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Sample records for gasoline reduce toxicity

  1. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  2. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  3. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics... Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers? (a)(1) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

  6. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

  8. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

  11. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

  14. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

  15. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

  18. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

  19. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

  20. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

  1. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

  4. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

  5. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

  6. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

  8. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

  12. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

  13. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

  15. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

  18. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  19. Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

  20. 40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? 80.1035 Section 80.1035... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and importers? In addition to...

  1. Method of reducing NOx emissions in gasoline vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, J.E.

    1993-08-10

    An unleaded fuel composition is described comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an amount effective to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from electronic port fuel injected engines of an ammonium compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium formate, ammonium propionate, ammonium dicitrate, ammonium carbamate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and admixtures thereof.

  2. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  3. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

    2002-08-25

    Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

  4. Can folate intake reduce arsenic toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Molly L; Ronnenberg, Alayne G

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a global environmental health concern. Inorganic arsenic is a known carcinogen, and epidemiologic studies suggest that persons with impaired arsenic metabolism are at increased risk for certain cancers, including skin and bladder carcinoma. Arsenic metabolism involves methylation to monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by a folate-dependent process. Persons possessing polymorphisms in certain genes involved in folate metabolism excrete a lower proportion of urinary arsenic as DMA, which may influence susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial in a population with low plasma folate observed that after 12 weeks of folic acid supplementation, the proportion of total urinary arsenic excreted as DMA increased and blood arsenic concentration decreased, suggesting an improvement in arsenic metabolism. Although no studies have directly shown that high folate intake reduces the risk of arsenic toxicity, these findings provide evidence to support an interaction between folate and arsenic metabolism. PMID:18522624

  5. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  6. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  7. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S H; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies. PMID:26119831

  8. Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, R. Christopher; Kiningham, Kinsley K.; Valentovic, Monica A. . E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu

    2006-06-01

    Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30-120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10 mM pyruvate or glucose (1.28 or 5.5 mM). LDH leakage was increased above control by 0.25 and 0.5 mM PAP beginning at 60 min and by 0.1 mM PAP at 120 min. Pyruvate prevented an increase in LDH leakage at 60- and 120-min exposure to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate also prevented a decline in ATP levels. Glucose (1.28 and 5.5 mM) provided less protection than pyruvate from PAP toxicity. Total glutathione levels were diminished by 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP within 60 and 30 min, respectively. Pyruvate prevented the decline in glutathione by 0.1 mM PAP at both time periods and at 30 min for 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate reduced the magnitude of glutathione depletion by 0.25 mM PAP following a 60-min incubation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in renal slices were increased at 60 min by exposure to 0.25 mM PAP, while pyruvate prevented increased GSSG levels by PAP. Pyruvate also reduced the extent of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins present after a 90-min incubation with PAP. These results indicate that pyruvate provided protection for PAP toxicity by providing an energy substrate and reducing oxidative stress.

  9. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  10. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  11. Approaches for the design of reduced toxicant emission cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, David J; Fieblekorn, Richard T; Bevan, Michael J; Rushforth, David; Murphy, James J; Ashley, Madeleine; McAdam, Kevin G; Liu, Chuan; Proctor, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious diseases through frequent and prolonged exposure to toxicants. Technologies are being developed to reduce smokers' toxicant exposure, including filter adsorbents, tobacco treatments and substitutes. This study examined the effect of modifications to filter ventilation, variations in cigarette circumference and active charcoal filter length and loading, as well as combinations of these features in a reduced-toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette, on the yields of toxicants in cigarette smoke. An air-dilution mechanism, called split-tipping, was developed in which a band of porous paper in the centre of the filter tipping functions to minimise the loss of effective filter ventilation that occurs at the high flow rates encountered during human-smoking, and to facilitate the diffusional loss of volatile toxicants. As compared with conventional filter ventilation cigarettes, split-tipping reduced tar and volatile smoke constituent emissions under high flow rate machine-smoking conditions, most notably for products with a 1-mg ISO tar yield. Furthermore, mouth level exposure (MLE) to tar and nicotine was reduced among smokers of 1-mg ISO tar cigarettes in comparison to smokers of cigarettes with traditional filter ventilation. For higher ISO tar level cigarettes, however, there were no significant reductions in MLE. Smaller cigarette circumferences reduced sidestream toxicant yields and modified the balance of mainstream smoke chemistry with reduced levels of aromatic amines and benzo[a]pyrene but increased yields of formaldehyde. Smaller circumference cigarettes also had lower mainstream yields of volatile toxicants. Longer cigarette filters containing increased levels of high-activity carbon (HAC) showed reduced machine-smoking yields of volatile toxicants: with up to 97% removal for some volatile toxicants at higher HAC loadings. Split-tipping was combined with optimal filter length and cigarette circumference in an RTP cigarette that gave significantly lower mainstream (up to ~90%) and sidestream (predominately 20%-60%) smoke yields of numerous toxicants as compared with a commercial comparator cigarette under machine-smoking conditions. Significantly lower mainstream and sidestream smoke toxicant yields were observed for an RTP cigarette comprising several toxicant reducing technologies; these observations warrant further evaluation in clinical studies where real-world relevance can be tested using biomarkers of exposure and physiological effect. PMID:25110628

  12. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk

    SciTech Connect

    Paixao, J.F.; Nascimento, I.A. . E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A.; Leite, M.B.L.; Carvalho, G.C.; Silveira, J.S.C.; Reboucas, M.; Matias, G.R.A.; Rodrigues, I.L.P.

    2007-03-15

    Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

  13. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  14. Reducing Environmental Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles through Shape Control.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Danielle E; Osterberg, Joshua S; Gwin, Carley A; Colman, Benjamin P; Meyer, Joel N; Bernhardt, Emily S; Gunsch, Claudia K; DiGulio, Richard T; Liu, Jie

    2015-08-18

    The use of antibacterial silver nanomaterials in consumer products ranging from textiles to toys has given rise to concerns over their environmental toxicity. These materials, primarily nanoparticles, have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of organisms; thus methods and materials that reduce their environmental toxicity while retaining their useful antibacterial properties can potentially solve this problem. Here we demonstrate that silver nanocubes display a lower toxicity toward the model plant species Lolium multiflorum while showing similar toxicity toward other environmentally relevant and model organisms (Danio rerio and Caenorhabditis elegans) and bacterial species (Esherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) compared to quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles and silver nanowires. More specifically, in the L. multiflorum experiments, the roots of silver nanocube treated plants were 5.3% shorter than the control, while silver nanoparticle treated plant roots were 39.6% shorter than the control. The findings here could assist in the future development of new antibacterial products that cause less environmental toxicity after their intended use. PMID:26146787

  15. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.; Siron, R.

    1995-12-31

    A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture{trademark} condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox{reg_sign} Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products.

  16. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission—particularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

  17. Reduced chemistry for a gasoline surrogate valid at engine-relevant conditions

    E-print Network

    Niemeyer, Kyle E

    2014-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the four-component gasoline surrogate developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has shown good agreement with experiments in engine-relevant conditions. However, with 1388 species and 5933 reversible reactions, this detailed mechanism is far too large to use in practical engine simulations. Therefore, reduction of the detailed mechanism was performed using a multi-stage approach consisting of the DRGEPSA method, unimportant reaction elimination, isomer lumping, and analytic QSS reduction based on CSP analysis. A new greedy sensitivity analysis algorithm was developed and demonstrated to be capable of removing more species for the same error limit compared to the conventional sensitivity analysis used in DRG-based skeletal reduction methods. Using this new greedy algorithm, several skeletal and reduced mechanisms were developed at varying levels of complexity and for different target condition ranges. The final skeletal and reduced mechanisms consisted of 213 and 148 species,...

  18. Saffron Reduced Toxic Effects of its Constituent, Safranal, in Acute and Subacute Toxicities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Toktam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Saffron and its constituents are widely used around the world as a spice and medicinal plant. Different constituents in medicinal herbs are thought to have the potential to induce useful and/or adverse effects. So, efforts have been made to find the best and most valuable tools to reduce their adverse effects. Objectives: According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), it is believed that administration of whole herbs exhibits more activity and fewer side effects than isolated constituents. Since toxicological studies have indicated that safranal is more toxic than other active components in saffron stigma, thus this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of co-administration of saffron extract and safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity, rats received safranal (1.2 mL/kg, IP) plus saffron aqueous extract (25-100 mg/kg, IP). One and four days after the treatment, percentage of mortality was assessed. In subacute toxicity, rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1) safranal (0.2 mL/kg, IP), Groups 2, 3 and 4) safranal plus saffron aqueous extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IP) Groups 5 and 6) Paraffin and normal saline, as solvents of safranal and saffron aqueous extract, respectively. Treatments were continued for 21 days. For sub-acute toxicity, the percentages of lethality as well as some biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that four days co-treatment of safranal and saffron significantly reduced mortality, so that the effect was more obvious in lower doses. Sub-acute toxicity studies showed that saffron could increase survival in rats so that no mortality was observed at dose of 10 mg/kg. Our data also indicated that the levels of triglyceride, BUN and ALT significantly increased after sub-acute interaperitoneal (IP) administration of safranal (0.2 mL/kg/day) and co-treatment of saffron aqueous extract (5 and 10 mg/kg) plus safranal significantly improved all toxic effects of safranal on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: The co-administration of saffron aqueous extract and safranal reduced toxic effects of safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities. PMID:24644432

  19. Organic ligands reduce copper toxicity in Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Azenha, M.; Vasconcelos, M.T.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cells were exposed to 100 {mu}M copper alone, or to previously equilibrated copper sulfate-ligand solutions. Ligand concentrations were determined experimentally as those that reduced the free copper concentration to 5 {mu}M (determined with a Cu{sup 2+}-selective electrode). These values were in agreement with those calculated by computational equilibrium simulation based on published stability constants. Exposure of P. syringae cells to copper sulfate, chloride, or nitrate resulted in similar high mortality, suggesting that copper was responsible for cell death. Acetate, succinate, proline, lysine, cysteine, and EDTA significantly reduced both the amount of copper bound to the cells and cell death, indicating that not only strong chelating agents but also weak and moderate copper ligands can effectively antagonize copper toxicity. However, cysteine and EDTA were considerably more effective than acetate, succinate, proline, and lysine, indicating that copper toxicity is not simply a function of free copper concentration but depends on the nature of the ligand. The results suggested that a significant fraction of copper bound to acetate, succinate, proline, or lysine was displaced to the bacteria or, alternatively, mixed copper-ligand-cell complexes could be formed. On the contrary, none of these phenomena occurred for the copper complexes with cysteine or EDTA.

  20. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  1. Structural Basis for the Reduced Toxicity of Dinophysistoxin-2

    SciTech Connect

    Huhn, J.; Jeffrey, F; Larsen, K; Rundberget, T; Rise, F; Cox, N; Arcus, V; Shi, Y; Miles, C

    2009-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) are algal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Recent studies indicate that DTX-2 is about half as toxic and has about half the affinity for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as OA. NMR structural studies showed that DTX-1 possessed an equatorial 35-methyl group but that DTX-2 had an axial 35-methyl group. Molecular modeling studies indicated that an axial 35-methyl could exhibit unfavorable interactions in the PP2A binding site, and this has been proposed as the reason for the reduced toxicity of DTX-2. Statistical analyses of published data indicate that the affinity of PP2A for DTX-1 is 1.6-fold higher, and for DTX-2 is 2-fold lower, than for OA. We obtained X-ray crystal structures of DTX-1 and DTX-2 bound to PP2A. The crystal structures independently confirm the C-35 stereochemistries determined in the earlier NMR study. The structure for the DTX-1 complex was virtually identical to that of the OA-PP2A complex, except for the presence of the equatorial 35-methyl on the ligand. The favorable placement of the equatorial 35-methyl group of DTX-1 against the aromatic {pi}-bonds of His191 may account for the increased affinity of PP2A toward DTX-1. In contrast, the axial 35-methyl of DTX-2 caused the side chain of His191 to rotate 140{sup o} so that it pointed toward the solvent, thereby opening one end of the hydrophobic binding cage. This rearrangement to accommodate the unfavorable interaction from the axial 35-methyl of DTX-2 reduces the binding energy and appears to be responsible for the reduced affinity of PP2A for DTX-2. These results highlight the potential of molecular modeling studies for understanding the relative toxicity of analogues once the binding site at the molecular target has been properly characterized.

  2. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  3. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  4. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  5. RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

  6. Unusual lipid structures selectively reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B

    SciTech Connect

    Janoff, A.S.; Boni, L.T.; Popescu, M.C.; Minchey, S.R.; Cullis, P.R.; Madden, T.D.; Taraschi, T.; Gruner, S.M.; Shyamsunder, E.; Tate, M.W.; Mendelsohn, R.; Bonner, D. )

    1988-08-01

    Ribbon-like structures result when amphotericin B interacts with lipid in an aqueous environment. At high ratios of amphotericin to lipid these structures, which are lipid-stabilized amphotericin aggregates, become prevalent resulting in a dramatic attenuation of amphotericin-mediated mammalian cell, but not fungal cell, toxicity. Studies utilizing freeze-etch electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, {sup 31}P NMR, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy revealed that this toxicity attenuation is related to the macromolecular structure of the complexes in a definable fashion. It is likely that amphotericin in this specific form will have a much improved therapeutic utility.

  7. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  8. Temperature determines toxicity: bisphenol A reduces thermal tolerance in fish.

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous pollutant around the globe, but whether environmental concentrations have toxic effects remains controversial. BPA interferes with a number of nuclear receptor pathways, including several that mediate animal responses to environmental input. Because thermal acclimation is regulated by these pathways in fish, we hypothesized that the toxicity of BPA would change with ambient temperature. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ecologically relevant and artificially high concentrations of BPA at two acclimation temperatures, and tested physiological responses at two test temperatures that corresponded to acclimation temperatures. We found ecologically relevant concentrations of BPA (20 ?g l(-1)) impair swimming performance, heart rate, muscle and cardiac SERCA activity and gene expression. We show many of these responses are temperature-specific and non-monotonic. Our results suggest that BPA pollution can compound the effects of climate change, and that its effects are more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for. PMID:25514059

  9. Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

  10. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  11. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  12. Reduced Grating Acuity Associated with Retinal Toxicity in Children with Infantile Spasms on Vigabatrin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Sivan; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether visual functions are decreased in children with infantile spasms and vigabatrin-attributed retinal toxicity. Methods Contrast sensitivity and grating acuity were measured by using sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) testing in 42 children with infantile spasms (mean age, 29.23 ± 18.31 months). All children had been exposed to vigabatrin (VGB) for a minimum of 1 month. These children were divided into retinal toxicity and no toxicity groupings based on 30-Hz flicker amplitude reductions on the full-field electroretinogram. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared visual functions between children with and without retinal toxicity. Results The MANOVA showed that visual function was significantly affected by VGB retinal toxicity. Further univariate analysis revealed that grating acuity was significantly reduced in children with toxicity. No differences in contrast sensitivity were found between children with toxicity and those without. Conclusions Reduced visual functions from VGB-attributed retinal toxicity can be detected in children with infantile spasms with the sweep VEP. PMID:19279311

  13. Reduce Toxic Exposures: Get Involved and Take Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the connection between many chemical exposures and learning and other developmental disabilities (LDD). National and local groups are developing new programs around the country that are making this connection--and taking action with regard to policy, education and research efforts. They are working towards reducing

  14. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-print Network

    McGaughey, Alan

    for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucksCost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b

  15. Extraction of bioavailable contaminants from marine sediments: an approach to reducing toxicity using adsorbent parcels.

    PubMed

    Goodsir, Freya; Fisher, Tom T; Barry, Jon; Bolam, Thi; Nelson, Leah D; Rumney, Heather S; Brant, Jan L

    2013-07-15

    This paper demonstrates an approach to reducing acute toxicity in marine sediments using adsorbent parcels. Acute toxicity tests were carried using the marine amphipod Corophium volutator. Marine sediments were spiked with two know contaminants tributyltin and naphthalene and then treated with adsorbent parcels containing either amberlite XAD4 or activated carbon. Results showed that both types of adsorbent parcels were effective in reducing acute toxicity, not only within spiked sediments containing naphthalene and/or tributyltin, but also in an environmental field samples form an expected contaminated site. Adsorbent parcels such as these could provide a practical approach to remediate areas of contaminated sediment within marine environments. Furthermore adsorbents can be used as an identification tool for problematic contaminants using a toxicity identification evaluation approach. PMID:23711841

  16. Smokeless tobacco brand switching: a means to reduce toxicant exposure?

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, D K; Ebbert, J O; Anderson, A; Lin, H; Le, C; Hecht, S S

    2007-03-16

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) brand switching on biomarkers of ST exposure and on ST use. Subjects seeking treatment to reduce their use were randomized to ST brand switching with controlled ST topography, brand switching with ad libitum ST use, or a waitlist control with subsequent randomization to one of these two conditions. The waitlist control group was included to assess whether changes were a consequence of time effect. During the intervention, Copenhagen or Kodiak ST users were asked to switch to products that were sequentially lower in nicotine content: Skoal Long Cut Straight or Wintergreen for 4 weeks and then Skoal Bandits for the subsequent 4 weeks. Measures were obtained during the course of treatment and at 12-week follow-up. Significant reductions in total urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-L-(3-pyridyl)-L-butanol (NNAL) plus its glucuronides (total NNAL) were observed with no significant differences between the controlled topography and ad libitum conditions. Significant reductions were also observed in the amount and duration of dips with a significant intervention effect for durational measures. At 12 weeks, the 7-day biochemically-verified tobacco abstinent rate was 26% in the ad libitum group. ST brand switching may be a feasible alternative intervention for ST users interested in quitting but unwilling to stop ST use completely. PMID:16996230

  17. Attenuating the toxicity of cisplatin by using selenosulfate with reduced risk of selenium toxicity as compared with selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinsong Peng Dungeng; Lu Hongjuan; Liu Qingliang

    2008-02-01

    It has been reported that high doses of sodium selenite can reduce side effects of cisplatin (CDDP) without compromising its antitumor activity, thus substantially enhancing the cure rate in tumor-bearing mice. However, the toxicity of selenite at high doses should be a concern. The present study revealed that selenosulfate had much lower toxicity, but possessed equal efficacy in selenium (Se) utilization, as compared with selenite at similar doses when used for the intervention of CDDP. In addition, Se accumulation in whole blood and kidney of mice treated with selenosulfate was highly correlated with the survival rate of mice treated with CDDP (both r > 0.96 and both p < 0.05), suggesting that whole blood Se is a potential clinical biomarker to predict host tolerance to CDDP. In either Se-deficient or -sufficient mice bearing solid tumors of hepatoma 22 (H22), selenosulfate did not disturb the therapeutic effect of CDDP on tumors but effectively attenuated the toxicity of CDDP. Furthermore, in a highly malignant cancer model, with Se-sufficient mice bearing ascitic H22 cells, 8 or 10 mg/kg CDDP alone only achieved a null or 25% cure rate, whereas coadministration of selenosulfate with the above two doses of CDDP achieved cure rates of 87.5% or 75%. These results together argue for consideration of selenosulfate as an agent to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP.

  18. Reduced toxicity of fumonisin B1 in corn grits by single-screw extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion cooking under conditions of high heat and pressure reduces the concentration of fumonisins in corn-based products; however, the toxicity of heretofore uncharacterized fumonisin reactions products in extruded materials has not been determined. Uncontaminated corn grits, grits spiked with 3...

  19. Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more effi...

