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1

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are...

2010-07-01

2

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

2010-07-01

3

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015...liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

2010-07-01

4

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart? 80... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What...

2010-07-01

5

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 ...attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

2010-07-01

6

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

2009-10-01

7

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations  

PubMed Central

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

2009-01-01

8

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

2010-07-01

9

Acute toxicity of gasoline and ethanol automobile engine exhaust gases.  

PubMed

A comparative inhalation exposure study was performed to investigate the potential health effect of gasoline and ethanol engine exhaust fumes. Wistar rats housed in inhalation chambers were exposed to test atmospheres of various concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and gasoline and ethanol exhaust fumes diluted with air. CO level, temperature, relative humidity and flow rate were monitored continually to control the gas concentration and the environment. The dilution method gave a concentration within 1.0% of the target. The LC50s for 3-h exposures were determined for the 3 test atmospheres. The results demonstrated that the acute toxicity, in terms of LC50, of the gasoline-fuelled engine was significantly higher than that of the ethanol-fuelled engine. PMID:2412311

Massad, E; Saldiva, C D; Cardoso, L M; Da Silva, R; Saldiva, P H; Böhm, G M

1985-08-01

10

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

11

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25

12

Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30-120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10 mM pyruvate or glucose (1.28 or 5.5 mM). LDH leakage was increased above control by 0.25 and 0.5 mM PAP beginning at 60 min and by 0.1 mM PAP at 120 min. Pyruvate prevented an increase in LDH leakage at 60- and 120-min exposure to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate also prevented a decline in ATP levels. Glucose (1.28 and 5.5 mM) provided less protection than pyruvate from PAP toxicity. Total glutathione levels were diminished by 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP within 60 and 30 min, respectively. Pyruvate prevented the decline in glutathione by 0.1 mM PAP at both time periods and at 30 min for 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate reduced the magnitude of glutathione depletion by 0.25 mM PAP following a 60-min incubation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in renal slices were increased at 60 min by exposure to 0.25 mM PAP, while pyruvate prevented increased GSSG levels by PAP. Pyruvate also reduced the extent of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins present after a 90-min incubation with PAP. These results indicate that pyruvate provided protection for PAP toxicity by providing an energy substrate and reducing oxidative stress.

Harmon, R. Christopher [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States); Kiningham, Kinsley K. [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States); Valentovic, Monica A. [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States)]. E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu

2006-06-01

13

Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity.  

PubMed

Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30-120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10 mM pyruvate or glucose (1.28 or 5.5 mM). LDH leakage was increased above control by 0.25 and 0.5 mM PAP beginning at 60 min and by 0.1 mM PAP at 120 min. Pyruvate prevented an increase in LDH leakage at 60- and 120-min exposure to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate also prevented a decline in ATP levels. Glucose (1.28 and 5.5 mM) provided less protection than pyruvate from PAP toxicity. Total glutathione levels were diminished by 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP within 60 and 30 min, respectively. Pyruvate prevented the decline in glutathione by 0.1 mM PAP at both time periods and at 30 min for 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate reduced the magnitude of glutathione depletion by 0.25 mM PAP following a 60-min incubation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in renal slices were increased at 60 min by exposure to 0.25 mM PAP, while pyruvate prevented increased GSSG levels by PAP. Pyruvate also reduced the extent of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins present after a 90-min incubation with PAP. These results indicate that pyruvate provided protection for PAP toxicity by providing an energy substrate and reducing oxidative stress. PMID:16343575

Harmon, R Christopher; Kiningham, Kinsley K; Valentovic, Monica A

2006-06-01

14

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15

15

Reduced chemistry for a gasoline surrogate valid at engine-relevant conditions  

E-print Network

A detailed mechanism for the four-component gasoline surrogate developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has shown good agreement with experiments in engine-relevant conditions. However, with 1388 species and 5933 reversible reactions, this detailed mechanism is far too large to use in practical engine simulations. Therefore, reduction of the detailed mechanism was performed using a multi-stage approach consisting of the DRGEPSA method, unimportant reaction elimination, isomer lumping, and analytic QSS reduction based on CSP analysis. A new greedy sensitivity analysis algorithm was developed and demonstrated to be capable of removing more species for the same error limit compared to the conventional sensitivity analysis used in DRG-based skeletal reduction methods. Using this new greedy algorithm, several skeletal and reduced mechanisms were developed at varying levels of complexity and for different target condition ranges. The final skeletal and reduced mechanisms consisted of 213 and 148 species,...

Niemeyer, Kyle E

2014-01-01

16

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

17

Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants  

E-print Network

toxic plant in the rosette stage. Heliomeris Annual Unknown Not well documented Poisoning has been restricted longifolia var. goldeneye to cattle. annua Hymenoxys Bitterweed Hymenoxon Loss of appetite, cessation Bitterweed slowly increases odorata... toxic plant in the rosette stage. Heliomeris Annual Unknown Not well documented Poisoning has been restricted longifolia var. goldeneye to cattle. annua Hymenoxys Bitterweed Hymenoxon Loss of appetite, cessation Bitterweed slowly increases odorata...

McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

2000-04-25

18

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a)...

2010-07-01

19

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01

20

Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30–120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10

R. Christopher Harmon; Kinsley K. Kiningham; Monica A.. Valentovic

2006-01-01

21

Air pollution: EPA's efforts to reduce and end the use of lead in gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency has relied on data generated by the U.S. Army and U.S. Postal Service to support its lead phasedown program. Both organizations had switched large fleets of vehicles from leaded to unleaded gasoline and experienced no mechanical or operating problems. In response to concerns expressed by the Congress, the Department of Agriculture, and the farm community about the impacts of low-lead gasoline or its possible ban on farm equipment, EPA agreed to reevaluate the standards. EPA expects that by January 1987, it will determine whether the low-lead standard needs to be changed to prevent adverse effects on farm machinery and what the final action should be on its proposal for a ban.

Not Available

1986-01-01

22

Wasting away: Policies to reduce trash toxicity and quantity  

SciTech Connect

Communities all around the world are facing growing mounds of trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW). Media coverage of the shrinking landfill capacity has greatly increased awareness of the need to improve management of MSW when it is generated. Many U.S. businesses, public-interest groups, states, and municipalities, which have primary responsibility for managing MSW, are trying to increase the collection, processing, and marketing of recyclable material partly to relieve the pressures on municipal landfills. While such management activities should be increased and intensified, another challenge, a more difficult one, is to change the way this society makes products and generates MSW in the first place - that is, to reduce the toxicity and/or quantity of MSW. There are two basic routes to reducing toxicity and quantity: manufacturers can modify the design of products (and packaging) to reduce their toxicity or quantity, and consumers can modify their purchasing decisions, for example, by buying products that are less toxic, more durable, or more repairable. Both routes are described, and government programs and policy options which could lift obstacles are discussed.

Levenson, H. (Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-03-01

23

Saffron Reduced Toxic Effects of its Constituent, Safranal, in Acute and Subacute Toxicities in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Saffron and its constituents are widely used around the world as a spice and medicinal plant. Different constituents in medicinal herbs are thought to have the potential to induce useful and/or adverse effects. So, efforts have been made to find the best and most valuable tools to reduce their adverse effects. Objectives: According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), it is believed that administration of whole herbs exhibits more activity and fewer side effects than isolated constituents. Since toxicological studies have indicated that safranal is more toxic than other active components in saffron stigma, thus this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of co-administration of saffron extract and safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity, rats received safranal (1.2 mL/kg, IP) plus saffron aqueous extract (25-100 mg/kg, IP). One and four days after the treatment, percentage of mortality was assessed. In subacute toxicity, rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1) safranal (0.2 mL/kg, IP), Groups 2, 3 and 4) safranal plus saffron aqueous extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IP) Groups 5 and 6) Paraffin and normal saline, as solvents of safranal and saffron aqueous extract, respectively. Treatments were continued for 21 days. For sub-acute toxicity, the percentages of lethality as well as some biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that four days co-treatment of safranal and saffron significantly reduced mortality, so that the effect was more obvious in lower doses. Sub-acute toxicity studies showed that saffron could increase survival in rats so that no mortality was observed at dose of 10 mg/kg. Our data also indicated that the levels of triglyceride, BUN and ALT significantly increased after sub-acute interaperitoneal (IP) administration of safranal (0.2 mL/kg/day) and co-treatment of saffron aqueous extract (5 and 10 mg/kg) plus safranal significantly improved all toxic effects of safranal on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: The co-administration of saffron aqueous extract and safranal reduced toxic effects of safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities. PMID:24644432

Ziaee, Toktam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2014-01-01

24

The use of a novel tobacco treatment process to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Institute of Medicine has encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) – tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One potential approach is to reduce levels of some smoke toxicant

Chuan Liu; Yves DeGrandpré; Andrew Porter; Alexander Griffiths; Kevin McAdam; Richard Voisine; France Côté; Christopher Proctor

2011-01-01

25

The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own  

E-print Network

The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposureThe Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus. The results presented here document one of the few published reports of the detrimental effects of Vitamin E

O'Gara, Bruce A.

26

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Axial Thruster and ACS Thruster Combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

27

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

28

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

29

Failure of N-acetylcysteine to reduce alpha amanitin toxicity.  

PubMed

Acetaminophen undergoes toxic conversion in the liver to a free-radical intermediary which binds to glutathione. N-Acetylcysteine acts as a glutathione precursor when natural stores are depleted, and is an effective antidote for acetaminophen overdose. Mushrooms containing amatoxins (such as Amanita phalloides) may undergo similar toxic conversion. However, in our amatoxin-poisoned mouse model, N-acetylcysteine (1.2 g kg-1) produced no change in survival or hepatic enzyme elevation compared to control animals. We conclude that N-acetylcysteine has no clinical role in the treatment of Amanita phalloides ingestion. PMID:1556381

Schneider, S M; Michelson, E A; Vanscoy, G

1992-04-01

30

RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

31

Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

Campbell, Brian

2010-01-01

32

Electric car Gasoline car  

E-print Network

ENAC/ Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares of an electric vehicle? Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares preference survey with choice situation contexts involving gasoline cars (Renault and competitors

33

Toxic Chemical Reduction Initiatives In response to the mandate of Executive Order 13514 and NIH's Environmental goal to reduce toxic  

E-print Network

's Environmental goal to reduce toxic chemical use, NIH embarked on a mission to identify and target additional Phase Hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) Disposable sterile items Mercury Single vial fixative for concentration, permanent stain, EIA, IFA and PCR procedures PROTO-Fix CLR Parasitology Fixative Z-5 Fixative Mercury cont

Baker, Chris I.

34

Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

Louv, Richard

2006-01-01

35

Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

2014-01-01

36

Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

2014-01-01

37

Gasoline marketing  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 Congress passed the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act. This legislation requires uniform posting of accurate octane ratings on gas pumps to let consumers know the octane rating of the gasoline they are buying. However, because the Federal Trade Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not carried out their octane testing and enforcement responsibilities under the Act, there are no federal controls to ensure that gasoline octane postings are accurate. This report discussed how octane mislabeling is a problem in some states, and GAO believes consumer may be paying millions of dollars each year for gasoline with lower octane rating than what is posted on the pump. GAO is also concerned that the Act lacks provisions for posting octane ratings for gasoline-alcohol blends and has other provisions that may interfere with state octane enforcement efforts.

Not Available

1990-04-01

38

Reduce Toxic Exposures: Get Involved and Take Action!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing concern about the connection between many chemical exposures and learning and other developmental disabilities (LDD). National and local groups are developing new programs around the country that are making this connection--and taking action with regard to policy, education and research efforts. They are working towards reducing

Exceptional Parent, 2006

2006-01-01

39

Smokeless tobacco brand switching: A means to reduce toxicant exposure?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) brand switching on biomarkers of ST exposure and on ST use. Subjects seeking treatment to reduce their use were randomized to ST brand switching with controlled ST topography, brand switching with ad libitum ST use, or a waitlist control with subsequent randomization to one of these two conditions. The waitlist control group was included to assess whether changes were a consequence of time effect. During the intervention, Copenhagen or Kodiak ST users were asked to switch to products that were sequentially lower in nicotine content: Skoal Long Cut Original or Wintergreen for 4 weeks and then Skoal Bandits for the subsequent 4 weeks. Measures were obtained during the course of treatment and at 12-week follow-up. Significant reductions in total urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-l-(3 pyridyl) l-butanol (NNAL) plus its glucuronides (total NNAL) were observed with no significant differences between the controlled topography and ad libitum conditions. Significant reductions were also observed in the amount and duration of dips with a significant intervention effect for durational measures. At 12 weeks, the 7-day biochemically-verified tobacco abstinent rate was 26% in the ad libitum group. ST brand switching may be a feasible alternative intervention for ST users interested in quitting but unwilling to stop ST use completely. PMID:16996230

Hatsukami, D.K.; Ebbert, J.O.; Anderson, A.; Lin, H.; Le, C.; Hecht, S.S.

2007-01-01

40

Niosome encapsulated of vincristine sulfate: improved anticancer activity with reduced toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) are promising drug carriers for anticancer drugs. Niosome encapsulated vincristine sulfate prepared by transmembrane pH gradient drug uptake process (remote loading method) was evaluated for toxicity and antitumour activity after administration to tumour bearing mice. The toxicity of vincristine sulfate was reduced after niosome encapsulation and anticancer activity improved, which may be due to better delivery of vincristine at the tumour site. PMID:8069596

Parthasarathi, G; Udupa, N; Umadevi, P; Pillai, G K

1994-01-01

41

A Community-Based Initiative to Reduce Children's Exposure to Toxics in Household Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design/methodology/approach--The program model was based on the…

Blackman, Anne Berlin; Luskin, Jack

2006-01-01

42

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF A REDUCED VOLUME MARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST METHOD USING AMPHIPOD AMPELISCA ABDITA  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has standardized methods for performing acute marine amphipod sediment toxicity tests. A test design reducing sediment volume from 200 to 50 ml and overlying water from 600 to 150 ml was recently proposed. An interlaboratory comparison wa...

43

Human endometrial cell coculture reduces the endocrine disruptor toxicity on mouse embryo development  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Previous studies suggested that endocrine disruptors (ED) are toxic on preimplantation embryos and inhibit development of embryos in vitro culture. However, information about the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on preimplantation development of embryo in human reproductive environment is lacking. Methods Bisphenol A (BPA) and Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) were used as endocrine disruptors in this study. Mouse 2-cell embryos were cultured in medium alone or vehicle or co-cultured with human endometrial epithelial layers in increasing ED concentrations. Results At 72 hours the percentage of normal blastocyst were decreased by ED in a dose-dependent manner while the co-culture system significantly enhanced the rate and reduced the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on the embryonic development in vitro. Conclusions In conclusion, although EDs have the toxic effect on embryo development, the co-culture with human endometrial cell reduced the preimplantation embryo from it thereby making human reproductive environment protective to preimplantation embryo from the toxicity of endocrine disruptors. PMID:22546201

2012-01-01

44

Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD. PMID:23807847

Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

2013-01-01

45

Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

46

Effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the toxicity of a coal liquefaction product to juvenile channel catfish  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the acute toxicity of a representative coal liquefaction product. Acute bioassays with juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were used to compare the toxicities of raw (nonupgraded) H-Coal oil, four samples of the same H-Coal oil subjected to different degrees of upgrading by hydrotreatment, and a petroleum crude oil. Channel catfish were chosen because they have considerable commercial and sport fisheries value and are likely to be abundant in large rivers where commercial coal liquefaction facilities will be located.

Cada, G.F.; Kenna, M.

1985-05-01

47

PHARMACOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENT OF ENDOCANNABINOID SIGNALING REDUCES THE CHOLINERGIC TOXICITY OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE  

PubMed Central

Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) elicits cholinergic toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, leading to accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors throughout the body. Endocannabinoids inhibit the release of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine via a widely distributed retrograde signaling pathway. Endocannabinoid signaling is therefore a potential therapeutic target for the management of OP poisoning. We first evaluated the relative in vitro and in vivo (2.5 mg/kg, sc) effects of DFP on cholinesterase, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, another endocannabinoid degrading enzyme) and cannabinoid receptor (CB1) binding in rat hippocampus. The effects of WIN 55212-2 (cannabinoid receptor agonist, 1.5 mg/kg), URB597 (FAAH inhibitor, 3 mg/kg), URB602 (MAGL inhibitor, 10 mg/kg) or AM404 (endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, 10 mg/kg) on DFP toxicity were then examined. Adult male rats (n=5/treatment group) were given either peanut oil or DFP followed immediately by vehicle or one of the four cannabinomimetic drugs. Functional signs of toxicity were evaluated for 24 hours and then rats were sacrificed for neurochemical measurements. DFP inhibited cholinesterase, FAAH, MAGL and CB1 receptor binding in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, with highest and lowest potency against cholinesterase and FAAH, respectively. In vivo, DFP inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase (89%) and FAAH (42%), but had no significant effect on MAGL or CB1 binding. Rats treated with DFP alone showed typical signs of cholinergic toxicity including involuntary movements and excessive secretions (SLUD signs). WIN 55212-2, URB597, URB602 and AM404 all significantly reduced involuntary movements following DFP exposure in a time-dependent manner, and most (URB597, URB602 and AM404) also significantly reduced DFP-induced SLUD signs. These results suggest that enhancing endocannabinoid signaling can attenuate the acute toxicity of DFP and provide rationale for further investigations on the role of endocannabinoids in cholinergic toxicity. PMID:18765251

Nallapaneni, Anuradha; Liu, Jing; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey

2008-01-01

48

Humic acids reduce the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to fish  

SciTech Connect

The effects of dissolved humic materials (DHM) on the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were studied in single-treatment evaluations in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight (UV-A = 140.2 {+-} 2.6 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, UV-B = 6.40 {+-} 0.21 {micro}W/cm{sup 2})(mean {+-} SE). Five concentrations of fluoranthene and five concentrations of DHM were achieved. The presence of DHM reduced the acute photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene. Regression analysis revealed that median lethal times (LT50) were directly related to DHM concentration and inversely related to fluoranthene water concentration. The presence of DHM also reduced fluoranthene bioaccumulation, and LT50 values were inversely related to fluoranthene body residues. These findings demonstrate that (1) the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene is dependent on body residue and (2) site-specific environmental parameters that affect uptake and/or elimination can determine the rates of mortality due to photoinduced toxicity.

Weinstein, J.E.; Oris, J.T.

1999-09-01

49

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

...requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines...requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines...a) Definitions. (1) A foreign refinery is a refinery that is located...

2014-07-01

50

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG Reduces Aflatoxin B1 Transport, Metabolism, and Toxicity in Caco-2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is able to bind the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and thus potentially restrict its rapid absorption from the intestine. In this study we investigated the potential of GG to reduce AFB1 availability in vitro in Caco-2 cells adapted to express cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4, such that both transport and toxicity could be assessed. Caco-2

S. Gratz; Q. K. Wu; H. El-Nezami; R. O. Juvonen; H. Mykkanen; P. C. Turner

2007-01-01

51

Salicylic Acid Reduces Napropamide Toxicity by Preventing Its Accumulation in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has\\u000a led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether\\u000a SA regulates plant response to herbicides

Jing Cui; Rui Zhang; Guo Lin Wu; Hong Mei Zhu; Hong Yang

2010-01-01

52

A polymeric colchicinoid prodrug with reduced toxicity and improved efficacy for vascular disruption in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Colchicinoids are very potent tubulin-binding compounds, which interfere with microtubule formation, giving them strong cytotoxic properties, such as cell mitosis inhibition and induction of microcytoskeleton depolymerization. While this makes them promising vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) in cancer therapy, their dose-limiting toxicity has prevented any clinical application for this purpose. Therefore, colchicinoids are considered attractive lead molecules for the development of novel vascular disrupting nanomedicine. In a previous study, a polymeric colchicinoid prodrug that showed favorable hydrolysis characteristics at physiological conditions was developed. In the current study, this polymeric colchicinoid prodrug was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its toxicity and vascular disrupting potential. Cell viability studies with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as an in vitro measure for colchicine activity, reflected the degradation kinetics of the prodrug accordingly. Upon intravenous treatment, in vivo, of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice with colchicine or with the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug, apparent vascular disruption and consequent tumor necrosis was observed for the prodrug but not for free colchicine at an equivalent dose. Moreover, a five-times-higher dose of the prodrug was well tolerated, indicating reduced toxicity. These findings demonstrate that the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug has a substantially improved efficacy/toxicity ratio compared with that of colchicine, making it a promising VDA for cancer therapy. PMID:22114500

Crielaard, Bart J; van der Wal, Steffen; Lammers, Twan; Le, Huong Thu; Hennink, Wim E; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Storm, Gert; Fens, Marcel HAM

2011-01-01

53

Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

2013-10-01

54

Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung  

PubMed Central

Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles, observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 hours and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 hours in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the broncheoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung. PMID:24008224

Worthington, Kristan L.S.; Dodd, Andrea A.; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

2013-01-01

55

Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles suppress breast cancer cells growth with reduced myelosuppression toxicity  

PubMed Central

Docetaxel is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug widely used to treat multiple solid tumors; however, its toxicity and side effects limit its clinical efficacy. Herein, docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DSNs) were developed to reduce systemic toxicity of docetaxel while still keeping its anticancer activity. To evaluate its anticancer activity and toxicity, and to understand the molecular mechanisms of DSNs, different cellular, molecular, and whole genome transcription analysis approaches were utilized. The DSNs showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the commercial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere®) and induced more apoptosis at 24 hours after treatment in vitro. DSNs can cause the treated cancer cells to arrest in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner similar to Taxotere. They can also suppress tumor growth very effectively in a mice model with human xenograft breast cancer. Systemic analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray and subsequent verification experiments suggested that both DSNs and Taxotere regulate gene expression and gene function, including DNA replication, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Some of these genes expressed differentially at the protein level although their messenger RNA expression level was similar under Taxotere and DSN treatment. Moreover, DSNs improved the main side effect of Taxotere by greatly lowering myelosuppression toxicity to bone marrow cells from mice. Taken together, these results expound the antitumor efficacy and the potential working mechanisms of DSNs in its anticancer activity and toxicity, which provide a theoretical foundation to develop and apply a more efficient docetaxel formulation to treat cancer patients. PMID:25378924

Yuan, Qing; Han, Jing; Cong, Wenshu; Ge, Ying; Ma, Dandan; Dai, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaping; Bi, Xiaolin

2014-01-01

56

Successful outcome after intravenous gasoline injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Gasoline, ingested intentionally or accidentally, is toxic. The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involve\\u000a oral ingestion or inhalation. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes following hydrocarbon poisoning by intravenous\\u000a injection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case Report  Following a suicide attempt by intravenous self-injection of 10 ml of gasoline, a 26-year-old medical student was admitted\\u000a to the intensive care unit (ICU) with hemoptysis,

Wolfgang Domej; Heike Mitterhammer; Rudolf Stauber; Peter Kaufmann; Karl Heinz Smolle

2007-01-01

57

Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.  

PubMed

In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95?L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. PMID:23180692

Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

2013-03-01

58

Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity - Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity. PMID:24073244

Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

2013-01-01

59

Ebselen analogues reduce 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide toxicity in A-431 cells.  

PubMed

Vesicants are potent blistering agents. The prototype vesicant is sulphur mustard gas, first used in World War I, which still has no effective antidote. We used a mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) to study the ability of resveratrol (RES) and pterostilbene (PTS), two well-established stilbene antioxidants, ebselen (EB-1), an organoselenium compound, and three EB-1 analogues (EB-2, EB-3, and EB-4) to reduce CEES toxicity in human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431). Following a 24-hour incubation of a toxic concentration of CEES (1000 ?mol L-1), we used the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] test to analyse cell viability. Different concentrations of test antioxidants alone (15 ?mol L-1, 30 ?mol L-1 or 60 ?mol L-1) did not decrease cell viability. Treatment with CEES and test antioxidants for 24 h showed that only EB-1 and its analogues EB-2, EB-3, and EB-4 but not the stilbene compounds could rescue the cells from death. EB-1 and EB-4 were the most effective at reducing CEES cytotoxicity and did so in a concentration-dependent manner, while EB-2 and EB-3 demonstrated the least protective effect. In summary, the data described herein indicate that organoselenium antioxidants, especially EB-4, may prove useful as countermeasures to blistering agents. PMID:23612526

Pino, Maria A; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Billack, Blase

2013-01-01

60

Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.  

