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1

Ether oxygenate additives in gasoline reduce toxicity of exhausts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel additives can improve combustion and knock resistance of gasoline engines. Common additives in commercial fuels are “short-chain, oxygen containing hydrocarbons” such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Since these additives change the combustion characteristics, this may as well influence toxic effects of the resulting emissions. Therefore we compared toxicity and BTEX emissions of gasoline engine

G. A. Westphal; J. Krahl; T. Brüning; E. Hallier; J. Bünger

2010-01-01

2

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels.

Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

1993-01-01

3

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

Reese, E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kimbrough, R.D. [Inst. for Evaluating Health Risks, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01

4

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall:...

2013-07-01

5

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are...

2013-07-01

6

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are...

2010-07-01

7

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815 What are...

2009-07-01

8

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015...liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable...

2013-07-01

9

Toxicity of gasoline aqueous-leachate through sand-clay columns  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to understand the effect clay type and clay concentration may exert on the toxicity of the percolating water around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank. This situation in the laboratory was simulated using sand-clay columns. The experiment was conducted with two types of clays (kaolinite and illite) and three clay concentrations (0, 5 or 10%). The gasoline (0, 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8 mL) was injected through a hole in the middle of the column. After 24 hours of gasoline injection 100 mL of deionized water was added to the column and the leachate was tested for toxicity (EC[sub 50]) using the marine luminescent bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum). Leachate from the pure sand column was less toxic than the control but was more toxic than from the columns with clay. The addition of clay significantly reduced both the toxicity and the hydraulic conductivity. The toxicity increased significantly with the increase in gasoline concentration up to 0.5 mL but decreased with 0.8 mL gasoline. Using the concentrations of clay and the gasoline and the hydraulic conductivity a regression equation (R[sup 2] = 0.77) was calculated to predict the toxicity of the gasoline aqueous leachate. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Gupta, G.; Li, Y. (Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne (United States))

1993-05-01

10

Means of reducing the lead in automobile gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a discussion in six chapters of the effects of lead compounds in gasoline on various forms of life, world developments in controlling pollutants emitted in automobile exhaust, the refining methods used to produce gasoline, and means of reducing and eventually eliminating the lead content of gasoline.

Not Available

1986-01-01

11

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners and...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80.1035 ...attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...

2013-07-01

12

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart? 80... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What...

2013-07-01

13

Blending of economic, reduced oxygen, summer gasoline  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Provided is a novel summer gasoline composition which is substantially free of oxygenates, contains less than 20 ppm sulfur, and is in compliance with the California Predictive Model. The gasoline composition is suitable for use in the summer, i.e., having a Reid vapor pressure of 7.0 or less, but also offers the advantages of low-emissions while being substantially free of oxygenates. The method for blending the gasoline comprises blending streams from a refinery in a controlled manner to maintain compliance with the California Predictive Model.

2006-09-05

14

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and...

2013-07-01

15

Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit.  

PubMed

Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world's largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile fraction of formulated gasoline and the material with which humans are most likely to come in contact. The study was of standard design. Exposures were by inhalation at target concentrations of 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 mg/m(3). The highest exposure concentration was approximately 50% of the lower explosive limit and several orders of magnitude above anticipated exposure during refueling. There were no treatment-related clinical or systemic effects in the parental animals, and no microscopic changes other than hyaline droplet nephropathy in the kidneys of the male rats. None of the reproductive parameters were affected, and there were no deleterious effects on offspring survival and growth. The potential for endocrine modulation was also assessed by analysis of sperm count and quality as well as time to onset of developmental landmarks. No toxicologically important differences were found. Therefore, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in this study was > or =20 000 mg/m(3). The only systemic effects, in the kidneys of the male rats, were consistent with an alpha-2 u-globulin-mediated process. This is a male rat-specific effect and not relevant to human health risk assessment. PMID:10908837

McKee, R H; Trimmer, G W; Whitman, F T; Nessel, C S; Mackerer, C R; Hagemann, R; Priston, R A; Riley, A J; Cruzan, G; Simpson, B J; Urbanus, J H

16

Refiners have several options for reducing gasoline benzene  

SciTech Connect

Although the linkage between gasoline benzene content and evaporative, running, and tailpipe emission is not yet defined, the U.S. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate a benzene content of less than 1.0 vol% in reformulated gasolines. Likewise, the California Air Resources Board plans to restrict benzene to less than about 0.8 vol %. Mobil Research and Development Corp. and Badger Co. Inc. have developed several alternatives for reducing benzene levels in gasoline. Where benzene extraction is viable and maximum catalytic reformer hydrogen is needed, the companies' cumene and ethylbenzene processes are desirable. Mobil's benzene reduction process can be an alternative to benzene hydrosaturation. All of these processes utilize low-value offgas from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit.