  20. Efficient chemo-enzymatic gluten detoxification: reducing toxic epitopes for celiac patients improving functional properties.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Nunes, Fernando M; Guedes, Sofia; Domingues, Pedro; Silva, Amélia M; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of gluten, the exogenous effector in celiac disease, seeking its detoxification by selective chemical modification of toxic epitopes is a very attractive strategy and promising technology when compared to pharmacological treatment or genetic engineering of wheat. Here we present a simple and efficient chemo-enzymatic methodology that decreases celiac disease toxic epitopes of gluten proteins improving its technological value through microbial transglutaminase-mediated transamidation of glutamine with n-butylamine under reducing conditions. First, we found that using low concentrations of amine-nucleophile under non-reducing conditions, the decrease in toxic epitopes is mainly due to transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking. Second, using high amine nucleophile concentrations protein cross-linking is substantially reduced. Third, reducing conditions increase 7-fold the transamidation reaction further decreasing toxic epitopes amount. Fourth, using n-butylamine improves gluten hydrophobicity that strengthens the gluten network. These results open the possibility of tailoring gluten for producing hypoallergenic flours while still taking advantage of the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten. PMID:26691232

  1. Efficient chemo-enzymatic gluten detoxification: reducing toxic epitopes for celiac patients improving functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Nunes, Fernando M.; Guedes, Sofia; Domingues, Pedro; Silva, Amélia M.; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of gluten, the exogenous effector in celiac disease, seeking its detoxification by selective chemical modification of toxic epitopes is a very attractive strategy and promising technology when compared to pharmacological treatment or genetic engineering of wheat. Here we present a simple and efficient chemo-enzymatic methodology that decreases celiac disease toxic epitopes of gluten proteins improving its technological value through microbial transglutaminase-mediated transamidation of glutamine with n-butylamine under reducing conditions. First, we found that using low concentrations of amine-nucleophile under non-reducing conditions, the decrease in toxic epitopes is mainly due to transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking. Second, using high amine nucleophile concentrations protein cross-linking is substantially reduced. Third, reducing conditions increase 7-fold the transamidation reaction further decreasing toxic epitopes amount. Fourth, using n-butylamine improves gluten hydrophobicity that strengthens the gluten network. These results open the possibility of tailoring gluten for producing hypoallergenic flours while still taking advantage of the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten. PMID:26691232

  2. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  3. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of wastewater pretreatment. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metals, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, fed sequentially with untreated water. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In seven-day chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was as low as 20%, and 100% mortality occurred at 40%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC was > 50% but complete mortality occurred in undiluted effluent. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. Its undiluted effluent had no effect on survival, but did markedly reduce fecundity. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  4. A nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of indomethacin eye drops and enhances its corneal permeability.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2014-05-01

    Indomethacin (IMC) has been shown to reduce post-operative inflammation and to decrease intraocular irritation after cataract extraction and in cystoid macular edema; however, the clinical use of its most commonly used eye drops is limited due to topical side-effects that include burning sensation, irritation and epithelial keratitis. It is known that decreasing direct cell stimulation and reducing the amount applied via increasing bioavailability are useful for improving these issues. In this study, we designed ophthalmic formulations containing 0.5% IMC nanoparticles using zirconia beads and Bead Smash 12 (IMCnano eye drops; particle size 76 ± 59 nm, mean ± S.D.), and investigated the corneal toxicity of these IMCnano eye drops. IMCnano eye drops are tolerated better by a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T) than commercially available NDSAIDs preparations (IMC, pranoprofen, diclofenac, bromfenac and nepafenac eye drops), and corneal wound healing in rat eyes with debrided corneal epithelium instilled with IMCnano eye drops is significantly better than that of eyes instilled with commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the accumulation of IMC in HCE-T cells treated with the IMCnano eye drops for 30 min was 19.9% that of the accumulation from commercially available IMC eye drops. On the other hand, the corneal penetration of IMC from IMCnano eye drops was significantly greater than in the case of the commercially available IMC eye drops in both in vivo and in vitro studies using rabbit corneas. Taken together, we hypothesize that a nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of IMC eye drops, probably because the accumulation of IMC from IMCnano eye drops in the eye is lower than that from commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the nanoparticle formulation may allow a decrease in the amount of IMC used due to the increase in bioavailability, resulting in reduced drug toxicity. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing less toxic eye drops. PMID:24598350

  5. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

  6. Efficacy of AdiDetox™ in reducing the toxicity of fumonisin B1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Denli, Muzaffer; Blandon, Juan C; Salado, Silvia; Guynot, Maria E; Casas, Josefina; Pérez, Jose F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new mycotoxin inactivator (AdiDetox™) in reducing the toxic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in the diet of rats. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley growing rats (125?g?±?1?g BW) were assigned to eight dietary treatments for seven days. The experiment had a 2?×?4 factorial arrangement with two levels of FB1 (0?mg and 15?mg of FB1/kg feed) and four levels of AdiDetox™ (0?g, 1?g, 2?g and 5?g /kg feed) in the diet. No significant differences were observed in the growth performance among treatments (P?>?0.05), though low levels of sphingosine (So) and sphinganine (Sa) were detected in the liver. However, So and Sa and the Sa/So ratio in kidneys were higher in rats receiving the FB1 diets (P?reduced the toxic effects of FB1, leading to a significant decrease in the Sa content and in the Sa/So ratio in kidneys. In conclusion, the results suggest that AdiDetox™ can effectively reduce toxicity of FB1 in growing rats. PMID:25660482

  7. Reduced cadmium accumulation and toxicity in Daphnia magna under carbon nanotube exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-12-01

    With increasing application and commercial production, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will inevitably be released into aquatic environments and affect the transport and toxicity of toxic metals in ecosystems. The present study examined how CNTs affected the biokinetics and toxicity of a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), in the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna. The authors quantified the dissolved uptake and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50, 48?h and 72?h) of Cd in daphnids in the presence of functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (F-CNTs) with different lengths (10-30?µm vs 0.5-2?µm) and concentrations (4?mg/L and 8?mg/L). Compared with the control treatment without CNTs, both CNTs slowed down the accumulation rate of Cd in D. magna over 8?h of exposure and further reduced the accumulation thereafter. Mechanisms for the reduced Cd uptake were mainly related to the influences of CNTs on the physiological activity of daphnids. The LC50 of D. magna in the presence of Cd and shorter CNTs was almost the same as that of the control group without CNTs. However, the LC50 of the groups with normal CNTs was significantly higher than that of the control group (i.e., F-CNTs decreased Cd toxicity significantly). Meanwhile, CNTs also decreased the tolerance of D. magna to Cd. The present study suggests that different physical properties of CNTs, such as length, need to be considered in the environmental risk assessment of CNTs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2824-2832. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26094590

  8. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This is for ... The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

  9. (Poly)phenols protect from ?-synuclein toxicity by reducing oxidative stress and promoting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Diana; Tavares, Lucélia; McDougall, Gordon J; Vicente Miranda, Hugo; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Tenreiro, Sandra; Outeiro, Tiago F; Santos, Cláudia N

    2015-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement neurodegenerative disorder and is associated with the aggregation of ?-synuclein (?Syn) and oxidative stress, hallmarks of the disease. Although the precise molecular events underlying ?Syn aggregation are still unclear, oxidative stress is known to contribute to this process. Therefore, agents that either prevent oxidative stress or inhibit ?Syn toxicity are expected to constitute potential drug leads for PD. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies provided evidence that (poly)phenols, pure or in extracts, might protect against neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress in the brain. In this study, we analyzed, for the first time, a (poly)phenol-enriched fraction (PEF) from leaves of Corema album, and used in vitro and cellular models to evaluate its effects on ?Syn toxicity and aggregation. Interestingly, the PEF promoted the formation of non-toxic ?Syn species in vitro, and inhibited its toxicity and aggregation in cells, by promoting the autophagic flux and reducing oxidative stress. Thus, C. album (poly)phenols appear as promising cytoprotective compounds, modulating central events in the pathogenesis of PD, such as ?Syn aggregation and the impairment of autophagy. Ultimately, the understanding of the molecular effects of (poly)phenols will open novel opportunities for the exploitation of their beneficial effects and for drug development. PMID:25432533

  10. Extracts from presumed "reduced harm" cigarettes induce equivalent or greater toxicity in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Wang, Lei; Hirano, Yoshimi; Walters, Paula; Grill, Diane

    2015-09-01

    The tobacco industry has promoted certain cigarette products with claims that their use may be less harmful to the smoker as they purportedly deliver lower amounts of toxic chemicals compared to conventional cigarettes. This study was designed to compare the relative antigen presenting cellular toxicity of Eclipse, a presumed reduced exposure product (PREP) cigarette, when compared with the reference research 3R4F cigarettes (Kentucky University). Utilizing a murine macrophage cell line, murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) and human monocyte-derived DCs incubated with extracts generated from Eclipse and Kentucky reference 3R4F cigarettes, we determined the relative toxic effects of the different cigarette smoke extracts on cellular viability, oxidative stress, T-helper-1 (Th-1) polarizing cytokine production and general gene expression. Eclipse and 3R4F cigarette smoke extracts induced equivalent oxidatively-mediated cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein levels in macrophages and DCs. Cellular viability determination demonstrated greater induction of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis by Eclipse extracts in DCs. The production of the key Th-1 polarizing cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) by activated DCs or macrophages was suppressed to an equivalent or greater extent by Eclipse extracts. Microarray studies performed on bone marrow derived murine DCs incubated with Eclispe or 3R4F cigarette extracts showed identical genotoxic profiles. These studies imply that presumed reduced harm Eclipse cigarettes induce equivalent or greater antigen presenting cell dysfunction relative to 3R4F cigarettes and illustrate the importance of independent validation and testing of similar products claimed to be associated with reduced toxicity relative to other cigarettes. PMID:26169828

  11. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-10-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

  12. Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles suppress breast cancer cells growth with reduced myelosuppression toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing; Han, Jing; Cong, Wenshu; Ge, Ying; Ma, Dandan; Dai, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaping; Bi, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Docetaxel is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug widely used to treat multiple solid tumors; however, its toxicity and side effects limit its clinical efficacy. Herein, docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DSNs) were developed to reduce systemic toxicity of docetaxel while still keeping its anticancer activity. To evaluate its anticancer activity and toxicity, and to understand the molecular mechanisms of DSNs, different cellular, molecular, and whole genome transcription analysis approaches were utilized. The DSNs showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the commercial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere®) and induced more apoptosis at 24 hours after treatment in vitro. DSNs can cause the treated cancer cells to arrest in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner similar to Taxotere. They can also suppress tumor growth very effectively in a mice model with human xenograft breast cancer. Systemic analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray and subsequent verification experiments suggested that both DSNs and Taxotere regulate gene expression and gene function, including DNA replication, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Some of these genes expressed differentially at the protein level although their messenger RNA expression level was similar under Taxotere and DSN treatment. Moreover, DSNs improved the main side effect of Taxotere by greatly lowering myelosuppression toxicity to bone marrow cells from mice. Taken together, these results expound the antitumor efficacy and the potential working mechanisms of DSNs in its anticancer activity and toxicity, which provide a theoretical foundation to develop and apply a more efficient docetaxel formulation to treat cancer patients. PMID:25378924

  13. Curcumin reduces the toxic effects of iron loading in rat liver epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Donald J.; Sivam, Gowsala; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2008-01-01

    Background/aims Iron overload can cause liver toxicity and increase the risk of liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the food spice turmeric, has antioxidant, iron binding, and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to quantify its effects on iron overload and resulting downstream toxic effects in cultured T51B rat liver epithelial cells. Methods T51B cells were loaded with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) with or without the iron delivery agent 8-hydroxyquinoline. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Iron uptake and iron bioavailability were documented by chemical assay, quench of calcein fluorescence, and ferritin induction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by fluorescence assay using 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Oxidative stress signaling to jnk, c-jun, and p38 was measured by western blot with phospho-specific antibodies. Results Curcumin bound iron, but did not block iron uptake or bioavailability in T51B cells given FAC. However, it reduced cytotoxicity, blocked generation of ROS, and eliminated signaling to cellular stress pathways caused by iron. Inhibition was observed over a wide range of FAC concentrations (50 – 500 ?M), with an apparent IC50 in all cases between 5 and 10 ?M curcumin. In contrast, desferoxamine blocked both iron uptake and toxic effects of iron at concentrations that depended on the FAC concentration. Effects of curcumin also differed from those of ?-tocopherol, which did not bind iron and was less effective at blocking iron-stimulated ROS generation. Conclusions Curcumin reduced iron-dependent oxidative stress and iron toxicity in T51B cells without blocking iron uptake. PMID:18492020

  14. Reducing Toxicity of Immune Therapy Using Aptamer-Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Eli; Berezhnoy, Alexey; Schrand, Brett

    2015-11-01

    Modulating the function of immune receptors with antibodies is ushering in a new era in cancer immunotherapy. With the notable exception of PD-1 blockade used as monotherapy, immune modulation can be associated with significant toxicities that are expected to escalate with the development of increasingly potent immune therapies. A general way to reduce toxicity is to target immune potentiating drugs to the tumor or immune cells of the patient. This Crossroads article discusses a new class of nucleic acid-based immune-modulatory drugs that are targeted to the tumor or to the immune system by conjugation to oligonucleotide aptamer ligands. Cell-free chemically synthesized short oligonucleotide aptamers represent a novel and emerging platform technology for generating ligands with desired specificity that offer exceptional versatility and feasibility in terms of development, manufacture, and conjugation to an oligonucleotide cargo. In proof-of-concept studies, aptamer ligands were used to target immune-modulatory siRNAs or aptamers to induce neoantigens in the tumor cells, limit costimulation to the tumor lesion, or enhance the persistence of vaccine-induced immunity. Using increasingly relevant murine models, the aptamer-targeted immune-modulatory drugs engendered protective antitumor immunity that was superior to that of current "gold-standard" therapies in terms of efficacy and lack of toxicity or reduced toxicity. To overcome immune exhaustion aptamer-targeted siRNA conjugates could be used to downregulate intracellular mediators of exhaustion that integrate signals from multiple inhibitory receptors. Recent advances in aptamer development and second-generation aptamer-drug conjugates suggest that we have only scratched the surface. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(11); 1195-200. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26541880

  15. Allo-SCT for AML and MDS with treosulfan compared with BU-based regimens: reduced toxicity vs reduced intensity.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, A; Shem-Tov, N; Volchek, Y; Danylesko, I; Yerushalmi, R; Nagler, A

    2012-10-01

    Allo-SCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) results in lower non-relapse mortality (NRM), but higher relapse rate than myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in AML/myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Novel regimens with intensive anti-leukemic activity, but with limited toxicity will be of benefit. In all, 85 patients with AML/MDS, not eligible for MAC, were given fludarabine-treosulfan conditioning (FT). Outcomes were compared with those in patients given fludarabine-BU RIC (FB2, n=106) or reduced-toxicity (RTC) conditioning (FB4, fludarabine and myeloablative BU dose, n=85). The 5-year NRM was 29%, 20% and 18% after FT, FB2 and FB4, respectively (P=NS). Multivariate analysis (MVA) identified comorbidity score (HCT-CI) >2 and advanced disease as adverse factors with no independent impact of regimen. The 5-year relapse rate was 36%, 47% and 40%, respectively (P=0.17). MVA identified advanced disease as the major adverse factor, while FT had significantly lower relapse rate (hazard ratio 0.6, P=0.03). The 5-year survival (OS) was 37% with advanced disease. HCT-CI >2 and age ? 50 were found as adverse factors. The 5-year OS was 46%, 44% and 50% after FT, FB2 and FB4 in early-intermediate-stage disease (P=NS) and 33%, 9% and 28% in advanced disease, respectively (P=0.02). FT is an RTC regimen with intensive anti-leukemia effect in MAC non-eligible patients. PMID:22327135

  16. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  17. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  18. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells: New Approaches to Improve Their Efficacy and Reduce Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The durable remission of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma following chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has brought this new form of adoptive immunotherapy to center stage with the expectation that CAR T-cell therapy may provide similar efficacy in other hematologic and solid cancers. Herein, we review recent advances in the areas of CAR design that improve CAR T-cell proliferation, engraftment, and efficacy, as well as clinical application strategies that are designed to improve clinical efficacy while reducing the risk of toxicity and broaden patient access to this promising form of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26588679

  19. Reduced Toxicity, High Performance Monopropellant at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, T. W.; Brand, A. J.; McKay, M. B.; Tinnirello, M.

    2010-09-01

    Current programs are aiming to develop reduced toxicity monopropellant formulations to replace spacecraft hydrazine monopropellant. The Air Force Research Laboratory's(AFRL's) approach to replacing hydrazine is the synthesis and development of energetic compounds/formulations with substantially less vapor toxicity and superior performance(specific impulse and density). Characterization and testing of these high energy density materials is an essential part of the screening process for viable advanced propellants. Hazardous handling characteristics, undesirable physical properties or unacceptable sensitivity behaviors must also be identified and/or modified to further development by a potential user. AFRL has successfully identified a novel monopropellant(designated AF-M315E) that shows great promise as an avenue toward replacement of hydrazine monopropellant for spacecraft propulsion. Hazard and safety/sensitivity, stability, and toxicity studies have been conducted on the monopropellant and will be described. The results from AF-M315E indicate that a >50% improvement in propulsion system performance over hydrazine is achievable while simultaneously providing a safer environment for the general public, ground personnel, crews and flight participants.

  20. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of...

  1. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an automated fiber placement machine and the successful fabrication of a carbon fiber plate with an integrated microvascular channel is demonstrated.

  2. Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity – Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity. PMID:24073244

  3. Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hongmin; Monteiro, Mervyn J. . E-mail: monteiro@umbi.umd.edu

    2007-08-01

    Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases.

  4. Reduced arsenic clearance and increased toxicity in aquaglyceroporin-9-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbrey, Jennifer M.; Song, Linhua; Zhou, Yao; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rojek, Aleksandra; Wang, Yiding; Liu, Yangjian; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.; Nielsen, Søren; Rosen, Barry P.; Agre, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Expressed in liver, aquaglyceroporin-9 (AQP9) is permeated by glycerol, arsenite, and other small, neutral solutes. To evaluate a possible protective role, AQP9-null mice were evaluated for in vivo arsenic toxicity. After injection with NaAsO2, AQP9-null mice suffer reduced survival rates (LD50, 12 mg/kg) compared with WT mice (LD50, 15 mg/kg). The highest tissue level of arsenic is in heart, with AQP9-null mice accumulating 10–20 times more arsenic than WT mice. Within hours after NaAsO2 injection, AQP9-null mice sustain profound bradycardia, despite normal serum electrolytes. Increased arsenic levels are also present in liver, lung, spleen, and testis of AQP9-null mice. Arsenic levels in the feces and urine of AQP9-null mice are only ?10% of the WT levels, and reduced clearance of multiple arsenic species by the AQP9-null mice suggests that AQP9 is involved in the export of multiple forms of arsenic. Immunohistochemical staining of liver sections revealed that AQP9 is most abundant in basolateral membrane of hepatocytes adjacent to the sinusoids. AQP9 is not detected in heart or kidney by PCR or immunohistochemistry. We propose that AQP9 provides a route for excretion of arsenic by the liver, thereby providing partial protection of the whole animal from arsenic toxicity. PMID:19805235

  5. Electric car Gasoline car

    E-print Network

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    ENAC/ Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares of an electric vehicle? Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares preference survey with choice situation contexts involving gasoline cars (Renault and competitors

  6. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  7. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

  17. Modification in digestive processing strategies to reduce toxic trace metal uptake in a marine bivalve

    SciTech Connect

    Decho, A.W.; Luoma, S.N.

    1994-12-31

    Bivalves possess two major digestion pathways for processing food particles: a rapid ``intestinal`` pathway where digestion is largely extracellular; and a slower ``glandular`` pathway where digestion is largely intracellular. The slower glandular pathway often results in more efficient absorption of carbon but also more efficient uptake of certain metals (e.g. Cr associated with bacteria). In the bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis, large portions (> 90%) of bacteria are selectively routed to the glandular pathway. This results in efficient C uptake but also efficient uptake of associated Cr. The authors further determined if prolonged exposure to Cr-contaminated bacteria would result in high Cr uptake by animals or whether mechanisms exist to reduce Cr exposure and uptake. Bivalves were exposed to natural food + added bacteria (with or without added Cr) for a 6-day period, then pulse-chase experiments were conducted to quantify digestive processing and % absorption efficiencies (%AE) of bacterial Cr. Bivalves compensate at low (2--5 ug/g sed) Cr by reducing overall food ingestion, while digestive processing of food remains statistically similar to controls. At high Cr (200--500 ug/g sed) there are marked decreases in % bacteria processed by glandular digestion. This results in lower overall %AE of Cr. The results suggest that bivalves under natural conditions might balance efficient carbon sequestration against avoiding uptake of potentially toxic metals associated the food.

  18. [Toxicology of ethyl gasoline 78 and 94].