PubMed

The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

2010-12-01

61

Mechanism of perfluoroalkyl halide toxicity: catalysis of perfluoroalkylation by reduced forms of cobalamin (vitamin B12).  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl halides (PFHs) are synthetic products widely used in various fields. Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFB) is used in medicine as a component of blood substitutes and for artificial lung ventilation. In both cases, it is considered a completely inert compound acting as a solvent for oxygen. However, there are many reports of PFH-induced intoxication, including lethal cases. Mechanisms underlying toxic effects of this compound remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the reduced form of cobalamin (vitamin B12) typical for B12-dependent enzymes can catalyze the reactions of perfluoroalkylation, aromatic substitution, or addition by double bonds. Synthesis of perfluoro derivatives from PFHs during catalysis by cob(I)alamin-like super nucleophiles is a new possible mechanism responsible for in vivo formation of highly toxic compounds from "chemically inert" substances widely used in medicine. Catalytic perfluoroalkylation might possibly contribute to nitric oxide depletion and modulation of activity of guanylate cyclase, cytochromes, NO-synthases, and other heme-containing proteins. PMID:14756634

Beda, N V; Nedospasov, A A

2003-12-01

62

40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined? 80.825 Section 80.825... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.825 How is...

2010-07-01

63

Nanotitanium dioxide toxicity in mouse lung is reduced in sanding dust from paint  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known of how the toxicity of nanoparticles is affected by the incorporation in complex matrices. We compared the toxic effects of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle UV-Titan L181 (NanoTiO2), pure or embedded in a paint matrix. We also compared the effects of the same paint with and without NanoTiO2. Methods Mice received a single intratracheal instillation of 18, 54 and 162 ?g of NanoTiO2 or 54, 162 and 486 ?g of the sanding dust from paint with and without NanoTiO2. DNA damage in broncheoalveolar lavage cells and liver, lung inflammation and liver histology were evaluated 1, 3 and 28 days after intratracheal instillation. Printex 90 was included as positive control. Results There was no additive effect of adding NanoTiO2 to paints: Therefore the toxicity of NanoTiO2 was reduced by inclusion into a paint matrix. NanoTiO2 induced inflammation in mice with severity similar to Printex 90. The inflammatory response of NanoTiO2 and Printex 90 correlated with the instilled surface area. None of the materials, except of Printex 90, induced DNA damage in lung lining fluid cells. The highest dose of NanoTiO2 caused DNA damage in hepatic tissue 1 day after intratracheal instillation. Exposure of mice to the dust from paints with and without TiO2 was not associated with hepatic histopathological changes. Exposure to NanoTiO2 or to Printex 90 caused slight histopathological changes in the liver in some of the mice at different time points. Conclusions Pulmonary inflammation and DNA damage and hepatic histopathology were not changed in mice instilled with sanding dust from NanoTiO2 paint compared to paint without NanoTiO2. However, pure NanoTiO2 caused greater inflammation than NanoTiO2 embedded in the paint matrix. PMID:22300483

2012-01-01

64

Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats  

PubMed Central

Despite the reports on safety concerns regarding the relationship between aluminum salts and neurological and bone disease, many countries continue to use aluminum as phosphate binders among patients with renal failure. In search for a diet supplement that could reduce aluminum toxicity related to renal failure, we carried out this prospective animal study in which the fenugreek seeds were assessed for their effects on rats nephrotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Oral AlCl3 administration during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via drinking water) led to plasma biochemical changes, an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a decrease of total antioxidant status (TAS), and an induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the blood and brain, in addition to kidney atrophy and morphological alterations at the level of Bowman's capsule, the glomerulus and different sorts of tubules, reminiscent of some known kidney disease. The treatment with the whole fenugreek seed powder (FSP) (5% in the diet) during the last 2 months showed its effectiveness in restoring normal plasma values of urea, creatinine, ALP and glucose, as well as re-increasing the TAS, inhibiting LPO and alleviating histopathological changes in the injured kidneys. This study highlights the induced nephrotoxicicity, as well as the related toxicity in the brain and bone, by chronic oral ingestion of the aluminum salts. However, the maintenance of a diet supplemented with fenugreek seeds could offer protection for the kidney, bone and brain, at the same time. PMID:24353832

Bakhta, Hayfa; Haouas, Zohra; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

2013-01-01

65

Effects of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on motorcycle emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By investigating the effect of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on the criteria pollutant emissions [CO, total hydrocarbons (THCs), and NO x] and on air toxics in the exhaust from a non-catalyst four-stroke motorcycle engine, inferences can be made concerning the effect of fuel composition on motorcycle emissions. The fuels were blended with different contents of sulfur (40 and 150 ppmw) and aromatics (20 and 30 vol%). The data indicate that the sulfur content does not correlate with the emissions of the criteria pollutants from the catalyst free engine. Instead, lowering aromatic content in gasoline reduced the THC emission by over 30%, especially in the cruising test. The NO x emission, however, showed an inverse correlation with the aromatic content in gasoline. While a reduction of aromatic content in gasoline may decrease emissions of benzene and toluene, it will increase the emission of aldehyde. Since the percentage changes of emission factor of THC and air toxics in the motorcycle were larger than those in passenger cars, the benefit of emission reduction due to fuel composition changes in motorcycles may have significant impacts in health risk analysis.

Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, An-Lin; Jeng, Fu-Tien

66

Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.

1986-11-01

67

Amyloid ?-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of ?-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the ?-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of ?-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust ?-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid ?-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-? peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, ?2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, ?-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

2012-11-01

68

Can we reduce the number of fish in the OECD acute toxicity test?  

PubMed

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 203, Fish Acute Toxicity Test, states that the test should be performed using at least five concentrations in a geometric series with a separation factor not exceeding 2.2, with at least seven fish per concentration. However, the efficiency of this design can be questioned, because it often results in only one concentration that causes partial mortality (mortality >0% and <100%). We performed Monte Carlo computer simulations to assess whether more efficient designs could allow reductions in fish use. Simulations indicated that testing with six fish per concentration could yield 50% lethal concentration (LC50) estimates of quality similar to those obtained using seven fish. Experts attending a workshop organized to consider this finding and to identify the best methods for reducing fish use concluded that significant reductions could best be achieved by modifying the test paradigm. They suggested initiating testing using a 96-h fish embryo test instead of juvenile fish to cover the range from the upper threshold concentration (the lowest 50% effective concentration [EC50] in existing algae and daphnia studies) to the highest concentration with no mortality. This would be followed by a confirmatory limit test with juvenile fish at the highest concentration with no mortality or by a full test with juvenile fish, if a point estimate of the LC50 is required. PMID:21309020

Rufli, Hans; Springer, Timothy A

2011-04-01

69

Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

2013-03-01

70

Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals  

PubMed Central

The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62–98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64–68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them. PMID:24443641

Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

2013-01-01

71

Silicon attenuates cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L. by reducing cadmium uptake and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Solanum nigrum L. is considered to be a potential plant for restoring Cd-contaminated soils. Si could enhance plants tolerance to heavy metal; however, the mechanism of Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in S. nigrum was not clear. Three-week-old S. nigrum seedlings were grown in Hoagland solution containing 0 or 100 ?M Cd with or without 1 mM Si for 4 days. The results showed that the Cd concentration both in roots and shoots of Si-supplied plant was significantly reduced, especially in expanding and old leaves. The relative proportion of ethanol-extractable Cd, water-extractable Cd and NaCl-extractable Cd in roots was increased by adding Si, while the root-to-shoot Cd translocation was not decreased. Furthermore, in comparison with single Cd treatment, supplying Si could reduce H?O? accumulation and cell death in roots, and the electrolyte leakage and H?O? concentration in functional leaves. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) in functional leaves was markedly increased by Cd exposure, while the antioxidative enzyme activities in Cd plus Si treatment seedlings were significantly lower than that in Cd treatment alone, this decrease might be attributed to the reduction of Cd concentration and Cd-induced oxidative damages. These results demonstrate that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in S. nigrum is mainly due to the decrease of Cd uptake in roots and Cd distribution in expanding and old leaves, as well as lowering oxidative stress induced by Cd in plants. PMID:23608626

Liu, Jinguang; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao

2013-07-01

72

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines? 80.1030 Section 80.1030...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners with Individual Toxics Baselines § 80.1030 What are...

2010-07-01

73

NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins such  

E-print Network

toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins, such as pharmaceuticals, are now being detected in the Great Lakes. NOAA is evaluating hazards from toxic substances so that regulatory and management responses can protect human and ecosystem health. Toxic Substances and Areas

74

Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model  

PubMed Central

CUG repeat expansions in the 3? UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (?) and 2?-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with ? or 2?-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamics and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for ?-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. ? modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25303993

deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

2014-01-01

75

Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish  

PubMed Central

A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a?ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln?LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln?LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

2013-01-01

76

Additives boost gasoline quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline additives have become more important to the supply of high-quality finished gasoline. Additives are used for the inhibition of oxidation, rust, and gum formation, and for prevention of deposits on and in engine components. The demand for high-quality fuels has led to many different additives that are added at the refinery and downstream. This article describes some of the

Gibbs

1989-01-01

77

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.915 How...

2010-07-01

78

The effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of Hypericum japonicum Thunb. extract in murine liver cancer chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbs are potential sources of antitumor drugs with immunoregulatory activity and few adverse effects. In the present study, we investigated whether the Hypericum japonicum Thunb. (HJT) extract enhanced the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment in murine liver tumor xenografts and reduced toxicity of chemotherapy in hepatoma H22-bearing mice. Tumor weight and inhibition rate, thymus and spleen indices, as well as white blood cell (WBC) count were calculated. The phagocytic function of macrophages was assessed by observing peritoneal macrophages phagocytized chicken red blood cells (RBC). Body weight and toxic reactions of the chemotherapeutic and life prolongation rate were investigated in the mice. Results demonstrated that the HJT extract significantly enhanced the tumor inhibition rate of 5-FU, improved the immune function, reduced the toxic effects and prolonged the survival time in the tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results indicated that the HJT extract has a synergistic tumor-inhibiting effect with 5-FU, is able to reduce the toxic side effects and is likely to be safe and efficacious for use in antitumor therapy. PMID:24649182

ZHANG, HONG-BO; LU, PING; CAO, WEN-BO; ZHANG, ZHEN-HUA; MENG, XIANG-LEI

2013-01-01

79

Can dissolved aquatic humic substances reduce the toxicity of ammonia and nitrite in recirculating aquaculture systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recirculating rearing systems of aquatic food organisms, humic substances (HSs) accumulate along with toxic nitrogen species (nitrite, unionized ammonia). The aim of the present study was to find out whether or not HSs have the capability to modify the acute toxicity of nitrite and unionized ammonia; and whether different HS qualities cause similar effects in fish. 144-h-Embryo-Larval-Test (ELT) was

Thomas Meinelt; Hana Kroupova; Angelika Stüber; Bernhard Rennert; Andreas Wienke; Christian E. W. Steinberg

2010-01-01

80

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline...Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline...which oxygenated gasoline is dispensed at a retail outlet in the control area shall...

2010-07-01

81

Additives boost gasoline quality  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline additives have become more important to the supply of high-quality finished gasoline. Additives are used for the inhibition of oxidation, rust, and gum formation, and for prevention of deposits on and in engine components. The demand for high-quality fuels has led to many different additives that are added at the refinery and downstream. This article describes some of the most important additives, what they are and what they do, and gives some guidelines on the selection and addition of them to the gasoline product.

Gibbs, L.M.

1989-04-24

82

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

83

Bioalcohols as Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The four major constituent groups of gasoline are olefins, aromatics, paraffins, and napthenes. The main alternative fuels include alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity for operation gasoline-type vehicles. Ethanol and methanol are biofuels that provide alternatives to gasoline. Bioethanol is

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

84

Subject: Reducing Lead and Other Toxic Chemicals in Toys and Other Consumer Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 WHEREAS, many conditions, including asthma, cancer, birth defects, behavioral disorders, and learning deficits have been linked to harmful toxicants incurring enormous individual and

85

Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

86

Mechanism of Perfluoroalkyl Halide Toxicity: Catalysis of Perfluoroalkylation by Reduced Forms of Cobalamin (Vitamin B 12 )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluoroalkyl halides (PFHs) are synthetic products widely used in various fields. Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFB) is used in medicine as a component of blood substitutes and for artificial lung ventilation. In both cases, it is considered a completely inert compound acting as a solvent for oxygen. However, there are many reports of PFH-induced intoxication, including lethal cases. Mechanisms underlying toxic effects

N. V. Beda; A. A. Nedospasov

2003-01-01

87

Algal blooms reduce the uptake of toxic methylmercury in freshwater food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury accumulation in fish is a global public health concern, because fish are the primary source of toxic methylmercury to humans. Fish from all lakes do not pose the same level of risk to consumers. One of the most intriguing patterns is that potentially dangerous mercury concentrations can be found in fish from clear, oligotrophic lakes whereas fish from greener,

Paul C. Pickhardt; Carol L. Folt; Celia Y. Chen; Bjoern Klaue; Joel D. Blum

88

Pycnogenol in cigarette filters scavenges free radicals and reduces mutagenicity and toxicity of tobacco smoke in vivo.  

PubMed

Despite large-scale anti-smoking campaigns throughout the world, the number of smokers remains high and cigarette smoking continues to represent a life-threatening health risk. Until a smoke-free society is achieved, reduction of cigarette smoke toxins may reduce the health burden. Current cigarette filter techniques are limited to the reduction of volatile tar constituents by dilution and by condensation on the filter surface. Vast quantities of harmful constituents, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic (aromatic) amines, free radicals and reactive oxygen species, are inefficiently retained in the filter. We investigated whether neutralisation of free radicals in cigarette filters is feasible and accompanied by a reduction in smoke toxicity. Addition of the bioflavonoid pine bark extract Pycnogenol to cigarette filters depleted free radicals in a dose dependent manner. This was paralleled by a reduction of toxicity and mutagenicity in rodent test models. In this model system, the acute toxicity of cigarette smoke was markedly reduced by up to 70% in rodents with 0.4 mg Pycnogenol in filters. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke for 75 days revealed that Pycnogenol filters significantly reduced mutagenicity by up to 48% and decreased pathological changes in lung tissue. PMID:14653310

Zhang, Deliang; Tao, Yi; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Chunai; Wan, Sujun; Chen, Yuxia; Huang, Xiazhen; Sun, Xiayou; Duan, Shaojin; Schönlau, Frank; Rohdewald, Peter; Zhao, Baolu

2002-06-01

89

Reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for pediatric hematological malignancies  

PubMed Central

Conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens often cause severe regimen-related toxicity (RRT). Furthermore, many patients suffer from poor quality of life in accordance with the increase in long-term survivors. We therefore devised a reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning (RTMAC) regimen consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), fludarabine (FLU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) for pediatric hematological malignancies. A retrospective single-center analysis was performed on patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aged ?20 years, who had received an 8-Gy TBI/FLU/CY RTMAC regimen followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Thirty-one patients underwent first allo-HSCT after an RTMAC regimen. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), MDS (n = 4), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1) and acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (n = 2). While 3 patients showed early hematological relapse, the remaining 28 patients achieved engraftments. None of the patients developed grade 4 or 5 toxicities during the study period. The 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival were 80% [95% confidence interval: CI, 61–91%] and 71% [95% CI, 52–84%], respectively. Our RTMAC regimen would be less toxic and offers a high probability of survival for children with hematological malignancies. PMID:25373730

Hirabayashi, Koichi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Sakashita, Kazuo; Kurata, Takashi; Saito, Shoji; Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Koike, Kenichi

2014-01-01

90

Reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for pediatric hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens often cause severe regimen-related toxicity (RRT). Furthermore, many patients suffer from poor quality of life in accordance with the increase in long-term survivors. We therefore devised a reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning (RTMAC) regimen consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), fludarabine (FLU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) for pediatric hematological malignancies. A retrospective single-center analysis was performed on patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aged ?20 years, who had received an 8-Gy TBI/FLU/CY RTMAC regimen followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Thirty-one patients underwent first allo-HSCT after an RTMAC regimen. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), MDS (n = 4), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1) and acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (n = 2). While 3 patients showed early hematological relapse, the remaining 28 patients achieved engraftments. None of the patients developed grade 4 or 5 toxicities during the study period. The 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival were 80% [95% confidence interval: CI, 61-91%] and 71% [95% CI, 52-84%], respectively. Our RTMAC regimen would be less toxic and offers a high probability of survival for children with hematological malignancies. PMID:25373730

Hirabayashi, Koichi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Sakashita, Kazuo; Kurata, Takashi; Saito, Shoji; Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Koike, Kenichi

2014-01-01

91

Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during RT. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible if they had disease localized to the primary site and lymph nodes, with high-risk features. RT was delivered to the primary site and lymph nodes to a dose of 50 Gy and weekly carboplatin (area under the curve of 2) was given during RT. This was followed by three cycles of carboplatin and etoposide. A total of 18 patients were entered into the study, and their data were compared with the data from 53 patients entered into the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study. Results: Involved lymph nodes (Stage II) were present in 14 patients (77%). Treatment was completed as planned in 16 patients. The weekly carboplatin dose was delivered in 17 patients, and 15 were able to complete all three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide. Grade 3 and 4 neutrophil toxicity occurred in 7 patients, but no cases of febrile neutropenia developed. Compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 protocol (19 of 53 cases of febrile neutropenia), the reduction in the febrile neutropenia rate (p = 0.003) and decrease in Grade 3 skin toxicity (p = 0.006) were highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that weekly carboplatin at this dosage is a safe way to deliver synchronous chemotherapy during RT for MCC and results in a marked reduction of febrile neutropenia and Grade 3 skin toxicity compared with the three weekly regimen.

Poulsen, Michael [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)], E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Dickie, Graeme [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); O'Brien, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Keller, Jacqui; Tpcony, Lee [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

2008-11-15

92

A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 ?g L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 ?g L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides. PMID:24630450

Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

2014-08-01

93

Improved Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity of Doxorubicin Encapsulated in Sulfatide-Containing Nanoliposome in a Glioma Model  

PubMed Central

As a glycosphingolipid that can bind to several extracellular matrix proteins, sulfatide has the potential to become an effective targeting agent for tumors overexpressing tenasin-C in their microenvironment. To overcome the dose-limiting toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX), a sulfatide-containing nanoliposome (SCN) encapsulation approach was employed to improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects of free DOX. This study analysed in vitro characteristics of sulfatide-containing nanoliposomal DOX (SCN-DOX) and assessed its cytotoxicity in vitro, as well as biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy, and systemic toxicity in a human glioblastoma U-118MG xenograft model. SCN-DOX was shown to achieve highest drug to lipid ratio (0.5?1) and a remarkable in vitro stability. Moreover, DOX encapsulated in SCN was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention over free DOX in U-118MG cells. This simple two-lipid SCN-DOX nanodrug has favourable pharmacokinetic attributes in terms of prolonged circulation time, reduced volume of distribution and enhanced bioavailability in healthy rats. As a result of the improved biodistribution, an enhanced treatment efficacy of SCN-DOX was found in glioma-bearing mice compared to the free drug. Finally, a reduction in the accumulation of DOX in the drug's principal toxicity organs achieved by SCN-DOX led to the diminished systemic toxicity as evident from the plasma biochemical analyses. Thus, SCN has the potential to be an effective and safer nano-carrier for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors with elevated expression of tenascin-C in their microenvironment. PMID:25072631

Lin, Jia; Shigdar, Sarah; Fang, Ding Zhi; Xiang, Dognxi; Wei, Ming Q.; Danks, Andrew; Kong, Lingxue; Li, Lianghong; Qiao, Liang; Duan, Wei

2014-01-01

94

Capital outlays for gasoline reformulation can be minimized  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses how, to reduce the financial impact of impending gasoline and diesel regulations, it will be necessary to reevaluate refinery unit operations in conjunction with innovative catalyst and process technology. The challenge will be to comply with these regulations without excessive retail gasoline prices. In addition, the industry will need to maintain profitability to remain competitive with other

1990-01-01

95

Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol  

PubMed Central

Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups and fed 0%, 12%, 36% ethanol, or 36% ethanol plus folic acid (10 mg folic acid/L) diets. After 5 weeks, chronic consumption of the 36% ethanol diet significantly increased plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) (P < 0.05) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (P < 0.05), triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05), Hcy (P < 0.001), and low density lipoprotein conjugated dienes (CD) (P < 0.05) but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) (P < 0.001). These changes were prevented partially by folic acid supplementation. The 12% ethanol diet had no apparent effect on most parameters. Plasma Hcy concentration was well correlated with plasma ALT (r = 0.612**), AST (r = 0.652*), CD (r = 0.495*), and TRAP (r = -0.486*). The results indicate that moderately elevated Hcy is associated with increased oxidative stress and liver injury in alcohol-fed rats, and suggests that folic acid supplementation appears to attenuate hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption possibly by decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:22259676

Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee

2011-01-01

96

Fipronil toxicity in northern bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus: reduced feeding behaviour and sulfone metabolite formation.  

PubMed

Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide registered for agricultural use in many countries. Avian exposure to fipronil occurs mainly by ingesting contaminated insects or seeds. There is little information regarding the toxicological effects of fipronil in avian species and even less research documenting avian behavioural responses to fipronil ingestion. We examined the effects of a single oral dose of fipronil in northern bobwhite quail, the most fipronil-sensitive species tested to date, in respect to signs of intoxication and the metabolic fate of fipronil. Fipronil-treated birds did not eat or drink following pesticide administration, and as a result lost a significant amount of body mass. Treated birds also appeared withdrawn and did not respond to disturbance within the first hour after treatment. Identifiable signs of fipronil toxicity were not observed until at least 2d after treatment. Chemical analyses indicated a difference between fipronil and fipronil-sulfone residue distribution and bioaccumulation, with significantly higher (30- to 1000-fold) tissue concentrations of the sulfone detected at all time points from 8 to 96 h post-dose in brain, liver and adipose tissues. Tissue sulfone concentrations increased significantly in fipronil-treated birds, peaking at 72 h post-dose. Body mass decreased at all time points in dosed birds. The coincidence of the particular intoxication symptoms with the time course of rise in brain sulfone levels after fipronil dosing gives insight into possible mechanisms of toxicity in this highly sensitive species. PMID:21227481

Kitulagodage, Malsha; Isanhart, John; Buttemer, William A; Hooper, Michael J; Astheimer, Lee B

2011-04-01

97

Reformulated gasoline study, executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of adopting alternative standards for reformulated gasoline (RFG) in New York State has been studied for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority). In addition to Federal RFG (EPA 1) and EPA II, California Air Resources Board RFG (CARB 2) and a modified Federal low sulfur RFG (LS-EPA II) were investigated. The effects of these alternative RFGs on petroleum refinery gasoline production costs, gasoline distribution costs, New York State air quality and the New York State economy were considered. New York has already adopted the California low emission vehicle (LEV) and other emission control programs that will affect vehicles and maintenance. From 1998 to 2012 without the introduction of any type of RFG, these programs are estimated to reduce New York State mobile source summer emissions by 341 tons per day (or 40%) of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and by 292 tons per day (or 28%) of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and to reduce winter emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by 3,072 tons per day (or 39%). By 2012, the planned imposition of Federal RFG will produce further reductions (percent of 1998 levels) of 10 %, 4 % and 11%, respectively, for NMHC, NO{sub x} and CO. If New York State goes beyond EPA II and adopts CARB 2 specifications, further reductions achieved in 2012 are estimated to be very small, equaling 2% or less of 1998 levels of NMHC and NO{sub x} emissions, while CO emissions would actually increase by about 2%. When compared to EPA II over the same time frame, LS-EPA II would produce negligible (less than 1%) reductions in each of the above emissions categories.

Cunningham, R.E.; Michalski, G.W. [Turner, Mason & Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Baron, R.E.; Lyons, J.M.

1994-10-01

98

Desulfurization of gasoline.  

PubMed Central

Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

Berger, J E

1975-01-01

99

Wild-type PABPN1 is anti-apoptotic and reduces toxicity of the oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy mutation.  

PubMed

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset, progressive disease caused by the abnormal expansion of a polyalanine tract-encoding (GCG)(n) trinucleotide repeat in the poly-(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) gene. OPMD is generally inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder and the polyalanine expansion mutation is thought to confer a toxic gain-of-function on mutant PABPN1 which forms aggregates within skeletal myocyte nuclei. Here we describe a novel beneficial function of wild-type PABPN1. Wild-type PABPN1 over-expression can reduce mutant PABPN1 toxicity in both cell and mouse models of OPMD. In addition, wild-type PABPN1 provides some protection to cells against pro-apoptotic insults distinct from the OPMD mutation such as staurosporine treatment and Bax expression. Conversely, PABPN1 knockdown (which itself is not toxic) makes cells more susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. The protective effect of wild-type PABPN1 is mediated by its regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein translation. This normal activity of PABPN1 is partially lost for mutant PABPN1; elevated levels of XIAP are seen in mice expressing a wild-type but not a mutant PABPN1 transgene. This raises the possibility that a compromise of the anti-apoptotic function of PABPN1 might contribute to the disease mechanism of OPMD. PMID:18178579

Davies, Janet E; Sarkar, Sovan; Rubinsztein, David C

2008-04-15

100

Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice  

PubMed Central

Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell–derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell–deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Abrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

101

Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice.  

