approaches for the prediction of chronic toxicity on a set of 565 chemical compounds, labeled with the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level, and achieved a prediction error

  8. Review of toxicity studies performed on an underground coal gasification condensate water

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, F.P.

    1987-09-01

    Three studies related to the toxicity of underground coal gasification (UCG) waters have bee conducted: (1) toxicity study of UCG water and its fractions as determined by the Microtox test, (2) toxicity study of biotreated UCG water as determined by the Microtox test, and (3) toxicity study of UCG water to macroinvertebrates. The results of these studies are summarized herein. The gas condensate water from the UCG process is extremely toxic as determined by assays with photoluminescent bacteria (Microtox), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates (mayflies), and Daphnia magna (water flea). Microtox bioassays reveal that the toxic components of the water reside in both the organophilic and hydrophilic fractions, although the organophilic fraction is notably more toxic. A sequential treatment process reduced the toxicity of the UCG water, as measured by the Microtox test. Solvent extraction (to remove phenols) followed by ammonia stripping yielded a less toxic water. Additional treatment by activated sludge further reduced toxicity. Finally, the addition of powdered activated carbon to the activated sludge yielded the least toxic water. A bioassay technique was developed for lotic (running water) macroinvertebrates (Drunella doddsi and Iron longimanus). The toxicity results were compared with results from the traditional test animal, Daphnia magna. Short-term exposures to the UCG waters were more toxic to Daphnia magna than to Drunella doddsi or Iron longimanus, although the toxicity values begin to merge with longer test exposure. The greater toxicity seems to be related to a thinner exoskeleton. 26 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Contract portfolio optimization for a gasoline supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan

    Major oil companies sell gasoline through three channels of trade: branded (associated with long-term contracts), unbranded (associated with short-term contracts), and spot market. The branded channel provides them with a long-term secured and sustainable demand source, but requires an inflexible long-term commitment with demand and price risks. The unbranded channel provides a medium level of allocation flexibility. The spot market provides them with the greatest allocation flexibility to the changing market conditions, but the spot market's illiquidity mitigates this benefit. In order to sell the product in a profitable and sustainable way, they need an optimal contract portfolio. This dissertation addresses the contract portfolio optimization problem from different perspectives (retrospective view and forward-looking view) at different levels (strategic level, tactical level and operational level). The objective of the retrospective operational model is to develop a financial case to estimate the business value of having a dynamic optimization model and quantify the opportunity values missed in the past. This model proves the financial significance of the problem and provides top management valuable insights into the business. BP has applied the insights and principles gained from this work and implemented the model to the entire Midwest gasoline supply chain to retrospectively review optimization opportunities. The strategic model is the most parsimonious model that captures the essential economic tradeoffs among different contract types, to demonstrate the need for a contract portfolio and what drives the portfolio. We examine the properties of the optimal contract portfolio and provide a comparative statics analysis by changing the model parameters. As the strategic model encapsulates the business problem at the macroscopic level, the tactical model resolves lower level issues. It considers the time dynamics, the information flow and contracting flow. Using this model, we characterize a simple and easily implementable dynamic contract portfolio policy that would enable the company to dynamically rebalance its supply contract portfolio over time in anticipation of the future market conditions in each individual channel while satisfying the contractual obligations. The optimal policy is a state-dependent base-share contract portfolio policy characterized by a branded base-share level and an unbranded contract commitment combination, given as a function of the initial information state. Using real-world market data, we estimate the model parameters. We also apply an efficient modified policy iteration method to compute the optimal contract portfolio strategies and corresponding profit value. We present computational results in order to obtain insights into the structure of optimal policies, capture the value of the dynamic contract portfolio policy by comparing it with static policies, and illustrate the sensitivity of the optimal contract portfolio and corresponding profit value in terms of the different parameters. Considering the geographic dispersion of different market areas and the pipeline network together with the dynamic contract portfolio optimization problem, we formulate a forward-looking operational model, which could be used by gasoline suppliers for lower-level planning. Finally, we discuss the generalization of the framework to other problems and applications, as well as further research.