    PubMed

    Starzy?ski, Z; Szyma?ska, S; Jaraczewska, W; My?lak, Z

    1978-01-01

    The authors have described clinical pictures of acute and chronic intoxication, especially toxic effect of ethyl gasoline upon nervous sytem, parenchymatous organs, and irritating effect on skin and mucous membranes. PMID:723613

  19. Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina

    E-print Network

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    externalities including local air pollution, global climate change, accidents, congestion, and dependence at reducing demand for gasoline or reducing pollution from automobiles. The latter could be addressed

  20. Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model

    SciTech Connect

    deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2014-10-10

    In this study, CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (?) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with ? or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamics and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for ?-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. ? modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases.

  1. Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2014-10-10

    In this study, CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (?) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with ? or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamicsmore »and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for ?-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. ? modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases.« less

  2. Amyloid ?-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of ?-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the ?-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of ?-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust ?-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid ?-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-? peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, ?2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, ?-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  3. The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own

    E-print Network

    O'Gara, Bruce A.

    a reduction in the conduction velocity of the medial and lateral giant nerve fibers, which was prevented effects of copper exposure on Lumbriculus are prevented or reduced by the antioxidant Trolox. However; Reactive oxygen species; Antioxidant; Behavior; Neurophysiology 1. Introduction Copper is an essential

  4. Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2013-01-01

    A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a?ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln?LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln?LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

  5. Treosulfan based reduced toxicity conditioning followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Claudiani, Simone; Marktel, Sarah; Piemontese, Simona; Assanelli, Andrea; Lupo-Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Carrabba, Matteo; Guggiari, Elena; Giglio, Fabio; De Freitas, Tiago; Marcatti, Magda; Bernardi, Massimo; Corti, Consuelo; Peccatori, Jacopo; Lunghi, Francesca; Ciceri, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Allogeneic transplantation is the only potentially curative strategy for myelofibrosis, even in the era of new drugs that so far only mitigate symptoms. The choice to proceed to allogeneic transplantation is based on several variables including age, disease phase, degree of splenomegaly, donor availability, comorbidities and iron overload. These factors, along with conditioning regimen and time to transplantation, may influence the outcome of ASCT. We report 14 patients affected by myelofibrosis with a median age of 57?years (range, 41-76) receiving a treosulfan-fludarabine based reduced toxicity conditioning. Patients (pts) received a stem cell transplantation from an HLA identical (n?=?10) or matched unrelated donor (n?=?4). All pts had a complete myeloablation followed by engraftment and in 12 out of 13 evaluated pts donor chimerism was 100% at 1?month. In most cases a reduction of splenomegaly and a reduction (or resolution) of bone marrow fibrosis was observed. After a median follow-up of 39?months (range, 3-106), the 3-year probability of overall survival and disease free survival was 54?+/-?14% and 46?+/-?14%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 2?years was 39?+/-?15%. Causes of non-relapse mortality were: infection (n?=?2), GvHD (n?=?2) and haemorrhage (n?=?1). We can conclude that a treosulfan and fludarabine based conditioning has a potent myeloablative and anti-disease activity although non-relapse mortality remains high in this challenging clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25469485

  6. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  7. Phosphorus-deficiency reduces aluminium toxicity by altering uptake and metabolism of root zone carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ward, Caroline L; Kleinert, Aleysia; Scortecci, Katia C; Benedito, Vagner A; Valentine, Alexander J

    2011-03-15

    The role of phosphorus (P) status in root-zone CO(2) utilisation for organic acid synthesis during Al(3+) toxicity was assessed. Root-zone CO(2) can be incorporated into organic acids via Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31). P-deficiency and Al(3+) toxicity can induce organic acid synthesis, but it is unknown how P status affects the utilisation of PEPC-derived organic acids during Al(3+) toxicity. Two-week-old Solanum lycopersicum seedlings were transferred to hydroponic culture for 3 weeks. The hydroponic culture consisted of a standard Long Ashton nutrient solution containing either 0.1?M or 1mM P. Short-term Al(3+) toxicity was induced by a 60-min exposure to a pH-buffered solution (pH 4.5) containing 2mM CaSO(4) and 50?M AlCl(3). Al(3+) toxicity induced a decline in root respiration, adenylate concentrations and an increase in root-zone CO(2) utilisation for both P sufficient and P-deficient plants. However during Al(3+) toxicity, P deficiency enhanced the incorporation and metabolism of root-zone CO(2) via PEPC. Moreover, P deficiency led to a greater proportion of the PEPC-derived organic acids to be exuded during Al(3+) toxicity. These results indicate that P-status can influence the response to Al(3+) by inducing a greater utilisation of PEPC-derived organic acids for Al(3+) detoxification. PMID:20926158

  8. Encapsulation of Aconitine in Self-Assembled Licorice Protein Nanoparticles Reduces the Toxicity In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ke, Li-Jing; Gao, Guan-Zhen; Shen, Yong; Zhou, Jian-Wu; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Many herbal medicines and compositions are clinically effective but challenged by its safety risks, i.e., aconitine (AC) from aconite species. The combined use of Radix glycyrrhizae (licorice) with Radix aconite L. effectively eliminates toxicity of the later while increasing efficacy. In this study, a boiling-stable 31-kDa protein (namely GP) was purified from licorice and self-assembled into nanoparticles (206.2?±?2.0 nm) at pH 5.0, 25 °C. The aconitine-encapsulated GP nanoparticles (238.2?±?1.2 nm) were prepared following the same procedure and tested for its toxicity by intraperitoneal injection on ICR mouse (n?=?8). Injection of GP-AC nanoparticles and the mixed licorice-aconite decoction, respectively, caused mild recoverable toxic effects and no death, while the aconitine, particle-free GP-AC mixture and aconite decoction induced sever toxic effects and 100 % death. Encapsulation of poisonous alkaloids into self-assembled herbal protein nanoparticles contributes to toxicity attenuation of combined use of herbs, implying a prototype nanostructure and a universal principle for the safer clinical applications of herbal medicines. PMID:26586149

  9. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Reduces Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients Treated With Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Navesh K.; Li Tianyu; Chen, David Y.; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (AD) has been shown to increase late Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity when used concurrently with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicity by limiting the radiation dose received by the bowel and bladder. The present study compared the genitourinary and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in men treated with 3D-CRT+AD vs. IMRT+AD. Methods and Materials: Between July 1992 and July 2004, 293 men underwent 3D-CRT (n = 170) or IMRT (n = 123) with concurrent AD (<6 months, n = 123; {>=}6 months, n = 170). The median radiation dose was 76 Gy for 3D-CRT (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements) and 76 Gy for IMRT (95% to the planning target volume). Toxicity was assessed by a patient symptom questionnaire that was completed at each visit and recorded using a Fox Chase Modified Late Effects Normal Tissue Task radiation morbidity scale. Results: The mean follow-up was 86 months (standard deviation, 29.3) for the 3D-CRT group and 40 months (standard deviation, 9.7) for the IMRT group. Acute GI toxicity (odds ratio, 4; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-11.7; p = .005) was significantly greater with 3D-CRT than with IMRT and was independent of the AD duration (i.e., <6 vs. {>=}6 months). The interval to the development of late GI toxicity was significantly longer in the IMRT group. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate for Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity was 20% for 3D-CRT and 8% for IMRT (p = .01). On multivariate analysis, Grade 2 or greater late GI toxicity (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.3; p = .04) was more prevalent in the 3D-CRT patients. Conclusion: Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT significantly decreased the acute and late GI toxicity in patients treated with AD.

  10. A New Approach to Reduce Toxicities and to Improve Bioavailabilities of Platinum-Containing Anti-Cancer Nanodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Ye, Qing; Lu, Maggie; Lo, Ya-Chin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Wei, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Wang, Shian-Jy; Bain, Daniel J.; Ho, Chien

    2015-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) drugs are the most potent and commonly used anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Nanoformulation of Pt drugs has the potential to improve the delivery to tumors and reduce toxic side effects. A major challenge for translating nanodrugs to clinical settings is their rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), hence increasing toxicities on off-target organs and reducing efficacy. We are reporting that an FDA approved parenteral nutrition source, Intralipid 20%, can help this problem. A dichloro (1, 2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum (II)-loaded and hyaluronic acid polymer-coated nanoparticle (DACHPt/HANP) is used in this study. A single dose of Intralipid (2?g/kg, clinical dosage) is administrated [intravenously (i. v.), clinical route] one hour before i.v. injection of DACHPt/HANP. This treatment can significantly reduce the toxicities of DACHPt/HANP in liver, spleen, and, interestingly, kidney. Intralipid can decrease Pt accumulation in the liver, spleen, and kidney by 20.4%, 42.5%, and 31.2% at 24-hr post nanodrug administration, respectively. The bioavailability of DACHPt/HANP increases by 18.7% and 9.4% during the first 5 and 24?hr, respectively. PMID:26039249

  11. Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

  12. Therapeutic drug monitoring reduces toxic drug reactions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ried, L D; Horn, J R; McKenna, D A

    1990-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is commonly employed to optimize the dosing of certain drugs, including digoxin, aminoglycosides, theophylline, and phenytoin. Studies were reviewed in order to (a) evaluate the effect of TDM on the occurrence of toxic drug reactions (TDRs) and (b) identify factors that may modify or invalidate the relationship. In 14 studies, monitored patients suffered fewer toxic drug reactions than nonmonitored patients (odds ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.89). The average effect size was larger in studies that utilized a control group for comparisons rather than a before-and-after study design. TDM appeared to be most beneficial for patients taking theophylline or digoxin. Issues that must be addressed in future TDM service evaluations include (a) study design, (b) adverse patient selection, (c) insufficient sample size, (d) incomplete or inconsistent description of the TDM service, and (e) incomplete, inconsistent, or absent description of criteria for reporting TDRs. PMID:2137650

  13. Alternative aircraft anti-icing formulations with reduced aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Harris; Joback, Kevin; Geis, Steven; Bowman, George; Mericas, Dean; Corsi, Steven; Ferguson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The current research was conducted to identify alternative aircraft and pavement deicer and anti-icer formulations with improved environmental characteristics compared to currently used commercial products (2007). The environmental characteristics of primary concern are the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of the fully formulated products. Except when the distinction among products is necessary for clarity, “deicer” will refer to aircraft-deicing fluids (ADFs), aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAFs), and pavementdeicing materials (PDMs).

  14. Zinc reduces copper toxicity induced oxidative stress by promoting antioxidant defense in freshly grown aquatic duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, RishiKesh; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2010-03-15

    The mechanism by which Zn promotes Cu toxicity in duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L. was investigated in order to understand the possible interaction between these two metals. Cu uptake was gradually declined by Zn. The induction of oxidative stress is shown by increased levels of lipid peroxidation, total peroxide, superoxide anion and lipoxygenase activity. Zn interaction reduced the oxidative damage. However, only Zn-treated plants did not show alteration in the above observed parameters. The activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase showed a very high increase in activity in Cu+Zn treatment as compared to Cu or Zn alone-treated plants. Thus, this study demonstrates that zinc reversed the effect of copper, combating against Cu induced oxidative damage and improvement of duckweed's growth and toxicity under natural condition. PMID:19897299

  15. Synthesis of Carbohydrate Capped Silicon Nanoparticles and their Reduced Cytotoxicity, In Vivo Toxicity, and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Behray, Mehrnaz; Webster, Carl A; Wang, Qi; Sherwood, Victoria; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Chao, Yimin

    2015-08-26

    The development of smart targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that can identify and deliver drugs at a sustained rate directly to cancer cells may provide better efficacy and lower toxicity for treating primary and advanced metastatic tumors. Obtaining knowledge of the diseases at the molecular level can facilitate the identification of biological targets. In particular, carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognitions using nano-vehicles are likely to increasingly affect cancer treatment methods, opening a new area in biomedical applications. Here, silicon NPs (SiNPs) capped with carbohydrates including galactose, glucose, mannose, and lactose are successfully synthesized from amine terminated SiNPs. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] analysis shows an extensive reduction in toxicity of SiNPs by functionalizing with carbohydrate moiety both in vitro and in vivo. Cellular uptake is investigated with flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. The results show the carbohydrate capped SiNPs can be internalized in the cells within 24 h of incubation, and can be taken up more readily by cancer cells than noncancerous cells. Moreover, these results reinforce the use of carbohydrates for the internalization of a variety of similar compounds into cancer cells. PMID:26121084

  16. European gasoline survey shows decreasing lead, MON

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-02

    Associated Octel Co. Ltd., London, has released the results of its 1994 survey of European gasoline quality. Octel collected and analyzed more than 200 gasoline samples taken from sampling points close to major European refineries. Over the past decade, Octel`s surveys have demonstrated reduced use of lead antiknock compounds and increased use of high-octane blending components. Despite increased blending of alkylate and isomerate into gasolines at European refineries, many gasolines tested had MONs close to minimum nation requirements. Figures show trends in, respectively, MON and RON, in four important European markets: France, Germany, Iberia (defined by Octel as Spain and Portugal), and the U.K.

  17. Reduced systemic toxicity and preserved vestibular toxicity following co-treatment with nitriles and CYP2E1 inhibitors: a mouse model for hair cell loss.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Sedó-Cabezón, Lara; Llorens, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    Several nitriles, including allylnitrile and cis-crotononitrile, have been shown to be ototoxic and cause hair cell degeneration in the auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia of mice. However, these nitriles can also be lethal due in large part to the microsomal metabolic release of cyanide, which is mostly dependent on the activity of the 2E1 isoform of the cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1). In this study, we co-administered mice with a nitrile and, to reduce their lethal effects, a selective CYP2E1 inhibitor: diallylsulfide (DAS) or trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (TDCE). Both in female 129S1/SvImJ (129S1) mice co-treated with DAS and cis-crotononitrile and in male RjOrl:Swiss/CD-1 (Swiss) mice co-treated with TDCE and allylnitrile, the nitrile caused a dose-dependent loss of vestibular function, as assessed by a specific behavioral test battery, and of hair cells, as assessed by hair bundle counts using scanning electron microscopy. In the experiments, the CYP2E1 inhibitors provided significant protection against the lethal effects of the nitriles and did not diminish the vestibular toxicity as assessed by behavioral effects in comparison to animals receiving no inhibitor. Additional experiments using a single dose of allylnitrile demonstrated that TDCE does not cause hair cell loss on its own and does not modify the vestibular toxicity of the nitrile in either male or female 129S1 mice. In all the experiments, high vestibular dysfunction scores in the behavioral test battery predicted extensive to complete loss of hair cells in the utricles. This provides a means of selecting animals for subsequent studies of vestibular hair cell regeneration or replacement. PMID:23749193

  18. p53-Based strategy to reduce hematological toxicity of chemotherapy: A proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chul S; Michalek, Joel E; Elledge, Richard; Kelly, Kevin R; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Su, Hang; Jenkins, Carol A; Argiris, Athanassios; Swords, Ronan; Eng, Tony Y; Karnad, Anand; Crownover, Richard L; Swanson, Gregory P; Goros, Martin; Pollock, Brad H; Yuan, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    p53 activation is a primary mechanism underlying pathological responses to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Our recent animal studies showed that low dose arsenic (LDA)-induced transient p53 inhibition selectively protected normal tissues from chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Study objectives were to: 1) define the lowest safe dose of arsenic trioxide that transiently blocks p53 activation in patients and 2) assess the potential of LDA to decrease hematological toxicity from chemotherapy. Patients scheduled to receive minimum 4 cycles of myelosuppressive chemotherapy were eligible. For objective 1, dose escalation of LDA started at 0.005 mg/kg/day for 3 days. This dose satisfied objective 1 and was administered before chemotherapy cycles 2, 4, and 6 for objective 2. p53 level in peripheral lymphocytes was measured on day 1 of each cycle by ELISA assay. Chemotherapy cycles 1, 3, and 5 served as the baseline for the subsequent cycles of 2, 4, and 6 respectively. If p53 level for the subsequent cycle was lower (or higher) than the baseline cycle, p53 was defined as "suppressed" (or "activated") for the pair of cycles. Repeated measures linear models of CBC in terms of day, cycle, p53 activity and interaction terms were used. Twenty-six patients treated with 3 week cycle regimens form the base of analyses. The mean white blood cell, hemoglobin and absolute neutrophil counts were significantly higher in the "suppressed" relative to the "activated" group. These data support the proof of principle that suppression of p53 could lead to protection of bone marrow in patients receiving chemotherapy. This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01428128. PMID:26440706

  19. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  20. Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults With Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Aaron P.; Barney, Christian L.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Groot, John F. de; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Tucker, Susan L.; Crawford, Cody N.; Khan, Meena; Khatua, Soumen; Gilbert, Mark R.; Brown, Paul D.; Mahajan, Anita

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4-103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11-63) for p-CSI. Results: p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2% vs 5.8%; P=.004), and less p-CSI patients had >5% weight loss compared with x-CSI (16% vs 64%; P=.004). p-CSI patients experienced less grade 2 nausea and vomiting compared with x-CSI (26% vs 71%; P=.004). Patients treated with x-CSI were more likely to have medical management of esophagitis than p-CSI patients (57% vs 5%, P<.001). p-CSI patients had a smaller reduction in peripheral white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets compared with x-CSI (white blood cells 46% vs 55%, P=.04; hemoglobin 88% vs 97%, P=.009; platelets 48% vs 65%, P=.05). Mean vertebral doses were significantly associated with reductions in blood counts. Conclusions: This report is the first analysis of clinical outcomes for adult medulloblastoma patients treated with p-CSI. Patients treated with p-CSI experienced less treatment-related morbidity including fewer acute gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities.

  1. With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory

    E-print Network

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational for the number of gallons of gasoline sold by a station for a thousand weeks. The pattern involves demands with the delivery and storage of the gasoline and we desire not to run out of gasoline or exceed the station

  2. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: diesel and gasoline.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Within this review the genotoxicity of diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions is placed in an historical context. New technologies have changed the composition of transportation methods considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The similarity of modern diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions to other carbonaceous fuels and emissions is striking. Recently an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that there was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (Group 1). In addition, the Working Group found that diesel exhaust has "a positive association (limited evidence) with an increased risk of bladder cancer." Like most other carbonaceous fuel emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts contain toxic levels of respirable particles (PM <2.5?m) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the level of toxic components in exhausts from diesel and gasoline emissions has declined in certain regions over time because of changes in engine design, the development of better aftertreatment devices (e.g., catalysts), increased fuel economy, changes in the fuels and additives used, and greater regulation. Additional research and better exposure assessments are needed so that decision makers and the public can decide to what extent diesel and gasoline engines should be replaced. PMID:25795114

  3. High-calcium flue gas desulfurization products reduce aluminum toxicity in an Appalachian soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell, R.R.; Ritchey, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    An acid Appalachian soil was amended with two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, one consisting of wallboard-quality gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}) and the other containing CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O as a major component. Soil columns treated with FGD by-products were leached with deionized H{sub 2}O under unsaturated conditions. Aluminum amounts leached increased 25-fold over the control when CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O FGD by-product was incorporated into the soil. Leachate pH decreased with FGD product treatment, but bulk soil pH increased, and exchangeable Al and total soil acidity decreased. Mean 4-d root lengths of sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seedlings grown in the leached soils were as much as 440 and 310% the value of the control for CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O and CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O treatments, respectively. Mechanisms by which mitigation of Al toxicity occurs with addition of high-Ca FGD by-products to acid soils are discussed. 48 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event.