PubMed

Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell-derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell-deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Abrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

2011-10-01

102

The potential for low petroleum gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

1996-06-01

103

Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults with Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at XXXXX from 2003–2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4–103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11–63) for p-CSI. RESULTS p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2%, versus 5.8%; p=0.004), and less p-CSI patients had greater than 5% weight loss compared to x-CSI (16% versus 64%; p=0.004). p-CSI patients experienced less grade 2 nausea and vomiting compared to x-CSI (26% versus 71%; p=0.004). Patients treated with x-CSI were more likely to have medical management of esophagitis than p-CSI patients (57% vs 5%, p=<0.001). p-CSI patients had a smaller reduction in peripheral white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin and platelets compared to x-CSI (WBC 46% versus 55%, p=0.04; hemoglobin 88% versus 97%, p=0.009; platelets 48% versus 65%, p=0.05). Mean vertebral doses were significantly associated with reductions in blood counts. CONCLUSIONS This report is the first analysis of clinical outcomes for adult medulloblastoma patients treated with p-CSI. Patients treated with p-CSI experienced less treatment-related morbidity including less acute gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities. PMID:23433794

Brown, Aaron P.; Barney, Christian L.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances; de Groot, John F.; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Tucker, Susan L.; Crawford, Cody N.; Khan, Meena; Khatua, Soumen; Gilbert, Mark R.; Brown, Paul D.; Mahajan, Anita

2014-01-01

104

Science Nation: Green Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the help of the National Science Foundation (NSF), George Huber has been working to unlock the solar energy that's stored in cellulose. Recently, he received additional NSF funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, which he says will allow his team to continue developing new processes that can economically produce renewable gasoline and diesel fuels from domestically produced non-food biomass resources. Huber, along with a team of dedicated researchers at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, has figured out how to make gasoline from woodchips that are loaded with cellulose and the energy stored in that cellulose.

105

Neurotoxic effects of gasoline and gasoline constituents.  

PubMed Central

This overview was developed as part of a symposium on noncancer end points of gasoline and key gasoline components. The specific components included are methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl tertiary butyl ether, tertiary amyl methyl ether, butadiene, benzene, xylene, toluene, methyl alcohol, and ethyl alcohol. The overview focuses on neurotoxic effects related to chronic low-level exposures. A few general conclusions and recommendations can be made based on the results of the studies to date. a) All the compounds reviewed are neuroactive and, as such, should be examined for their neurotoxicity. b) For most of the compounds, there is a substantial margin of safety between the current permissible exposure levels and levels that would be expected to cause overt signs of neurotoxicity in humans. This is not the case for xylene, toluene, and methanol, however, where neurologic effects are observed at or below the current Threshold Limit Value. c) For most of the compounds, the relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle neurotoxic effects has not been studied. Studies therefore should focus on examining the dose-response relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle changes in central nervous system function. PMID:8020437

Burbacher, T M

1993-01-01

106

Neurotoxic effects of gasoline and gasoline constituents  

SciTech Connect

This overview was developed as part of a symposium on noncancer end points of gasoline and key gasoline components. The specific components included are methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl tertiary butyl ether, tertiary amyl methyl ether, butadiene, benzene, xylene, toluene, methyl alcohol, and ethyl alcohol. The overview focuses on neurotoxic effects related to chronic low-level exposures. A few general conclusions and recommendations can be made based on the results of the studies to date. (a) All the compounds reviewed are neuroactive and, as such, should be examined for their neurotoxicity. (b) For most of the compounds, there is a substantial margin of safety between the current permissible exposure levels and levels that would be expected to cause overt signs of neurotoxicity in humans. This is not the case for xylene, toluene, and methanol, however, where neurologic effects are observed at or below the current Threshold Limit Value. (c) For most of the compounds, the relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle neurotoxic effects has not been studied. Studies therefore should focus on examining the dose-response relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle changes in central nervous system function. 96 refs., 7 tabs.

Burbacher, T.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

107

Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.  

PubMed Central

Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9347900

Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

1997-01-01

108

Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.  

PubMed

Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used. PMID:9347900

Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

1997-08-01

109

Application of an inverse neural network model for the identification of optimal amendment to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils  

E-print Network

to reduce Copper toxicity in phytoremediated contaminated soils Nour HATTABa,b,c* , Mikael MOTELICA potentially be applied with a high level of success to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Before

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Reduced toxicity, myeloablative conditioning with BU, fludarabine, alemtuzumab and SCT from sibling donors in children with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

BU and CY (BU/CY; 200?mg/kg) before HLA-matched sibling allo-SCT in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with ~85% EFS but is limited by the acute and late effects of BU/CY myeloablative conditioning. Alternatives include reduced toxicity but more immunosuppressive conditioning. We investigated in a prospective single institutional study, the safety and efficacy of a reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen of BU 12.8-16?mg/kg, fludarabine 180?mg/m(2), alemtuzumab 54?mg/m(2) (BFA) before HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation in pediatric recipients with symptomatic SCD. Eighteen patients, median age 8.9 years (2.3-20.2), M/F 15/3, 15 sibling BM and 3 sibling cord blood (CB) were transplanted. Mean whole blood and erythroid donor chimerism was 91% and 88%, at days +100 and +365, respectively. Probability of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 17%. Two-year EFS and OS were both 100%. Neurological, pulmonary and cardiovascular function were stable or improved at 2 years. BFA RTC and HLA-matched sibling BM and CB allo-SCT in pediatric recipients result in excellent EFS, long-term donor chimerism, low incidence of GVHD and stable/improved organ function. PMID:24797180

Bhatia, M; Jin, Z; Baker, C; Geyer, M B; Radhakrishnan, K; Morris, E; Satwani, P; George, D; Garvin, J; Del Toro, G; Zuckerman, W; Lee, M T; Licursi, M; Hawks, R; Smilow, E; Baxter-Lowe, L A; Schwartz, J; Cairo, M S

2014-07-01

111

Household impacts of gasoline decontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phase I CHRD System was used to estimate the direct impact on household gasoline expenditures of the gasoline price decontrol proposal. Decontrol was evaluated under two assumptions, a uniform 3 cents per gallon price increase at the pump in 1979 and a higher, 10 cents per gallon increase in 1979. Decontrol is estimated to increase average gasoline expenditures for

H. Beebout; J. King

1977-01-01

112

With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory  

E-print Network

Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational. The software that I use for in-class demonstrations is usually Mathematica [4] or J [3]. I focus on one that Mathematica be used in Calculus Classes [2]; I also use Mathematica for my Numerical Analysis and Techniques

Reiter, Clifford A.

113

Reduced-toxicity conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves outcome in patients with myeloid malignancies  

PubMed Central

The introduction of reduced intensity/toxicity conditioning regimens has allowed allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to be performed in patients who were previously considered too old or otherwise unfit. Although it led to a reduction in non-relapse mortality, disease control remains a major challenge. We studied the outcome of 165 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n=124) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n=41) transplanted after conditioning with fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day for 5 days), intravenous busulfan (either 260 mg/m2: reduced intensity conditioning, or 390–520 mg/m2: reduced toxicity conditioning), and rabbit anti-thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days). The median age of the patients at transplantation was 56.8 years. The 2-year relapse incidence was 29% (23% versus 39% for patients transplanted in first complete remission and those transplanted beyond first complete remission, respectively; P=0.008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 57% (95% CI: 49.9–65). It was higher in the groups with favorable or intermediate cytogenetics than in the group with unfavorable cytogenetics (72.7%, 60.5%, and 45.7%, respectively; P=0.03). The cumulative incidence of grades 2–4 and 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease at day 100 was 19.3% and 7.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease at 1 year was 21.6% (severe forms: 7.8%). Non-relapse mortality at 1 year reached 11%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 61.8% (95% CI: 54.8–69.7). Unfavorable karyotype and disease status beyond first complete remission were associated with a poorer survival. This well-tolerated conditioning platform can lead to long-term disease control and offers possibilities of modulation according to disease stage or further development. PMID:25085356

Oudin, Claire; Chevallier, Patrice; Furst, Sabine; Guillaume, Thierry; Cheikh, Jean El; Delaunay, Jacques; Castagna, Luca; Faucher, Catherine; Granata, Angela; Devillier, Raynier; Chabannon, Christian; Esterni, Benjamin; Vey, Norbert; Mohty, Mohamad; Blaise, Didier

2014-01-01

114

What Toxicity May Result from the Xenobiotic Responsible for the Finding on This Plain Film? Answer: Reduced Iron, Found in Heating Pads and Instant Hand Warmers, May Result in Elevated Serum Iron Concentrations and Subsequent Iron Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable heating pads are commonly used products, with reduced iron as their active ingredient. Reduced iron is not expected\\u000a to cause significant toxicity when ingested orally. We report a case of accidental heating pad ingestion seen on abdominal\\u000a plain films that resulted in significantly elevated serum iron concentrations.

Jon B. Cole; Samuel J. Stellpflug; Christian P. Lintner

115

What toxicity may result from the xenobiotic responsible for the finding on this plain film? Answer: reduced iron, found in heating pads and instant hand warmers, may result in elevated serum iron concentrations and subsequent iron toxicity.  

PubMed

Disposable heating pads are commonly used products, with reduced iron as their active ingredient. Reduced iron is not expected to cause significant toxicity when ingested orally. We report a case of accidental heating pad ingestion seen on abdominal plain films that resulted in significantly elevated serum iron concentrations. PMID:21818692

Cole, Jon B; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Lintner, Christian P

2011-12-01

116

Effects of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions and driveability  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of changes in gasoline composition is one area to explore in our effort to reduce tailpipe emissions from vehicles. However, affects on vehicle performances should also be considered from the perspective of practical useage. In this paper, the influence of gasoline composition (aromatics), volatility, and MTBE blending on engine outlet and tailpipe emissions are discussed in particular, focusing on distillation properties which have a close relationship to driveability. Under stable driving conditions and without a catalitic converter, the effects of gasoline volatility is small, while aromatics in gasoline affect exhaust HC and NO{sub x} emissions. MTBE has a leaning effect on the engine intake air/fuel mixture. During a transient driving cycle, a high gasoline 50% distillation temperature causes poor driveability, as a result, HC emissions increase.

Hoshi, H.; Nakada, M.; Kato, M.; Okada, M.; Kayanuma, N.

1990-01-01

117

Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.  

PubMed Central

Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue toxicosis. PMID:25374886

McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

2014-01-01

118

Antioxidant Activity, Delayed Aging, and Reduced Amyloid-? Toxicity of Methanol Extracts of Tea Seed Pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

2014-11-01

119

The development of response surface pathway design to reduce animal numbers in toxicity studies  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes the development of Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design, assesses its performance and effectiveness in estimating LD50, and compares RSP with Up and Down Procedures (UDPs) and Random Walk (RW) design. Methods A basic 4-level RSP design was used on 36 male ICR mice given intraperitoneal doses of Yessotoxin. Simulations were performed to optimise the design. A k-adjustment factor was introduced to ensure coverage of the dose window and calculate the dose steps. Instead of using equal numbers of mice on all levels, the number of mice was increased at each design level. Additionally, the binomial outcome variable was changed to multinomial. The performance of the RSP designs and a comparison of UDPs and RW were assessed by simulations. The optimised 4-level RSP design was used on 24 female NMRI mice given Azaspiracid-1 intraperitoneally. Results The in vivo experiment with basic 4-level RSP design estimated the LD50 of Yessotoxin to be 463 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 383–535). By inclusion of the k-adjustment factor with equal or increasing numbers of mice on increasing dose levels, the estimate changed to 481 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 362–566) and 447 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 378–504 ?g/kgBW), respectively. The optimised 4-level RSP estimated the LD50 to be 473 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 442–517). A similar increase in power was demonstrated using the optimised RSP design on real Azaspiracid-1 data. The simulations showed that the inclusion of the k-adjustment factor, reduction in sample size by increasing the number of mice on higher design levels and incorporation of a multinomial outcome gave estimates of the LD50 that were as good as those with the basic RSP design. Furthermore, optimised RSP design performed on just three levels reduced the number of animals from 36 to 15 without loss of information, when compared with the 4-level designs. Simulated comparison of the RSP design with UDPs and RW design demonstrated the superiority of RSP. Conclusion Optimised RSP design reduces the number of animals needed. The design converges rapidly on the area of interest and is at least as efficient as both the UDPs and RW design. PMID:24661560

2014-01-01

120

Antiprion drugs 6-aminophenanthridine and guanabenz reduce PABPN1 toxicity and aggregation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset syndrome characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles. OPMD is caused by extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Insoluble nuclear inclusions form in diseased muscles. We have generated a Drosophila model of OPMD that recapitulates the features of the disorder. Here, we show that the antiprion drugs 6-aminophenanthridine (6AP) and guanabenz acetate (GA), which prevent formation of amyloid fibers by prion proteins in cell models, alleviate OPMD phenotypes in Drosophila, including muscle degeneration and nuclear inclusion formation. The large ribosomal RNA and its activity in protein folding were recently identified as a specific cellular target of 6AP and GA. We show that deletions of the ribosomal DNA locus reduce OPMD phenotypes and act synergistically with sub-effective doses of 6AP. In a complementary approach, we demonstrate that ribosomal RNA accelerates in vitro fibril formation of PABPN1 N-terminal domain. These results reveal the conserved role of ribosomal RNA in different protein aggregation disorders and identify 6AP and GA as general anti-aggregation molecules. PMID:21204267

Barbezier, Nicolas; Chartier, Aymeric; Bidet, Yannick; Buttstedt, Anja; Voisset, Cécile; Galons, Hervé; Blondel, Marc; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Simonelig, Martine

2011-01-01

121

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and tetracycline differently affect ataxin-3 fibrillogenesis and reduce toxicity in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 model.  

PubMed

The polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing protein ataxin-3 (AT3) triggers the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) when its polyQ tract is expanded beyond a critical length. This results in protein aggregation and generation of toxic oligomers and fibrils. Currently, no effective treatment is available for such and other polyQ diseases. Therefore, plenty of investigations are being carried on to assess the mechanism of action and the therapeutic potential of anti-amyloid agents. The polyphenol compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and tetracycline have been shown to exert some effect in preventing fibrillogenesis of amyloidogenic proteins. Here, we have incubated an expanded AT3 variant with either compound to assess their effects on the aggregation pattern. The process was monitored by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Whereas in the absence of any treatment, AT3 gives rise to amyloid ?-rich fibrils, whose hallmark is the typical glutamine side-chain hydrogen bonding, when incubated in the presence of EGCG it generated soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates, much poorer in ?-sheets and devoid of any ordered side-chain hydrogen bonding. These are off-pathway species that persist until the latest incubation time and are virtually absent in the control sample. In contrast, tetracycline did not produce major alterations in the structural features of the aggregated species compared with the control, but substantially increased their solubility. Both compounds significantly reduced toxicity, as shown by the MTT assay in COS-7 cell line and in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain expressing in the nervous system an AT3 expanded variant in fusion with GFP. PMID:25030034

Bonanomi, Marcella; Natalello, Antonino; Visentin, Cristina; Pastori, Valentina; Penco, Amanda; Cornelli, Giuseppina; Colombo, Giorgio; Malabarba, Maria G; Doglia, Silvia M; Relini, Annalisa; Regonesi, Maria E; Tortora, Paolo

2014-12-15

122

Targeting therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with doxorubicin prodrug PDOX increases anti-metastatic effect and reduces toxicity: a preclinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to investigate the effects and safety of cathepsin B-cleavable doxorubicin (DOX)-prodrug (PDOX) for targeting therapy of metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using DOX as a positive control drug. Methods The orthotopic nude mice model of highly metastatic HCC was established and the animals were randomized and treated with PDOX, DOX and saline, respectively. Hematology, biochemistry and tumor markers were studied. At autopsy, liver tumor weight and size, ascites, abdominal lymph nodes metastases, experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis index (ePCI), and tumor-host body weight ratio were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies and western blotting were done to investigate key molecules involved in the mechanism of action. Results Compared with Control, both PDOX and DOX could similarly and significantly reduce liver tumor weight and tumor volume by over 40%, ePCI values, retroperitoneal lymph node metastases and lung metastases and serum AFP levels (P?reduce the Ki-67 positive rate of tumor cells, compared with DOX and Control groups. PDOX produced the effects at least via the ERK pathway. Conclusion Compared with DOX, PDOX may have better anti-metastatic efficacy and reduced side effects especially cardio-toxicities in this HCC model. PMID:23961994

2013-01-01

123

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

2013-05-01

124

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times. PMID:23375214

Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

2013-05-01

125

Office of Transportation and Air Quality: GASOLINE FUELS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers the user a variety of informational links that specifically address the testing, standards and regulations with which the gasoline manufacturers must comply. Since its implementation, one of the primary causes championed by the EPA has been to reduce emissions and pollutants by automobiles. In 1973 it called for a gradual phase-down of lead in gasoline, the primary fuel source for much of the transportation industry, culminating with passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of the 1990

2007-09-24

126

Lactobacilli Reduce Cell Cytotoxicity Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes by Producing Lactic Acid That Degrades the Toxic Component Lipoteichoic Acid? †  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are known to prevent colonization by many pathogens; nevertheless, the mechanisms of their protective effect are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the role of lactobacilli during infection of epithelial cells with group A streptococci (GAS). GAS cause a variety of illnesses ranging from noninvasive disease to more severe invasive infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Invasion of deeper tissues is facilitated by GAS-induced apoptosis and cell death. We found that lactobacilli inhibit GAS-induced host cell cytotoxicity and shedding of the complement regulator CD46. Further, survival assays demonstrated that lactic acid secreted by lactobacilli is highly bactericidal toward GAS. In addition, lactic acid treatment of GAS, but not heat killing, prior to infection abolishes the cytotoxic effects against human cells. Since lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of GAS is heat resistant and cytotoxic, we explored the effects of lactic acid on LTA. By applying such an approach, we demonstrate that lactic acid reduces epithelial cell damage caused by GAS by degrading both secreted and cell-bound LTA. Taken together, our experiments reveal a mechanism by which lactobacilli prevent pathogen-induced host cell damage. PMID:21245448

Maudsdotter, Lisa; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

2011-01-01

127

40 CFR 80.990 - What are the toxics reporting requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What are the toxics reporting requirements? 80.990...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.990 What are the toxics reporting requirements?...

2010-07-01

128

Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.  

PubMed

We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline. PMID:24870412

Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

2014-06-17

129

Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-01

130

Impact of gasoline volatility reduction on the U. S. refining industry  

SciTech Connect

U.S. gasoline volatility has increased as a result of processing changes to meet lead ''phase out,'' increased blending of oxygenates and increased butane content in gasoline blends. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is considering regulations to reduce evaporative emissions including: On-board automotive controls, service station controls, and reduction of gasoline volatility. The impact of the alternative to reduce gasoline volatility on the U.S. refining industry is the subject of this paper. The authors first provide their current industry supply/demand/pricing scenarios as a background for their analysis. Next they review historic gasoline volatility and proposed regulations for volatility control. They then examine the impact of gasoline volatility reduction on: Existing refinery capacity, new process requirements, refinery octane options, and refinery butane supply.

Felten, J.R.; McCarthy, K.M.

1987-01-01

131

Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding, the gasoline prices follow as closely as diesel prices to ALOP. Finally, system-wide causality analysis finds linkages among markets. In summary, both physical and statistical linkages exist among the study markets. Arbitrage among these markets is limited by the logistics of transportation infrastructure and by branding agreements in wholesale contracting.

Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

132

Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina  

E-print Network

- 1 - Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina, California Abstract We examine how gasoline price volatility impacts consumers' price elasticity of demand for gasoline. Results show that volatility in prices decreases consumer demand for gasoline in the intermediate

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

133

Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.  

PubMed

The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

2008-03-01

134

Price elasticity for gasoline revisited  

SciTech Connect

A reexamination of the 1974 findngs of Houthakker, Verleger, and Sheehan confirms that gasoline prices can promote energy conservation and that demand responses devlop over time. The empirical evidence is consistent with other earlier studies. The responsiveness observed during the 1962 to 73 sample period probably understates present economic elasticity because gasoline prices now require a larger share of disposable income, making a -1.5 price elasticity more realistic. 8 references, 1 table. (DCK)

Pelaez, R.F.

1981-10-01

135

Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach  

E-print Network

Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

Muehlegger, Erich J.

2004-01-01

136

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline and conventional gasoline fuel parameters.  

...Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved October 1, 2010. ...to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved October 1, 2013. ...Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame...

2014-07-01

137

Gasoline blending optimization cuts use of expensive components  

SciTech Connect

A gasoline blending optimization project has allowed Lindsey Oil Refinery Ltd., Humberside, England, to reduce quality giveaway and maximize use of the cheapest blending components. In June 1989, Lindsey Oil awarded a contract for a gasoline blending optimizer. The contract was part of an offsites modernization project, which also included an upgrade of the tank gauging system, automation of a rail loading facility, and improvement of product movement monitoring. The modernization project was largely justified by anticipated benefit from optimized blend control of the gasoline and gas oil blending operations. The optimization targets included reducing quality giveaway and maximizing the use of the cheapest blend components. Fina Plc. and Total Oil (Great Britain) Ltd., joint owners of Lindsey Oil Refinery, required that there be an acceptable return on investment.

White, J. (Lindsey Oil Refinery Ltd., Humberside (United Kingdom)); Hall, F. (Foxboro Co., MA (United States))

1992-11-09

138

Effects of selected food phytochemicals in reducing the toxic actions of TCDD and p,p'-DDT in U937 macrophages.  

PubMed

To assess the effectiveness of selected food phytochemicals in reducing the toxic effects of the environmental toxicants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and p,p'-DDT (DDT), we tested the potencies of auraptene, nobiletin, zerumbone, and (±)-13-hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (13-HOA) in reversing the inflammatory action of these toxicants in U937 human macrophages. Using quantitative RT-PCR as the initial screening assay, we identified antagonistic actions of zerumbone and auraptene against the action of TCDD and DDT in up-regulating the mRNA expressions of COX-2 and VEGF. The functional significance of the inhibitory action of zerumbone on COX-2 expression was confirmed by demonstrating its suppression of TCDD-induced activation of COX-2 gene expression in mouse MMDD1 cells. We tested auraptene on DDT-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in U937 macrophages and found that auraptene is a powerful agent antagonizing this action of DDT. To confirm the significance of these actions of zerumbone and auraptene at the cellular level, we assessed their influence on TCDD-induced apoptosis resistance in intact U937 macrophages and found that they are capable of reversing this action of TCDD. In conclusion, zerumbone and auraptene were identified to be the most effective agents in protecting U937 macrophages from developing these cell toxic effects of TCDD and DDT. PMID:20865247

Sciullo, Eric M; Vogel, Christoph F; Wu, Dalei; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime; Matsumura, Fumio

2010-12-01

139

Heat-Induced Superaggregation of Amphotericin B Reduces Its In Vitro Toxicity: a New Way To Improve Its Therapeutic Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superaggregation of amphotericin B (AmB) was previously shown to occur upon heating of solutions at 70°C. In the present study, we demonstrate that heat pretreatment of Fungizone (deoxycholate salt of AmB (AmB- DOC)) solutions induces a drastic decrease in the in vitro toxicity of this antibiotic. Heated AmB-DOC colloidal solutions, which mainly contained superaggregated and monomeric forms of the antibiotic,

FRANCOIS GABORIAU; MONIQUE CHERON; CAROLINE PETIT; JACQUES BOLARD; M. Curie

1997-01-01

140

Wild-type PABPN1 is anti-apoptotic and reduces toxicity of the oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset, progressive disease caused by the abnormal expansion of a polyalanine tract-encoding (GCG)n trinucleotide repeat in the poly-(A) binding protein nuclear 1( PABPN1) gene. OPMD is generally inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder and the polyalanine expansion mutation is thought to confer a toxic gain-of-function on mutant PABPN1 which forms aggregates within skeletal myocyte

Janet E. Davies; Sovan Sarkar; David C. Rubinsztein

2008-01-01

141

Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

2008-01-01

142

Impact of methanol and CNG fuels on motor-vehicle toxic emissions  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the Environmental Protection Agency investigate the need for reduction of motor vehicle toxic emissions such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic organic matter. Toxic organic emissions can be reduced by utilizing the control technologies employed for regulated THC (NMHC) and CO emissions, and by changing fuel composition. The paper examines emissions associated with the use of methanol and compressed natural gas fuels. Both tailpipe and evaporative emissions are examined at varied ambient temperatures ranging from 20 C to 105 F. Tailpipe emissions are also examined over a variety of driving cycles with average speeds ranging from 7 to 48 mph. Results suggest that an equivalent ambient temperatures and average speeds, motor vehicle toxic emissions are generally reduced with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels relative to those with gasoline, except for formaldehyde emissions, which may be elevated. As with gasoline, tailpipe toxic emissions with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels generally increase when ambient temperature or average speed decreases (the sensitivity to these variables is greater with methanol than with compressed natural gas). Evaporative emissions generally increase when fuel volatility or ambient temperature increases (however, the relative contribution of evaporative sources to the aggregate toxic compound emissions is small).

Black, F.; Gabele, P.