  10. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  11. CHALLENGES IN BIODEGRADATION OF TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS-GASOLINE OXYGENATES AND SEX HORMONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

  12. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, J.; Crisp, T. A.; Collier, S.; Kuwayama, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kleeman, M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the potential for vehicle based anthropogenic sources of the carcinogen isocyanic acid (HNCO) in urban environments. Although emission factors for HNCO have recently been measured for light duty diesel vehicles, light duty gasoline vehicles are not well characterized. Here we will present real-time emission factor measurements of HNCO for light duty gasoline vehicles measured at the California Air Resource Board's Haagen-Smit Laboratory in September of 2011 driven on a chassis dynamometer using the California Unified Driving Cycle. Emission factors for HNCO were determined for eight light duty gasoline vehicles utilizing a fast response chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer and simultaneous real-time measurements of CO, CO2, and NOx. We will discuss the potential production mechanism for HNCO by light duty gasoline vehicles as well as the potential drive cycle dependency of HNCO production.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES USING METHANOL AND METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDED FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operati...

  14. Market behavior under partial price controls: the case of the retail gasoline market

    SciTech Connect

    Camm, F.

    1983-03-01

    The use of firm-specific controls on the price of gasoline during 1979 and 1980, at both the wholesale and the retail level, dramatically affected the retail market for gasoline. The most visible effect was a diversity of monetary prices across service stations within particular retail market areas. Price could no longer play its usual role in clearing the retail market for gasoline. Queues and other changes in quality of service at stations arose to maintain the balance of market demand and supply. This report examines the behavior of an otherwise competitive market in the presence of such regulation-induced nonprice phenomena. In such a market, consumers consider both monetary prices and costs imposed by queues in deciding where to buy gasoline and how much to buy. Using a price-theoretic model of behavior, this paper predicts how various changes in effective price regulation affect consumers. 14 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Monitoring Production of Methane from Spills of Gasoline at UST Release Sites (Boston, MA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biodegradation of the BTEX compounds can produce substantial concentrations of methane in ground water at gasoline spill sites. This methane can escape the ground water, move through the unsaturated zone and potentially produce explosive concentrations of methane in c...

  16. Management of Toxicities of Combined Modality Therapy for Intrathoracic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Weakland; Wagner

    1996-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined radiation and chemotherapy for intrathoracic tumors can produce appreciable morbidity. Apprehension about the severity of these toxicities may inhibit optimal patient care. METHODS: The literature on recognition, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and management of these toxicities is reviewed and combined with the experiences of the authors to produce management recommendations. RESULTS: Toxicities include acute and chronic esophagitis, early and late pneumonitis with fibrosis, myelosuppression, and neurologic deficits. Measures are available to minimize their severity and to reduce their impact on the patient. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity of combined radiation and chemotherapy patients with intrathoracic tumors can be minimized by recognizing potential toxicities and by applying appropriate prophylactic and management measures. PMID:10765224

  17. Determination of (methylcyclopentadienyl)manganese tricarbonyl in gasolines by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter A. Aue; Brian. Millier; Xun Yun. Sun

    1990-01-01

    The common gasoline additive (methylcyclopentadienyl)manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) can be determined down to 0.6 ppm (w\\/w) levels in gasoline, by using atomic emission from a simple, inexpensive, and commercially available flame photometric detector. Other manganese compounds respond to similar to MMT. Quenching caused by the carbon background is insignificant. The chemiluminescence from manganese compares favorably with signals from compounds of sulfur,

  18. 33. ANALYSIS OF TEN LEG 22 CORES FOR ORGANIC CARBON AND GASOLINE-RANGE HYDROCARBONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Mclver

    Ten samples of Leg 22 cores, frozen especially for organic geochemistry, were analyzed by previously reported methods (Dunton and Hunt, 1962; Gehman, 1962) for their organic carbon contents and their C4-C7 (light gasoline) hydrocarbon contents. Results are shown in Table 1. It was hoped that in the deeper samples in this group the onset of generation of gasoline-rang e hydrocarbons

  19. A Multilevel Artificial Neural Network for Gasoline Demand Forecasting of Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kazemi; H. G. Shakouri; M. R. Mehregan; M. R. Taghizadeh; M. B. Menhaj; A. A. Foroughi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a neuro-based approach for Iran annual gasoline demand forecasting by several socio-economic indicators. In order to analyze the influence of economic and social indicators on the gasoline demand, the gross domestic product (GDP), the population and the total number of vehicles are selected. This approach is structured as a multi-level artificial neural network (ANN) based on supervised

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Gasoline, Hybrid-Electric, and Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Uhrig

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, the author showed that it was theoretically possible for plug-in hybrid-electric light transportation vehicles to utilize electricity provided by electric utilities to displace almost 75% of the energy of gasoline used by light transportation vehicles in the United States. It also indicated that replacing this gasoline energy would require 200-250 GW (Gigawatts) of additional electrical generating