    PubMed

    Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-02-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL(-1), 10ngL(-1), 2?gL(-1), 20?gL(-1)) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. PMID:26647170

  5. Long-term toxicity of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets: Effects on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shun; Zhang, Zheyu; Chu, Maoquan

    2015-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets have emerged as novel materials for cancer therapeutics. Their toxicity has attracted much attention since these nanomaterials may have great potential for clinical cancer treatment. Here we report the influence of rGO exposure on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development. Mouse dams were injected with small or large rGO nanosheets at different doses and time points, pre- or post-fertilization. The sex hormone levels of adult female mice did not significantly change compared with the control group after intravenous injection with either small or large rGO, even at a high dose (25 mg/kg). Mouse dams could produce healthy offspring after treatment with rGO nanosheets before pregnancy and at an early gestational stage (?6 days). Despite the successful delivery of offspring, malformed fetuses were found among rGO-injected dam litters. All mice had abortions when injected with low (6.25 mg/kg) or intermediate (12.5 mg/kg) doses at a late gestational stage (?20 days); the majority of pregnant mice died when injected with the high dose of rGO at this stage of pregnancy. Interestingly, all surviving rGO-injected mouse mothers gave birth to another litter of healthy pups. The results presented in this work are important for a deeper understanding of the toxicity of rGO nanosheets on female reproductivity and their offspring development. PMID:25907052

  6. A fully human chimeric antigen receptor with potent activity against cancer cells but reduced risk for off-tumor toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Song, De-Gang; Ye, Qunrui; Poussin, Mathilde; Liu, Lin; Figini, Mariangela; Powell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells against antigen-expressing tumors in an HLA-independent manner. To date, various CARs have been constructed using mouse single chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) of high affinity that are immunogenic in humans and have the potential to mediate “on-target” toxicity. Here, we developed and evaluated a fully human CAR comprised of the human C4 folate receptor-alpha (?FR)-specific scFv coupled to intracellular T cell signaling domains. Human T cells transduced to express the C4 CAR specifically secreted proinflammatory cytokine and exerted cytolytic functions when cultured with ?FR-expressing tumors in vitro. Adoptive transfer of C4 CAR T cells mediated the regression of large, established human ovarian cancer in a xenogeneic mouse model. Relative to a murine MOv19 scFv-based ?FR CAR, C4 CAR T cells mediated comparable cytotoxic tumor activity in vitro and in vivo but had lower affinity for ?FR protein and exhibited reduced recognition of normal cells expressing low levels of ?FR. Thus, T cells expressing a fully human CAR of intermediate affinity can efficiently kill antigen-expressing tumors in vitro and in vivo and may overcome issues of transgene immunogenicity and “on-target off-tumor” toxicity that plague trials utilizing CARs containing mouse-derived, high affinity scFvs. PMID:26101914

  7. A fully human chimeric antigen receptor with potent activity against cancer cells but reduced risk for off-tumor toxicity.

    PubMed

    Song, D Gang; Ye, Qunrui; Poussin, Mathilde; Liu, Lin; Figini, Mariangela; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-08-28

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells against antigen-expressing tumors in an HLA-independent manner. To date, various CARs have been constructed using mouse single chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) of high affinity that are immunogenic in humans and have the potential to mediate "on-target" toxicity. Here, we developed and evaluated a fully human CAR comprised of the human C4 folate receptor-alpha (?FR)-specific scFv coupled to intracellular T cell signaling domains. Human T cells transduced to express the C4 CAR specifically secreted proinflammatory cytokine and exerted cytolytic functions when cultured with ?FR-expressing tumors in vitro. Adoptive transfer of C4 CAR T cells mediated the regression of large, established human ovarian cancer in a xenogeneic mouse model. Relative to a murine MOv19 scFv-based ?FR CAR, C4 CAR T cells mediated comparable cytotoxic tumor activity in vitro and in vivo but had lower affinity for ?FR protein and exhibited reduced recognition of normal cells expressing low levels of ?FR. Thus, T cells expressing a fully human CAR of intermediate affinity can efficiently kill antigen-expressing tumors in vitro and in vivo and may overcome issues of transgene immunogenicity and "on-target off-tumor" toxicity that plague trials utilizing CARs containing mouse-derived, high affinity scFvs. PMID:26101914

  8. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. PMID:12953887

  9. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis.

  10. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis. PMID:25374886

  11. Reducing canonical Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway confers protection against mutant Huntingtin toxicity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pascale; Besson, Marie-Thérèse; Devaux, Jérôme; Liévens, Jean-Charles

    2012-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease characterized by movement disorders, cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is caused by expanded CAG tract within the coding region of Huntingtin protein. Despite major insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to HD, no effective cure is yet available. Mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) has been reported to alter the stability and levels of ?-Catenin, a key molecule in cell adhesion and signal transduction in Wingless (Wg)/Wnt pathway. However it remains to establish whether manipulation of Wg/Wnt signaling can impact HD pathology. We here investigated the phenotypic interactions between mHtt and Wg/Wnt signaling by using the power of Drosophila genetics. We provide compelling evidence that reducing Armadillo/?-Catenin levels confers protection and that this beneficial effect is correlated with the inactivation of the canonical Wg/Wnt signaling pathway. Knockdowns of Wnt ligands or of the downstream transcription factor Pangolin/TCF both ameliorate the survival of HD flies. Similarly, overexpression of one Armadillo/?-Catenin destruction complex component (Axin, APC2 or Shaggy/GSK-3?) increases the lifespan of HD flies. Loss of functional Armadillo/?-Catenin not only abolishes neuronal intrinsic but also glia-induced alterations in HD flies. Our findings highlight that restoring canonical Wg/Wnt signaling may be of therapeutic value. PMID:22531500

  12. Association of phosphatidylcholine and NSAIDs as a novel strategy to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Barron, Melisa; Marathi, Upendra

    2009-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are highly effective drugs that inhibit pain and inflammation, and perhaps due to the role of inflammation in the underlying etiology, NSAIDs have also demonstrated efficacy in reducing a patient's risk of developing a number of cancers and neurological diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). The utility of these powerful drugs is limited due to their gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects, notably peptic ulceration and GI bleeding which is briefly reviewed here. We also describe the barrier property of the GI mucosa and how it is affected by NSAIDs, as it is our position that disruption of the surface barrier is an important component in the drugs' pathogenesis, in addition to selective inhibition of COX-2, which has proven to be problematic. We also discuss current alternative approaches being taken to mitigate the GI side-effects of NSAIDs, including developing combination drugs where NSAIDs are packaged with inhibitors of HCl secretion such as proton pump inhibitors or H2-receptor antagonists. We then present the rationale for the development of the PC associated NSAID technology which came out of our observation that the mammalian gastric mucosa has hydrophobic, nonwettable properties that provides a barrier to luminal acid, and the role of phospholipids and specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) in this barrier property. In the last section we review the development of our current lipid-based PC-NSAID formulations and our encouraging preclinical and clinical observations validating their GI safety and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20135022

  13. Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.

    1986-11-01

    Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

  14. Does the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles reduce copper toxicity? A factorial approach with the benthic amphipod Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Zubrod, Jochen P; Feckler, Alexander; Merkel, Tobias; Lüderwald, Simon; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2015-08-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) may adsorb co-occurring chemical stressors, such as copper (Cu). This interaction has the potential to reduce the concentration of dissolved Cu due to surface binding to the nanoparticles. The subsequent sedimentation of nano-TiO2 agglomerates may increase the exposure of benthic species towards the associated Cu. This scenario was assessed by employing the amphipod Gammarus fossarum as model species and taking advantage of a 2×2-factorial design investigating absence and presence of 2mg nano-TiO2/L and 40?g Cu/L (n=45; t=24d) in darkness, respectively. Nano-TiO2 alone did not affect mortality and leaf consumption, whereas Cu alone caused high mortality (>70%), reduced leaf consumption (25%) and feces production (30%) relative to the control. In presence of nano-TiO2, Cu-induced toxicity was largely eliminated. However, independent of Cu, nano-TiO2 decreased the gammarids' assimilation and weight. Hence, nano-TiO2 may be applicable as Cu-remediation agent, while its potential long-term effects need further attention. PMID:26037100

  15. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit P.; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by AsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, e?ux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (AsIII). SA also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  16. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and tetracycline differently affect ataxin-3 fibrillogenesis and reduce toxicity in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 model.

    PubMed

    Bonanomi, Marcella; Natalello, Antonino; Visentin, Cristina; Pastori, Valentina; Penco, Amanda; Cornelli, Giuseppina; Colombo, Giorgio; Malabarba, Maria G; Doglia, Silvia M; Relini, Annalisa; Regonesi, Maria E; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-12-15

    The polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing protein ataxin-3 (AT3) triggers the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) when its polyQ tract is expanded beyond a critical length. This results in protein aggregation and generation of toxic oligomers and fibrils. Currently, no effective treatment is available for such and other polyQ diseases. Therefore, plenty of investigations are being carried on to assess the mechanism of action and the therapeutic potential of anti-amyloid agents. The polyphenol compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and tetracycline have been shown to exert some effect in preventing fibrillogenesis of amyloidogenic proteins. Here, we have incubated an expanded AT3 variant with either compound to assess their effects on the aggregation pattern. The process was monitored by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Whereas in the absence of any treatment, AT3 gives rise to amyloid ?-rich fibrils, whose hallmark is the typical glutamine side-chain hydrogen bonding, when incubated in the presence of EGCG it generated soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates, much poorer in ?-sheets and devoid of any ordered side-chain hydrogen bonding. These are off-pathway species that persist until the latest incubation time and are virtually absent in the control sample. In contrast, tetracycline did not produce major alterations in the structural features of the aggregated species compared with the control, but substantially increased their solubility. Both compounds significantly reduced toxicity, as shown by the MTT assay in COS-7 cell line and in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain expressing in the nervous system an AT3 expanded variant in fusion with GFP. PMID:25030034

  17. Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G; Tao, J.

    1996-10-01

    Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Intracerebroventricularly and systemically delivered inhibitor of brain CYP2B (C8-Xanthate), even following chlorpyrifos exposure, reduces chlorpyrifos activation and toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Jibran Younis; Tyndale, Rachel Fynvola

    2014-07-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide that is metabolically activated to chlorpyrifos oxon (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) primarily by the cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) enzyme subfamily in the liver and brain. We have previously shown that intracerebroventricular pretreatment with a CYP2B inhibitor, C8-Xanthate, can block chlorpyrifos toxicity. Here, we assessed whether delayed introduction of C8-Xanthate would still reduce toxicity and whether peripheral administration of C8-Xanthate could also inhibit chlorpyrifos activation in the brain and block toxicity. Male rats (N = 4-5/group) were either pretreated with C8-Xanthate (40 ?g intracerebroventricular or 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal), or vehicle (ACSF or saline, respectively), 24 h before chlorpyrifos treatment (125 mg/kg subcutaneous) and then treated daily with inhibitor or vehicle until 7 days post-chlorpyrifos treatment. Additional groups received vehicle pretreatment, switching to C8-Xanthate 1, 2, 3, or 4 days after chlorpyrifos and then continuing with daily C8-Xanthate treatment until 7 days post-chlorpyrifos treatment. Neurotoxicity was assessed at baseline (before chlorpyrifos) and then daily after chlorpyrifos, using behavioral assessments (e.g., gait score). Neurochemical assays (e.g., serum and brain chlorpyrifos) were performed at the end of study. Pretreatment with C8-Xanthate completely prevented chlorpyrifos toxicity, and delayed introduction of C8-Xanthate reduced toxicity, even when started up to 4 days after chlorpyrifos treatment. Discontinuation of C8-Xanthate treatment 7 days post-chlorpyrifos treatment did not result in the reappearance of toxicity, tested through 10 days after chlorpyrifos treatment. These findings suggest that CYP2B inhibitor treatment, even days after chlorpyrifos exposure, and using a peripheral delivery route, may be useful as a therapeutic approach to reduce chlorpyrifos toxicity. PMID:24798379

  19. Nixtamalization Reduces Fumonisin Toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 is a fungal toxin found in corn and corn-based foods. It causes diseases in animals, and is a suspected risk factor for birth defects in humans depending on contaminated corn as a diet staple. Tortillas, snacks and other foods are made from corn by the alkaline cooking process known as ...

  20. Solid-phase treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor substantially reduces pharmaceutical concentrations and toxicity from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jeli?, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Caminal, Glòria; Petrovi?, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    For safe biosolid-land-applying, sludge should be contaminant-free. However, it may contain important amounts of micropollutants, not removed in the wastewater-treatment-processes. An alternative treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor was applied in sterile solid-phase systems consisting of sludge and a lignocellulosic substrate. Fungal colonization and activity were demonstrated during the process, according to monitoring of ergosterol, laccase activity and the naproxen-degradation test (ND24). Fourteen out of 43 analyzed pharmaceuticals were found in the raw sludge. After treatment, phenazone, bezafibrate, fenofibrate, cimetidine, clarithromycin, sulfamethazine and atenolol were completely removed, while removals between 42% and 80% were obtained for the remaining pharmaceuticals. Toxicological analyses (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and seed germination) showed an important reduction in sludge toxicity after treatment. Results suggest that a solid-phase treatment with T. versicolor may reduce the ecotoxicological impact of micropollutants present in sewage sludge. This is the first report of a fungal-approach for elimination of emerging pollutants from biosolids. PMID:21376580

  1. Elevated water temperature reduces the acute toxicity of the widely used herbicide diuron to a green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Tasmin, Rumana; Shimasaki, Yohei; Tsuyama, Michito; Qiu, Xuchun; Khalil, Fatma; Okino, Nozomu; Yamada, Naotaka; Fukuda, Shinji; Kang, Ik-Joon; Oshima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    In the actual environment, temperatures fluctuate drastically through season or global warming and are thought to affects risk of pollutants for aquatic biota; however, there is no report about the effect of water temperature on toxicity of widely used herbicide diuron to fresh water microalgae. The present research investigated inhibitory effect of diuron on growth and photosynthetic activity of a green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at five different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) for 144 h of exposure. As a result, effective diuron concentrations at which a 50% decrease in algal growth occurred was increased with increasing water temperature ranging from 9.2 to 20.1 ?g L(-1) for 72 h and 9.4-28.5 ?g L(-1) for 144 h. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v/F m ratio) was significantly reduced at all temperatures by diuron exposure at 32 ?g L(-1) after 72 h. Inhibition rates was significantly increased with decreased water temperature (P?

  2. Lipid-PEG Conjugates Sterically Stabilize and Reduce the Toxicity of Phytantriol-Based Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jiali; Hinton, Tracey M; Waddington, Lynne J; Fong, Celesta; Tran, Nhiem; Mulet, Xavier; Drummond, Calum J; Muir, Benjamin W

    2015-10-01

    Lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticle dispersions are of interest as delivery vectors for biomedicine. Aqueous dispersions of liposomes, cubosomes, and hexosomes are commonly stabilized by nonionic amphiphilic block copolymers to prevent flocculation and phase separation. Pluronic stabilizers such as F127 are commonly used; however, there is increasing interest in using chemically reactive stabilizers for enhanced functionalization and specificity in therapeutic delivery applications. This study has explored the ability of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEGMW) (2000 Da ? MW ? 5000 Da) to engineer and stabilize phytantriol-based lyotropic liquid crystalline dispersions. The poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) moiety provides a tunable handle to the headgroup hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity to allow access to a range of nanoarchitectures in these systems. Specifically, it was observed that increasing PEG molecular weight promotes greater interfacial curvature of the dispersions, with liposomes (L?) present at lower PEG molecular weight (MW 2000 Da), and a propensity for cubosomes (QII(P) or QII(D) phase) at MW 3400 Da or 5000 Da. In comparison to Pluronic F127-stabilized cubosomes, those made using DSPE-PEG3400 or DSPE-PEG5000 had enlarged internal water channels. The toxicity of these cubosomes was assessed in vitro using A549 and CHO cell lines, with cubosomes prepared using DSPE-PEG5000 having reduced cytotoxicity relative to their Pluronic F127-stabilized analogues. PMID:26362479

  3. The synthesis of a prodrug of doxorubicin designed to provide reduced systemic toxicity and greater target efficacy.

    PubMed

    Garsky, V M; Lumma, P K; Feng, D M; Wai, J; Ramjit, H G; Sardana, M K; Oliff, A; Jones, R E; DeFeo-Jones, D; Freidinger, R M

    2001-11-22

    Doxorubicin (Dox) can provide some stabilization in prostate cancer; however, its use is limited because of systemic toxicities, primarily cardiotoxicity and immunosuppression. The administration of a prodrug of doxorubicin, designed to permit selective activation by the tumor, would reduce general systemic exposure to the active drug and would thereby increase the therapeutic index. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease with chymotrypsin-like activity that is a member of the kallikrein gene family. PSA's putative physiological role is the liquefaction of semen by virtue of its ability to cleave the seminal fluid proteins semenogelins I and II. Serum PSA levels have been found to correlate well with the number of malignant prostate cells. The use of a prodrug which is cleaved by the enzyme PSA in the prostate should in principle produce high localized concentrations of the cytotoxic agent at the tumor site while limiting systemic exposure to the active drug. Cleavage maps following PSA treatment of human semenogelin were constructed. Systematic modification of the amino acid residues flanking the primary cleavage site led to the synthesis of a series of short peptides which were efficiently hydrolyzed by PSA. Subsequent coupling of selected peptides to doxorubicin provided a series of doxorubicin-peptide conjugates which were evaluated in vitro and in vivo as targeted prodrugs for PSA-secreting tumor cells. From these studies we selected Glutaryl-Hyp-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-Ser-Leu-Dox, 27, as the peptide-doxorubicin conjugate with the best profile of physical and biological properties. Compound 27 has a greater than 20-fold selectivity against human prostate PSA-secreting LNCaP cells relative to the non-PSA-secreting DuPRO cell line. In nude mouse xenograft studies, 27 reduced PSA levels by 95% and tumor weight by 87% at a dose below its MTD. Both doxorubicin and Leu-Dox (13) were ineffective in reducing circulating PSA and tumor burden at their maximum tolerated doses. On the basis of these results, we selected 27 for further study to assess its ability to inhibit human prostate cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis. PMID:11708923

  4. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    PubMed

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M?DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. PMID:23660235

  5. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  6. (Conversion from gasoline to propane. Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-23

    The engines use more propane than gasoline. The larger engines average 5.5 miles per gallon on propane while the average gasoline mileage was 7.5 per gallon. The engines run cleaner - spark plugs after 10,000 miles look like new - oil has not thinned out at 2500 miles and looks like it was changed recently. I find that the vehicles have more power with the propane and the engines do not ping. Maintenance on engines has declined, however, the starting sometimes is a problem. The timing of engines has to be perfect for the propane to work correctly and efficiently. Propane prices have increased and if one expects a savings in the purchase of fuel there is none. However the propane fumes are not toxic and the octane in propane is higher than in the gasoline.

  7. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10gkg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions. PMID:25900116

  8. Gasoline from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

    1981-03-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

  9. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P < 0.05). The total number and average body weight (BW) of fetuses at 70 DIP, the number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the average BW of piglet at birth, the number of piglets born alive, the born alive litter weight, and born alive piglet BW at farrowing were also decreased by ZEN exposure (P < 0.05). The increased expressions of P53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in the uterus and placenta of sows at 70 DIP, the placenta and fetal uterus at farrowing, and the piglet uterus at weaning (P < 0.05). Adding 1% MHNTs decreased the residue of ZEN in maternal and fetal tissues. The number of fetuses and the average fetus BW at 70 DIP, the total number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the born alive piglet BW at farrowing, the average piglet BW, the litter weaned weight, and the average day gain at weaning were increased by adding 1% MHNTs, compared with the ZEN-treated group (P < 0.05). The MHNTs significantly reduced the damage to the fat in the colostrum and the protein and lactose in the milk induced by the ZEN-contaminated feed (P < 0.05). Modified halloysite nanotubes could be used as adsorbent in the feed to reduce the toxic effects of ZEN. PMID:25528463

  10. Persulfate Oxidation of Gasoline Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, K.; Thomson, N.; Barker, J.

    2009-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is a promising remediation technology that can be potentially applied to a wide range of organic contaminants. Gasoline compounds are of particular interest because they extensively impact the soil and groundwater, and are highly persistent and toxic. In this investigation, destruction of specific gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and naphthalene), and fractions (F1 and F2) by activated and inactivated persulfate was studied at the bench-scale. Aqueous phase batch reactors (25 mL) for inactivated systems employed persulfate at two concentrations (1 or 20 g/L), and activated systems were conducted with a persulfate concentration of 20 g/L. In the activated systems, the ability of hydrogen peroxide or chelated-ferrous as an activator was examined at two experimental conditions (peroxide molar ratio 0.1 and 1.0 with respect to persulfate; and citric acid chelated ferrous at 150 and 600 mg/L). All treatments and controls contained an initial gasoline concentration of approximately 25 mg/L and were run in triplicate. Sampling for gasoline compounds was conducted over <28 day reaction period. The controls showed insignificant degradation for all the gasoline compounds and fractions examined while inactivated persulfate at 1 g/L showed little (<10%) decrease in the concentration of gasoline compounds over the 28 day reaction period. Inactivated persulfate at 20 g/L demonstrated a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of BTEX (>99%), TMB (>94%) and naphthalene (>71%). Oxidation of the F1 fraction (>94%) was more pronounced than the F2 fraction (>80%), and >93% TPH was oxidized. Use of peroxide as an activator at a molar ratio of 0.1 improved the destruction of TMBs (>99%) and naphthalene (>85%) while maintaining the high removal of BTEX (>99%) compounds. Increase in activator strength (molar ratio 1.0) decreased the destruction of xylenes (>86%) and TMBs (>81%). The decrease in concentration of all the compounds was higher for a molar ratio of 1.0 (<27%) as compared with a molar ratio of 0.1 (<11%). The activation by ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of compounds (except naphthalene) as compared with unactivated or peroxide activated persulfate. 1,3,5-TMB was completed oxidized after 4 days using higher chelated ferrous concentration and after 12 days using lower chelated ferrous concentration for persulfate activation. In general, increase in chelated ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of the gasoline compounds. While oxidation of F1 fraction was similar for two ferrous activation conditions, the oxidation of F2 fraction was lower when ferrous activation at 600 mg/L was employed. Use of persulfate at high dosages by itself or in combination with higher doses of chelated ferrous or optimum doses of peroxide as an activator seems to be a viable option for remediation of gasoline compounds examined in this study. Persulfate appears to be particularly effective in the oxidation of BTEX compounds, but may require ferrous activation for a complete oxidation of TMBs and peroxide activation for oxidation of naphthalene.