1991-01-01

143

Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Madler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

2014-01-01

144

Vehicle Driveability with Gasoline/Alcohol Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report addresses the issue of vehicle driveability with gasoline/ethanol and gasoline/methanol cosolvent blends. Oxygen content, volatility, heat vaporization, intake system deposits, driveability test programs and fleet programs are also examined.

J. Adler, C. A. Harvey

1987-01-01

145

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

146

Household gasoline demand in the United States  

E-print Network

Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01

147

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gasoline for testing must have octane values that represent commercially available...appropriate application. (b) There are two grades of gasoline specified for use as...specified for general testing. The two grades are specified in Table 1 of this...

2010-07-01

148

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

EIA Publications

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01

149

Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats  

SciTech Connect

Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ? We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ? We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ? We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin after intravenous anticalin administration. ? We provide clinical data on outcome improvement after anticalin administration.

Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

2012-09-15

150

The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NOx) control devices to reduce air pollution, “modern” diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NOx

Mark Z. Jacobson; John H. Seinfeld; Greg R. Carmichael; David G. Streets

2004-01-01

151

Proton beam therapy reduces the incidence of acute haematological and gastrointestinal toxicities associated with craniospinal irradiation in pediatric brain tumors.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The benefits of proton beam craniospinal irradiation (PrBCSI) in children have been extensively reported in dosimetric studies. However, there is limited clinical evidence supporting the use of PrBCSI. We compared the acute toxicity of PrBCSI relative to that of conventional photon beam CSI (PhBCSI) in children with brain tumours. Material and methods. We prospectively evaluated the haematological and gastrointestinal toxicities in 30 patients who underwent PrBCSI between April 2008 and December 2012. As a reference group, we retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 13 patients who underwent PhBCSI between April 2003 and April 2012. The median follow-up time from starting CSI was 22 months (range 2-118 months). The mean irradiation dose was 32.1 Gy (range 23.4-39.6 Gy) and 29.4 CGE (cobalt grey equivalents; range 19.8-39.6), in the PrBCSI and PhBCSI groups, respectively (p = 0.236). Results. There was no craniospinal fluid space relapse after curative therapy in either group of patients. Thrombocytopenia was less severe in the PrBCSI group than in the PhBCSI group (p = 0.012). The recovery rates of leukocyte and platelet counts measured one month after treatment were significantly greater in the PrBCSI group than in the PhBCSI group (p = 0.003 and p = 0.010, respectively). Diarrhoea was reported by 23% of patients in the PhBCSI group versus none in the PrBCSI group (p = 0.023). Conclusions. The incidence rates of thrombocytopenia and diarrhoea were lower in the PrBCSI group than in the PhBCSI group. One month after completing treatment, the recovery from leukopenia and thrombocytopenia was better in patients treated with PrBCSI than in those treated with PhBCSI. PMID:24913151

Song, Sanghyuk; Park, Hyeon Jin; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Kim, Dae Woong; Park, Jeonghoon; Shin, Dongho; Shin, Sang Hoon; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Joo-Young

2014-09-01

152

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

153

Thermal analysis of a poppet valve gasoline engine for two- and four-stroke operation.  

E-print Network

??The modern four-stroke, poppet valve, direct injection, gasoline engine has improved combustion efficiency, reduced emissions and greater engine performance when compared to the port-fuel injected… (more)

Gonzalez, Alexis G. Del Rio

2010-01-01

154

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

2007-06-01

155

Exogenous sodium nitroprusside and glutathione alleviate copper toxicity by reducing copper uptake and oxidative damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) regulate a variety of physiological processes and stress responses; however, their involvement in mitigating Cu toxicity in plants has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the interactive effect of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and GSH on Cu homeostasis and Cu-induced oxidative damage in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 12-day-old seedlings were subjected to 100 ?M CuSO4 alone and in combination with 200 ?M SNP (an NO donor) and 200 ?M GSH. Cu exposure for 48 h resulted in toxicity symptoms such as stunted growth, chlorosis, and rolling in leaves. Cu toxicity was also manifested by a sharp increase in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline (Pro) content, and rapid reductions in biomass, chlorophyll (Chl), and relative water content (RWC). Cu-caused oxidative stress was evident by overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide (O2 (•-)) and H2O2). Ascorbate (AsA) content decreased while GSH and phytochelatin (PC) content increased significantly in Cu-stressed seedlings. Exogenous SNP, GSH, or SNP?+?GSH decreased toxicity symptoms and diminished a Cu-induced increase in LOX activity, O2 (•-), H2O2, MDA, and Pro content. They also counteracted a Cu-induced increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II activities, which paralleled changes in ROS and MDA levels. These seedlings also showed a significant increase in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and AsA and PC content compared with the seedlings stressed with Cu alone. Cu analysis revealed that SNP and GSH restricted the accumulation of Cu in the roots and leaves of Cu-stressed seedlings. Our results suggest that Cu exposure provoked an oxidative burden while reduced Cu uptake and modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems by adding SNP and GSH play an important role in alleviating Cu toxicity. Furthermore, the protective action of GSH and SNP?+?GSH was more efficient than SNP alone. PMID:24752795

Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Seraj, Zeba Islam; Fujita, Masayuki

2014-11-01

156

Alkoxyalkyl prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates enhance oral antiviral activity and reduce toxicity: current state of the art  

PubMed Central

Although the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates cidofovir, adefovir and tenofovir are approved for treating human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and HIV infections, respectively, their utility is limited by low oral bioavailability, renal toxicity and poor cell penetration. Research over the past decade has shown that these undesirable features can be eliminated by esterifying the compounds with an alkoxyalkyl group, in effect disguising them as lysophospholipids. In this modified form, the drugs are readily taken up in the gastrointestinal tract and have a prolonged circulation time in plasma. The active metabolite also has a long half life within cells, permitting infrequent dosing. Because these modified drugs are not recognized by the transport mechanisms that cause the accumulation of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates in renal tubular cells, they lack nephrotoxicity. Alkoxyalkyl esterification also markedly increases the in vitro antiviral activity of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by improving their delivery into cells. For example, an alkoxyalkyl ester of cyclic-cidofovir, a less soluble compound, retains antiviral activity for 3 months following a single intravitreal injection. Two of these novel compounds, hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (CMX-001) and hexadecyloxypropyl-tenofovir (CMX-157) are now in clinical development. This article focuses on the hexadecyloxypropyl and octadecyloxyethyl esters of cidofovir and (S)-HPMPA, describing their synthesis and the evaluation of their in vitro and in vivo activity against a range of orthopoxviruses, herpesviruses, adenoviruses and other double-stranded DNA viruses. The extension to other nucleoside phosphonate antivirals is highlighted, demonstrating that this novel approach can markedly improve the medicinal properties of these drugs. PMID:19425198

Hostetler, Karl Y.

2009-01-01

157

Gasoline Price Pass-through  

EIA Publications

Over the past several years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has extensively studied the relationships between wholesale and retail markets for transportation fuels. This article represents a return to gasoline markets, where EIA first performed this type of analysis and modeling in 1997. The current effort takes advantage of improvements and enhancements to our approach over the intervening years, resulting in more detailed and accurate results.

2003-01-01

158

Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels on Learning and Memory  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential toxicity of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels to the developing nervous system is of concern. We previously reported an absence of effect on learning and memory as seen in a trace fear conditioning task and water maze task in offspring of dams exposed prenatally to the...

159

THE INFLUENCE OF THE GASOLINE OXYGENATE ETHANOL ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BTX BIODEGRADATION. (R823420)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microb...

160

Gene transfer of mutant mouse cholinesterase provides high lifetime expression and reduced cocaine responses with no evident toxicity.  

PubMed

Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with (3)H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3 × 10(11) particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (10(10) particles) to 20,000 fold (10(13) particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7 × 10(12) particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7 × 10(12) particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose. PMID:23840704

Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J; Russell, Stephen J; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

2013-01-01

161

Gene Transfer of Mutant Mouse Cholinesterase Provides High Lifetime Expression and Reduced Cocaine Responses with No Evident Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with 3H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3×1011 particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (1010 particles) to 20,000 fold (1013 particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7×1012 particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7×1012 particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose. PMID:23840704

Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

2013-01-01

162

An optimized nanoparticle delivery system based on chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules reduces the toxicity of amphotericin B and is effective in treating tegumentary leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AmpB) is active against leishmaniasis, but its use is hampered due to its high toxicity observed in patients. In this study, a nanoparticles-delivery system for AmpB (NQC-AmpB), containing chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules, was evaluated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis. An in vivo biodistribution study, including biochemical and toxicological evaluations, was performed to evaluate the toxicity of AmpB. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and injected in mice. The products presented a similar biodistribution in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of the animals. Free AmpB induced alterations in the body weight of the mice, which, in the biochemical analysis, indicated hepatic and renal injury, as well as morphological damage to the kidneys of the animals. In general, no significant organic alteration was observed in the animals treated with NQC-AmpB. Mice were infected with L. amazonensis and treated with the nanoparticles or free AmpB; then, parasitological and immunological analyses were performed. The NQC-AmpB group, as compared to the control groups, presented significant reductions in the lesion size and in the parasite burden in all evaluated organs. These animals presented significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10, when compared to the control groups. The NQC-AmpB system was effective in reducing the infection in the animals, and proved to be effective in diminishing the toxicity evoked by AmpB, which was observed when it was administered alone. In conclusion, NQC-AmpB could be considered a viable possibility for future studies in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Franca, Juçara R; Fuscaldi, Leonardo L; Santos, Mara L; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Fernandes, Simone OA; Cardoso, Valbert N; Castilho, Rachel O; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos AP; Faraco, André AG; Coelho, Eduardo AF; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A

2014-01-01

163

Preclinical evaluation of novel, all-in-one formulations of 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid with reduced toxicity profiles.  

PubMed

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with its synergistic biomodulator folinic acid maintains a pivotal position in cancer chemotherapy. However, clinical limitations such as phlebitis and catheter blockages persist with the administration of these drugs in combination, and are associated with reduced efficacy and/or quality of life for patients. We have reported earlier on the novel, all-in-one, pH neutral, parenteral 5-FU and folinic acid formulations (termed Fluorodex) incorporating ?-cyclodextrins. Fluorodex maintains potency while overcoming the accepted incompatibility of 5-FU and folinic acid. We carried out toxicological, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution, and efficacy evaluations of Fluorodex compared with 5-FU:folinic acid using several administration routes and schedules in two rodent models. These were compared with the dose-matched sequential administration of 5-FU:folinic acid. Fluorodex showed bioequivalence to 5-FU:folinic acid as assessed by the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies of 5-FU, but was generally better tolerated as determined by weight loss, hematological, and other clinical parameters. Compared with 5-FU:folinic acid, Fluorodex was also associated with reduced phlebitis using a rabbit ear vein model. Furthermore, using human carcinoma tumor models in mice, Fluorodex resulted in equivalent or improved efficacy profiles compared with 5-FU:folinic acid. In conclusion, these novel, all-in-one formulations represent a superior injectable form of 5-FU that allows codelivery of folinic acid. This should translate into improved patient tolerability with potential for enhanced efficacy. PMID:20881836

Stutchbury, Tamantha K; Vine, Kara L; Locke, Julie M; Chrisp, Jeremy S; Bremner, John B; Clingan, Philip R; Ranson, Marie

2011-01-01

164

Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.  

PubMed

Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ? potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ? 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants. PMID:24231324

Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

2013-12-15

165

Pretransplant immunosuppression followed by reduced-toxicity conditioning and stem cell transplantation in high-risk thalassemia: a safe approach to disease control.  

PubMed

Patients with class 3 thalassemia with high-risk features for adverse events after high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are difficult to treat, tending to either suffer serious toxicity or fail to establish stable graft function. We performed HSCT in 18 such patients age ?7 years and hepatomegaly using a novel approach with pretransplant immunosuppression followed by a myeloablative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen (fludarabine and i.v. busulfan [Flu-IV Bu]) and then HSCT. The median patient age was 14 years (range, 10 to 18 years). Before the Flu-IV Bu + antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen, all patients received 1 to 2 cycles of pretransplant immunosuppression with fludarabine and dexamethasone. Thirteen patients received a related donor graft, and 5 received an unrelated donor graft. An initial prompt engraftment of donor cells with full donor chimerism was observed in all 18 patients, but 2 patients developed secondary mixed chimerism that necessitated withdrawal of immunosuppression to achieve full donor chimerism. Two patients (11%) had acute grade III-IV graft-versus-host disease, and 5 patients had limited chronic graft-versus-host disease. The only treatment-related mortality was from infection, and with a median follow-up of 42 months (range, 4 to 75), the 5-year overall survival and thalassemia-free survival were 89%. We conclude that this novel sequential immunoablative pretransplantation conditioning program is safe and effective for patients with high-risk class 3 thalassemia exhibiting additional comorbidities. PMID:23648235

Anurathapan, Usanarat; Pakakasama, Samart; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Songdej, Duantida; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Sirireung, Somtawin; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Issaragrisil, Surapol; Ungkanont, Artit; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Srisala, Supanart; Andersson, Borje S; Hongeng, Suradej

2013-08-01

166

Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

2013-01-02

167

Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

2014-09-01

168

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01

169

Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation  

E-print Network

Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

Muehlegger, Erich J

2005-01-01

170

Treatment of late stage disease in a model of arenaviral hemorrhagic fever: T-705 efficacy and reduced toxicity suggests an alternative to ribavirin.  

PubMed

A growing number of arenaviruses are known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever (HF), a severe and life-threatening syndrome characterized by fever, malaise, and increased vascular permeability. Ribavirin, the only licensed antiviral indicated for the treatment of certain arenaviral HFs, has had mixed success and significant toxicity. Since severe arenaviral infections initially do not present with distinguishing symptoms and are difficult to clinically diagnose at early stages, it is of utmost importance to identify antiviral therapies effective at later stages of infection. We have previously reported that T-705, a substituted pyrazine derivative currently under development as an anti-influenza drug, is highly active in hamsters infected with Pichinde virus when the drug is administered orally early during the course of infection. Here we demonstrate that T-705 offers significant protection against this lethal arenaviral infection in hamsters when treatment is begun after the animals are ill and the day before the animals begin to succumb to disease. Importantly, this coincides with the time when peak viral loads are present in most organs and considerable tissue damage is evident. We also show that T-705 is as effective as, and less toxic than, ribavirin, as infected T-705-treated hamsters on average maintain their weight better and recover more rapidly than animals treated with ribavirin. Further, there was no added benefit to combination therapy with T-705 and ribavirin. Finally, pharmacokinetic data indicate that plasma T-705 levels following oral administration are markedly reduced during the latter stages of disease, and may contribute to the reduced efficacy seen when treatment is withheld until day 7 of infection. Our findings support further pre-clinical development of T-705 for the treatment of severe arenaviral infections. PMID:19008960

Gowen, Brian B; Smee, Donald F; Wong, Min-Hui; Hall, Jeffery O; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Bailey, Kevin W; Stevens, John R; Furuta, Yousuke; Morrey, John D

2008-01-01

171

Persulfate Persistence and Treatability of Gasoline Compounds.  

E-print Network

??Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) such as gasoline are ubiquitous organic compounds present at contaminated sites throughout the world. Accidental spills and leakage from underground storage tanks… (more)

Sra, Kanwartej Singh

2010-01-01

172

Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice  

SciTech Connect

Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ? During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ? Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ? Glial activation is not fully suppressed.

Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

2012-03-01

173

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

174

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

175

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy  

E-print Network

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We consumer preferences for fuel efficiency. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

176

Listeria monocytogenes Strains Selected on Ciprofloxacin or the Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Exhibit Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Benzalkonium Chloride, and Other Toxic Compounds?  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes is a leading agent for severe food-borne illness and death in the United States and other nations. Even though drug resistance has not yet threatened therapeutic interventions for listeriosis, selective pressure associated with exposure to antibiotics and disinfectants may result in reduced susceptibility to these agents. In this study, selection of several L. monocytogenes strains on either ciprofloxacin (2 ?g/ml) or the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC; 10 ?g/ml) led to derivatives with increased MICs not only to these agents but also to several other toxic compounds, including gentamicin, the dye ethidium bromide, and the chemotherapeutic drug tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. The spectrum of compounds to which these derivatives exhibited reduced susceptibility was the same regardless of whether they were selected on ciprofloxacin or on BC. Inclusion of strains harboring the large plasmid pLM80 revealed that MICs to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin did not differ between the parental and plasmid-cured strains. However, ciprofloxacin-selected derivatives of pLM80-harboring strains had higher MICs than those derived from the plasmid-cured strains. Susceptibility to the antimicrobials was partially restored in the presence of the potent efflux inhibitor reserpine. Taken together, these data suggest that mutations in efflux systems are responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype of strains selected on ciprofloxacin or BC. PMID:22003016

Rakic-Martinez, Mira; Drevets, Douglas A.; Dutta, Vikrant; Katic, Vera; Kathariou, Sophia

2011-01-01

177

Listeria monocytogenes strains selected on ciprofloxacin or the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride exhibit reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, benzalkonium chloride, and other toxic compounds.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a leading agent for severe food-borne illness and death in the United States and other nations. Even though drug resistance has not yet threatened therapeutic interventions for listeriosis, selective pressure associated with exposure to antibiotics and disinfectants may result in reduced susceptibility to these agents. In this study, selection of several L. monocytogenes strains on either ciprofloxacin (2 ?g/ml) or the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC; 10 ?g/ml) led to derivatives with increased MICs not only to these agents but also to several other toxic compounds, including gentamicin, the dye ethidium bromide, and the chemotherapeutic drug tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. The spectrum of compounds to which these derivatives exhibited reduced susceptibility was the same regardless of whether they were selected on ciprofloxacin or on BC. Inclusion of strains harboring the large plasmid pLM80 revealed that MICs to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin did not differ between the parental and plasmid-cured strains. However, ciprofloxacin-selected derivatives of pLM80-harboring strains had higher MICs than those derived from the plasmid-cured strains. Susceptibility to the antimicrobials was partially restored in the presence of the potent efflux inhibitor reserpine. Taken together, these data suggest that mutations in efflux systems are responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype of strains selected on ciprofloxacin or BC. PMID:22003016

Rakic-Martinez, Mira; Drevets, Douglas A; Dutta, Vikrant; Katic, Vera; Kathariou, Sophia

2011-12-01

178

Stable Ni nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composites for the reduction of highly toxic aqueous Cr(VI) at room temperature.  

PubMed

Inherent properties of graphene can be experienced by integrating it with different nanomaterials to form unique composite materials. Decorating the surface of graphene sheets with nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the recent approaches taken up by scientists all over the world. This article describes a simple synthesis route to preparing stable Ni NP-reduced graphene oxide (Ni-RGO) composite material. The otherwise unstable bare Ni NPs are stabilized when embedded in the RGO sheets. This synthesized composite material has a potential application in the formic acid-induced reduction of highly toxic aqueous Cr(VI) at room temperature (25 °C). The reduction of dichromate using formic acid as a reducing agent is a well-known redox reaction. However, the rate of the reaction is very slow at room temperature, which can be enhanced very significantly in the presence of Ni-RGO by introducing an intermediate redox step with formic acid. The Ni-RGO composite material is an easy to prepare, cheap, stable, reusable material that has the potential to replace costly Pd NPs used in this context. Ni-RGO is also found to be very active in enhancing the rate of reduction of other metal ions in the presence of formic acid at room temperature. PMID:24588068

Bhowmik, Koushik; Mukherjee, Arnab; Mishra, Manish Kr; De, Goutam

2014-03-25

179

The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.  

PubMed Central

A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

1975-01-01

180

Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats  

PubMed Central

After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0–t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

2014-01-01

181

EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENICITY OF UNLEADED GASOLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

In the document the likelihood that unleaded gasoline vapors are carcinogenic to humans is evaluated. From carcinogenicity data in animals, an estimate is made of the magnitude of cancer risk a person would experience, under the assumption that gasoline vapors are carcinogenic. A...

182

MAPPING GASOLINE REQUIREMENTS, APPLICABLE REGULATIONS AND BANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal and State regulations play an important role in understanding gasoline composition around the United States. Multiple sources of information on these programs were used to develop reliable, up-to-date maps showing gasoline requirements imposed by various regulations. Th...

183

What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?  

EIA Publications

This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

2014-01-01

184

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE GASOLINE AND OXYFUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite the ubiquity of gasoline for several decades and more recent modifications in fuel formulations to achieve ?cleaner? gasoline, a quantitative comparative assessment of the health risks related to these fuels remains to be performed. Under authority of Clean Air Act secti...

185

Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.  

PubMed

Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

2001-07-01

186

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01

187

Effect of gasoline composition on exhaust hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of individual hydrocarbons in gasoline and to clarify the effect of the gasoline composition on engine-out exhaust hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed on a single cylinder research engine operating under steady state condition. The test fuels were blended gasolines of alkylate, catalytic reformate and fluid catalytic cracking gasoline. Chemically defined binary fuel mixtures of isooctane, benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene were used as variables to study their impact on exhaust hydrocarbons. The individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector. The results of tests with blended gasoline indicated that the exhaust hydrocarbons were classified into the unburned fuel and the cracked products such as methane, ethane and various olefins. The production coefficients of benzene were 5% for toluene, 4% for xylene and 6% for ethylbenzene. These values suggested that alkylbenzene in the fuel produced benzene in the exhaust. 8 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Kameoka, Atsushi; Akiyama, Ken-ichi; Hosoi, Kenzo

1994-10-01

188

Constitutive Androgen Receptor-Null Mice Are Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Parathion: Association with Reduced Cytochrome P450-Mediated Parathion MetabolismS?  

PubMed Central

Constitutive androgen receptor (CAR) is activated by several chemicals and in turn regulates multiple detoxification genes. Our research demonstrates that parathion is one of the most potent, environmentally relevant CAR activators with an EC50 of 1.43 ?M. Therefore, animal studies were conducted to determine whether CAR was activated by parathion in vivo. Surprisingly, CAR-null mice, but not wild-type (WT) mice, showed significant parathion-induced toxicity. However, parathion did not induce Cyp2b expression, suggesting that parathion is not a CAR activator in vivo, presumably because of its short half-life. CAR expression is also associated with the expression of several drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (P450). CAR-null mice demonstrate lower expression of Cyp2b9, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp3a11 primarily, but not exclusively in males. Therefore, we incubated microsomes from untreated WT and CAR-null mice with parathion in the presence of esterase inhibitors to determine whether CAR-null mice show perturbed P450-mediated parathion metabolism compared with that in WT mice. The metabolism of parathion to paraoxon and p-nitrophenol (PNP) was reduced in CAR-null mice with male CAR-null mice showing reduced production of both paraoxon and PNP, and female CAR-null mice showing reduced production of only PNP. Overall, the data indicate that CAR-null mice metabolize parathion slower than WT mice. These results provide a potential mechanism for increased sensitivity of individuals with lower CAR activity such as newborns to parathion and potentially other chemicals due to decreased metabolic capacity. PMID:20573718

Mota, Linda C.; Hernandez, Juan P.

2010-01-01

189

Effect of Reducing the Dose of Stavudine on Body Composition, Bone Density and Markers of Mitochondrial Toxicity in HIV-infected Subjects- a Randomized, Controlled study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Stavudine (or d4T) is widely used in developing countries. Lipoatrophy and mitochondrial toxicity have been linked to d4T, but it is unclear if switching to a lower dose can reduce these toxicities while maintaining HIV virologic suppression. METHODS HIV+ subjects receiving standard dose d4T with undetectable HIV-1 RNA for ? 6 mo were randomized 3:2 to half the d4T dose (switch arm) or maintain the dose (continuation arm) while continuing the remaining antiretrovirals. Fasting lactate, pyruvate, lipids, whole body DEXA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in fat and PBMCs were obtained at baseline and Week 48. Change from baseline to Week 48 was compared within- and between-groups. RESULTS 24 pts (79% men, 79% African Americans, age 45 yrs) were enrolled: switch arm (n = 15), continuation arm (n = 9). Median (range) d4T duration was 55 (21–126) months. Median CD4 count was 558/mm3 (207–1698). At baseline, the arms were similar in demographics and laboratory indices except BMI, total lean body mass (LBM), and triglycerides (higher in the switch arm). Three pts (2 in switch) discontinued due to study-unrelated reasons. CD4 counts remained unchanged. At 48 weeks, 6 pts (27% of the switch arm and 22% in the continuation arm) had detectable HIV-RNA; median 972 (60–49,400) copies/mL. All pts with detectable HIV-RNA reported significant lapses in adherence; none exhibited mutations on genotype. After the switch, significant changes from study entry to week-48 were noted only for lactate [?0.27 (range ?1.2 to 0.25); p=0.02] and fat mtDNA [+ 40 (?49 to + 261) cps/cell; p=0.02). In the continuation arm, a significant loss of bone mineral density (BMD) at week 48 [?1.7% (?6.3% to 0.8%); p=0.02] was seen. The only significant between-group difference was the change from baseline in BMD (p=0.003) CONCLUSION Reducing d4T dose by half increased fat mtDNA and decreased lactate suggesting improvement in mitochondrial indices while preserving HIV virologic suppression in subjects who maintained adherence. A significant loss of BMD was seen in pts on standard-dose d4T but not in those on low-dose. These results suggest that switching to low-dose d4T may improve mitochondrial indices while maintaining virologic suppression. PMID:18444869

McComsey, GA; LoRe, V; O’Riordan, M; Walker, UA; Lebrecht, D; Baron, E; Mounzer, K; Frank, I

2008-01-01

190

Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities  

SciTech Connect

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

191

Composition, toxicity, and mutagenicity of particulate and semivolatile emissions from heavy-duty compressed natural gas-powered vehicles.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) and vapor-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected from three buses fueled by compressed natural gas. The bus engines included a well-functioning, conventional engine; a "high emitter" engine; and a new technology engine with an oxidation catalyst. Chemical analysis of the emissions showed differences among these samples, with the high emitter sample containing markers of engine oil constituents. PM + SVOC samples were also collected for mutagenicity and toxicity testing. Extraction efficiencies from the collection media were lower than for similarly collected samples from gasoline or diesel vehicles. Responses to the recovered samples were compared on the basis of exhaust volume, to incorporate the emission rates into the potency factors. Mutagenicity was assessed by Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Mutagenicity was greatest for the high emitter sample and lowest for the new technology sample. Metabolic activation reduced mutagenicity in strain TA100, but not TA98. Toxicity, including inflammation, cytotoxicity, and parenchymal changes, was assessed 24 h after intratracheal instillation into rat lungs. Lung responses were generally mild, with little difference between the responses to equivalent volumes of emissions from the normal emitter and the new technology, but greater responses for the high emitter. These emission sample potencies are further compared on the basis of recovered mass with previously reported samples from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles. While mutagenic potencies for the CNG emission samples were similar to the range observed in the gasoline and diesel emission samples, lung toxicity potency factors were generally lower than those for the gasoline and diesel samples. PMID:15976195

Seagrave, JeanClare; Gigliotti, Andrew; McDonald, Jacob D; Seilkop, Steven K; Whitney, Kevin A; Zielinska, Barbara; Mauderly, Joe L

2005-09-01

192

Lead Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Patient Information Sheet What is lead? • ... water often. Page 1 of 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies ...

193

Toxic Synovitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Toxic Synovitis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Toxic ... goes away within a week or two. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis, also known as transient synovitis , ...

194

Alkylate is key for cleaner burning gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Alkylate is a key component in cleaner burning gasoline. The alkylation process reacts light olefins (propylene, butylenes, and amylenes) with isobutane in the presence of a strong acid catalyst. The alkylate that is produced consists of branched paraffins having a low Reid vapor pressure (Rvp), high research and motor octane numbers (RON & MON), low sulfur content, and a good driveability index (DI). Therefore, alkylation removes olefinic, high Rvp components from the gasoline pool and converts them to an ideal, high octane blendstock for cleaner burning gasoline.

Peterson, J.R. [STRATCO, Inc., Leawood, KS (United States)

1996-12-31

195

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi

2010-01-01

196

The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

[1] With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NOx) control devices to reduce air pollution,''modern'diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NOx below

Mark Z. Jacobson; John H. Seinfeld; Greg R. Carmichael; David G. Streets

2003-01-01

197

Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

Stephens, Edgar R.

1977-01-01

198

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requires testing with fuel appropriate for low temperatures, use the test fuel specified for low-temperature testing. Otherwise, use the test...Gasoline Item Units General testing Low-temperature testing Referenceprocedure 1...

2011-07-01

199

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requires testing with fuel appropriate for low temperatures, use the test fuel specified for low-temperature testing. Otherwise, use the test...Gasoline Item Units General testing Low-temperature testing Referenceprocedure 1...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requires testing with fuel appropriate for low temperatures, use the test fuel specified for low-temperature testing. Otherwise, use the test...Gasoline Item Units General testing Low-temperature testing Referenceprocedure 1...

2012-07-01

201

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

EIA Publications

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

2008-01-01

202

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). (ii) The United States...reconciliation analysis under § 80.128(b) and the tender analysis under § 80.128(c) shall include Non-Toxics-FRGAS...gasoline types listed in § 80.128(b) and (c). (2)...

2011-07-01

203

Refined gasoline in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Geologists today are being called upon not only to find naturally occurring petroleum, but also to help assess and remediate the problem of refined hydrocarbons and other man-made contaminants in the subsurface that may endanger freshwater resources or human health. Petroleum geologists already have many of the skills required and are at ease working with fluid flow in the subsurface. If called for environmental projects, however, they will need to know the language and additional concepts necessary to deal with the hydrogeologic problems. Most releases of refined hydrocarbons and other man-made contaminants occur in the shallow unconfined groundwater environment. This is divided into three zones: the saturated zone, unsaturated zone, and capillary fringe. All three have unique characteristics, and contamination behaves differently in each. Gasoline contamination partitions into four phases in this environment; vapor phase, residual phase, free phase, and dissolved phase. Each has a different degree of mobility in the three subsurface zones. Their direction and rate of movement can be estimated using basic concepts, but geological complexities frequently complicate this issue. 24 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Bruce, L.G. (Amoco Corporation, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-02-01

204

Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.  

PubMed Central

The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

Sawyer, R F

1993-01-01

205

Evaporative gasoline emissions and asthma symptoms.  

PubMed

Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR's minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb. PMID:20948946

Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

2010-08-01

206

Is benzene exposure from gasoline carcinogenic?  

PubMed

This article questions the basis for benzene as the carcinogenic surrogate in deriving health risk-based 'clean-up levels' for gasoline-impacted soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank properties. The epidemiological evidence suggests that acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) associated with chronic occupational benzene exposure can be best described by sigmoid dose-response relationships. A review of the molecular toxicology and kinetics of benzene points to the existence of threshold mechanisms in the induction of leukemia. The toxicological and epidemiological literature on chronic exposure to unleaded gasoline indicates that the benzene exposures required to induce a measurable carcinogenic response are substantially greater than exposures likely to be encountered from exposure to gasoline at contaminated properties. Thus, assuming that theoretical cancer risks associated with exposure to benzene from gasoline reflect actual health risks associated with such environmental exposures to gasoline and using these theoretical cancer risks and cancer potency factors for benzene to dictate soil and groundwater clean up of gasoline are not scientifically defensible. PMID:18246211

Jamall, Ijaz S; Willhite, Calvin C

2008-02-01

207

Oral (po) dosing with RSU 1069 or RB 6145 maintains their potency as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins but reduces systemic toxicity compared with parenteral (ip) administration in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

RB 6145 is a pro-drug of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 with reduced systemic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of RSU 1069 for C3H\\/He mice was 80 mg\\/kg (0.38 mmol\\/kg) ip but 320 mg\\/kg (1.5 mmol\\/kg) following po administration. The MTD values of RB 6145 were 350 mg\\/kg (0.94 mmol\\/kg) ip and 1 g\\/kg (2.67 mmol\\/kg) po. Toxicity

S. Cole; I. J. Stratford; J. Bowler; J. Nolan; E. G. Wright; S. A. Lorimore; G. E. Adams

1991-01-01

208

40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.910 How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? (a)(1) A...

2010-07-01

209

NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins such  

E-print Network

such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still presently above levels considered safe for humans and wildlife sources continue to deposit mercury to the Great Lakes via the air. Mercury can affect the human nervous that regulatory and management responses can protect human and ecosystem health. Toxic Substances and Areas

210

NOAA is working to confront toxics in the Great Lakes. While concentrations of some persistent toxic substances have been significantly reduced in the Great Lakes over the past 30 years, toxins such  

E-print Network

to the Great Lakes via the air. Mercury can affect the human nervous system, fish, and wildlife. The most such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still presently above levels considered safe for humans and wildlife that regulatory and management responses can protect human and ecosystem health. Toxic Substances and Areas

211

Refining economics of u.s. Gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.  

PubMed

Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ?93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ?1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ? 3% for 98-RON E20, ? 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ? 3% for 98-RON E20, ? 8% for 100-RON E30). PMID:25224603

Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

2014-10-01

212

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

213

Detection of gasoline on arson suspects' hands.  

PubMed

An arson suspect's contact with an ignitable liquid container can leave small traces of the substance on his hands, but detecting these traces is difficult. This research paper presents a method to obtain clear gasoline detection even 3h after hands have been moistened with 50 ?L of gasoline using activated charcoal strips to adsorb the ignitable liquid traces directly from the suspect's hands. Light heating of the hands to 45 °C significantly increases the ability to detect gasoline traces. This methodology is part of a system to sample a suspect's hands at the scene of crime or in a police station. Samples are taken by investigators then analyzed in a laboratory. The suggested method provides an important improvement in detection sensitivity for ignitable liquids on suspect's hands. PMID:20729020

Muller, Dan; Levy, Aharon; Shelef, Ran

2011-03-20

214

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

215

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01

216

Terahertz surface plasmon sensor for distinguishing gasolines.  

PubMed

Gasolines of two different octane numbers are experimentally distinguished using a thin metal sheet perforated with a periodic hole array terahertz surface plasmon (SP) sensor. This sensor is proved to be very sensitive to the change in permittivities of analytes. The differences between the gasolines 93# and 97# in composition lead to various refractive indices, permittivities, and absorption coefficients, thus varying their interactions with surface waves on the sensor, which enables a distinction of 6 GHz between the two octane numbers in the transmission peaks. The freestanding SP sensor is effective and reliable and can be simply employed in analyte distinction, which has potential applications in the petroleum industry. PMID:23938420

Liu, Guanlin; He, Mingxia; Tian, Zhen; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Jiazheng

2013-08-10

217

Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines  

MedlinePLUS

... where he had been working with an 8-horse-power, gasoline-powered pump. Doors adjacent to the ... treated for CO poisoning after using two 8 horse-power, gasoline-powered, pressure washers in a poorly ...

218

46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in...

2010-10-01

219

40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline... (b) This section is applicable in the County of Marion, Indiana (including all cities, towns and municipal corporations...

2014-07-01

220

30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal...

2010-07-01

221

Oral (po) dosing with RSU 1069 or RB 6145 maintains their potency as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins but reduces systemic toxicity compared with parenteral (ip) administration in mice  

SciTech Connect

RB 6145 is a pro-drug of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 with reduced systemic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of RSU 1069 for C3H/He mice was 80 mg/kg (0.38 mmol/kg) ip but 320 mg/kg (1.5 mmol/kg) following po administration. The MTD values of RB 6145 were 350 mg/kg (0.94 mmol/kg) ip and 1 g/kg (2.67 mmol/kg) po. Toxicity of RSU 1069 toward bone marrow stem cells was also less after po administration than after ip administration; 0.1 mmol/kg ip RSU 1069 and 0.38 mmol/kg po RSU 1069 both reduced the surviving fraction of clonogenic CFU-A cells by 50%. Oral administration of RSU 1069 resulted in lower spermatogenic toxicity. No loss of intestinal crypts was detected after ip or po administration of RSU 1069. Some nephrotoxicity was observed in half of the mice given the highest po dose of 1.5 mmol/kg of RSU 1069; this was not observed following the highest ip dose of drug. For RSU 1069 and RB 6145, administered by either route, the maximum hypoxic cell radiosensitization in murine KHT sarcomas, occurred when the drugs were given 45-60 min before 10 Gy of X rays. The degree of radiosensitization produced by a particular dose of either compound was largely independent of the route of administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies, using 3H-RSU 1069, suggested that anti-tumor efficacy correlated with peak blood level of label and concentration in the tumor at the time of irradiation, which were not reduced by po compared with ip administration. Normal tissue toxicity tended to correlate with total exposure over time, which was reduced approximately two-fold by po administration. Oral administration of RSU 1069 or RB 6145, as well as being convenient, may give therapeutic benefit since dose-limiting toxicity in mice was reduced compared with parenteral administration, whereas radiosensitizing activity was less affected.

Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Bowler, J.; Nolan, J.; Wright, E.G.; Lorimore, S.A.; Adams, G.E. (Medical Research Council, Radiobiology Unit, Didcot, Oxon (England))

1991-07-01

222

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields  

PubMed Central

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-01-01

223

Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

Butters, R.A.

1990-09-30

224

Beer consumption reduces cerebral oxidation caused by aluminum toxicity by normalizing gene expression of tumor necrotic factor alpha and several antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum (Al)-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminum have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules. The present study has examined whether silicon consumed in the form of silicic acid or beer could potentially inhibit aluminum toxicity in the brain. Male mice were administered with Al(NO3)3 orally at a dose of 450mg\\/kg\\/day in drinking water for

M. J. Gonzalez-Muñoz; I. Meseguer; M. I. Sanchez-Reus; A. Schultz; R. Olivero; J. Benedí; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

2008-01-01

225

40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following...or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby...

2014-07-01

226

Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

227

U.S. GASOLINE COMPOSITION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents results from a 2004/2005 study of U.S. gasoline composition. Differences in composition are driven by regulation, octane requirements, refining methods, and performance needs. Major differences in composition were traced to a few compounds: benzene, MTB...

228

Price Changes in the Gasoline Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) examines why retail gasoline prices seem to rise more quickly than they fall especially during times of high price volatility. Following a review of past studies and an analysis of regional price differences, the EIA found retail price pattern asymmetry due to normal lagged retail market responses in some Midwestern states.

229

Control of thermal ignition in gasoline engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a model based controller is designed to regulate the crank angle of 50% fuel burned (CA50) and the air to fuel ratio (AFR) in the exhaust manifold of a gasoline engine during fuel step changes. The regulation of the combustion timing is based on manipulating the charge temperature through the internal and external dilutions which are achieved

C. J. Chiang; A. G. Stefanopoulou

2005-01-01

230

The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Eeoovered - 24 3aaple Ko. 35. Volunc of naturel Cas - - - 41.2 ce Vcluae of Gasoline Vppor - - 5.0 oc Volunc Absorbed - - - - 3.2 cc Volume liooovered - - 045$ Kerosene as Solvent. Snmple Ho. 37. Volunc of natural Cas - - - 40^1 oc Volune...

Schroeder, J. P.

1914-05-15

231

Phase Partitioning from Theanol Blend Gasolines  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years, the use of ethanol and other alcohols as motor fuel additives has increased. Additionally, ethanol production has expanded due to the potential use of ethanol as a primary fuel source. Historical patterns of gasoline composition show strong dependency on regulato...

232

SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

233

Competition in the retail gasoline industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers market power, thereby leading to higher prices. Low brand diversity, though, could act to facilitate collusive behavior, leading to higher prices. I find that prices are higher in markets with high brand diversity. The final chapter of the dissertation summarizes the general findings.

Brewer, Jedidiah

234

Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?  

SciTech Connect

This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

NONE

1999-03-01

235

Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.  

PubMed

While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity. PMID:10560539

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

1999-06-01

236

Aerobic degradation of trichloroethylene by co-metabolism using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26×10? cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

2014-01-01

237

Asbestos Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Search The CDC Search Button Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For ... Presentation CE Posttest Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 4770 Buford Hwy NE Atlanta, ...

238

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

239

Biomonitoring of toxicity reduction during in situ bioremediation of monoaromatic compounds in groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring of toxicity, using the Ceriodaphnia dubia acute toxicity test, was performed on a gasoline-contaminated aquifer in San Diego, Calif. undergoing in situ bioremediation. The bioremediation approach here featured nitrate enrichment of extracted groundwater (with subsequent reinfiltration back into the aquifer) to stimulate bacterial denitrification. Dentrification has been shown to support biodegradation of the monoaromatic hydrocarbons—benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the

Richard M. Gersberg; Maria J. Carroquino; Deborah E. Fischer; John Dawsey

1995-01-01

240

Methanol as a gasoline extender: a critique.  

PubMed

The tests conducted with the three vehicles at different emission control levels suggest that, in the area of fuel economy and emissions, potential benefits with methanol blends are related to carburetion and are only significant in the case of the rich-operating cars built before emission control standards were imposed. Theoretical considerations related to methanol's leaning effect on carburetion support this conclusion. Potential advantages for methanol in these areas are therefore continuously diminishing as the older cars leave the roads. At present, these older cars use only about one-fourth of the totalc motor gasoline consumed and, before methanol could be used on a large scale, this fraction would be much smaller. The use of methanol in gasoline would almost certainly create severe product quality problems. Water contamination could lead to phase separation in the distribution system and possibly in the car tank as well, and this would require additional investment in fuel handling and blending equipment. Excess fuel volatility in hot weather may also have adverse effects on car performance if the methanol blends include typical concentrations of butanes and pentanes. Removal of these light hydrocarbon components would detract from methanol's role as a gasoline extender and if current fuel volatility specifications were maintained, its use could lead to a net loss in the total available energy for use in motor fuels. Car performance problems associated with excessively lean operation would also be expected in the case of a significant proportion of late-model cars which are adjusted to operate on lean fuel-air mixtures. If methanol does become available in large quantities, these factors suggest that it would be more practical to use it for purposes other than those related to the extending of motor gasoline, such as for gas turbines used for electric power generation. In this case, the "pure" methanol would act as a cleanburning fuel, having none of the potentially severe product quality problems associated with its use in motor gasoline, while the fuel oil or natural gas cLirrently burned in these tuLrbines CotLild be diverted to other ulses. PMID:17838586

Wigg, E E

1974-11-29

241

High octane gasoline components from catalytic cracking gasoline, propylene, and isobutane by disproportionation, clevage and alkylation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing high octane value gasoline which comprises in a disproportionation zone subjecting propylene and a mixture of propylene and ethylene obtained as hereinafter delineated to disproportionation conditions to produce a stream containing ethylene and a stream containing butenes, passing the ethylene-containing stream from said disproportionation zone together with a catalytic cracking gasoline to a cleavage zone under disproportionation conditions and subjecting the mixture of hydrocarbons therin to cleavage to produce said mixture of propylene and ethylene, a C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline-containing product and butenes and wherein the butenes obtained in the overall operation of the disproportionation zone and the cleavage zone are passed to an alkylation zone wherein said butenes are used to alkylate an isoparaffin to produce additional high octane value product.

Banks, R.

1980-07-08

242

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

243

Bromine number should replace FIA in gasoline olefins testing  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, the ASTM test method proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for monitoring olefins in reformulated gasoline, is subject to significant bias and imprecision. This paper reports on a more accurate, environmentally pertinent measure of olefin content in reformulated gasoline is bromine number another ASTM method. Petroleum chemists should therefore work together with the EPA to select and optimize a bromine number procedure specifically designed for reformulated gasoline to replace FIA.

Lubeck, A.J.; Cook, R.D. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States))

1992-12-28

244

Maternal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological response, can also be taken into consideration. The following conclusions are based on literature data and discussions at maternal toxicity workshops attended by representatives from regulatory agencies, academia, and industry: (1) Available results do not support that maternal toxicity (defined as clinical signs, decreased body weight gain or absolute body weight loss of up to 15% in rats or 7% in rabbits) can be used to explain the occurrence of major malformations. (2) There is clear evidence that substantial reductions in maternal weight gain (or absolute weight loss) are linked with other manifestations of developmental toxicity. Among these can be mentioned decreased fetal weight, and skeletal anomalies (e.g., wavy ribs) in rats and decreased fetal weights, post implantation loss, abortions, and some skeletal anomalies in rabbits. (3) There are several examples of misinterpretation among companies, where it was incorrectly expected that regulatory authorities would not label chemicals/drugs as "teratogens/developmental toxicants" because embryo fetal adverse effects were only observed at doses also causing signs of maternal toxicity. (4) Similarly, even if mechanistic studies indicate that a substance causes developmental toxicity via exaggerated pharmacological effects in the mother, such a mechanism does not automatically negate the observed fetal adverse effects.From a regulatory perspective, an observed developmental toxic finding is considered to be of potential human relevance (even if it is mediated via maternal pharmacological effects or occur at doses causing signs of maternal toxicity) unless the company can provide appropriate mechanistic and/or other convincing evidence to the contrary. PMID:23138914

Danielsson, Bengt R

2013-01-01

245

Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination.  

PubMed

Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha(-1). ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat. PMID:22301080

Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Miche, Hélène; Keller, Catherine

2012-03-30

246

The chaperone-like protein 14-3-3? interacts with human ?-synuclein aggregation intermediates rerouting the amyloidogenic pathway and reducing ?-synuclein cellular toxicity.  

PubMed

Familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the abnormal neuronal accumulation of ?-synuclein (aS) leading to ?-sheet-rich aggregates called Lewy Bodies (LBs). Moreover, single point mutation in aS gene and gene multiplication lead to autosomal dominant forms of PD. A connection between PD and the 14-3-3 chaperone-like proteins was recently proposed, based on the fact that some of the 14-3-3 isoforms can interact with genetic PD-associated proteins such as parkin, LRRK2 and aS and were found as components of LBs in human PD. In particular, a direct interaction between 14-3-3? and aS was reported when probed by co-immunoprecipitation from cell models, from parkinsonian brains and by surface plasmon resonance in vitro. However, the mechanisms through which 14-3-3? and aS interact in PD brains remain unclear. Herein, we show that while 14-3-3? is unable to bind monomeric aS, it interacts with aS oligomers which occur during the early stages of aS aggregation. This interaction diverts the aggregation process even when 14-3-3? is present in sub-stoichiometric amounts relative to aS. When aS level is overwhelmingly higher than that of 14-3-3?, the fibrillation process becomes a sequestration mechanism for 14-3-3?, undermining all processes governed by this protein. Using a panel of complementary techniques, we single out the stage of aggregation at which the aS/14-3-3? interaction occurs, characterize the products of the resulting processes, and show how the processes elucidated in vitro are relevant in cell models. Our findings constitute a first step in elucidating the molecular mechanism of aS/14-3-3? interaction and in understanding the critical aggregation step at which 14-3-3? has the potential to rescue aS-induced cellular toxicity. PMID:24895406

Plotegher, Nicoletta; Kumar, Dhruv; Tessari, Isabella; Brucale, Marco; Munari, Francesca; Tosatto, Laura; Belluzzi, Elisa; Greggio, Elisa; Bisaglia, Marco; Capaldi, Stefano; Aioanei, Daniel; Mammi, Stefano; Monaco, Hugo L; Samo, Bruno; Bubacco, Luigi

2014-11-01

247

Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

McRae, R. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31

248

A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7?mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. Methods/design This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years) and non-smokers 28–55?years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5?years, plus minimum 5?years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Discussion Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and give insights into study design for clinical assessment of potential MRTPs. Trial registration The study was registered in the Current Controlled Trials database under the reference ISRCTN81286286. PMID:23895296

2013-01-01

249

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number and particularly lead free gasoline, from olefininc c3-c4 cuts  

SciTech Connect

Lead free gasoline of high octane number is obtained from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts as follows: propylene contained in the C/sub 3/ cut is oligomerized, at least 80% of the isobutene and less than 40% of the n-butenes of the C/sub 4/ cut are oligomerized to form an oligomerizate distilling in the gasoline range, which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the latter are subsequently alkylated to form a gasoline fraction which can be admixed with the oligomerizates of the Cnumber and the C/sub 4/ cuts to produce the desired high octane gasoline.

Hellin, M.; Juguin, B.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q. D.

1981-05-19

250

Motor vehicle-related air toxics study. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared in response to Section 202 (1) of the Clean Air Act. Specific pollutants or pollutant categories which are discussed in the report include benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, diesel and gasoline particulate matter, and gasoline vapors as well as selected metals and motor vehicle-related pollutants identified in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. The focus of the report is carcinogenic risk from the pollutants. The study in the report attempts to summarize what is known about motor vehicle-related air toxics and to present all significant scientific opinion on each issue.

Brodowicz, P.; Carey, P.; Cook, R.; Somers, J.

1992-12-01

251

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard...gasoline distribution system downstream from refineries and import facilities, including...

2010-07-01

252

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard...gasoline distribution system downstream from refineries and import facilities, including...

2011-07-01

253

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard...gasoline distribution system downstream from refineries and import facilities, including...

2012-07-01

254

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard...gasoline distribution system downstream from refineries and import facilities, including...

2013-07-01

255

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section...standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard...gasoline distribution system downstream from refineries and import facilities, including...

2014-07-01

256

40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?  

...2014-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers...Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and...

2014-07-01

257

Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of polar components in weathered' gasoline/water matrix as an aid in identifying gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline contamination is often found in streams and in urban storm drainage systems. These samples are usually found as weathered' gasoline/water matrix. The identification of weathered' gasoline solely through gas chromatographic fingerprints' of hydrocarbon portion is difficult. The polar components of three different weathered' gasoline/water samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared to similar components of the same three gasolines by this technique. This study shows that large portions of gasoline additives are partitioned into the aqueous phase, and this information can be used as an aid in identifying a weathered' gasoline sample.