  11. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Neil B.; Stein, Nicholas F.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M.; Goodman, Karyn; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves hematologic toxicity in particular. Although the long-term efficacy of current treatment options remains disappointing, the improved therapeutic index of IMRT may aid in generalizing its use and allowing the addition of novel approaches such as intraperitoneal immunotherapy.

  12. Escherichia coli 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase aids in tellurite resistance by reducing the toxicant in a NADPH-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, J M; Arenas, F A; García, J A; Díaz-Vásquez, W A; Valdivia-González, M; Sabotier, M; Vásquez, C C

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to the tellurium oxyanion tellurite (TeO3(2-)) results in the establishment of an oxidative stress status in most microorganisms. Usually, bacteria growing in the presence of the toxicant turn black because of the reduction of tellurite (Te(4+)) to the less-toxic elemental tellurium (Te(0)). In vitro, at least part of tellurite reduction occurs enzymatically in a nicotinamide dinucleotide-dependent reaction. In this work, we show that TeO3(2-) reduction by crude extracts of Escherichia coli overexpressing the zwf gene (encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) takes place preferentially in the presence of NADPH instead of NADH. The enzyme responsible for toxicant reduction was identified as 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Gnd). The gnd gene showed a subtle induction at short times after toxicant exposure while strains lacking gnd were more susceptible to the toxicant. These results suggest that both NADPH-generating enzymes from the pentose phosphate shunt may be involved in tellurite detoxification and resistance in E. coli. PMID:26211962

  13. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  14. Copper nanoparticle (CuNP) nanochain arrays with a reduced toxicity response: a biophysical and biochemical outlook on Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Satakshi; Chandra, Sourov; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2015-03-18

    Copper deficiency or toxicity in agricultural soil circumscribes a plant's growth and physiology, hampering photochemical and biochemical networks within the system. So far, copper sulfate (CS) has been used widely despite its toxic effect. To get around this long-standing problem, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized, characterized, and tested on mung bean plants along with commercially available salt CS, to observe morphological abnormalities enforced if any. CuNPs enhanced photosynthetic activity by modulating fluorescence emission, photophosphorylation, electron transport chain (ETC), and carbon assimilatory pathway under controlled laboratory conditions, as revealed from biochemical and biophysical studies on treated isolated mung bean chloroplast. CuNPs at the recommended dose worked better than CS in plants in terms of basic morphology, pigment contents, and antioxidative activities. CuNPs showed elevated nitrogen assimilation compared to CS. At higher doses CS was found to be toxic to the plant system, whereas CuNP did not impart any toxicity to the system including morphological and/or physiological alterations. This newly synthesized polymer-encapsulated CuNPs can be utilized as nutritional amendment to balance the nutritional disparity enforced by copper imbalance. PMID:25686266

  15. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gasoline in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining industry.

  16. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  17. Gasoline, Asbestos, and Dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    New data on the health hazards of gasoline, chrysotile asbestos, and dioxin were presented at the annual conference of the Collegium Ramazzini, an international group of scientists dedicated to the study of issues of environmental and occupational health. Presented data highlighted the inconsistencies and gaps in the hypothesis linking accumulation of alpha-2[sub u]-globulin, a protein synthesized in the livers of male rats, and gasoline-induced carcinogenicity in the male rat kidney. Although the hypothesis explains some rat male kidney tumors caused by some chemicals, new data support the view that alternative mechanisms must be operating for gasoline.

  18. State Gasoline Taxes

    E-print Network

    Learned, Edmund Philip

    1925-03-15

    stream_size 180156 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name humseries.3-4.State_Gasoline_Taxes.pdf.txt stream_source_info humseries.3-4.State_Gasoline_Taxes.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS HUMANISTIC STUDIES Vol. III March 15, 192S No. 4 State Gasoline Taxes BY KDMUNI) IV LKAENKI), A. B., A, M. Instructor in Economics and Commerce The Unlvmity of Kansas PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY l...

  19. Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Bisakha

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing

  20. Neuroprotective effect of steroidal alkaloids on glutamate-induced toxicity by preserving mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Marcos; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Teixeira, João P; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-03-01

    Several evidences suggest that enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time whether both extracts from tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves and their isolated steroidal alkaloids (tomatine and tomatidine) afford neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Steroidal alkaloids from tomato are well known for their cholinesterases' inhibitory capacity and the results showed that both purified extracts and isolated compounds, at non-toxic concentrations for gastric (AGS), intestinal (Caco-2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells, have the capacity to preserve mitochondria membrane potential and to decrease reactive oxygen species levels of SH-SY5Y glutamate-insulted cells. Moreover, the use of specific antagonists of cholinergic receptors allowed observing that tomatine and tomatidine can interact with nicotinic receptors, specifically with the ?7 type. No effect on muscarinic receptors was noticed. In addition to the selective cholinesterases' inhibition revealed by the compounds/extracts, these results provide novel and important insights into their neuroprotective mechanism. This work also demystifies the applicability of these compounds in therapeutics, by demonstrating that their toxicity was overestimated for long time. PMID:24373792

  1. Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

  2. Decreased dissolution of ZnO by iron doping yields nanoparticles with reduced toxicity in the rodent lung and zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E

    2011-02-22

    We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn(2+) shedding leads to a series of sublethal and lethal toxicological responses at the cellular level that can be alleviated by iron doping. Iron doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1-10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium, and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung, and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release, and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn(2+) on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH, and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

  3. Gasoline engine choking arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Armes, P.W.

    1987-10-13

    In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

  4. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  5. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

  6. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

  7. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

  8. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

  9. 40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

  10. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  11. Ash impacts on gasoline particulate filter performance and service life

    E-print Network

    Custer, Nicholas C

    2015-01-01

    New regulations in the United States and Europe, designed to address climate change concerns by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, are causing increased use of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines in light-duty vehicles ...

  12. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, Florian; Steimer, Werner; Nitzsche, Thomas; Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan ; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Müller, Christine; Schlapschy, Martin; Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan ; Zilker, Thomas; Skerra, Arne; Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ? We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ? We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ? We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin after intravenous anticalin administration. ? We provide clinical data on outcome improvement after anticalin administration.

  13. A Synthetic Peptide Blocking the Apolipoprotein E/?-Amyloid Binding Mitigates ?-Amyloid Toxicity and Fibril Formation in Vitro and Reduces ?-Amyloid Plaques in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Marcin; Pankiewicz, Joanna; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Ripellino, James A.; Li, Yongsheng; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Mathews, Paul M.; Fryer, John D.; Holtzman, David M.; Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?). A major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is inheritance of the apolipoprotein (apo) E4 allele. ApoE can act as a pathological chaperone of A?, promoting its conformational transformation from soluble A? into toxic aggregates. We determined if blocking the apoE/A? interaction reduces A? load in transgenic (Tg) AD mice. The binding site of apoE on A? corresponds to residues 12 to 28. To block binding, we synthesized a peptide containing these residues, but substituted valine at position 18 to proline (A?12–28P). This changed the peptide’s properties, making it non-fibrillogenic and non-toxic. A?12–28P competitively blocks binding of full-length A? to apoE (IC50 = 36.7 nmol). Furthermore, A?12–28P reduces A? fibrillogenesis in the presence of apoE, and A?/apoE toxicity in cell culture. A?12–28P is blood-brain barrier-permeable and in AD Tg mice inhibits A? deposition. Tg mice treated with A?12–28P for 1 month had a 63.3% reduction in A? load in the cortex (P = 0.0043) and a 59.5% (P = 0.0087) reduction in the hippocampus comparing to age-matched control Tg mice. Antibodies against A? were not detected in sera of treated mice; therefore the observed therapeutic effect of A?12–28P cannot be attributed to an antibody clearance response. Our experiments demonstrate that compounds blocking the interaction between A? and its pathological chaperones may be beneficial for treatment of ?-amyloid deposition in AD. PMID:15331417

  14. Effects of a highly toxic coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl on intermediary metabolism: reduced triose phosphate content in rat liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Kato, H; Hatsumura, M; Ishida, T; Ariyoshi, N; Yamada, H; Oguri, K

    2001-05-01

    The effects of a highly toxic coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), on triose phosphate metabolizing enzymes were studied. Male Wistar rats received 25 mg/kg PenCB, i.p. At this dose the compound provokes a wasting syndrome. The activity of triose phosphate metabolizing enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, glycerokinase, transaldolase and transketolase were significantly reduced by PenCB treatment to 50%, 60%, 50%, 70% and 40% of free-fed controls, respectively. An inhibition study with pyrazol, a specific inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), showed that ADH makes about a 30% contribution to the formation of glycerol-3-phosphate from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Our current study revealed that PenCB suppresses ADH at the protein expression level. The reduced formation of glycerol-3-phosphate from glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase by PenCB could be due to the suppression of ADH. The triose phosphate content in the liver cytosol of PenCB-treated rats was significantly lower than in free-fed controls. The suppression of triose phosphate metabolism could be a cause of the wasting syndrome provoked by highly toxic coplanar PCB. PMID:11452517

  15. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  16. Is the gasoline tax regressive?

    E-print Network

    Poterba, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than ...

  17. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J E

    1975-01-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  18. Exogenous sodium nitroprusside and glutathione alleviate copper toxicity by reducing copper uptake and oxidative damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Seraj, Zeba Islam; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) regulate a variety of physiological processes and stress responses; however, their involvement in mitigating Cu toxicity in plants has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the interactive effect of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and GSH on Cu homeostasis and Cu-induced oxidative damage in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 12-day-old seedlings were subjected to 100 ?M CuSO4 alone and in combination with 200 ?M SNP (an NO donor) and 200 ?M GSH. Cu exposure for 48 h resulted in toxicity symptoms such as stunted growth, chlorosis, and rolling in leaves. Cu toxicity was also manifested by a sharp increase in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline (Pro) content, and rapid reductions in biomass, chlorophyll (Chl), and relative water content (RWC). Cu-caused oxidative stress was evident by overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide (O2 (•-)) and H2O2). Ascorbate (AsA) content decreased while GSH and phytochelatin (PC) content increased significantly in Cu-stressed seedlings. Exogenous SNP, GSH, or SNP?+?GSH decreased toxicity symptoms and diminished a Cu-induced increase in LOX activity, O2 (•-), H2O2, MDA, and Pro content. They also counteracted a Cu-induced increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II activities, which paralleled changes in ROS and MDA levels. These seedlings also showed a significant increase in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and AsA and PC content compared with the seedlings stressed with Cu alone. Cu analysis revealed that SNP and GSH restricted the accumulation of Cu in the roots and leaves of Cu-stressed seedlings. Our results suggest that Cu exposure provoked an oxidative burden while reduced Cu uptake and modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems by adding SNP and GSH play an important role in alleviating Cu toxicity. Furthermore, the protective action of GSH and SNP?+?GSH was more efficient than SNP alone. PMID:24752795

  19. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose response using different monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senden, R. J.; DeJean, P.; McAuley, K. B.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies.

  20. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers.

    PubMed

    Senden, R J; De Jean, P; McAuley, K B; Schreiner, L J

    2006-07-21

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies. PMID:16825731

  1. An optimized nanoparticle delivery system based on chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules reduces the toxicity of amphotericin B and is effective in treating tegumentary leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Franca, Juçara R; Fuscaldi, Leonardo L; Santos, Mara L; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Fernandes, Simone OA; Cardoso, Valbert N; Castilho, Rachel O; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos AP; Faraco, André AG; Coelho, Eduardo AF; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmpB) is active against leishmaniasis, but its use is hampered due to its high toxicity observed in patients. In this study, a nanoparticles-delivery system for AmpB (NQC-AmpB), containing chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules, was evaluated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis. An in vivo biodistribution study, including biochemical and toxicological evaluations, was performed to evaluate the toxicity of AmpB. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and injected in mice. The products presented a similar biodistribution in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of the animals. Free AmpB induced alterations in the body weight of the mice, which, in the biochemical analysis, indicated hepatic and renal injury, as well as morphological damage to the kidneys of the animals. In general, no significant organic alteration was observed in the animals treated with NQC-AmpB. Mice were infected with L. amazonensis and treated with the nanoparticles or free AmpB; then, parasitological and immunological analyses were performed. The NQC-AmpB group, as compared to the control groups, presented significant reductions in the lesion size and in the parasite burden in all evaluated organs. These animals presented significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10, when compared to the control groups. The NQC-AmpB system was effective in reducing the infection in the animals, and proved to be effective in diminishing the toxicity evoked by AmpB, which was observed when it was administered alone. In conclusion, NQC-AmpB could be considered a viable possibility for future studies in the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:25429219

  2. Processing Respiratory Specimens with C18-Carboxypropylbetaine: Development of a Sediment Resuspension Buffer That Contains Lytic Enzymes To Reduce the Contamination Rate and Lecithin To Alleviate Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Charles G.; MacLellan, Kerry M.; Brink, Thomas L.; Wolfe, David M.; Llorin, Oscar J.; Passen, Selvin

    1998-01-01

    The C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) procedure for processing respiratory specimens for the detection of mycobacteria was shown to provide significant increases in sensitivity by smear and culture. However, the procedure also produced increased contamination, a loss in liquid culture sensitivity, and a reduction in smear specificity. Because of these observations, the toxicity of CB-18 and the nature of the contamination were characterized. Preincubation in 1 mM CB-18 impacted viability in a time-dependent fashion, but the magnitude of the loss was species and isolate dependent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were the most susceptible, losing 20 to 30% of the CFU within 30 min and 30 to 60% after 3 h, whereas Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium fortuitum isolates were unaffected by CB-18. In liquid culture, when the concentration of CB-18 exceeded 5 ?g/ml, there was an impact on growth characteristics for the most susceptible M. tuberculosis isolate. In contrast, M. fortuitum isolates were able to grow in 100 ?g of CB-18 per ml. In liquid culture, the deleterious effects of CB-18 were enhanced in the presence of antibiotics, whereas growth on solid media was not similarly affected. Supplementation of the resuspension buffer with 0.15% lecithin alleviated toxicity. Initial attempts to modify the CB-18 procedure to control contamination incorporated acids or alkalis; however, losses in culture sensitivity occurred. Studies to identify these contaminants led to the development of a sediment resuspension buffer that contained lytic enzymes to combat contamination and lecithin to alleviate toxicity. This formulation included lysozyme, zymolyase, and Cytophaga and Trichoderma extracts and was seen to reduce contamination to acceptable levels (<5%). PMID:9650952

  3. Molecular Signatures of Reduced Nerve Toxicity by CeCl3 in Phoxim-exposed Silkworm Brains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Binbin; Li, Fanchi; Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Kaizun; Tian, Jianghai; Hu, Jingsheng; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    CeCl3 can reduce the damage caused by OP pesticides, in this study we used the brain of silkworms to investigate the mechanism of CeCl3 effects on pesticide resistance. The results showed that phoxim treatments led to brain damages, swelling and death of neurons, chromatin condensation, and mitochondrial damage. Normal nerve conduction was severely affected by phoxim treatments, as revealed by: increases in the contents of neurotransmitters Glu, NO, and ACh by 63.65%, 61.14%, and 98.54%, respectively; decreases in the contents of 5-HT and DA by 53.19% and 43.71%, respectively; reductions in the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase, and AChE by 85.27%, 85.63%, and 85.63%, respectively; and increase in the activity of TNOS by 22.33%. CeCl3 pretreatment can significantly reduce such damages. Results of DGE and qRT-PCR indicated that CeCl3 treatments significantly upregulated the expression levels of CYP4G23, cyt-b5, GSTs-?1, ace1, esterase-FE4, and ?-esterase 2. Overall, phoxim treatments cause nerve tissue lesions, neuron death, and nerve conduction hindrance, but CeCl3 pretreatments can promote the expression of phoxim resistance-related genes in silkworm brains to reduce phoxim-induced damages. Our study provides a potential new method to improve the resistance of silkworms against OP pesticides. PMID:26227613

  4. Gasoline Composition in 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition in the U.S is determined by factors related to crude oil source, refinery capacity, geography and regulatory factors. Major regulation derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments determines the benzene and former oxygenate requirements for reformulated...

  5. Carcinogenic potential of gasoline and diesel engine oils.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Plutnick, R T

    1989-10-01

    Used gasoline engine oils are carcinogenic in mouse skin and mutagenic in Salmonella. The toxicity of fresh gasoline engine oils and that of fresh and used diesel engine oils are less well defined. The present studies examined the dermal carcinogenic potential of a series of fresh and used oils from both gasoline and diesel engines. The used oils represented a variety of operating conditions. The objective of the study was to assess the potential carcinogenic hazards associated with exposure to these materials. The majority of the used gasoline engine oils tested were carcinogenic although one oil, collected after a relatively short drainage interval, was inactive in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. Additionally, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were elevated in the used oils in comparison to the fresh oils. The fresh gasoline engine oils and both the fresh and used diesel engine oil samples were noncarcinogenic, and there was little evidence of elevated PAH levels in the used diesel engine oils. The carcinogenic potency of used oils from gasoline engines was related to drainage interval, but other factors such as contribution of the fuel due to blowby and driving cycle may also have been important. The used diesel engine oils were not carcinogenic even after extended use. PMID:2612787

  6. Pharmacologic Immunoablation Followed by Reduced-Toxicity Conditioning and Stem Cell Transplantation in High-Risk Thalassemia: A Safe Approach to Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Anurathapan, Usanarat; Pakakasama, Samart; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Songdej, Duantida; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Sirireung, Somtawin; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Issaragrsil, Surapol; Ungkanont, Artit; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Srisala, Supanart; Andersson, Borje S.; Hongeng, Suradej

    2015-01-01

    Patients with class 3 thalassemia with high-risk features for adverse events after high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are difficult to treat, tending to either suffer serious toxicity or fail to establish stable graft function. We performed HSCT in 18 such patients age ?7 years and hepatomegaly using a novel approach with pharmacologic immunoablation followed by a myeloablative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen (fludarabine and i.v. busulfan [Flu-IV Bu]) and then HSCT. The median patient age was 14 years (range, 10 to 18 years). Before the Flu-IV Bu + antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen, all patients received one to two cycles of immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy with fludarabine and dexamethasone. Thirteen patients received a related donor graft, and 5 received an unrelated donor graft. An initial prompt engraftment of donor cells with full donor chimerism was observed in all 18 patients, but 2 patients developed secondary mixed chimerism that necessitated withdrawal of immunosuppression to achieve full donor chimerism. Two patients (11%) had acute grade III–IV graft-versus-host disease, and 5 patients had limited chronic graft-versus-host disease. The only treatment-related mortality was from infection, and with a median follow-up of 42 months (range, 4 to 75), the 5-year overall survival and thalassemia-free survival were 89%. We conclude that this novel sequential immunoablative pre-transplantation conditioning program is safe and effective for patients with high-risk class 3 thalassemia exhibiting additional comorbidities. PMID:23648235

  7. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  8. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times. PMID:23375214

  9. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  10. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  11. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.