Kanai, H.; Yazawa, L.; Maka, J. (Hawaii State Dept. of Agriculture, Honolulu (United States)); Inouye, V. (Hawaiian Electric Co., Honolulu (United States)); Goo, R. (City and County of Honolulu, HI (United States)); Chun, C. (Honolulu Police Dept., HI (United States))

1991-01-01

258

Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation  

E-print Network

children. Knittel: William Barton Rogers Professor of Energy Economics, Sloan School of Management, MIT therefore significantly affect household budgets, and government policies that affect gasoline prices an advertising campaign claiming ethanol production lowered gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011

Rothman, Daniel

259

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR GASOLINE LOADING OF BARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility, safety, and cost of methods to control the emission of hydrocarbon vapor during the loading of gasoline barges. Approximately 4 lb of hydrocarbons are emitted per 1000 gal. of gasoline loaded; annually about 1 mill...

260

NIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline  

E-print Network

. This report presents the second phase of the study using the CONTAM indoor air quality model coupled with twoNIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Carbon Monoxide

261

CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBON BEDS FOR GASOLINE VAPOR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the practical working capacity of activated carbon to cyclically adsorb gasoline vapor which would otherwise be lost to the atmosphere; e.g., during gasoline transfer operations at a service station. Quantitative measurements, made in the la...

262

Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gasoline prices have risen substantially since the 1990s, driven mainly by crude oil price increases, which pushed up wholesale and retail gasoline prices. While crude oil prices, which are set in the world market, continue to be a major factor behind gas...

2008-01-01

263

Determination of Ethanol in Gasoline by FT-IR Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States. Gasoline containing various percentages of ethanol is readily available in the market place. A laboratory experiment has been developed in which the percentage of ethanol in hexanes can easily be determined using the O-H and alkane C-H absorptions in an infrared spectrum. Standard…

Conklin, Alfred, Jr.; Goldcamp, Michael J.; Barrett, Jacob

2014-01-01

264

Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel  

E-print Network

predictions of species concentrations in premixed flames of n-heptane, isooctane, benzene, cyclohexane-heptane and isooctane, since paraffins are the dominant constituents of gasoline and kinetic data are readily available fractions that are analytically identifi- able in gasoline fuels, which includes n-heptane (3­5), isooctane

Utah, University of

265

Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Increased US Gasoline Taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impacts of increased US gasoline taxes in a model that links the markets for new, used, and scrapped vehicles and recognizes the considerable heterogeneity among households and cars. Household choice parameters derive from an estimation procedure that integrates individual choices for car ownership and miles traveled. We find that each cent-per-gallon increase in the price of gasoline

Antonio M. Bento; Lawrence H. Goulder; Mark R. Jacobsen; Roger H. von Haefen

2009-01-01

266

Ethanol Fuel Production from Cassava as a Substitute for Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential in alcohols as fuel had for long being recognized by the early inventors of machines and engines, even before gasoline and the hydrocarbons became popular. In fact, Henry Ford, one of the pioneers in automobile manufacture, designed his equipment to run on ethanol. But since then, time has seen gasoline and other conventional fuels take the front seat

O. D. Adeniyi; A. S. Kovo; A. S. Abdulkareem; C. Chukwudozie

2007-01-01

267

Oxygenates in Gasoline: A Versatile Experiment Using Gas Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment for introductory chemistry in which oxygenates are extracted from gasoline and analyzed by gas chromatography is described. The extraction of oxygenates from gasoline with water prior to analysis by gas chromatography allows for their easy identification and quantification since only the oxygenates dissolve in water. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of the experiment are described. Calculations which can

Linda C. Brazdil

1996-01-01

268

Impairment of myocardial contractility by anticancer anthracyclines: role of secondary alcohol metabolites and evidence of reduced toxicity by a novel disaccharide analogue  

PubMed Central

The anticancer anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) causes cardiotoxicity. Enzymatic reduction of a side chain carbonyl group converts DOX to a secondary alcohol metabolite that has been implicated in cardiotoxicity. We therefore monitored negative inotropism, assessed as inhibition of post-rest contractions, in rat right ventricle strips exposed to DOX or to analogues forming fewer amounts of their alcohol metabolites (epirubicin, EPI, and the novel disaccharide anthracycline MEN 10755). Thirty ?M EPI exhibited higher uptake than equimolar DOX, but formed comparable amounts of alcohol metabolite due to its resistance to carbonyl reduction. MEN 10755 exhibited also an impaired uptake, and consequently formed the lowest levels of alcohol metabolite. Accordingly, DOX and EPI inhibited post-rest contractions by ?40?–?50%, whereas MEN 10755 inhibited by ?6%. One hundred ?M EPI exhibited the same uptake as equimolar DOX, but formed ?50% less alcohol metabolite. One hundred ?M MEN 10755 still exhibited the lowest uptake, forming ?60% less alcohol metabolite than EPI. Under these conditions DOX inhibited post-rest contractions by 88%. EPI and MEN 10755 were ?18% (P<0.05) or ?80% (P<0.001) less inhibitory than DOX, respectively. The negative inotropism of 30?–?100??M DOX, EPI, or MEN 10755 correlated with cellular levels of both alcohol metabolites (r=0.88, P<0.0001) and carbonyl anthracyclines (r=0.79, P<0.0001). Nonetheless, multiple comparisons showed that alcohol metabolites were ?20?–?40 times more effective than carbonyl anthracyclines in inhibiting contractility. The negative inotropism of MEN 10755 was therefore increased by chemical procedures, like side chain valeryl esterification, that facilitated its uptake and conversion to alcohol metabolite but not its retention in a carbonyl form. These results demonstrate that secondary alcohol metabolites are important mediators of cardiotoxicity. A combination of reduced uptake and limited conversion to alcohol metabolite formation might therefore render MEN 10755 more cardiac tolerable than DOX and EPI. PMID:11704647

Minotti, Giorgio; Parlani, Massimo; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio; Cipollone, Amalia; Animati, Fabio; Maggi, Carlo A; Manzini, Stefano

2001-01-01

269

Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls  

SciTech Connect

Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

270

40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...not exceed [Fill in appropriate value] psi. (3) The use of this gasoline to...not exceed [fill in appropriate value] psi.” (B) For gasoline containing less than...not exceed [fill in appropriate value] psi.” The term X refers to the maximum...

2013-07-01

271

40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...not exceed [Fill in appropriate value] psi. (3) The use of this gasoline to...not exceed [fill in appropriate value] psi.” (B) For gasoline containing less than...not exceed [fill in appropriate value] psi.” The term X refers to the maximum...

2012-07-01

272

Impairment of myocardial contractility by anticancer anthracyclines: role of secondary alcohol metabolites and evidence of reduced toxicity by a novel disaccharide analogue.  

PubMed

1. The anticancer anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) causes cardiotoxicity. Enzymatic reduction of a side chain carbonyl group converts DOX to a secondary alcohol metabolite that has been implicated in cardiotoxicity. We therefore monitored negative inotropism, assessed as inhibition of post-rest contractions, in rat right ventricle strips exposed to DOX or to analogues forming fewer amounts of their alcohol metabolites (epirubicin, EPI, and the novel disaccharide anthracycline MEN 10755). 2. Thirty microM EPI exhibited higher uptake than equimolar DOX, but formed comparable amounts of alcohol metabolite due to its resistance to carbonyl reduction. MEN 10755 exhibited also an impaired uptake, and consequently formed the lowest levels of alcohol metabolite. Accordingly, DOX and EPI inhibited post-rest contractions by approximately 40-50%, whereas MEN 10755 inhibited by approximately 6%. 3. One hundred microM EPI exhibited the same uptake as equimolar DOX, but formed approximately 50% less alcohol metabolite. One hundred microM MEN 10755 still exhibited the lowest uptake, forming approximately 60% less alcohol metabolite than EPI. Under these conditions DOX inhibited post-rest contractions by 88%. EPI and MEN 10755 were approximately 18% (P<0.05) or approximately 80% (P<0.001) less inhibitory than DOX, respectively. 4. The negative inotropism of 30-100 microM DOX, EPI, or MEN 10755 correlated with cellular levels of both alcohol metabolites (r=0.88, P<0.0001) and carbonyl anthracyclines (r=0.79, P<0.0001). Nonetheless, multiple comparisons showed that alcohol metabolites were approximately 20-40 times more effective than carbonyl anthracyclines in inhibiting contractility. The negative inotropism of MEN 10755 was therefore increased by chemical procedures, like side chain valeryl esterification, that facilitated its uptake and conversion to alcohol metabolite but not its retention in a carbonyl form. 5. These results demonstrate that secondary alcohol metabolites are important mediators of cardiotoxicity. A combination of reduced uptake and limited conversion to alcohol metabolite formation might therefore render MEN 10755 more cardiac tolerable than DOX and EPI. PMID:11704647

Minotti, G; Parlani, M; Salvatorelli, E; Menna, P; Cipollone, A; Animati, F; Maggi, C A; Manzini, S

2001-11-01

273

Toxic Newts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

274

Antimony Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

2010-01-01

275

The lean hunting phenomenon in gasoline engines  

SciTech Connect

A quite interesting self-excited oscillation phenomenon in engine speed, which may not be explained with the classical theory of mechanical hunting, is studied experimentally. The effects of the various engine operating variables on the phenomenon are examined using a four cycle single cylinder gasoline engine with an inertia governor. It was found that the phenomenon occurs when engines are operated at a lean air fuel ratio under light load conditions, and that the hunting phenomenon is ascribable to the temporary shift in air fuel ratio from the steady state value. This shift in air fuel ratio occurs due to the fuel flow delay into the cylinder caused by the fact that the fuel flow into the cylinder cannot follow the movement of the throttle valve.

Tanaka, M.; Mochizuki, S.; Nishiwaki, N.; Miyake, M.

1987-01-01

276

Gasoline from biomass through refinery-friendly carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by ketalization.  

PubMed

The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect. PMID:24753476

Batalha, Nuno; da Silva, Alessandra V; de Souza, Matheus O; da Costa, Bruna M C; Gomes, Elisa S; Silva, Thiago C; Barros, Thalita G; Gonçalves, Maria L A; Caramão, Elina B; dos Santos, Luciana R M; Almeida, Marlon B B; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Lam, Yiu L; Carvalho, Nakédia M F; Miranda, Leandro S M; Pereira, Marcelo M

2014-06-01

277

Cold start simulations of a gasoline based fuel processor for mobile fuel cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cold start behaviour of the gas processing unit is one crucial issue for the use of gasoline based fuel reformers for mobile fuel cell systems. In this contribution different cold start strategies for a mobile fuel reformer based on gasoline are presented and discussed. The simulation studies are based on 1-d, dynamic multiphase models for both an autothermal gasoline reformer (ATR) and a thermally integrated reforming unit consisting of an ATR, a heat exchanger and a high-temperature-shift-reactor (HTS). Setup and geometric parameters for both models correspond to pilot stage systems considered by DaimlerChrysler. Results on the reactive heat-up of the ATR by partial and total oxidation of gasoline show the impact of the air/fuel-ratio and the thermal load on the cold start duration. The use of the reformat during the rapid start-up of the ATR is mainly limited by the availability of steam for autothermal operation. Due to the high thermal capacities of the system, the whole reforming unit requires much longer time for the cold start. Especially the slow convective heat-up of the HTS restricts the conversion of CO and the subsequent use of the reformat in the fuel cell. Several options for the acceleration of the cold start were investigated. Both a simple ?-control strategy and the reactive heat-up of the HTS by (partial) oxidation of the reformat with injected air reduce the cold start time significantly. With these measures a hydrogen-rich reformat with acceptable CO-concentration is available within two minutes. Moreover, the cold start time can be further reduced, if the HTS is heated up electrically to their ignition temperature at the beginning of the cold start. Thereby the CO-conversion in the HTS already starts in the first minute and, depending on the availability of steam for the feed stream, a cold start of the reforming unit below one minute seems to be possible.

Springmann, S.; Bohnet, M.; Docter, A.; Lamm, A.; Eigenberger, G.

278

The atmospheric aerosol-forming potential of whole gasoline vapor  

SciTech Connect

A series of sunlight-irradiated, smog-chamber experiments confirmed that the atmosphere organic aerosol formation potential of whole gasoline vapor can be accounted for solely in terms of the aromatic fraction of the fuel. The total amount of secondary organic aerosol produced from the atmospheric oxidation of whole gasoline vapor can be represented as the sum of the contributions of the individual aromatic molecular constituents of the fuel. The urban atmospheric, anthropogenic hydrocarbon profile is approximated well by evaporated whole gasoline, and thus these results suggest that it is possible to model atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Odum, J.R.; Jungkamp, T.P.W.; Griffin, R.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); and others

1997-04-04

279

What Renders TAU Toxic  

PubMed Central

TAU is a microtubule-associated protein that under pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) forms insoluble, filamentous aggregates. When 20?years after TAU’s discovery the first TAU transgenic mouse models were established, one declared goal that was achieved was the modeling of authentic TAU aggregate formation in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. However, as we review here, it has become increasingly clear that TAU causes damage much before these filamentous aggregates develop. In fact, because TAU is a scaffolding protein, increased levels and an altered subcellular localization (due to an increased insolubility and impaired clearance) result in the interaction of TAU with cellular proteins with which it would otherwise either not interact or do so to a lesser degree, thereby impairing their physiological functions. We specifically discuss the non-axonal localization of TAU, the role phosphorylation has in TAU toxicity and how TAU impairs mitochondrial functions. A major emphasis is on what we have learned from the four available TAU knock-out models in mice, and the knock-out of the TAU/MAP2 homolog PTL-1 in worms. It has been proposed that in human pathological conditions such as AD, a rare toxic TAU species exists which needs to be specifically removed to abrogate TAU’s toxicity and restore neuronal functions. However, what is toxic in one context may not be in another, and simply reducing, but not fully abolishing TAU levels may be sufficient to abrogate TAU toxicity. PMID:23772223

Gotz, Jurgen; Xia, Di; Leinenga, Gerhard; Chew, Yee Lian; Nicholas, Hannah R.

2013-01-01

280

The relative performance obtained with several methods of control of an overcompressed engine using gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents some results obtained during an investigation to determine the relative characteristics for several methods of control of an overcompressed engine using gasoline and operating under sea-level conditions. For this work, a special single cylinder test engine, 5-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, and designed for ready adjustment of compression ratio, valve timing and valve lift while running, was used. This engine has been fully described in NACA-TR-250. Tests were made at an engine speed of 1,400 R. P. M. for compression ratios ranging from 4.0 to 7.6. The air-fuel ratios were on the rich side of the chemically correct mixture and were approximately those giving maximum power. When using plain domestic gasoline, detonation was controlled to a constant, predetermined amount (audible), such as would be permissible for continuous operation, by (a) throttling the carburetor, (b) maintaining full throttle but greatly retarding the ignition, and (c) varying the timing of the inlet valve to reduce the effective compression ratio. From the results of the tests, it may be concluded that method (b) gives the best all-round performance and, being easily employed in service, appears to be the most practicable method for controlling an overcompressed engine using gasoline at low altitudes.

Gardiner, Arthur W; Whedon, William E

1928-01-01

281

40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline loading rack provisions. ...a contiguous area and under common control with a petroleum refinery shall comply with subpart R, §§ 63.421,...

2010-07-01

282

40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline loading rack provisions. ...a contiguous area and under common control with a petroleum refinery shall comply with subpart R, §§ 63.421,...

2011-07-01

283

40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline loading rack provisions. ...a contiguous area and under common control with a petroleum refinery shall comply with subpart R, §§ 63.421,...

2012-07-01

284

40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline loading rack provisions. ...a contiguous area and under common control with a petroleum refinery shall comply with subpart R, §§ 63.421,...

2013-07-01

285

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline...Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Regions...these facilities for those air pollution control districts...

2010-07-01

286

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline...Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Regions...these facilities for those air pollution control districts...

2014-07-01

287

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline...Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Regions...these facilities for those air pollution control districts...

2012-07-01

288

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline...Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Regions...these facilities for those air pollution control districts...

2011-07-01

289

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline...Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Regions...these facilities for those air pollution control districts...

2013-07-01

290

Effect of oxygenates blending with gasoline to improve fuel properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of oxygenate additives into gasoline for the improvement of physicochemical properties of blends. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Methanol, Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and Tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) blend into unleaded gasoline with various blended rates of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Physicochemical properties of blends are analyzed by the standard American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Methanol, TBA, and TAA increase density of the mixtures, but MTBE decreases density. The addition of oxygenates lead to a distortion of the base gasoline's distillation curves. The Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline is found to increase with the addition of the oxygenated compounds. All oxygenates improve both motor and research octane numbers. Among these four additives, TBA shows the best fuel properties.

Babazadeh Shayan, Soheil; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Ommi, Fathollah

2012-07-01

291

CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE LOADING BY REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the capabilities of refrigeration systems, operated at three temperatures, to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from truck loading at bulk gasoline terminals. Achievable VOC emission rates were calculated for refrigeration sy...

292

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline  

DOEpatents

A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

1999-09-28

293

Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox  

E-print Network

It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

Wozny, Nathan

294

26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol...the term includes methanol and ethanol that are not derived from petroleum...denaturants). If the alcohol added to a fuel/alcohol mixture (the...

2010-04-01

295

26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol...the term includes methanol and ethanol that are not derived from petroleum...denaturants). If the alcohol added to a fuel/alcohol mixture (the...

2013-04-01

296

26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol...the term includes methanol and ethanol that are not derived from petroleum...denaturants). If the alcohol added to a fuel/alcohol mixture (the...

2011-04-01

297

26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol...the term includes methanol and ethanol that are not derived from petroleum...denaturants). If the alcohol added to a fuel/alcohol mixture (the...

2012-04-01

298

A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable. PMID:22335833

Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

2012-07-01

299

40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.  

...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline loading rack provisions. ...a contiguous area and under common control with a petroleum refinery shall comply with subpart R, §§ 63.421,...

2014-07-01

300

High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement  

E-print Network

Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2013-01-01

301

Toxic remediation  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

1994-01-01

302

Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.  

PubMed

The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. PMID:21354726

Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

2012-02-10

303

Gasoline from coal in the State of Illinois: feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study was made of the feasibility of producing approximately 12,000 barrels per day of gasoline from high sulfur Illinois coal. The project was to be based on indirect liquefaction of coal by producing methanol and converting the methanol to raw gasoline. The plant design was based on proven processes: including atmospheric Koppers-Totzek type coal gasification, Rectisol gas purification, Claus and Scot sulfur recovery, and ICI low pressure methanol synthesis, all of which have been used in large commercial plants; and the fixed bed Mobil MTG process, which has been demonstrated in a four barrel per day pilot plant, to convert methanol into gasoline. The plant was designed to meet all federal and state regulations pertaining to environmental protection. The plant would cost approximately $1.27 billion (1981 dollars). Annual operating costs would total $243 million (1981 dollars). It has been determined that the project would not be viable in the present economic environment. Using 1981 dollars, and recognizing the present average refinery selling price in the mid-West of gasoline produced from crude oil is about $42 per barrel, the following gasoline prices have been calculated. For example, if the project were financed entirely by equity funds, then the selling price of gasoline would have to be $122 per barrel in a moderately inflating general economy in order to obtain a rate of return of 10% on the investment. The selling price would be lowered to $106 per barrel if no inflation is assumed. If 75% of the project were financed by debt at 16% interest, and the real price of coal and gasoline increased by 3% more than the general inflation rate, the selling price in 1981 dollars would be $76 per barrel in a moderately inflating economy. As the real price of gasoline increases in the future, this project and the related economics should be reviewed.

Not Available

1981-01-01

304

Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing  

EIA Publications

This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

2001-01-01

305

Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.  

PubMed

Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB. PMID:23625119

Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

2013-10-01

306

Combustion behavior of gasoline and gasoline/ethanol blends in a modern direct-injection 4-cylinder engine.  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range.

Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A. (Energy Systems)

2008-04-01

307

Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low fuel consumption (gross indicated fuel consumption <200 g/kWh). [1] Dec, J. E., Yang, Y., and Dronniou, N., 2011, "Boosted HCCI - Controlling Pressure- Rise Rates for Performance Improvements using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline," SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1169-1189. [2] Kalghatgi, G., Hildingsson, L., and Johansson, B., 2010, "Low NO(x) and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasolinelike Fuels," Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of the Asme, 132(9), p. 9. [3] Manente, V., Zander, C.-G., Johansson, B., Tunestal, P., and Cannella, W., 2010, "An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion," SAE International, 2010-01-2198. [4] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Reitz, R., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Durrett, R., Gopalakrishnan, V., Plazas, A., Peterson, R., and Szymkowicz, P., 2011, "Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime," SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1412-1430. [5] Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Reitz, R., and Durrett, R., 2012, "Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection," SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(3), pp. 1109-1132.

Loeper, C. Paul

308

Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1998-11-01

309

Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. We investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by ???70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R.

1998-01-01

310

Shellfish Toxicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

Arnold, Thomas

2010-03-24

311

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-02-01

312

Adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto polymeric adsorbents.  

PubMed

The emission of gasoline vapors is becoming a significant environmental problem especially for the population-dense area and also results in a significant economic loss. In this study, adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of gasoline vapors onto macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins at 308 K were investigated and compared with commercial activated carbon (NucharWV-A 1100). The results showed that the equilibrium and breakthrough adsorption capacities of virgin macroporous and hypercrosslinked polymeric resins were lower than virgin-activated carbon. Compared with origin adsorbents, however, the breakthrough adsorption capacities of the regenerated activated carbon for gasoline vapors decreased by 58.5 % and 61.3 % when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors were 700 and 1,400 mg/L, while those of macroporous and hypercrosslinked resins decreased by 17.4 % and 17.5 %, and 46.5 % and 45.5 %, respectively. Due to the specific bimodal property in the region of micropore (0.5-2.0 nm) and meso-macropore (30-70 nm), the regenerated hypercrosslinked polymeric resin exhibited the comparable breakthrough adsorption capacities with the regenerated activated carbon at the initial concentration of 700 mg/L, and even higher when the initial concentration of gasoline vapors was 1,400 mg/L. In addition, 90 % of relative humidity had ignorable effect on the adsorption of gasoline vapors on hypercrosslinked polymeric resin. Taken together, it is expected that hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent would be a promising adsorbent for the removal of gasoline vapors from gas streams. PMID:24281677

Jia, Lijuan; Yu, Weihua; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

2014-03-01

313

TRITIUM PERMEATION AND TRANSPORT IN THE GASOLINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM COUPLED WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS (HTGRS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes scoping analyses on tritium behaviors in the HTGR-integrated gasoline production system, which is based on a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) plant. In this system, the HTGR transfers heat and electricity to the MTG system. This system was analyzed using the TPAC code, which was recently developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The global sensitivity analyses were performed to understand and characterize tritium behaviors in the coupled HTGR/MTG system. This Monte Carlo based random sampling method was used to evaluate maximum 17,408 numbers of samples with different input values. According to the analyses, the average tritium concentration in the product gasoline is about 3.05×10-3 Bq/cm3, and 62 % cases are within the tritium effluent limit (= 3.7x10-3 Bq/cm3[STP]). About 0.19% of released tritium is finally transported from the core to the gasoline product through permeations. This study also identified that the following four parameters are important concerning tritium behaviors in the HTGR/MTG system: (1) tritium source, (2) wall thickness of process heat exchanger, (3) operating temperature, and (4) tritium permeation coefficient of process heat exchanger. These four parameters contribute about 95 % of the total output uncertainties. This study strongly recommends focusing our future research on these four parameters to improve modeling accuracy and to mitigate tritium permeation into the gasol ine product. If the permeation barrier is included in the future study, the tritium concentration will be significantly reduced.

Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

2011-05-01

314

The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

Kimball, Sarah L.

315

Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990-2007  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

2009-01-01

316

Zhai, H., H.C. Frey, N.M. Rouphail, G.A. Gonalves, and T.L. Farias, "Fuel Consumption and Emissions Comparisons between Ethanol 85 and Gasoline Fuels for Flexible Fuel Vehicles," Paper No. 2007-AWMA-444, Proceedings, 100th  

E-print Network

and Emissions Comparisons between Ethanol 85 and Gasoline Fuels for Flexible Fuel Vehicles," Paper No. 2007-AWMA 26-28, 2007 1 Fuel Consumption and Emissions Comparisons between Ethanol 85 and Gasoline Fuels, 1049- 001Lisbon, Portugal INTRODUCTION Ethanol-based fuels may offer advantages of reduced national

Frey, H. Christopher

317

Distribution in the environment of degradative capacities for gasoline attenuation.  