    PubMed

    Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24852493

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    PubMed

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase. PMID:26386958

  13. Nanomedicine for therapeutic drug therapy: Approaches to increase the efficacy of drug therapy with nanoemulsion delivery and reduce the toxicity of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambalapally, Swetha Reddy

    The advancement of nanotechnology has paved the way for novel nanoscale materials for use in a wide range of applications. The use of these nanomaterials in biomedicine facilitates the improvement of existing technologies for disease prevention and treatment through diagnostics, tumor detection, drug delivery, medical imaging and vaccine development. Nanotechnology delivery systems for therapeutic uses includes the formulation of nanoparticles in emulsions. These novel delivery systems can improve drug efficacy by their ability to enhance bioavailability, minimize drug side effects, decrease drug toxicity, provide targeted site delivery and increase circulation of the drug in the blood. Additionally, these delivery systems also improve the drug stability and encapsulation efficiency. In the Introduction, this thesis will describe a novel technique for the preparation of nanoemulsions which was utilized in drug delivery and diagnostic applications. This novel Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) method is a solvent and polymer-free and low energy requiring emulsification method, typically utilizing oils stabilized by nonionic surfactants to prepare water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The correlation between the particle size, zeta potential and the emulsion stability is described. The use of this nanoemulsion delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals by utilizing in vitro systems was investigated. Using the PIT method, a self assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) of gamma Tocotrienols (gammaT3), a component of Vitamin E family has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol accumulation in HepG-2 cells. The nanoemulsion is stable and the particle size is around 20 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.065. The effect of the nano gammaT3 on the metabolism of cholesterol, HMG-CoA activity and Apo-B levels were evaluated in an in vitro system utilizing HepG2 cells. A new class of nanoparticles, Quantum dots (QDs) has shown immense potential as novel nanomaterials used as fluorescent labels. They have been studied extensively due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. The study of their applications has led to their use as novel platforms for delivery into living systems for use in medical imaging. The second part of this thesis discusses the toxicity of the various semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe and InP. The results show the toxicity of CdSe and InP QDs in in vitro cultures of whole skin biopsies exposed to similar concentrations. This forms the basis for further studies involving QDs and approaches to reduce the toxicity of these nanoparticles. Finally, ligand exchange mediated Solutol HS-15 modified CdSe QDs were prepared for the first time. The modified CdSe QDs demonstrated long term stability and reduced cytotoxicity. Such behavior is interpreted as arising from decreased aggregation of the QDs due to the incorporation of the surfactant.

  14. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress. PMID:26552588

  15. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress. PMID:26552588

  16. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  17. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

  18. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

  19. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

  20. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

  1. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

  2. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  3. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality. PMID:25982734

  4. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ? During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ? Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ? Glial activation is not fully suppressed.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes strains selected on ciprofloxacin or the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride exhibit reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, benzalkonium chloride, and other toxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rakic-Martinez, Mira; Drevets, Douglas A; Dutta, Vikrant; Katic, Vera; Kathariou, Sophia

    2011-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a leading agent for severe food-borne illness and death in the United States and other nations. Even though drug resistance has not yet threatened therapeutic interventions for listeriosis, selective pressure associated with exposure to antibiotics and disinfectants may result in reduced susceptibility to these agents. In this study, selection of several L. monocytogenes strains on either ciprofloxacin (2 ?g/ml) or the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC; 10 ?g/ml) led to derivatives with increased MICs not only to these agents but also to several other toxic compounds, including gentamicin, the dye ethidium bromide, and the chemotherapeutic drug tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. The spectrum of compounds to which these derivatives exhibited reduced susceptibility was the same regardless of whether they were selected on ciprofloxacin or on BC. Inclusion of strains harboring the large plasmid pLM80 revealed that MICs to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin did not differ between the parental and plasmid-cured strains. However, ciprofloxacin-selected derivatives of pLM80-harboring strains had higher MICs than those derived from the plasmid-cured strains. Susceptibility to the antimicrobials was partially restored in the presence of the potent efflux inhibitor reserpine. Taken together, these data suggest that mutations in efflux systems are responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype of strains selected on ciprofloxacin or BC. PMID:22003016

  6. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline...

  7. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0–t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

  8. 40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline. 1065.710 Section 1065.710...Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) This section specifies test fuel properties for gasoline with ethanol (low-level blend...

  9. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    PubMed

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline. PMID:24870412

  10. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

  11. Large PAHs detected in fine particulate matter emitted from light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Sarah G.; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Cahill, Thomas M.; Charles, M. Judith; Kleeman, Michael J.

    Emission factors of large PAHs with 6-8 aromatic rings with molecular weights (MW) of 300-374 were measured from 16 light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGV) and one heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicle (HDDV) operated under realistic driving conditions. LDGVs emitted PAH isomers of MW 302, 326, 350, and 374, while the HDDV did not emit these compounds. This suggests that large PAHs may be useful tracers for the source apportionment of gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust in the atmosphere. Emission rates of MW 302, 326, and 350 isomers from LDGVs equipped with three-way catalysts (TWCs) ranged from 2 to 10 (?g L -1 fuel burned), while emissions from LDGVs classified as low emission vehicles (LEVs) were almost a factor of 10 lower. MW 374 PAH isomers were not quantified due to the lack of a quantification-grade standard. The reduced emissions associated with the LEVs are likely attributable to improved vapor recovery during the "cold-start" phase of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle before the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Approximately 2 (?g g -1 PM) of MW 326 and 350 PAH isomer groups were found in the National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material (SRM)#1649 (Urban Dust). The pattern of the MW 302, 326, and 350 isomers detected in SRM#1649 qualitatively matched the ratio of these compounds detected in the exhaust of TWC LDGVs suggesting that each gram of Urban Dust SRM contained 5-10 mg of PM originally emitted from gasoline-powered motor vehicles. Large PAHs made up 24% of the total LEV PAH emissions and 39% of the TWC PAH emissions released from gasoline-powered motor vehicles. Recent studies have shown certain large PAH isomers have greater toxicity than benzo[ a]pyrene. Even though the specific toxicity measurements on PAHs with MW >302 have yet to be performed, the detection of significant amounts of MW 326 and 350 PAHs in motor vehicle exhaust in the current study suggests that these compounds may pose a significant public health risk.

  12. Pipeline view on reformulated gasoline distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, W.L. )

    1993-01-01

    When the EPA finally defines what constitutes reformulated gasoline (RFG), the proposals become law and distribution begins, the reality of logistics will begin. For the last few years every industry trade journal one picked up has been full of articles detailing how refineries will have to reconfigure their production processes and the problems that must be overcome. Less publicized and maybe less understood is the potential bottleneck created at pipelines and terminal facilities. Widespread distribution of RFGs (under currently proposed scenarios) will reduce pipeline capacities and curtail the downstream movement of products and radically alter business from how it is conducted today. The problems RFG present for pipelines will be those created by the enforcement and liability provisions governing all gasolines distributed after January 1, 1995. The paper explains the problems.

  13. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

  14. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a ?-1,3-glucanase from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor?L.) show reduced callose deposition and increased tolerance to aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Shi, Wu Liang; You, Jiang Feng; Bian, Ming Di; Qin, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Ryan, Peter R; Yang, Zhen Ming

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-one cultivars of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor?L.) were screened for aluminium (Al) tolerance by measuring relative root growth (RRG). Two contrasting cultivars, ROMA (Al tolerant) and POTCHETSTRM (Al sensitive), were selected to study shorter term responses to Al stress. POTCHETSTRM had higher callose synthase activity, lower ?-1,3-glucanase activity and more callose deposition in the root apices during Al treatment compared with ROMA. We monitored the expression of 12 genes involved in callose synthesis and degradation and found that one of these, SbGlu1 (Sb03g045630.1), which encodes a ?-1,3-glucanase enzyme, best explained the contrasting deposition of callose in ROMA and POTCHETSTRM during Al treatment. Full-length cDNAs of SbGlu1 was prepared from ROMA and POTCHETSTRM and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Independent transgenic lines displayed significantly greater Al tolerance than wild-type plants and vector-only controls. This phenotype was associated with greater total ?-1,3-glucanase activity, less Al accumulation and reduced callose deposition in the roots. These results suggest that callose production is not just an early indicator of Al stress in plants but likely to be part of the toxicity pathway that leads to the inhibition of root growth. PMID:25311645

  15. Data on Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  16. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  17. Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

    In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding, the gasoline prices follow as closely as diesel prices to ALOP. Finally, system-wide causality analysis finds linkages among markets. In summary, both physical and statistical linkages exist among the study markets. Arbitrage among these markets is limited by the logistics of transportation infrastructure and by branding agreements in wholesale contracting.

  18. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose homeostasis). These observations suggest a LOEL of 3000 ppm of E85 for vertical activity, LOELs of 9000 ppm of E0 and E85 for maternal food consumption, and NOELs of 9000 ppm for the other endpoints reported here. The ethanol content of the vapors did not consistently alter the pattern of behavioral, immunological, or physiological responses to the fuel vapors. The concentrations of the vapors used here exceed by 4-6 orders of magnitude typical exposure levels encountered by the public. PMID:25724818

  19. Encapsulation of temozolomide in a tumor-targeting nanocomplex enhances anti-cancer efficacy and reduces toxicity in a mouse model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Rait, Antonina; Kim, Eric; DeMarco, James; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Chang, Esther H

    2015-12-01

    Although temozolomide (TMZ) is the current first-line chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), most patients either do not respond or ultimately fail TMZ treatment. Both intrinsic tumor resistance and limited access of TMZ to brain tumors as a result of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contribute to poor response and ultimately to poor prognosis for GBM patients. We have developed a "dual-targeting" nanomedicine that both actively crosses the BBB and actively targets cancer cells once in the brain parenchyma. This nanomedicine (termed scL-TMZ) is sized ~40?nm and comprised of a cationic liposome (DOTAP:DOPE) encapsulating TMZ. The surface of liposome is decorated with anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody fragments to facilitate the crossing of the BBB by the scL-TMZ in addition to targeting GBM in the brain. This novel formulation was found to be markedly more effective than standard TMZ in both TMZ-resistant and TMZ-sensitive GBM. Encapsulation of TMZ also markedly enhanced its efficacy in killing a variety of non-GBM tumor cells. The scL-TMZ nanocomplex was shown to target cancer stem cells, which have been linked to both drug resistance and recurrence in GBM. Most significantly, systemically administered scL-TMZ significantly prolonged survival in mice bearing intracranial GBM tumors. The improved efficacy of scL-TMZ compared to standard TMZ was accompanied by reduced toxicity, so we conclude that the scL-TMZ nanomedicine holds great promise as a more effective therapy for GBM and other tumor types. PMID:26325605

  20. Once-daily intravenous busulfan and fludarabine: clinical and pharmacokinetic results of a myeloablative, reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in AML and MDS.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Marcos; Couriel, Daniel; Thall, Peter F; Wang, Xuemei; Madden, Timothy; Jones, Roy; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Shahjahan, Munir; Pierre, Betty; Giralt, Sergio; Korbling, Martin; Russell, James A; Champlin, Richard E; Andersson, Borje S

    2004-08-01

    Postulating favorable antileukemic effect with improved safety, we used intravenous busulfan and fludarabine as conditioning therapy for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and intravenous busulfan 130 mg/m2 were given once daily for 4 days, with tacrolimus-methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We treated 74 patients with AML and 22 patients with MDS; patients had a median age of 45 years (range, 19-66 years). Only 20% of the patients were in first complete remission (CR) at transplantation. Donors were HLA-compatible related (n = 60) or matched unrelated (n = 36). The CR rate for 54 patients with active disease was 85%. At a median follow-up of 12 months, 1-year regimen-related and treatment-related mortalities were 1% and 3%, respectively. Two patients had reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Actuarial 1-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 65% and 52% for all patients, and 81% and 75% for patients receiving transplants in CR. Recipient age and donor type did not influence OS or EFS. Median busulfan clearance was 109 mL/min/m2 and median daily area-under-the-plasma-concentration-versus-time-curve was 4871 micromol-min, with negligible interdose variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The results suggest that intravenous busulfan-fludarabine is an efficacious, reduced-toxicity, myeloablative-conditioning regimen for patients with AML or MDS undergoing HSCT. PMID:15073038

  1. Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor to reduce the toxicity of super-VAC chemotherapy in advanced solid tumours in childhood.

    PubMed

    Jones, C A; Shaw, P J; Stevens, M M

    1995-08-01

    Children with advanced solid tumours at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children (RAHC) receive an intensive four drug chemotherapy combination, Super-VAC (cyclophosphamide, 500 mg/m2, adriamycin, 30 mg/m2, actinomycin-D, 0.5 mg/m2, all daily for 3 days, and vincristine, 1.5 mg/m2 weekly). The majority of patients respond well to three courses of such therapy, but with considerable morbidity, including fever, neutropenia, and mucositis. In an attempt to reduce the morbidity of Super-VAC, G-CSF was added. We documented various parameters in 12 patients who received 28 cycles with G-CSF and compared them to an historical control group of 37 cycles in the preceding 14 patients who received Super-VAC. The median duration of each cycle was 23 days with G-CSF and 28 days without G-CSF (P = 0.004). However, differences in requirements for inpatient care (median 16 v. 20 days), intravenous antibiotics (median 9 v. 10 days), amphotericin (median 5 v. 3 days), morphine (median 8.5 v. 7 days), or TPN (median 6.5 v. 8 days) did not reach statistical significance. As expected, a significant difference in neutrophil recovery was demonstrated between the two groups (median 11 v. 16 days, P < 0.0001) but not in platelet recovery (median 13 v. 13 days). The use of G-CSF with Super-VAC resulted in a shorter cycle length, so increasing the dose intensity. A reduction in morbidity could not be demonstrated. No toxic side effects from G-CSF were noted. PMID:7541508

  2. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  3. 40 CFR 80.1652 - Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and oxygenate...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1652 Reporting requirements...

  4. Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach

    E-print Network

    Muehlegger, Erich J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

  5. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx. PMID:19595441

  6. Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

    2014-09-01

    In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

  7. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel. Plume lengths, though, would not be proportionately reduced. One implication of these results was that the concentrations would be reduced, but the number of impacted wells would remain similar. Because the simulations included emplacement of the gasoline, dissolution from contact with flowing ground water and transient transport in the aquifer, a common-sense explanation of the results was difficult to construct. A simpler model was then used for the purpose of explaining to policy-makers why the plume length reductions were less than proportionate to the reduction of the amount of MTBE. The model was simple enough (one-dimensional, steady state, constant source concentration) so that the effect of each term of the transport equation on plume length could be easily shown. The weight of evidence from using multiple models, direct explanations from the transport equation, and field observation, then provided a sufficient basis for policy makers to understand scientifically how gasoline composition affects ground water impacts. >http://www.epa.gov/athens/learn2model/part- two/onsite/length.htm

  8. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  9. 40 CFR 80.1654 - California gasoline requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false California gasoline requirements. 80.1654 Section...ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1654 California gasoline requirements. (a) California gasoline exemption. California...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE GASOLINE OXYGENATE ETHANOL ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BTX BIODEGRADATION. (R823420)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microb...

  11. Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels on Learning and Memory

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential toxicity of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels to the developing nervous system is of concern. We previously reported an absence of effect on learning and memory as seen in a trace fear conditioning task and water maze task in offspring of dams exposed prenatally to the...

  12. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  13. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  14. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  15. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

  16. Household gasoline demand in the United States

    E-print Network

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

  17. Mechanisms of ozone toxicity in cultured cells. I. Reduced clonogenic ability of polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented fibroblasts. Effect of vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The direct action of ozone on viability and survival of normal and modified mouse lung fibroblasts has been studied. By cell manipulation of fibroblasts in culture, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the phospholipids was increased from about 6% to about 40%. The cellular content of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) (vitamin E) could be drastically enhanced. Vitamin E supplementation to the cell did not influence the PUFA manipulation. Normal, PUFA, and PUFA(alpha-T) fibroblasts were exposed to ozone by bubbling 10 ppm through the cell suspensions for different periods of time (0-6 h). No significant effects of the ozone exposure could be established when normal fibroblasts were used. The PUFA fibroblasts, however, were very vulnerable to ozone toxicity, both in terms of dye uptake (Trypan blue) and cell death (clonogenic ability). When alpha-tocopherol was present in the cell (200 ng/10(6) cells), a clear protection against ozone toxicity was found. It is concluded that ozone toxicity might be higher under conditions of a relative high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membrane phospholipids of the cell and a low cellular antioxidant capacity. Cellular membranes are probably an important target for ozone-induced cell death.

  18. Reduced Toxicity of Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 2c in Mice Compared to Stx2d Is Associated with Instability of Stx2c Holotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Bunger, Joshua C.; Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; Maynard, Ernest L.; O’Brien, Alison D.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is an AB5 ribotoxin made by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). These organisms cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC make two types of Stxs, Stx1 and/or Stx2. Stx2 has one prototype (a) and six subtypes (b–g), but only STEC that make Stx2a, and/or Stx2c, or Stx2d are associated with severe disease. However, Stx2c is about 10-fold less toxic than Stx2d in vivo despite only two amino acid differences in the A subunit at positions 291 and 297. We made mutations at these two sites to create intermediate toxins between Stx2c and Stx2d, and determined the 50% cytotoxic dose on Vero cells before and after heat treatment, and the 50% lethal dose in mice of the toxins. We found that serine 291 was associated with increased toxicity in vivo and that either amino acid change from that in Stx2c to that in Stx2d increased heat stability. We also assessed the secondary structure of Stx2c and Stx2d by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The CD studies suggest that Stx2c has a less-ordered secondary structure than Stx2d. We conclude that both amino acids at positions 291 and 297 in Stx2c contribute to its decreased stability and in vivo toxicity compared to Stx2d. PMID:26110507

  19. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are...

  20. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline. 1065.710 Section 1065.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline for testing must...

  2. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

  3. Emissions from light duty gasoline vehicles operating on low blend ethanol gasoline and E85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Belisle, Sheri L.; Baas, Cara-Lynn

    The results of two recent vehicle emission studies are described in this paper, along with a statistical analysis of the changes in tailpipe emissions due to the use of ethanol that includes the results from these two studies in combination with results from other literature reports. The first study evaluates the effect of two low blend ethanol gasolines (E10, E20) on tailpipe and evaporative emissions from three multi-port fuel injection vehicles and one gasoline direct injection vehicle at two different test temperatures. The second study evaluates the differences in tailpipe emissions and fuel consumptions of paired flexible fuel and conventional gasoline vehicles operating on California RFG Phase 2 and/or E85 fuels at 20 °C. The vehicles were tested over the four-phase FTP or UDDS and US06 driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions were characterized for criteria pollutants (CO, NO X, NMHC, NMOG), greenhouse gases (CO 2, CH 4, N 2O), and a suite of unregulated emissions including important air toxics (benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein), and ozone reactivity. In the low blend ethanol study, evaporative emissions were quantified and characterized for NMHC. While contradicting, results can be seen among the various literature reports and with these two new studies, the statistical analyses of the aggregated data offers much clearer pictures of the changes in tailpipe emissions that may be expected using either low blend ethanol gasoline (E10) or E85. The results of the statistical analysis suggest that the use of E10 results in statistically significant decreases in CO emissions (-16%); statistically significant increases in emissions of NMHC (9%), NMOG (14%), acetaldehyde (108%), 1,3-butadiene (16%), and benzene (15%); and no statistically significant changes in NO X, CO 2, CH 4, N 2O or formaldehyde emissions. The statistical analysis suggests that the use of E85 results in statistically significant decreases in emissions of NO X (-45%), NMHC (-48%), 1,3-butadiene (-77%), and benzene (-76%); statistically significant increases in emissions of formaldehyde (73%) and acetaldehyde (2540%), and no statistically significant change in CO, CO 2, and NMOG emissions.

  4. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m3 for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

  5. Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make…

  6. Identification and confirmation of ammonia toxicity in contaminated sediments using a modified toxicity identification evaluation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sprang, P.A. Van; Janssen, C.R.

    1997-12-01

    Toxicity identification of sediment pore waters from four sites in the Upper Scheldt (Belgium) was assessed using a simplified and discriminative toxicity identification evaluation procedure. The samples from all locations exhibited acute toxicity toward the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. Toxicity was removed or considerably reduced by the cation exchange resins and air stripping at pH 11. In addition, the toxicity of the pore waters was found to be highly pH dependent. Increased toxicity was observed at higher pH levels, whereas reduced toxicity was found at lower pH levels. Based on these results, ammonia was suggested as the main toxic agent. The presence of ammonia concentrations exceeding the 24-h median lethal concentration and comparison of the toxicity characterization profiles of the pore waters with those of the suspected toxicant supported this hypothesis. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the observed toxicity of the pore waters and the expected toxicity (due to the presence of the suspected toxicant) confirmed ammonia as the true toxic agent. Finally, the ratio between the expected ammonia toxicity and the observed toxicity from the characterization tests was approx. 1, meaning that all or most of the observed toxicity was caused by the presence of one toxicant (i.e., ammonia). The developed toxicity identification evaluation procedure is suggested as a useful tool for the identification and confirmation of toxicants in contaminated sediments.