PubMed

A methodology allowing the detailed assessment of the capacities of microflorae to degrade gasoline in aerobic conditions has been developed. It consisted in the determination of the degradation of a gasoline model mixture in liquid cultures in optimal conditions. The gasoline model mixture contained 23 representative hydrocarbons of gasoline (GM23). The kinetics and extent of biodegradation were evaluated by continuous overall monitoring of CO2 production and final chromatographic analysis (usually after about 30 days) of the consumption of each hydrocarbon. The methodology was used with soil and water samples from polluted and non polluted sites. The experimentation aimed at assessing the distribution of the degradative capacities in the environment and the prospects for natural attenuation of gasoline. Nine microflorae were tested. The intrinsic biodegradability (existence of mechanisms of biodegradation) appeared total for GM23 as shown by the results obtained with several microflorae. The degradative capacities of microflorae from non polluted samples were high (total degradation rates at least 85%). Incomplete degradation was observed essentially for trimethylalkanes (2,2,4-trimethylpentane and 2,3,4-trimethylpentane) and for cyclohexane. In several cases, samples from polluted sites exhibited more extensive degradative capacities, with total degradation of all hydrocarbons being observed for three out of the six samples. PMID:11194971

Solano-Serena, F; Marchal, R; Lebeault, J M; Vandecasteele, J P

2000-01-01

318

Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

Manuszak, Mark David

319

Toxicity of human monocytic THP1 cells and microglia toward SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is reduced by inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein FLAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore whether the proinflamma- tory products of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) path- way are involved in microglia-mediated toxicity toward neuronal cells, we evaluated the effects of 5-LOX inhibitors using an in vitro assay system where human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells are exposed to toxic secretions from THP-1 monocytic cells or human microglia. The specific 5-LOX inhibitors, REV 5901, zileuton, and 5-hydroxyeicosatetra-

Andis Klegeris; Patrick L. McGeer

2003-01-01

320

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

EIA Publications

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01

321

Reduce drilling waste disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews various ways to reduce volume of wastes generated during oil and gas well drilling operations. The primary method of reducing costs of disposal is to reduce the volume of waste generated. The paper discusses methods to reduce this volume by using different, non-toxic additives such as ground limestone or dolomite to control mud densities. This would result

1993-01-01

322

Cost of reducing aromatics and sulfur levels in motor-vehicle fuels. Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Linear-programming (LP) models were developed for five refineries representative of the California refining industry and validated against historic operation. Process options to reduce gasoline and diesel contaminants were selected and represented in the LP models. Costs were estimated to separately reduce aromatics levels in automotive gasoline, aromatics in diesel, and sulfur in diesel for 1991 and 1995. Cost impacts were scaled up to obtain the overall cost impact in California. Estimates were made of total aromatics and benzene levels in gasoline and of sulfur, aromatics, and cetane levels in diesel. Estimates were made of the impact on refinery emissions, automotive emissions, and automotive performance. The cost to reduce diesel sulfur level to .05% was 6.3 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce diesel aromatics level to 10% was 27.6 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce gasoline aromatics levels by 18% was 7.0 cents/gallon.

Felten, J.R.; McCarthy, K.M.

1988-08-01

323

Conversion of organic wastes to unleaded, high-octane gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This project has demonstrated the marriage of two diverse technologies previously considered to be unrelated--the pyrolysis of organic wastes and the low-pressure polymerization of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to form polymer gasoline. This program comprised the development of a multistep chemical process to convert solid organic materials into a liquid hydrocarbon product consisting primarily of high-octane gasoline. This process selectively pyrolyzes organic wastes to form gases rich in reactive hydrocarbons such as ethylene and propylene. The pyrolysis gases are compressed and purified to result in three gaseous streams: carbon dioxide; by-product fuel gases (hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide); and reactive hydrocarbons. This last stream is further compressed and sent to the polymerization reactor where high-octane gasoline is formed.

Diebold, J.P.; Benham, C.B.; Smith, G.D.

1984-01-01

324

Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

Donakowski, T. D.

1982-01-01

325

Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI gasoline release  

SciTech Connect

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 378 liters (100 gallons) of gasoline into a sandy acquifer. Images were made in 5 planes before and 5 times during the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial as well as the temporal development of the plume as it spread at the water table. Information of the electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used or several different frequencies to produce images. We observed little dispersion in the images either before or after the gasoline entered the acquifer. Likewise, despite some laboratory measurements of impedances, there was no evidence of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the gasoline.

Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

1996-10-01

326

Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible fuels.

Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Institute; Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Institute; Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Institute; Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Institute; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Institute; Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Institute; McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst; Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst; Gephart, John [Johnson Timber; Starr, Jack [Cargill; Hahn, John [Cargill

2013-06-09

327

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2014-07-01

328

40 CFR 80.1641 - Alternative sulfur standards and requirements that apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

...that apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck. 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...that apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck. ...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2014-07-01

329

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2011-07-01

330

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2012-07-01

331

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2013-07-01

332

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2010-07-01

333

An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

Jaureguiberry, Florencia

334

Distinguishing octane grades in gasoline using terahertz metamaterials.  

PubMed

Distinguishing octane numbers of commercial gasoline is experimentally demonstrated by use of single split-ring resonator metamaterials functioning at terahertz frequencies. The differences in frequency-dependent absorption coefficients and refractive indices of various grades of gasoline lead to a modification in the surrounding dielectric environment and consequently the resonance properties of the planar metamaterials. This consequently enables a distinct frequency shift in the inductive-capacitive electric dipolar resonances. This paper reveals that such metamaterial arrays, as highly sensitive chemical sensors, have promising potential in petroleum industrial applications. PMID:22695558

Li, J; Tian, Z; Chen, Y; Cao, W; Zeng, Z

2012-06-01

335

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships  

E-print Network

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Abstract Many consumers are keenly aware, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships

Rothman, Daniel

336

Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline  

PubMed Central

Background Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline. Results The results showed that the phase stabilities of tartaric esters for methanol-gasoline depend on the length of the alkoxy group. Several tartaric esters were found to be effective in various gasoline-methanol blends, and the tartaric esters display high capacity to depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline. Conclusion According to the results, it can be concluded that the tartaric esters have great potential to be bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives. PMID:24731649

2014-01-01

337

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline...gasoline is used in an oxygenated fuels program control area during an oxygenated fuels control period. (7) No...No person may combine any ethanol-blended...

2010-07-01

338

40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation...under § 80.219(c). (e) Denatured ethanol violation. Blend into gasoline denatured ethanol with a sulfur content higher than 30...

2010-07-01

339

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline...gasoline is used in an oxygenated fuels program control area during an oxygenated fuels control period. (7) No...No person may combine any ethanol-blended...

2013-07-01

340

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline...gasoline is used in an oxygenated fuels program control area during an oxygenated fuels control period. (7) No...No person may combine any ethanol-blended...

2011-07-01

341

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline...Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters. (a) Sulfur...for Total Sulfur in Gaseous Fuels by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric...resolution of the benzene, ethanol and methanol peaks...

2012-07-01

342

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline...gasoline is used in an oxygenated fuels program control area during an oxygenated fuels control period. (7) No...No person may combine any ethanol-blended...

2012-07-01

343

40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation...under § 80.219(c). (e) Denatured ethanol violation. Blend into gasoline denatured ethanol with a sulfur content higher than 30...

2011-07-01

344

Study of Brazilian Gasoline Quality Using Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

E-print Network

in internal combustion engines (called gasoline C) may have a content of anhydrous ethanol between 20 and 25 of these solvents in gasoline may lead to engine damage, rubber degradation, and environmental hazards, as well

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

345

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94...Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The...

2010-07-01

346

40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?  

... false What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners...Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers...80.335 What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to...

2014-07-01

347

Does Big Oil Collude and Price Gouge? Big Oil came back into the headlines in recent weeks with another spike in gasoline  

E-print Network

with another spike in gasoline prices and their reported record profits. Some months ago, during the last in the oil industry further reduced the number of firms. That is, few players make up Big Oil and huge basis. How does implicit collusion work? Consider a simple two-firm collusion game. Two firms supply

Ahmad, Sajjad

348

USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

349

Liquid-Vapor Phase Extraction of Gasoline for In Situ Amelioration of Contaminated Clayey Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid-vapor phase extraction (LVPE) of hydrocarbon is a recognized technique for rapid remediation of gasoline contaminated soils and waters. On site application of LVPE is, however, challenging in clayey soils. Four LVPE events were conducted during a 10-month period at a central Californian site that had been contaminated with gasoline due to leakage of underground storage tanks. The site was underlain by unconsolidated alluvial deposits and the soil profile consisted of layers of sandy clays and silty clays with low water table. The objectives of this study were to reduce floating product volume in well waters and to remove petroleum hydrocarbons within the vadose zone. Groundwater was extracted by lowering a stinger to the groundwater surface and applying vacuum. The stingers were able to extract down to 20 ft below ground surface. Vacuum was applied at 25 in of Hg pressure and the LVPE unit extracted soil vapor at the rate of 54 ft3/min. Samples were collected periodically from the extracted groundwater, treated groundwater, extracted soil vapor, and analyzed for gasoline and its constituents. The LVPE showed a moderate impact on the floating product found beneath the site. The volumes of floating product, although measurable, were reduced significantly after the extraction operations. High hydrocarbon concentrations in soil vapor at initial period of extraction events suggested that hydrocarbon vaporization followed a rapid kinetics. During first couple of extraction events, this surge was a followed by a quick decline in concentrations over time. The vaporization process appeared to have reached steady state after repetitive extraction activities. The LVPE system extracted about 288-336 (x1000) liters of groundwater and 88-358 kg of hydrocarbons during the events. In subsequent monitoring studies, significant concentrations of gasoline and its constituents were detected in the well waters. This suggested that the residual contaminant pool could replenish the mobile hydrocarbon pool despite removal operations. The radius of influence of LVPE remained within 10 ft in both saturated and unsaturated zones due to the clayey soil structure. The overall mass of petroleum hydrocarbons remaining in the vadose zone around the wells appeared to have diminished.

Sharma, S.; Spencer, S.

2008-12-01

350

Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multicylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-gasoline Mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.

Cassidy, J. F.

1977-01-01

351

MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER REDUCED AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IDLE OPERATING CONDITIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline motor vehicle organic emissions are elevated by reduced ambient temperature operating conditions, and the practice of warming vehicles with extended idle periods, as is common during winter months. Total hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde emi...

352

Influence of the addition of sulphate and ferric ions in a methanogenic anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating gasoline-contaminated water.  

PubMed

Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are relatively soluble aromatic compounds of gasoline. Gasoline storage tank leakages generally lead to an extensive contamination of groundwater. In the natural environment for instance, these compounds might be biodegraded under a variety of reducing potentials. The objective of this work was to examine the influence of the addition of sulphate and Fe(OH)3 in a methanogenic horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized-biomass reactor treating gasoline-contaminated water. Three different conditions were evaluated: methanogenic, sulphidogenic and sulphidogenic with the addition of ferric ions. Methanogenic condition showed the higher BTX degradation rates and the addition of sulphate negatively affected BTX removal rates with the production of H2S. However, the addition of ferric ions resulted in the precipitation of sulphur, improving BTX degradation by the consortium. Metanosphaera sp., Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosaeta concilii were identified in the consortium by means of 16S and directly related to the addition of ferric ions. PMID:16939094

Fernandes, B S; Chinalia, F A; Sarti, A; Silva, A J; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

2006-01-01

353

RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION (TIE) METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

A common method for determining whether contaminants in sediments represent an environmental risk is to perform toxicity tests. Toxicity tests indicate if contaminants in sediments are bioavailable and capable of causing adverse biological effects (e.g., mortality, reduced growt...

354

16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

2013-01-01

355

16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.  

...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

2014-01-01

356

Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

357

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending  

SciTech Connect

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01

358

Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

2012-04-19

359

The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures  

SciTech Connect

In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

2008-06-01

360

Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD),

Amal A Kinawy

2009-01-01

361

A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

362

Combustion and emissions performance of a hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine at idle and lean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the narrow flammability of gasoline, pure gasoline-fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines always encounter partial burning or even misfire at lean conditions. Gasoline engines tend to suffer poor combustion and expel large emissions at idle conditions because of the high variation in the intake charge and low combustion temperature. Comparatively, hybrid hydrogen engines (HHE) fueled with the mixtures of hydrocarbon

Changwei Ji; Shuofeng Wang

2010-01-01

363

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of  

E-print Network

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles and diesel vehicles, and find diesel exhaust is seven times more efficient at forming aerosol than gasoline

Silver, Whendee

364

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-print Network

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we- ration, air-to-fuel ratio control, gasoline-ethanol blend, flex-fuel vehicles I. INTRODUCTION Currently

Stefanopoulou, Anna

365

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-print Network

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

366

ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

367

FIELD SAMPLING OF RESIDUAL AVIATION GASOLINE IN SANDY SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

368

Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Timothy L [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, North Carolina; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M [University of Minnesota

2013-01-01

369

Epidemiologic evidence for an association between gasoline and kidney cancer.  

PubMed Central

A recent animal experiment suggests that gasoline exposure may be a cause of human kidney cancer. This is a literature review to see whether there is any epidemiologic support for these animal findings. Trends and geographic patterns in gasoline consumption and kidney cancer mortality are moderately supportive of a relationship, although this cannot be considered important evidence for a causal relationship. Most other ecological correlations are not supportive of a relationship. Eleven oil refinery populations and one population of petroleum products distribution workers have been studied. These studies taken as a group do not appear to support the notion of a relationship between gasoline exposure and kidney cancer. However, most were not designed or analyzed with this hypothesis in mind. An examination of these data which attempts to consider the ages of the populations studied provides some evidence of a small kidney cancer excess among older workers or among workers exposed for long periods. Because of the importance of gasoline and the potential for exposure by the public further study of exposed populations is needed. PMID:4085434

Enterline, P E; Viren, J

1985-01-01

370

DEMONSTRATION OF VAPOR CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR GASOLINE LOADING OF BARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to demonstrate a safe cost-effective way to control gasoline vapors emitted during barge loading. Refrigeration, carbon adsorption, oil absorption, and incineration were reviewed in terms of their safety, economics, and performance. Two barge...

371

NIST Technical Note 1637 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline  

E-print Network

scenarios of a portable generator operated outdoors using the CONTAM indoor air quality model coupled distance; CONTAM; computational fluid dynamics; indoor air quality; health; multizone airflow modelNIST Technical Note 1637 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor

Bentz, Dale P.

372

Polygeneration Integration of Gasoline Synthesis and IGCC Power Production Using  

E-print Network

Polygeneration ­ Integration of Gasoline Synthesis and IGCC Power Production Using Topsoe's TIGAS production. In an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, power is produced by burning synthesis, ammonia and Fischer Tropsch (FT) diesel. By combining IGCC power production with chemical production

373

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen fuel cell and gasoline vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen and gasoline vehicles, including fuel production and utilization in vehicles powered by fuel cells and internal combustion engines, is conducted to evaluate and compare their efficiencies and environmental impacts. Fossil fuel and renewable technologies are investigated, and the assessment is divided into various stages.Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated in each step

Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A Rosen

2006-01-01

374

Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.; Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; McBride, Allen C.; Johnson, Timothy L.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

2013-02-01

375

KINETICS OF ETHANOL BIODEGRADATION UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS IN GASOLINE SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that biodegradation of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by mi...

376

Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmetrically to Crude Oil Price Changes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test and confirm that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly to increases than to decreases in crude oil prices. Among the possible sources of this asymmetry are production\\/inventory adjustment lags and market power of some sellers. By analyzing price transmission at different points in the distribution chain, the authors attempt to shed light on these theories. Spot prices

Severin Borenstein; A. Colin Cameron; Richard Gilbert

1997-01-01

377

REDUCTION OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using flexible plastic membranes to control emissions from gasoline storage tanks. The emission rates and the expected life of the membranes were to be established. A demonstration pilot ...

378

What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Soren T. Anderson  

E-print Network

What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Prices? Soren T. Anderson Michigan State University November 3, 2010 PRELIMINARY DRAFT: PLEASE DO NOT CITE WITHOUT PERMISSION Abstract How do consumers form to this question is key to an ongoing debate regarding the "energy paradox" ­ which stipulates that consumers

Silver, Whendee

379

. . . While Others Conserve Cash by Converting from Gasoline to Propane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1983, when the David Douglas Public Schools (Portland, Oregon) converted 30 buses to propane fuel, the district has saved $75,000 in fuel and maintenance costs. Propane is priced consistently lower than gasoline and burns cleaner. Since propane engines do not require a carburetor, there are fewer maintenance problems. (MLH)

Rasmussen, Scott A.

1988-01-01

380

Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

None

1980-05-01

381

40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements resulting from a modification of detergent additive composition...registration if: (A) The modification is effected by a detergent...parties; and (B) The modification is a dilution of the additive...proper detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline...

2010-07-01

382

40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements resulting from a modification of detergent additive composition...registration if: (A) The modification is effected by a detergent...parties; and (B) The modification is a dilution of the additive...proper detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline...

2011-07-01

383

40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements resulting from a modification of detergent additive composition...registration if: (A) The modification is effected by a detergent...parties; and (B) The modification is a dilution of the additive...proper detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline...

2012-07-01

384

40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements resulting from a modification of detergent additive composition...registration if: (A) The modification is effected by a detergent...parties; and (B) The modification is a dilution of the additive...proper detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline...

2013-07-01

385

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MTBE AND OTHER GASOLINE COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This book chapter reviews the processes and interactions that control the transport and fate of MTBE and TBA in the subsurface. It describes the transport and fate of vapors of MTBE in the unsaturated zone, the partitioning of MTBE from gasoline spills directly into water, and t...

386

12. Detail of clutch and backup gasoline engine for powering ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Detail of clutch and backup gasoline engine for powering Stoney gates. Clutch mechanism manufactured by Baldridge Machine Company, Detroit, Michigan, ca. 1910. Instrument to the left records volume of flow through headworks. View looking south towards Stoney gates. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

387

LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL  

E-print Network

1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 of Combustion Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden *Corresponding author: Email: pierre WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 , R. Bounaceur1 , H. Le Gall1 , A. Pires da Cruz2 , A

Boyer, Edmond

388

REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN AIR TOXICS RISK ASSESSMENT: A MECHANISTIC EXPOSURE-DOSE-RESPONSE (EDR) MODEL FOR ASSESSING THE ACUTE NEUROTOXICITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BASED UPON A RECEPTOR-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

SUMMARY: The major accomplishment of NTD?s air toxics program is the development of an exposure-dose- response model for acute exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), based on momentary brain concentration as the dose metric associated with acute neurological impairments...

389

Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the performance and the pollutant emissions of a four-stroke SI engine operating on ethanol–gasoline blends of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN). The properties of bioethanol were measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The experimental results revealed that

G. Najafi; B. Ghobadian; T. Tavakoli; D. R. Buttsworth; T. F. Yusaf; M. Faizollahnejad

2009-01-01

390

Volatilizing toxic metals from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study revealed that lead, cadmium, mercury, zinc, arsenic, and selenium can be volatilized from both spiked and actual contaminated soils by heating in inert or reducing atmospheres. Generally oxygen proved to be detrimental to the remediation process. An apparatus capable of rapidly heating soil samples to as high as 1,100 C was designed and built to volatilize toxic inorganic

D. A. Clifford; Shensin Chen; C. Reznik

1993-01-01

391

Protozoa in Subsurface Sediments from Sites Contaminated with Aviation Gasoline or Jet Fuel  

PubMed Central

Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H2O2 biotreatment. Samples were taken from the unsaturated zone to depths slightly below the floating free product in the saturated zone. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. The same trends were noted in the biotreatment area, except that numbers of protozoa were higher. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel. Little reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed, and no bacterial fouling of the aquifer was observed during biotreatment. PMID:16348871

Sinclair, James L.; Kampbell, Don H.; Cook, Mike L.; Wilson, John T.

1993-01-01

392

Determining the PTE and formulating a Title V permitting strategy for a bulk gasoline terminal  

SciTech Connect

Bulk gasoline terminals may take operational restrictions and maintain operational flexibility while avoiding requirements of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA-A). Title V establishes a federally enforceable renewable operating permit program for major sources. Title III regulates Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) to reduce emissions from all sources to a degree sufficient to protect the public by using Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards achieved in practice within the industry. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and HAPs are emitted from storage tanks, loading operations, and components at gasoline terminals. To calculate the potential to emit (PTE) and assess regulation applicability, maximum facility throughputs should be determined by physical limitations of the loadrack. Loadrack throughputs can be correlated to storage tanks throughputs based on type of tank and the highest volatility product stored in that tank. Component emissions should be based on continuous service of the highest volatility product. To avoid recordkeeping and reporting requirements of Title III and/or Title V, VOC and HAP emissions may be restricted to below thresholds determined by the region`s ozone attainment status by limiting loadrack throughput and/or by meeting higher control equipment efficiencies. However, careful consideration must be given to operational flexibility and the potential future expansion of the facility.

Wilder, A.A.; Turner, R.S. [TRC Environmental Corporation, Windsor, CT (United States)

1996-12-31

393

An evaluation of local heating as a means of fuel evaporation for gasoline engines  

SciTech Connect

The technique of evaporating fuel by localized heating before entering the intake manifold is evaluated as a means of improving A/F ratio control. Techniques currently in use are briefly discussed, and attempts to analyze fuel evaporation in S.I. engines are reviewed. A test fixture which includes all the essential features of production feasible hardware is used to develop a basis of understanding for the evaporation process. Tests are conducted on a flow bench using water as ''fuel,'' and on an engine using isooctane and gasoline. A heat-mass transfer analogy is described and used to predict evaporation rates for water and isooctane. Predicted and measured rates are compared for both bench and engine tests. Engine tests with gasoline show the ability of the test configuration to evaporate all part throttle fuel flow before it enters the intake manifold. Results are presented which show the ability of local heating to reduce A/F excursions on the 1.6 Liter engine by 80% over the ambient temperature range of 0/sup 0/F to 70/sup 0/F. Results showing the elimination of cylinder to cylinder A/F maldistribution are presented, and recommended operating temperatures and heat inputs for engine operation are also presented.

Aquino, C.; Plensdorf, W.D.

1986-01-01

394

Ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as gasoline components in relation to gaseous emissions and particulate matter.  

PubMed

The exhaust emissions of three cars using different biofuels were explored at a temperature of -7 °C. The biofuels studied contained both low- and high-concentration ethanol blends, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons. A multipoint fuel injection car (MPFI), direct-injection spark-ignition car (DISI), and flex-fuel car (FFV) represented three different spark-ignition-car technologies. At -7 °C, substantial emissions were observed for the three cars, and differences were found among ethanol, isobutanol, and biohydrocarbons as fuel components. For example, E85 resulted in high acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, ethene, and acetylene emissions when compared to E30 or lower ethanol concentrations. Isobutanol-containing fuel showed elevated butyraldehyde, methacrolein, and isobutanol emissions. The highest particulate matter (PM) emissions, associated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and indirect mutagenicity emissions were detected with the DISI car. Oxygenated fuels reduced PM emissions and associated priority PAH emissions in the DISI car. PM and PAH emissions from the MPFI and FFV cars were generally low. A combination of 10% ethanol and biohydrocarbon components did not change emissions significantly when compared to ethanol-only-containing E10 gasoline. Therefore, a combination of ethanol or isobutanol with biohydrocarbon components offers an option to reach high gasoline bioenergy content for E10-compatible cars. PMID:25075876

Aakko-Saksa, Päivi T; Rantanen-Kolehmainen, Leena; Skyttä, Eija

2014-09-01

395

Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-print Network

and wildlife tissues were collected from four National Priority List Superfund sites within the United States. In general, chemical analysis was not always predictive of mixture toxicity. Although biodegradation reduced the concentration of total...

Gillespie, Annika Margaret

2009-05-15

396

Gas- and particle-phase primary emissions from in-use, on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailpipe emissions from sixty-four unique light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) spanning model years 1987-2012, two medium-duty diesel vehicles and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles with varying levels of aftertreatment were characterized at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit and Heavy-Duty Engine Testing Laboratories. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using a constant volume sampler, commercial fuels and standard duty cycles. Measurements included regulated pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). Off-line analyses were performed to speciate gas- and particle-phase emissions. The data were used to investigate trends in emissions with vehicle age and to quantify the effects of different aftertreatment technologies on diesel vehicle emissions (e.g., with and without a diesel particulate filter). On average, newer LDGVs that met the most recent emissions standards had substantially lower emissions of regulated gaseous pollutants (CO, THC and NOx) than older vehicles. For example, THC emissions from the median LDGV that met the LEV2 standard was roughly a factor of 10 lower than the median pre-LEV vehicle; there were also substantial reductions in NOx (factor of ?100) and CO (factor of ?10) emissions from pre-LEV to LEV2 vehicles. However, reductions in LDGV PM mass emissions were much more modest. For example, PM emission from the median LEV2 vehicle was only a factor of three lower than the median pre-LEV vehicle, mainly due to the reductions in organic carbon emissions. In addition, LEV1 and LEV2 LDGVs had similar PM emissions. Catalyzed diesel particulate filters reduced CO, THC and PM emissions from HDDVs by one to two orders of magnitude. Comprehensive organic speciation was performed to quantify priority air toxic emissions and to estimate the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential. The data suggest that the SOA production from cold-start LDGVs exhaust will likely exceed primary PM emissions from LDGVs and could potentially exceed SOA formation from on-road diesel vehicles.