  7. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  8. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  9. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  10. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  11. A synthetic peptide blocking the apolipoprotein E/beta-amyloid binding mitigates beta-amyloid toxicity and fibril formation in vitro and reduces beta-amyloid plaques in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Marcin; Pankiewicz, Joanna; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Ripellino, James A; Li, Yongsheng; Schmidt, Stephen D; Mathews, Paul M; Fryer, John D; Holtzman, David M; Sigurdsson, Einar M; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta). A major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is inheritance of the apolipoprotein (apo) E4 allele. ApoE can act as a pathological chaperone of Abeta, promoting its conformational transformation from soluble Abeta into toxic aggregates. We determined if blocking the apoE/Abeta interaction reduces Abeta load in transgenic (Tg) AD mice. The binding site of apoE on Abeta corresponds to residues 12 to 28. To block binding, we synthesized a peptide containing these residues, but substituted valine at position 18 to proline (Abeta12-28P). This changed the peptide's properties, making it non-fibrillogenic and non-toxic. Abeta12-28P competitively blocks binding of full-length Abeta to apoE (IC50 = 36.7 nmol). Furthermore, Abeta12-28P reduces Abeta fibrillogenesis in the presence of apoE, and Abeta/apoE toxicity in cell culture. Abeta12-28P is blood-brain barrier-permeable and in AD Tg mice inhibits Abeta deposition. Tg mice treated with Abeta12-28P for 1 month had a 63.3% reduction in Abeta load in the cortex (P = 0.0043) and a 59.5% (P = 0.0087) reduction in the hippocampus comparing to age-matched control Tg mice. Antibodies against Abeta were not detected in sera of treated mice; therefore the observed therapeutic effect of Abeta12-28P cannot be attributed to an antibody clearance response. Our experiments demonstrate that compounds blocking the interaction between Abeta and its pathological chaperones may be beneficial for treatment of beta-amyloid deposition in AD. PMID:15331417

  12. [Toxic polyneuropathies].

    PubMed

    Neundörfer, B

    1992-08-01

    Toxic factors may have damaging effects on the peripheral nerves at different sites: on the axon, on the myelin sheath, on the cell bodies and on the vasa nervorum. The toxic neuropathies can be divided up into polyneuropathies induced by drugs, by industrial, environmental and stimulant poisons. Mostly symmetrical sensory symptoms and signs are the first disturbances, often followed by symmetrical motor pareses. Some polyneuropathies induced by amiodarone, benzene, lead, cimetidine, chloroquine, dapsone, gentamycin, gold, imipramine, hexacarbons, nialamide, penicillin, triorthocresylphosphate and vincristine are primarily dominated by motory losses. Polyneuropathies induced by amitriptyline, ethylene, oxide, lead, chlorprothixene, heroin, hydralazine, methaqualone, nialamide and penicillin show an asymmetrical distribution pattern of the neural losses. In some types of toxic polyneuropathies the cranial nerves and the autonomic nerves are particularly involved. The clinical symptomatology of the most important types of toxic neuropathies are described shortly. The best therapy is, of course, termination of exposure to the toxic substance concerned. PMID:1509644

  13. Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation

    E-print Network

    Muehlegger, Erich J

    2005-01-01

    Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

  14. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  15. ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

  16. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35...

  17. Synergistic Effect between Colistin and Bacteriocins in Controlling Gram-Negative Pathogens and Their Potential To Reduce Antibiotic Toxicity in Mammalian Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Naghmouchi, Karim; Baah, John; Hober, Didier; Jouy, Eric; Rubrecht, Cédric; Sané, Famara

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens resistant to most conventional antibiotics are a harbinger of the need to discover novel antimicrobials and anti-infective agents and develop innovative strategies to combat them. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activity of colistin alone or in combination with two bacteriocins, nisin A and pediocin PA-1/AcH, against Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610, and Escherichia coli ATCC 35150 (O157:H7). The strain most sensitive to colistin was enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, which was inhibited at a concentration of about 0.12 ?g/ml. When nisin A (1.70 ?g/ml) or pediocin PA-1/AcH (1.56 ?g/ml) was combined with colistin, the concentrations required to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 were 0.01 and 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively. The in vitro antigenotoxic effect of colistin was determined by using the comet assay method to measure the level of DNA damage in freshly isolated human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) incubated with colistin for 1 h at 37°C. Changes in the tail extents of PBLs of about 69.29 ± 0.08 ?m were observed at a final colistin concentration of about 550 ng/ml. Besides the synergistic effect, the combination of colistin (1 mg/ml) and nisin (2 mg/ml) permitted us to re-evaluate the toxic effect of colistin on Vero (monkey kidney epithelial) cells. PMID:23571533

  18. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  19. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

  20. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

  1. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

  2. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

  3. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

  4. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

  5. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

  6. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

  7. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

  8. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces...Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space,...

  9. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80.66...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume...

  10. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80.66...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume...

  11. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

  12. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

  13. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

  14. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...Anti-Dumping § 80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline...

  15. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80.66...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume...

  16. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...Anti-Dumping § 80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline...

  17. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

  18. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...Anti-Dumping § 80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline...

  19. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

  20. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

  1. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...Anti-Dumping § 80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline...

  2. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

  3. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

  4. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80.66...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume...

  5. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is...

  6. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate...

  7. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80.66...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume...

  8. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...Anti-Dumping § 80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  10. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  11. A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7?mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. Methods/design This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years) and non-smokers 28–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years, plus minimum 5?years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Discussion Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and give insights into study design for clinical assessment of potential MRTPs. Trial registration The study was registered in the Current Controlled Trials database under the reference ISRCTN81286286. PMID:23895296

  12. Toxic trauma.

    PubMed

    Moles, T M; Baker, D J

    2001-01-01

    Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) carry many inherent dangers. Such materials are distributed widely in industrial and military sites. Toxic trauma (TT) denotes the complex of systemic and organ injury caused by toxic agents. Often, TT is associated with other injuries that also require the application of life-support techniques. Rapid onset of acute respiratory failure and consequent cardiovascular failure are of primary concern. Management of TT casualties is dependent upon the characteristics of the toxic agents involved and on the demographics surrounding the HAZMAT incident. Agents that can produce TT possess two pairs of salient characteristics: (1) causality (toxicity and latency), and (2) EMS system (persistency and transmissibility). Two characteristics of presentations are important: (1) incident presentation, and (2) casualty presentation. In addition, many of these agents complicate the processes associated with anaesthesia and must be dealt with. Failure of recognition of these factors may result in the development of respiratory distress syndromes and multiorgan system failure, or even death. PMID:11513285

  13. Beryllium Toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet Course : WB ... Patient Education Sheet [PDF - 48 KB] What Is Beryllium? Beryllium is a mineral found in nature. It ...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional blendstocks for oxygenate...FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional blendstocks for oxygenate...FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional blendstocks for oxygenate...FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63...

  2. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-04-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  3. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENICITY OF UNLEADED GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the document the likelihood that unleaded gasoline vapors are carcinogenic to humans is evaluated. From carcinogenicity data in animals, an estimate is made of the magnitude of cancer risk a person would experience, under the assumption that gasoline vapors are carcinogenic. A...

  5. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  6. Historical Gasoline Composition Data 1976 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  7. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

  8. MAPPING GASOLINE REQUIREMENTS, APPLICABLE REGULATIONS AND BANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal and State regulations play an important role in understanding gasoline composition around the United States. Multiple sources of information on these programs were used to develop reliable, up-to-date maps showing gasoline requirements imposed by various regulations. Th...

  9. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE GASOLINE AND OXYFUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the ubiquity of gasoline for several decades and more recent modifications in fuel formulations to achieve “cleaner” gasoline, a quantitative comparative assessment of the health risks related to these fuels remains to be performed. Under authority of Clean Air Act secti...

  10. Microbial products (biosurfactant and extracellular chromate reductase) of marine microorganism are the potential agents reduce the oxidative stress induced by toxic heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gnanamani, A; Kavitha, V; Radhakrishnan, N; Suseela Rajakumar, G; Sekaran, G; Mandal, A B

    2010-09-01

    The present study demonstrates hexavalent chromium reduction and trivalent chromium tolerance behavior of marine Bacillus sp., MTCC 5514 through its extracellular enzyme reductase and biosurfactants production. The isolate reduces 10-2000 mg/L of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium with in 24-96 h respectively and the release of extracellular chromium reductase, found responsible for the reduction. Upon reduction, the concentration of trivalent chromium in the medium found comparatively less. Experimental results reveal, biosurfactants activity found responsible for the less concentration of Cr(III). Hypothetically, trivalent chromium upon formation get entrapped in the micelle of biosurfactants, prevents microbial cells from exposure towards trivalent chromium. Thus, the chosen isolate exhibit tolerance and growth with the increasing concentration of chromium. PMID:20483569

  11. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was the main process leading to the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential. While for Hyundai ICEV, gasoline production and tailpipe emission were the primary sources of environmental impact in the use phase. Tailpipe emission was a significant cause for increase in Eutrophication Potential and Global Warming Potential, and so forth. On the basis of inventory data analysis and 2010 Beijing electricity mix, the comparative results of haze-induced pollutants emissions showed that the full life cycle emissions of PM2.5, NO(x), SO(x), VOCs of Midi EV were higher than those of Hyundai ICEV, but the emission of NH3 was lower than that of Hyundai ICEV. Different emissions in use phase were the chief reason leading to this trend. In addition, by sensitivity analysis the results indicated that with the increase of lifetime mileage and proportion of cleaning energy, the rate of GHG( Green House Gas) emission reduction per kilometer of Midi EV became higher with respect to Hyundai ICEV. Haze-induced pollutants emission from EV could be significantly reduced using cleaner power energy. According to the assessment results, some management strategies aiming at electric car promotion were proposed. PMID:25929083

  12. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luís André

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota. PMID:20167351

  13. Toxicity reduction of photo processing wastewaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1992-01-01

    The photo processing industry can be characterized by treatment processes and subsequent silver recovery. The effluents generated all contain various amounts of silver. The objectives of this study were to determine toxicity of photo processing effluents and to explore their toxicity mitigation. Six samples, from small shops to a major photo processing center, were studied. Two samples (I and VI) were found to be extremely toxic, causing 100 and 99% inhibition of duckweed frond reproduction, respectively, and were used for subsequent toxicity reduction experiments. Lime and sodium sulfide were effective for the toxicity reduction of Sample VI; both reduced its toxicity to negligible. Sample I was far more toxic and was first diluted to 2.2% and then treated with 0.5 g lime/100 mL, reducing toxicity from 100% to 12% inhibition.

  14. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  15. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

  16. Conformational Analysis of the Host-Defense Peptides Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb and -2Pa and Design of Analogues with Insulin-Releasing Activities and Reduced Toxicities.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Giorgia; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Srinivasan, Dinesh; Attoub, Samir; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Casu, Mariano; Flatt, Peter R; Conlon, J Michael

    2015-12-24

    Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb (Ps-1Pb; IKIPSFFRNILKKVGKEAVSLIAGALKQS) and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa (Ps-2Pa; GIFPIFAKLLGKVIKVASSLISKGRTE) are amphibian peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. In the membrane-mimetic solvent 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol-H2O, both peptides adopt a well-defined ?-helical conformation that extends over almost all the sequence and incorporates a flexible bend. Both peptides significantly (p < 0.05) stimulate the rate of release of insulin from BRIN-BD11 clonal ?-cells at concentrations ? 0.1 nM but produce loss of integrity of the plasma membrane at concentrations ? 1 ?M. Increasing cationicity by the substitution Glu(17) ? l-Lys in Ps-1Pb and Glu(27) ? l-Lys in Ps-2Pa generates analogues with increased cytotoxicity and reduced insulin-releasing potency. In contrast, the analogues [R8r]Ps-1Pb and [K8k,K19k]Ps-2Pa, incorporating d-amino acid residues to destabilize the ?-helical domains, retain potent insulin-releasing activity but are nontoxic to BRIN-BD11 cells at concentrations of 3 ?M. [R8r]Ps-1Pb produces a significant increase in insulin release rate at 0.3 nM and [K8k,K19k]Ps-2Pa at 0.01 nM. Both analogues show low hemolytic activity (IC50 > 100 ?M) but retain broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and remain cytotoxic to a range of human tumor cell lines, albeit with lower potency than the naturally occurring peptides. These analogues show potential for development into agents for type 2 diabetes therapy. PMID:26606380

  17. Toxic Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, as they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features and possible underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:25037083

  18. Species profiles and normalized reactivity of volatile organic compounds from gasoline evaporation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; Lü, Sujun; Shao, Min; Lee, Frank S. C.; Yu, Jianzhen

    2013-11-01

    In China, fast increase in passenger cars and gasoline consumption with yet quite limited vapor recovery during gasoline distribution has procured growing concern about gasoline evaporation as an important emission source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly in megacities hard-hit by air quality problems. This study presents VOC species profiles related to major pathways of gasoline evaporative loss in China, including headspace displacement, refueling operations and spillage/leakage. Apart from liquid gasoline and headspace vapors, gasoline vapors emitted when refueling cars in service stations or tank trucks in oil marketing depots were also sampled in situ with vapor recovery units (VRUs) turning on/off. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons accounted for 55-66, 21-35 and 4-8% in refueling vapors, 59-72, 18-28 and 4-10% in headspace vapors and 33-51, 8-15 and 38-48% in liquid gasoline samples, respectively. During refueling with VRUs turning on, total VOCs in vapors were less than one fifth of that with VRUs turning off, and aromatic hydrocarbons had higher weight percentages of about 8% in contrast with that of about 4% during refueling with VRUs turning off. Refueling vapors, especially for that with VRUs turning off, showed a larger fraction of light hydrocarbons including C3-C5 light alkenes when compared to headspace vapors, probably due to splashing and disturbance during filling operation. In refueling or headspace vapors the ratios of i-pentane/benzene, i-pentane/toluene, and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether)/benzene ranged 8.7-57, 2.7-4.8, and 1.9-6.6, respectively; and they are distinctively much higher than those previously reported in vehicle exhausts. Calculated normalized reactivity or ozone formation potential of the gasoline vapors in China ranged 3.3-4.4 g O3 g-1 VOC, about twice that of gasoline headspace vapors reported in USA as a result of larger fractions of alkenes in China's gasoline vapors. The results suggested that reducing VOC emission from gasoline distribution sector would particularly benefit ground-level ozone control in China.

  19. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  20. 29 CFR 779.255 - Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.255 Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.” (a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is typically a physically separate place of business engaged primarily (“primarily” meaning 50 percent or more) in selling gasoline...

  1. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in...

  2. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in...

  3. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in...

  4. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in...

  5. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in...

  6. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R.

    1998-11-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  7. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. We investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by ???70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  8. Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ban-Weiss, George A; McLaughlin, John P; Harley, Robert A; Kean, Andrew J; Grosjean, Eric; Grosjean, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Carbonyls can be toxic and highly reactive in the atmosphere. To quantify trends in carbonyl emissions from light-duty (LD) vehicles, measurements were made in a San Francisco Bay area highwaytunnel bore containing essentially all LD vehicles during the summers of 1999, 2001, and 2006. The LD vehicle emission factor for formaldehyde, the most abundant carbonyl, did not change between 1999 and 2001, then decreased by 61 +/- 7% between 2001 and 2006. This reduction was due to fleet turnover and the removal of MTBE from gasoline. Acetaldehyde emissions decreased by 19 +/- 2% between 1999 and 2001 and by the same amount between 2001 and 2006. Absent the increased use of ethanol in gasoline after 2003, acetaldehyde emissions would have further decreased by 2006. Carbonyl emission factors for medium- (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks were measured in 2006 in a separate mixed-traffic bore of the tunnel. Emission factors for diesel trucks were higher than those for LD vehicles for all reported carbonyls. Diesel engine exhaust dominates over gasoline engines as a direct source of carbonyl emissions in California. Carbonyl concentrations were also measured in liquid-gasoline samples and were found to be low (< 20 ppm). The gasoline brands that contained ethanol showed higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in unburned fuel versus gasoline that was formulated without ethanol. Measurements of NO2 showed a yearly rate of decrease for LD vehicle emissions similar to that of total NOx in this study. The observed NO2/NOx ratio was 1.2 +/- 0.3% and 3.7 +/- 0.3% for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. PMID:18589949

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J Eide,I Zielinska, B Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2 to... Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2...

  12. Refining economics of U.S. gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

    2014-10-01

    Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ? 93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ? 1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ? 3% for 98-RON E20, ? 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ? 3% for 98-RON E20, ? 8% for 100-RON E30). PMID:25224603

  13. Beyond toxicity

    PubMed Central

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial ?-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide’s role in signaling. PMID:24398435

  14. Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Edgar R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

  15. Predict octane number for gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. )

    1993-05-01

    A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

  16. Survey of American (USA) gasolines (2008).

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    The regulations for gasoline's content vary depending on the time of year and physical location within the United States while the refinery and distribution system mixes product batches; this results in variability of content. ASTM E1618 requires both the aromatic and alkane EIP patterns of gasoline to compare with references. A survey was conducted by collecting gasoline from Florida to Oregon, from 85 to 93 octane. Samples were analyzed in accordance with ASTM E1618 in various states of evaporation. The range of differences found in the 90% evaporated alkane EIPs is presented and showed a continuum of response when the n-alkane response was compared with the branched alkane response. Similarly, the ratio of the alkane EIP to the aromatic EIP also showed a continuum of response at the 90% evaporated state. Gasoline samples with unusual characteristics are also discussed. PMID:25288158

  17. Edgeworth price cycles in retail gasoline markets

    E-print Network

    Noel, Michael David, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    In this dissertation, I present three essays that are motivated by the interesting and dynamic price-setting behavior of firms in Canadian retail gasoline markets. In the first essay, I examine behavior at the market level ...

  18. Petroleum fingerprinting: Dating a gasoline release

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.D.; Morrison, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    Dating a gasoline releases is particularly important in situations involving a contaminated gasoline service station. Often the station begins under the control of a major oil company, and as it ages and deteriorates it may be operated by a series of smaller operators. When facing a claim for contamination, often operators blame former operators. Fingerprinting is one of several successful methods used to date petroleum releases on contaminated sites. The topics covered in this article are inventory reconciliation; reverse groundwater modeling; hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

  19. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25

    at all verticillata milkweed stages of growth. Astragalus Ravine, emory Misertoxin Collapse of leg muscles when This plant is easily confused emoryanus loco animal attempts sudden with nontoxic species. movement, general incoordin- ation of hind legs.... abdominal pain Kallstroemia spp. Caltrop Unknown Weakness in hind legs and An animal must consume knuckling of fetlock joint, one-third of its weight in posterior paralysis, caltrop to be poisoned. convulsions Karwinskia Coyotillo Unknown Seed ingested...

  20. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

  1. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

  2. 29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

  3. 29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

  4. 29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

  5. 29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

  6. 78 FR 20102 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions AGENCY: Environmental...collection request (ICR), ``Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions'' (EPA ICR...continue collecting notifications from gasoline retailers and wholesale...

  7. 29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

  8. 29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

  9. 29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

  10. 29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

  11. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

  12. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

  13. 29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

  14. 29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

  15. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

  16. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-12-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

  17. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  18. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Fisher, Galen; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  19. Thallium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

    1998-09-30

    Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278). PMID:9801025

  20. Gasoline marketing: Octane mislabeling in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The problem of octane mislabeling at gasoline stations in New York City has grown - from 46 or fewer citations in 1981 to 171 citations in 1986. No single source of octane mislabeling exists but the city has found both gasoline station operators and fuel distributors to blame. The problem does not seem to be unique to any one type of gasoline station but 57 percent of the 171 citations issued involved gasoline sold under the name of a major refiner; the rest involved unbranded gasoline. Octane cheating can be lucrative in New York City. A station intentionally mislabeling its gasoline could realize amounts many times the city's maximum $500 fine for cheating.

  1. Modeling the impact of ethanol on the persistence of benzene in gasoline-contaminatedgroundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molson, J. W.; Barker, J. F.; Frind, E. O.; Schirmer, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the persistence of benzenein gasoline-contaminated aquifers is simulated using a multicomponent reactivetransport model. The conceptual model includes a residual gasoline sourcewhich is dissolving at the water table into an aquifer containing a limitedamount of dissolved oxygen. The coupled processes include nonaqueous phaseliquid (NAPL) source dissolution, transport of the dissolved components, andcompetitive aerobic biodegradation. Comparisons are made between dissolvedbenzene plumes from a gasoline spill and those from an otherwise equivalentspill containing 10% ethanol (gasohol). Simulations have shown that undersome conditions a 10% ethanol component in gasoline can extend the traveldistance of a benzene plume by up to 150% relative to that from an equivalentethanol-free gasoline spill. The increase occurs because ethanol preferentiallyconsumes oxygen, which reduces the biodegradation rate of benzene. The impactis limited, however, because sufficient oxygen disperses behind the ethanolplume into the slightly retarded benzene plume. A sensitivity analysis fortwo common spill scenarios showed that background oxygen concentrations andbenzene retardation have the most significant influence on ethanol-inducedbenzene persistence. The results are highly relevant in light of the increasinguse of ethanol-enhanced fuels throughout the world and the forthcoming banof methyl tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) in California and its probable replacementby ethanol by the end of 2002.

  2. The U. S. dollar value of gasoline: Currency crisis in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    The recent currency crisis in Europe puts the possibility of European economic union in further jeopardy after the Maastricht Treaty was not approved by the Netherlands earlier this Summer. The increased value of European currencies relative to the US dollar during the past Summer had little effect upon national currency gasoline prices. However, the recent currency devaluations in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, already struggling with weak economies, definitely reduce consumer buying power. Governments may use the high taxes imposed on gasoline as a buffer against higher prices, but still, consumers may buy less gasoline as their money doesn't go as far as it once did. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Sept. 25, 1992; and (2) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 1992 Edition.

  3. Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Butters, R.A.

    1990-09-30

    Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

  4. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2) a 98-species version including nitric oxide formation reactions. Development of reduced mechanisms is necessary because the detailed mechanism is computationally prohibitive in three-dimensional CFD and chemical kinetics simulations. Simulations of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS), a GCI strategy, have been performed using CONVERGE with the 96-species reduced mechanism developed in this work for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. Comparison is made to experimental data from the Sandia HCCI/GCI engine at a compression ratio 14:1 at intake pressures of 1 bar and 2 bar. Analysis of the heat release and temperature in the different equivalence ratio regions reveals that sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge occurs in order of increasing equivalence ratio for 1 bar intake pressure and in order of decreasing equivalence ratio for 2 bar intake pressure. Increased low- and intermediate-temperature heat release with increasing equivalence ratio at 2 bar intake pressure compensates for decreased temperatures in higher-equivalence ratio regions due to evaporative cooling from the liquid fuel spray and decreased compression heating from lower values of the ratio of specific heats. The presence of low- and intermediate-temperature heat release at 2 bar intake pressure alters the temperature distribution of the mixture stratification before hot-ignition, promoting the desired sequential auto-ignition. At 1 bar intake pressure, the sequential auto-ignition occurs in the reverse order compared to 2 bar intake pressure and too fast for useful reduction of the maximum pressure rise rate compared to HCCI. Additionally, the premixed portion of the charge auto-ignites before the highest-equivalence ratio regions. Conversely, at 2 bar intake pressure, the premixed portion of the charge auto-ignites last, after the higher-equivalence ratio regions. More importantly, the sequential auto-ignition occurs over a longer time period for 2 bar intake pressure than at 1 bar intake pressure such that a sizable reduction in the maximum pressure rise rate compared to HCCI can be ac

  5. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

  6. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

  7. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

  8. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

  9. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

  10. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

  11. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

  12. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

  13. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart “California gasoline” means any gasoline...

  14. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

  15. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline...

  16. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline...

  17. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline...

  18. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline...

  19. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline...

  20. Anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX and gasoline in various aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Phelps, C D; Young, L Y

    1999-02-01

    We examined the extent of biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the three isomers of xylene (BTEX) as a mixture and from gasoline in four different sediments: the New York/New Jersey Harbor estuary (polluted); Tuckerton, N.J. (pristine); Onondaga Lake, N.Y. (polluted) and Blue Mtn. Lake, N.Y. (pristine). Enrichment cultures were established with each sediment using denitrifying, sulfidogenic, methanogenic and iron reducing media, as well as site water. BTEX loss, as measured by GC-FID, was extensive in the sediments which had a long history of pollution, with all compounds being utilized within 21-91 days in the most active cultures, and was very slight or non-existent in the pristine sediments. Also, the pattern of loss was different under the various reducing conditions within each sediment and between sediments. For example benzene loss was only observed in sulfidogenic cultures from the NY/NJ Harbor sediments while toluene was degraded under all redox conditions. The loss of BTEX was correlated to the reduction of the various electron acceptors. In cultures amended with gasoline the degradation was much slower and incomplete. These results show that the fate of the different BTEX components in anoxic sediments is dependent on the prevailing redox conditions as well as on the characteristics and pollution history of the sediment. PMID:10423837

  1. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  2. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  3. Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 × 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

  4. Aerobic degradation of trichloroethylene by co-metabolism using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26×10? cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

  5. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

  6. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

  7. Cryoprotectant Toxicity: Facts, Issues, and Questions.

    PubMed

    Best, Benjamin P

    2015-10-01

    High levels of penetrating cryoprotectants (CPAs) can eliminate ice formation during cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs to cryogenic temperatures. But CPAs become increasingly toxic as concentration increases. Many strategies have been attempted to overcome the problem of eliminating ice while minimizing toxicity, such as attempting to optimize cooling and warming rates, or attempting to optimize time of adding individual CPAs during cooling. Because strategies currently used are not adequate, CPA toxicity remains the greatest obstacle to cryopreservation. CPA toxicity stands in the way of cryogenic cryopreservation of human organs, a procedure that has the potential to save many lives. This review attempts to describe what is known about CPA toxicity, theories of CPA toxicity, and strategies to reduce CPA toxicity. Critical analysis and suggestions are also included. PMID:25826677

  8. Cryoprotectant Toxicity: Facts, Issues, and Questions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High levels of penetrating cryoprotectants (CPAs) can eliminate ice formation during cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs to cryogenic temperatures. But CPAs become increasingly toxic as concentration increases. Many strategies have been attempted to overcome the problem of eliminating ice while minimizing toxicity, such as attempting to optimize cooling and warming rates, or attempting to optimize time of adding individual CPAs during cooling. Because strategies currently used are not adequate, CPA toxicity remains the greatest obstacle to cryopreservation. CPA toxicity stands in the way of cryogenic cryopreservation of human organs, a procedure that has the potential to save many lives. This review attempts to describe what is known about CPA toxicity, theories of CPA toxicity, and strategies to reduce CPA toxicity. Critical analysis and suggestions are also included. PMID:25826677

  9. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  10. Physicochemical and redox characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline and diesel passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Michael D.; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Mamakos, Athanasios; Samaras, Zissis; Schmitz, Debra A.; Froines, John R.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from mobile sources has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease, and an array of environmental problems, including global warming and acid rain. Till date, however, it is not clear which physical characteristics or chemical constituents of PM are significant contributors to the magnitude of the health risk. This study sought to determine the relationship between physical and chemical characteristics of PM while quantitatively measuring samples for redox activity of diesel and gasoline particulate emissions from passenger vehicles typically in use in Europe. The main objective was to relate PM chemistry to the redox activity in relation to vehicle type and driving cycle. Our results showed a high degree of correlation between several PM species, including elemental and organic carbon, low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace metals such as lithium, beryllium, nickel and zinc, and the redox activity of PM, as measured by a quantitative chemical assay, the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The reduction in PM mass or number emission factors resulting from the various engine configurations, fuel types and/or after-treatment technologies, however, was non-linearly related to the decrease in overall PM redox activity. While the PM mass emission rate from the diesel particle filter (DPF)-equipped vehicle was on average approximately 25 times lower than that of the conventional diesel, the redox potential was only eight times lower, which makes the per mass PM redox potential of the DPF vehicle about three times higher. Thus, a strategy aimed at protecting public health and welfare by reducing total vehicle mass and number emissions may not fully achieve the desired goal of preventing the health consequences of PM exposure. Further, study of the chemical composition and interactions between various chemical species may yield greater insights into the toxicity of the PM content of vehicle exhaust.

  11. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  12. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements contained in § 80.65(f). (3) Any refiner, importer, or oxygenate blender of California gasoline... refiner, importer, or oxygenate blender of California gasoline that is manufactured or imported...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gasoline-powered tools such as high-pressure washers, concrete cutting saws (walk-behind/hand-held), power trowels, ... parking garage. A plumber used a gasoline-powered concrete saw in a basement with open doors and ...

  14. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

  15. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

  16. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

  17. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

  18. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...

  19. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level.

  20. The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, J. P.

    1914-05-15

    , "wet" gas, or gasoline is indicated from their boiling tmeperatures. Methane, (CZ4) - - -160 c. Ethane, (C2E^) - - -93 c. Propane, (CgH8) - - -46 c. Butane f (C4H10) - - 0 c. Pentane f (C5H12) - - 37 c: Hexane f (C0H14> " 69 c. Heptane f (C7Hi6... gas. By F. P. Peterson. 28 Bat. I>tro2«mo Haw. Tel. 8, June 1911, pp. 12-14. Descrip- tion in dotal! of new testa for natural gas gasoline. Tech. Paper 3, Directions for sampling oil snd natural gas. By X. C. Allen. Teoh. Papor 38. Ur ates...

  1. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control....

  4. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control....

  5. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control....

  6. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control....

  7. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control....

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  11. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... temperature adjusted to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. (b) The percentage of oxygen by weight contained in a gasoline... gasoline is subject. (d) Per-gallon oxygen content shall be determined based upon the weight percent oxygen... content associated with a batch of gasoline (in percent-gallons) is calculated by multiplying the...

  12. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature adjusted to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. (b) The percentage of oxygen by weight contained in a gasoline... gasoline is subject. (d) Per-gallon oxygen content shall be determined based upon the weight percent oxygen... content associated with a batch of gasoline (in percent-gallons) is calculated by multiplying the...

  13. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  14. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section 79.32 Protection...Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly...commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby individually...

  15. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section 79.32 Protection...Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly...commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby individually...

  16. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section 79.32 Protection...Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly...commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby individually...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section...Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol. (a) Overview. ...on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used to produce gasohol. Rules...

  18. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section 79.32 Protection...Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly...commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby individually...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section...Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol. (a) Overview. ...on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used to produce gasohol. Rules...

  20. 40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline loading rack provisions. 63.650...From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline loading rack provisions. (a) Except...each owner or operator of a Group 1 gasoline loading rack classified under...

  1. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section 79.32 Protection...Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly...commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby individually...

  2. 46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 56.50-70 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-70 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Material... Outlets in fuel lines for drawing gasoline for any purpose are prohibited....

  3. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section...Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol. (a) Overview. ...on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used to produce gasohol. Rules...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 56.50-70 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-70 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Material... Outlets in fuel lines for drawing gasoline for any purpose are prohibited....

  5. 46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 56.50-70 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-70 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Material... Outlets in fuel lines for drawing gasoline for any purpose are prohibited....

  6. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section...Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol. (a) Overview. ...on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used to produce gasohol. Rules...

  7. Relationship between Composition and Toxicity of Motor Vehicle Emission Samples

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Eide, Ingvar; Seagrave, JeanClare; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the statistical relationship between particle and semivolatile organic chemical constituents in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust samples, and toxicity as measured by inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. Exhaust samples were collected from “normal” and “high-emitting” gasoline and diesel light-duty vehicles. We employed a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS; also known as projection to latent structures) to evaluate the relationships between chemical composition of vehicle exhaust and toxicity. The PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents covarying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The specific nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons important for mutagenicity were the same chemicals that have been implicated by decades of bioassay-directed fractionation. These chemicals were not related to lung toxicity, which was associated with organic carbon and select organic compounds that are present in lubricating oil. The results demonstrate the utility of the PCA/PLS approach for evaluating composition–response relationships in complex mixture exposures and also provide a starting point for confirming causality and determining the mechanisms of the lung effects. PMID:15531438

  8. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Girls > Toxic Shock Syndrome Print A A A Text ... Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's had her period, you may have heard ...

  9. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  10. Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

    2006-04-01

    Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine. PMID:17913184

  11. Reduction in local ozone levels in urban São Paulo due to a shift from ethanol to gasoline use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvo, Alberto; Geiger, Franz M.

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol-based vehicles are thought to generate less pollution than gasoline-based vehicles, because ethanol emissions contain lower concentrations of mono-nitrogen oxides than those from gasoline emissions. However, the predicted effect of various gasoline/ethanol blends on the concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as ozone varies between model and laboratory studies, including those that seek to simulate the same environmental conditions. Here, we report the consequences of a real-world shift in fuel use in the subtropical megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, brought on by large-scale fluctuations in the price of ethanol relative to gasoline between 2009 and 2011. We use highly spatially and temporally resolved observations of road traffic levels, meteorology and pollutant concentrations, together with a consumer demand model, to show that ambient ozone concentrations fell by about 20% as the share of bi-fuel vehicles burning gasoline rose from 14 to 76%. In contrast, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations increased. We caution that although gasoline use seems to lower ozone levels in the São Paulo metropolitan area relative to ethanol use, strategies to reduce ozone pollution require knowledge of the local chemistry and consideration of other pollutants, particularly fine particles.

  12. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry. VIII. Health effects of motor fuels: Carcinogenicity of gasoline--scientific update

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Significant increases in tumors of kidney, liver, and other tissues and organs following exposure to gasoline provide sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity. Benzene, a significant component of gasoline, has been established without question as a human carcinogen by IARC, EPA, and WHO. 1,3-Butadiene, a component of gasoline, is a powerful carcinogen in both animals and humans. Sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alkyl benzenes, very significant components of gasoline, has also been established. Human epidemiologic studies show important increases in cancers of the kidney, stomach, brain, pancreas, prostate, lung, and skin as well as hematopoietic and lymphatic leukemias as a result of exposure to gasoline, its components, and its vapors. Stage 2 controls are being implemented to reduce exposure of the human population to gasoline vapors. 59 refs.

  13. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-print Network

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  14. Modular and selective biosynthesis of gasoline-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Micah J; Kunjapur, Aditya M; Prather, Kristala L J

    2016-01-01

    Typical renewable liquid fuel alternatives to gasoline are not entirely compatible with current infrastructure. We have engineered Escherichia coli to selectively produce alkanes found in gasoline (propane, butane, pentane, heptane, and nonane) from renewable substrates such as glucose or glycerol. Our modular pathway framework achieves carbon-chain extension by two different mechanisms. A fatty acid synthesis route is used to generate longer chains heptane and nonane, while a more energy efficient alternative, reverse-?-oxidation, is used for synthesis of propane, butane, and pentane. We demonstrate that both upstream (thiolase) and intermediate (thioesterase) reactions can act as control points for chain-length specificity. Specific free fatty acids are subsequently converted to alkanes using a broad-specificity carboxylic acid reductase and a cyanobacterial aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The selectivity obtained by different module pairings provides a foundation for tuning alkane product distribution for desired fuel properties. Alternate ADs that have greater activity on shorter substrates improve observed alkane titer. However, even in an engineered host strain that significantly reduces endogenous conversion of aldehyde intermediates to alcohol byproducts, AD activity is observed to be limiting for all chain lengths. Given these insights, we discuss guiding principles for pathway selection and potential opportunities for pathway improvement. PMID:26556131

  15. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  16. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  17. r e v i e w OrganicAnswers toToxic Questions

    E-print Network

    . But bioremediation technology had been used long before ExxonValdez ran aground for more insidious environmental disasters--gasoline leaking into groundwater from under- ground storage tanks or toxic chemicals from as long as life has existed, and human civilizations have been engineering systems such as com- post piles

  18. SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

  19. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of five terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for a basic gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the intermediate course guide see CE 010 946.) The materials were developed for a two semester (2 hours daily)…

  20. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  1. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic—for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  2. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance…

  3. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  4. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  5. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  6. Phase Partitioning from Theanol Blend Gasolines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the use of ethanol and other alcohols as motor fuel additives has increased. Additionally, ethanol production has expanded due to the potential use of ethanol as a primary fuel source. Historical patterns of gasoline composition show strong dependency on regulato...

  7. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers market power, thereby leading to higher prices. Low brand diversity, though, could act to facilitate collusive behavior, leading to higher prices. I find that prices are higher in markets with high brand diversity. The final chapter of the dissertation summarizes the general findings.

  8. Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

  9. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

  19. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  20. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  1. REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN AIR TOXICS RISK ASSESSMENT: A MECHANISTIC EXPOSURE-DOSE-RESPONSE (EDR) MODEL FOR ASSESSING THE ACUTE NEUROTOXICITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BASED UPON A RECEPTOR-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: The major accomplishment of NTD’s air toxics program is the development of an exposure-dose- response model for acute exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), based on momentary brain concentration as the dose metric associated with acute neurological impairments...

  2. SOUTH PHOENIX MULTI-MEDIA TOXICS REDUCTION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Involve multi-program, multi-agency, and local community in assessing toxics from multi-media sources, developing, evaluating, and implementing measures to reduce toxics in a selected community in South Phoenix. The product will be a Toxics Reduction Plan that can be used to r...

  3. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  4. Assessing aquatic terrestrial toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Mirenda, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    it is recognized that the toxic effects of environmental samples cannot be predicted based on chemical concentration data alone. The EPA recommends an integrated approach that uses both chemical specific and whole effluent toxicity testing methods to control effluent toxicity. Toxicity tests allow for the consideration of site-specific factors that may increase or decrease the toxicity of a chemical in a given medium.

  5. Screening the toxicity and biodegradability of petroleum hydrocarbons by a rapid colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2015-02-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products have a wide variety of hazardous components with high toxicity and low biodegradability. Certain dyes change their colors by intercepting electron transfer reactions during the transformation processes. This study applied resazurin and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol indicators for a rapid screening biodegradation capability and toxicity response to various petroleum products such as motor oil, diesel, gasoline, and phenol. Colorimetry tests were performed in test tubes, and the absorbance values were measured over time. We observed different discoloration profiles after degradation tests using Bacillus subtilis inoculum. Phytotoxicity assays were also performed to compare colorimetric screening assays with a conventional toxicity testing with plants (seed germination). The results indicated that biotransformation of oils can increase its overall toxicity. Intermediate byproducts can be formed through biodegradation and thereby increase the toxicity of oils. The assessment of acute toxicity has shown that phenol is extremely toxic to petroleum-biodegrading microbial communities. Low molecular-weight gasoline was considered biodegradable, but it also exhibited a high acute toxic effect, mainly due to its high solubility and the presence of more volatile compounds that can penetrate cells and potentially damage cellular structures. PMID:25537922

  6. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  7. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hao, Ji-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Guang; Xiao, Jian-Hua

    The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NO x emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NO x have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion efficiency, engine's speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake specific energy consumption.

  8. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. PMID:24956589

  9. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

  10. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  11. Controlling toxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the disposal of industrial chemical wastes constitute two major pathways by which people are inadvertently exposed to toxics. These practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. In many ways the situation with industrial chemical waste parallels the predicament with pesticides: Not only are current practices contaminating the environment and creating health risks, but they are unsustainable over the long term. Strategies that reduce pesticide use in agriculture and minimize waste generation in industry offer cost-effective approaches to decreasing risks from toxics. Such strategies differ fundamentally from current practice and require new ways of thinking. The quick fixes of pesticide spraying and end-of-pipe pollution control are replaced with new production systems aimed at reconciling economic profits with environmental protection. Current efforts in integrated pest management and industrial waste reduction, although clearly promising, only hint at their long-term potential for detoxifying the environment.

  12. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  13. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ? 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  14. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  15. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  16. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  17. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  18. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  19. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    PubMed Central

    Gadelha, Ivana Cristina N.; Fonseca, Nayanna Brunna S.; Oloris, Silvia Catarina S.; Melo, Marília M.

    2014-01-01

    Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.). Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal's resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects. PMID:24895646

  20. Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide present: (1) the three gasoline consumption-reducing options for which attitudes are to be explored; (2) exercises; and (3) appendices including an energy attitudes survey. (MR)