May, Andrew A.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Presto, Albert A.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Karve, Mrunmayi; Gutierrez, Alváro; Robertson, William H.; Zhang, Mang; Brandow, Christopher; Chang, Oliver; Chen, Shiyan; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Dinkins, Lyman; Fuentes, Mark; Huang, Shiou-Mei; Ling, Richard; Long, Jeff; Maddox, Christine; Massetti, John; McCauley, Eileen; Miguel, Antonio; Na, Kwangsam; Ong, Richard; Pang, Yanbo; Rieger, Paul; Sax, Todd; Truong, Tin; Vo, Thu; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M. Matti; Robinson, Allen L.

2014-05-01

397

Cost of reducing aromatics and sulfur levels in motor-vehicle fuels. Volume 3. Appendices. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Linear-programming (LP) models were developed for five refineries representative of the California refining industry and validated against historic operation. Process options to reduce gasoline and diesel contaminants were selected and represented in the LP models. Costs were estimated to separately reduce aromatics levels in automotive gasoline, aromatics in diesel, and sulfur in diesel for 1991 and 1995. Cost impacts were scaled up to obtain the overall cost impact in California. Estimates were made of total aromatics and benzene levels in gasoline and of sulfur, aromatics, and cetane levels in diesel. Estimates were made of the impact on refinery emissions, automotive emissions and automotive performance. The cost to reduce diesel sulfur level to .05% was 6.3 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce diesel aromatics level to 10% was 27.6 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce gasoline aromatics levels by 18% was 7.0 cents/gallon.

Felten, J.R.; McCarthy, K.M.

1988-08-01

398

GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of three brands of regular unleaded gasoline was conducted as part of the independent project of an undergraduate journalism major. In his work, samples of each gasoline were diluted down to part per million (ppm) levels with dichloromethane and then one microliter injections were made onto a Hewlett-Packard GC (5890 Series II unit). Mass spectra were also obtained on each sample through use of a 5971A mass selective detector (MSD). Subsequent characterization was consequently effected through utilization of the standard mass spectra available in a 49,000 compound National Bureau of Standards reference library. Comparison of the obtained and standard spectra revealed that the same aromatic hydrocarbons (including, in part: benzene, the xylenes, naphthalene, and methylated naphthalenes) were present in all three samples. Percentage values for these and other aromatic hydrocarbons were then generated and tabulated.

Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr.

1995-09-01

399

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01

400

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01

401

El color del cristal: North-South gasoline prices  

SciTech Connect

To present a better understanding of energy problems around the world, this issue of ED focuses on rich and poor gasoline consumers. With several graphs depicting income/price ratios of selected countries, a good measure is obtained of how expensive the gasoline is - relative to the people's ability to pay for it. The text is in two parts: (1) On the Inequality of the Equal and the Equality of the Unequal; and (2) the Equality of the Unequal. The issue also contains the following: (a) ED refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of October 6, 1989; and (b) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, October 1989 edition. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-10

402

Multicommutation Fourier transform infrared determination of benzene in gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully mechanized method to determine benzene in motor gasolines has been developed based on the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and multicommutation. The flow network comprised a set of three-way solenoid valves and was controlled by means of a microcomputer furnished with an electronic interface and running by a software written in QUICK BASIC 4.5. The flow

Eva Ródenas-Torralba; Josep Ventura-Gayete; Ángel Morales-Rubio; Salvador Garrigues; Miguel de la Guardia

2004-01-01

403

A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation  

PubMed Central

Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS) is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced. PMID:21909320

Meegoda, Jay N.; Hu, Liming

2011-01-01

404

A review of centrifugal testing of gasoline contamination and remediation.  

PubMed

Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS) is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced. PMID:21909320

Meegoda, Jay N; Hu, Liming

2011-08-01

405

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOEpatents

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09

406

Intrinsic capacities of soil microflorae for gasoline degradation.  

PubMed

A methodology to determine the intrinsic capacities of a microflora to degrade gasoline was developed, in particular for assessing the potential of autochtonous populations of polluted and non polluted soils for natural attenuation and engineered bioremediation. A model mixture (GM23) constituted of the 23 most representative hydrocarbons of a commercial gasoline was used. The capacities of the microflorae (kinetics and extent of biodegradation) were assessed by chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbon consumption and of CO2 production. The degradation of the components of GM23 was assayed in separate incubations of each component and in the complete mixture. For the microflora of an unpolluted spruce forest soil, all hydrocarbons of GM23 except cyclohexane, 2,2,4- and 2,3,4-trimethylpentane isomers were degraded to below detection limit in 28 days. This microflora was reinforced with two mixed microbial communities selected from gasoline-polluted sites and shown to degrade cyclohexane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. With the reinforced microflora, complete degradation of GM23 was observed. The degradation patterns of individual components of GM23 were similar when the compounds were present individually or in the GM23 mixture, as long as the concentrations of 2-ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene isomers were kept sufficiently low (< or = 35 mg.l-1) to remain below their inhibitory level. PMID:10192893

Solano-Serena, F; Marchal, R; Blanchet, D; Vandecasteele, J P

1998-01-01

407

The Effects of ? and ? on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Using Ethanol–unleaded Gasoline Blends in an SI Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of relative air-fuel ratio (?) and compression ratio (?) on engine performance and exhaust emissions was experimentally investigated. The experiments were performed by varying ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends as E0 (100% unleaded gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline blend), E30 (30% ethanol and 70% gasoline blend), and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline blend). In

H. Bayindir; H. S. Yücesu; H. Aydin

2010-01-01

408

Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures  

SciTech Connect

Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Evans, J.M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-10-01

409

Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels  

E-print Network

: Strategically build the Solar Fuel, LLC brand such that key s strategic partners will see Solar Fuel's valueConverting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming technology for converting solar thermal en- ergy (the sun's heat) to fuel (e.g., gasoline, diesel, hydrogen

Jawitz, James W.

410

Palladium(II) and platinum(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes of the 2,6-diacetylpyridine series with high cytotoxic activity in cisplatin resistant A2780cisR tumor cells and reduced toxicity.  

PubMed

Preparation and characterization of four novel 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis((4)N-tolylthiosemicarbazonato) palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes, [PdL(1-2)] and [PtL(1-2)], are described. All compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis and by IR and NMR spectroscopy, and the crystal and molecular structures of complexes [PdL(2)] and [PtL(2)] have been determined by a single crystal X-ray diffraction. The ligands act as dianionic tetradentate donors coordinating to the metal center in a square planar geometry through the Npyridinic atom and the Niminic and the S atoms from one thiosemicarbazone arm, the fourth coordination position is occupied by the Nhydrazinic of the other arm. The new compounds synthesized have been evaluated for antiproliferative activity in vitro against NCI-H460, HepG2, MCF-7, A2780 and A2780cisR human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity data suggest that [PdL(1)], [PdL(2)] and [PtL(2)] may be endowed with important antitumor properties since they are capable of not only circumventing cisplatin resistance in A2780cisR cells but also exhibiting high antiproliferative activity in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Subsequent toxicity study, in LLC-PK1 cells, has also been carried out and shows that none of these compounds are in vitro toxic in the tested concentration range. PMID:23685347

Matesanz, Ana I; Leitao, Inés; Souza, Pilar

2013-08-01

411

Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ? 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

2014-01-01

412

Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products  

PubMed Central

Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.). Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal's resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects. PMID:24895646

Gadelha, Ivana Cristina N.; Fonseca, Nayanna Brunna S.; Oloris, Silvia Catarina S.; Melo, Marilia M.

2014-01-01

413

Studies on the toxicity of RSU-1069  

SciTech Connect

RSU-1069 combines an aziridine function with a 2-nitroimidazole and has been reported to exhibit extraordinary radiosensitization both in vitro and in vivo. Such sensitization appears to be at variance with the electron affinity of the compound. In addition, recent experiments suggest that the compound is highly toxic to hypoxic tumor cells in vivo. On the assumption that the observed radiosensitizing ability may be a manifestation of toxicity and because of the high in vivo toxicity, we have investigated aerobic and hypoxic toxicity, both in wild type CHO cells and in mutants sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents. With wild type cells under aerobic conditions, the compound is approximately 50 times as toxic as misonidazole and under hypoxic conditions, approximately 250 times as toxic. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity is approximately 80 times. Under aerobic conditions, repair-deficient mutants are 10 times as sensitive to RSU-1069 as wild type cells and approximately 100 times as sensitive under hypoxic conditions. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity for the mutant cells is approximately 900. Based on these observations, we suggest that under aerobic conditions the aziridine function is primarily responsible for toxicity, whereas, under hypoxic conditions, the aziridine moiety combined with a reduced 2-nitroimidazole moiety produces a bifunctional agent.

Whitmore, G.F.; Gulyas, S.

1986-07-01

414

Impact of California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline on atmospheric reactivity of exhaust and evaporative emissions  

SciTech Connect

Phase 2 of California`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program took effect statewide in the first half of 1996. Changes to gasoline composition required by Phase 2 specifications included: lower vapor pressure; lower olefin, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur content; lower T50 and T90; and a minimum oxygen content. In this paper, impacts of Phase 2 RFG on the atmospheric reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions are described. Volatile organic compounds in motor vehicle exhaust were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 1995 and 1996. Aggregate emissions of greater than 8000 vehicles were measured each day. Regular and premium grade gasoline samples were collected from service stations in Berkeley concurrently with tunnel measurements both summers. Liquid gasoline samples and their headspace vapors were analyzed to determine detailed chemical composition. Normalized reactivity was calculated for exhaust and evaporative emissions by applying maximum incremental reactivity values to the detailed speciation profiles. Results indicate that the composition of gasoline in 1996 differed markedly from that of 1995. Changes in liquid gasoline composition led to corresponding changes in the speciation of vehicle exhaust and of gasoline headspace vapors. Benzene concentration in liquid gasoline decreased from 2.0 to 0.6 wt%, which contributed to a 70 and 37% reduction in benzene weight fraction in headspace vapors and vehicle exhaust, respectively. Addition of MTBE and reduction of olefins and aromatics in gasoline led to significant reductions in the atmospheric reactivity of unburned gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors. The normalized reactivity of liquid gasoline and headspace vapors decreased by 23 and 19%, respectively, between 1995 and 1996. The normalized reactivity of non-methane organic compounds in vehicle exhaust decreased by about 8%, but the uncertainty in this change was large.

Kirchstetter, T.W.; Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Kendall, G.R.; Traverse, M. [Bay Area Air Quality Management District, San Francisco, CA (United States). Technical Services Div.

1997-12-31

415

Gasoline and vapor exposures in service station and leaking underground storage tank scenarios.  

PubMed

Exposure to gasoline and gasoline vapors from service station operations and leaking underground storage tanks is a major health concern. Six scenarios for human exposure were examined, based primarily on measured air and water concentrations of total hydrocarbons, benzene, xylenes, and toluene. Calculated mean and upper limit lifetime exposures provide a tool for assisting public health officials in assessing and managing gasoline-related health risks. PMID:1504635

Guldberg, P H

1992-01-01

416

Toxic Shock Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... about it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's ... period, you may have heard frightening stories about toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a serious illness originally linked ...

417

Toxic substances handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

Junod, T. L.

1979-01-01

418

A tiered approach to distinguish sources of gasoline and diesel spills.  

PubMed

Approximately 11% and 25% of annual Canadian oil spill accidents are gasoline and diesel spills, respectively. Gasoline and diesel spills are a challenge to conventional environmental forensic techniques because refinery processes remove most of the higher molecular weight biomarkers. This study presents a tiered environmental forensics strategy that includes such information as site operational history, geology/hydrogeology, GC/FID pre-screening, volatile GC/MS, semi-volatile GC/MS, and GC/MS selected ion monitoring (SIM) chromatograms for fingerprinting of gasoline and diesel spills. GC/FID pre-screening analysis identified the presence of two individual gasoline and diesel plumes at a fuel service station (study site). The gasoline plume is present between the upgradient fuel underground storage tanks (USTs) and the downgradient diesel plume, suggesting that the diesel impacts to groundwater may not be originated from the current UST leakage. Similar distribution of C3-alkylbenzenes (the most stable chemicals in gasoline) and the consistent diagnostic ratios of the analyte pairs with similar solubility indicate that the source for the dissolved gasoline constituents in the gasoline impacted zone likely originated from a gasoline leakage from the current USTs on the study site. In the diesel impacted zone, the distinct distribution and diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes (biomarkers for diesel) and alkylated PAHs confirm that the diesel plume originate from different crude oil sources than the current USTs. PMID:24802268

Xiong, Wenhui; Bernesky, Ryan; Bechard, Robert; Michaud, Guy; Lang, Jeremy

2014-07-15

419

Dissolution of monoaromatic hydrocarbons into groundwater from gasoline-oxygenate mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the [open quotes]oxygenate[close quotes] additives methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the aqueous solubility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from gasoline were evaluated through equilibrium batch experiments. For a gasoline:water ratio of 1:10 (v/v), up to 15% MTBE or up to 85% methanol in gasoline produced no enhanced BTEX solubility. However, at higher gasoline:water ratios, aqueous methanol concentrations above 10% enhanced BTEX solubility. The initial methanol content of the gasoline and the equilibrating gasoline- to water-phase ratio controlled the aqueous methanol concentration. Partitioning theory and the experimental results were used to calculate aqueous benzene and methanol concentrations in successive batches of fresh groundwater equilibrating with the fuel and subsequent residuals. These successive batches simulated formation of a plume of contaminated groundwater. The front of the plume generated from high-methanol gasoline equilibrating with groundwater at a gasoline:water ratio of more than 1 had high methanol content and elevated BTEX concentrations. Thus, release of high-methanol fuels could have a more serious, initial impact on groundwater than do releases of methanol-free gasoline. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Poulsen, M.; Lemon, L.; Barker, J.F. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1992-12-01

420

40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions ...the carrier caused the violation. (10) Denatured ethanol violation. Any oxygenate blender who violates §...

2010-07-01

421

40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions ...the carrier caused the violation. (10) Denatured ethanol violation. Any oxygenate blender who violates §...

2011-07-01

422

Process for making anhydrous alcohol for mixing with gasoline to make gasohol motor fuel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for making an anhydrous fraction from a fermented feed material or beer. The process consists of contacting the fermented feed material or beer directly with steam vapor volatilizing the alcohol in the feed or beer and producing an alcohol free bottom. The alcohol vapor is conducted through a oneway flow mechanism into a column provided with trays located one above the other, refluxing the alcohol vapor over the trays and concentrating the alcohol vapor to high-proof alcohol. The reflux and vapor are utilized to concentrate additional alcohol from a dilute aqueous gasoline-containing recycle. The net total water bottoms are contacted from the concentration step with direct steam prior to discharge to sewer, feeding the concentrated alcohol with recovered gasoline from the recycle as contaminant along with additional gasoline. The gasoline is optimally heated to eliminate light ends, into a drying column, heating the alcohol gasoline feed with heat from a reboiler and vaporizing overhead the azeotropic fractions containing alcohol, gasoline and water. The azeotropic fractions are condensed and form two liquid phases. The gasoline phase returns as reflux to the drying column, recycling the water phase as initiator prior to the alcohol concentrating column, cooling and subcooling the anhydrous alcohol-gasoline bottoms. This process produces a final product which is completely denatured alcohol ready for removal from premises and containing the entire component of the originally added gasoline.

Chambers, J.M.

1986-02-04

423

Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein  

DOEpatents

A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

1997-01-01

424

Disposition, behavior, and toxicity of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposition and toxicity of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), a potential substitute for lead in gasoline, was studied to investigate the different adverse effects in ddY mice after chronic oral administration at 0.5 g\\/kg in food for 12 months. There was no significant difference in intake between the control mice and the mice exposed to MMT (MMT group), but those

Junko Komura; Michiko Sakamoto

1992-01-01

425

Chromatography-mass spectrometry and toxicity evaluation of selected contaminants in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the present work a combined analytical study involving gas and liquid-chromatography and toxicity studies were developed\\u000a for the determination of various contaminants typically present in sea water samples. The compounds investigated were Diuron,\\u000a Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), lrgarol 1051, Sea nine 211 and MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl\\u000a ether). The selected compounds are additives of boat paints and gasoline and they can

M. Mezcua; M. D. Hernando; L. Piedra; A. Agüera; A. R. Fernández-Alba

2002-01-01

426

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

2009-02-28

427

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

2009-02-25

428

Oxygen Toxicity Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxygen toxicity is a consequence of breathing oxygen partial pressures greater than in atmospheric air. While oxygen itself is not toxic, the evidence indicates that toxic derivatives of oxygen are a by-product of cellular respiration. The production of t...

R. D. Vann

1988-01-01

429

Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gasoline station attendants.  

PubMed

We evaluated genotoxic effects of exposure to low levels of benzene, a class I human carcinogen, among gasoline station attendants (GSA). Oxidative stress and the protective effects of antioxidants on DNA damage were also analyzed. Although exposures were below ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) limits, the GSA group presented higher DNA damage indices and micronucleus frequencies, increased oxidative protein damage, and decreased antioxidant capacity relative to the control group. Duration of benzene exposure was correlated with DNA and protein damage. The biomarkers evaluated in this work may provide early signals of damage in subjects occupationally exposed to benzene. PMID:23628435

Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Baierle, Marília; Bubols, Guilherme; Goethel, Gabriela; Fracasso, Rafael; Nascimento, Sabrina; Bulcão, Rachel; Gauer, Bruna; Barth, Anelise; Bochi, Guilherme; Moresco, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Salvador, Mirian; Farsky, Sandra; Garcia, Solange C

2013-06-14

430

Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in our environment. The  

E-print Network

widely in our environment. The chief sources of exposure are from (1) Lead paint ­ commonly presentLead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs in house interiors (2) Leaded gasoline ­ soils along major roadways are strongly enriched in lead

Maynard, J. Barry

431

Lead toxicity: Current concerns  

SciTech Connect

Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

1993-04-01

432

Toxicity, bioavailability and metal speciation.  

PubMed

1. Environmental toxicology emphasizes the difference from traditional toxicology in which pure compounds of interest are added to purified diets, or injected into the test animals. When the objective is to study the fate and effects of trace elements in the environment, knowledge of the speciation of the elements and their physico-chemical forms is important. 2. Cadmium salts such as the sulfides, carbonates or oxides, are practically insoluble in water. However, these can be converted to water-soluble salts in nature under the influence of oxygen and acids. Chronic exposure to Cd is associated with renal toxicity in humans once a critical body burden is reached. 3. The solubility of As(III) oxide in water is fairly low, but high in either acid or alkali. In water, arsenic is usually in the form of the arsenate or arsenite. As(III) is systemically more poisonous than the As(V), and As(V) is reduced to the As(III) form before exerting any toxic effects. Organic arsenicals also exert their toxic effects in vivo in animals by first metabolizing to the trivalent arsenoxide form. Some methyl arsenic compounds, such as di- and trimethylarsines, occur naturally as a consequence of biological activity. The toxic effect of arsenite can be potentiated by dithiols, while As has a protective effect against the toxicity of a variety of forms of Se in several species. 4. Selenium occurs in several oxidation states and many selenium analogues of organic sulfur compounds exist in nature. Selenium in selenate form occurs in alkaline soils, where it is soluble and easily available to plants. Selenite binds tightly to iron and aluminum oxides and thus is quite insoluble in soils. Hydrogen selenide is a very toxic gas at room temperature. The methylated forms of Se are much less toxic for the organism than selenite. However, the methylated Se derivatives have strong synergistic toxicity with other minerals such as arsenic. 5. Aquatic organisms absorb and retain Hg in the tissues, as methylmercury, although most of the environmental Hg to which they are exposed is inorganic. The methylmercury in fish arises from the bacterial methylation of inorganic Hg. Methylmercury in the human diet is almost completely absorbed into the bloodstream. The nervous system is the principal target tissue affected by methylmercury in adult human beings, while kidney is the critical organ following the ingestion of Hg(II) salts. PMID:7905798

Jonnalagadda, S B; Rao, P V

1993-11-01

433

Chemometric classification of casework arson samples based on gasoline content.  

PubMed

Detection and identification of ignitable liquids (ILs) in arson debris is a critical part of arson investigations. The challenge of this task is due to the complex and unpredictable chemical nature of arson debris, which also contains pyrolysis products from the fire. ILs, most commonly gasoline, are complex chemical mixtures containing hundreds of compounds that will be consumed or otherwise weathered by the fire to varying extents depending on factors such as temperature, air flow, the surface on which IL was placed, etc. While methods such as ASTM E-1618 are effective, data interpretation can be a costly bottleneck in the analytical process for some laboratories. In this study, we address this issue through the application of chemometric tools. Prior to the application of chemometric tools such as PLS-DA and SIMCA, issues of chromatographic alignment and variable selection need to be addressed. Here we use an alignment strategy based on a ladder consisting of perdeuterated n-alkanes. Variable selection and model optimization was automated using a hybrid backward elimination (BE) and forward selection (FS) approach guided by the cluster resolution (CR) metric. In this work, we demonstrate the automated construction, optimization, and application of chemometric tools to casework arson data. The resulting PLS-DA and SIMCA classification models, trained with 165 training set samples, have provided classification of 55 validation set samples based on gasoline content with 100% specificity and sensitivity. PMID:24447448

Sinkov, Nikolai A; Sandercock, P Mark L; Harynuk, James J

2014-02-01

434

Diffusion of gasoline-range hydrocarbon vapors in porous media  

SciTech Connect

In this study a variety of physical and chemical factors affecting gasoline-range hydrocarbon vapor diffusion were investigated using laboratory-scale soil column reactors. Experimentation was designed to simulate actual stabilized boundary conditions following a spill or subsurface discharge of immiscible contaminants (e.g., gasoline hydrocarbons) to the unsaturated zone. Experimental results are compared with values predicted using existing theories and models which describes gaseous diffusive flux through soil columns. Soil column reactors were constructed of 4'' I.D. aluminum pipe, and consisted of a liquid hydrocarbon reservoir, soil support screen, 15'' soil column with sample ports, an enclosed headspace and a metered headspace sweep gas device. The design of the column allowed the measurement of hydrocarbon concentration gradients and hydrocarbon flux rates. Diffusion of benzene vapor was observed in a series of experiments designed to isolate and evaluate the physical effects of soil factors such as temperature, effective porosity, tortuosity and moisture content. The individual diffusion of hexane, isooctane, benzene and toluene vapor was observed in a series of steady-state experiments to determine the effect of solvent type. Diffusion of hydrocarbon mixtures was observed in non-steady state experiments. Apparent diffusion constants measured in dry concrete sand at 20/sup 0/ C for hexane, isooctane, benzene and toluene were 0.013, 0.011, 0.014 and 0.015 cm/sup 2//sec respectively.

Bruell, C.J.

1987-01-01

435

Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres.  

PubMed

Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates. One chamber at the lowest dilution had particles removed by filtration. Each exposure atmosphere was characterized for particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and detailed chemical speciation. The majority of the mass in the exposure atmospheres was gaseous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organics, with small amounts of particle-bound carbon/ions and metals. The atmospheres varied according to the cycle, with the largest spikes in volatile organic and inorganic species shown during the "cold start" portion of the cycle. Ammonia present from the exhaust and rodents interacted with the gasoline exhaust to form secondary inorganic particles, and an increase in exhaust resulted in higher proportions of secondary inorganics as a portion of the total particle mass. Particle size had a median of 10-20 nm by number and approximately 150 nm by mass. Volatile organics matched the composition of the fuel, with large proportions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to low amounts of oxygenated organics. A new measurement technique revealed organics reacting with nitrogen oxides have likely resulted in measurement bias in previous studies of combustion emissions. Identified and measured particle organic species accounted for about 10% of total organic particle mass and were mostly aliphatic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:18951232

McDonald, Jacob D; Barr, Edward B; White, Richard K; Kracko, Dean; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Grosjean, Eric

2008-10-01

436

Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.  

PubMed

The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. PMID:23270957

de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

2013-01-15

437

Comprehension of drug toxicity: software and databases.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) are a tool (in silico) to rapidly predict various endpoints in general, and drug toxicity in particular. However, this dynamic evolution of experimental data (expansion of existing experimental data on drugs toxicity) leads to the problem of critical estimation of the data. The carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, liver effects and cardiac toxicity should be evaluated as the most important aspects of the drug toxicity. The toxicity is a multidimensional phenomenon. It is apparent that the main reasons for the increase in applications of in silico prediction of toxicity include the following: (i) the need to reduce animal testing; (ii) computational models provide reliable toxicity prediction; (iii) development of legislation that is related to use of new substances; (iv) filling data gaps; (v) reduction of cost and time; (vi) designing of new compounds; (vii) advancement of understanding of biology and chemistry. This mini-review provides analysis of existing databases and software which are necessary for use of robust computational assessments and robust prediction of potential drug toxicities by means of in silico methods. PMID:24480159

Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Raska, Ivan; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2014-02-01

438

Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)); Schweitzer, K.A. (Chemical Waste Management, Inc., Dartmouth, MA (United States)); Phelps, D.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States))

1993-01-01

439