Goelzer, A.R.; Hernandez-Robinson, A. (Badger Co. Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Ram, S. (Raytheon Engineers and Constructors Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Chin, A.A. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Harandi, M.N.; Smith, C.M. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States))

1993-09-13

17

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

18

Processing, compliance options can reduce cost of producing new gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The price difference between US conventional and reformulated gasolines is expected to be 3.1[cents]/gal higher, less than the 4[cents]/gal difference indicated in May by the New York Mercantile Exchange. The difference will be set by the central Atlantic and New England areas, which Bonner Moore projects to be significantly short on reformulated gasoline and long on conventional gasoline. Bonner Moore consultants, in an unpublished report, say refiners in the central Atlantic will not be able to economically convert much more than 70% of their gasoline output to reformulated gasoline. As a result, gasoline movements through the pipeline system supplying Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 1-the US East Coast-will have to increase to deliver reformulated gasoline produced on the Gulf Coast to New England and the Central Atlantic region. The paper discusses production costs, processing options, price differential, compliance, and benefits from averaging both oxygen and benzene parameters.

Not Available

1994-07-11

19

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

20

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25

21

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-01-01

22

Inhalation toxicity of methanol/gasoline in rats: effects of 13-week exposure.  

PubMed

The subchronic inhalation toxicity of a methanol/gasoline blend (85% methanol, 15% gasoline, v/v) was studied in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (10 animals per group) of both sexes were exposed to vapours of methanol/gasoline at 50/3, 500/30 and 5000/300ppm for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 13 weeks. Control animals inhaled filtered room air only. Control recovery and high dose recovery groups were also included which inhaled room air for an extra 4 weeks following the treatment period. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the treatment group and their growth curves were not significantly different from the control. Except for decreased forelimb grip strength in high dose females, no treatment-related neurobehavioural effects (4-6 hours post inhalation) were observed using screening tests which included cage-side observations, righting reflex, open field activities, and forelimb and hindlimb grip strength. At necropsy, the organ to body weight ratios for the liver, spleen, testes, thymus and lungs were not significantly different from the control group. There were no treatment-related effects in the hematological endpoints and no elevation in serum formate levels. Minimal serum biochemical changes were observed with the only treatment-related change being the decreased creatinine in the females. A dose-related increase in urinary ascorbic acid was detected in males after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, but not after the 12th week, and in females only at week-2. Increased urinary albumin was observed in treated males starting at the lowest dose and at all exposure periods, but not in females. A treatment-related increase in urinary beta 2-microglobulin was detected in males at week-2 only. Except for mild to moderate mucous cell metaplasia in nasal septum B, which occurred more often and with a slightly higher degree of severity in the low dose groups of both sexes, and presence of a minimal degree of interstitial lymphocyte infiltration in the prostate glands in the high dose males. No other significant microscopic changes were observed in the tissues of treated animals. Based on the marked increase in urinary ascorbic acid and albumin in the high dose males and the decreased forelimb grip strength in the high dose females, we concluded that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of methanol/gasoline vapour is 500/30 ppm. PMID:9664642

Poon, R; Park, G; Viau, C; Chu, I; Potvin, M; Vincent, R; Valli, V

23

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-01-01

24

Gasoline conservation: a procedure for measuring and reducing the driving of college students  

PubMed Central

The study sought to motivate college students to reduce the number of miles they drove each day and thus save gasoline. Students in two psychology classes were divided by class into two groups. The experimental group was offered various combinations of prizes such as cash, a tour of a mental-health facility, car servicing, and a university parking sticker for reducing driving. The value of the prize received was scaled in terms of per cent reduction in driving. The contrast group received no inducements. The condition in which the experimental group's mileage reduction was reinforced was counterbalanced by two baseline conditions. Several special recording procedures were used to reduce and detect the possibility of subjects altering their odometers, the source of the driving data. Experimental subjects reduced their average daily mileage by 20% relative to the initial baseline; the contrast group did not change. During the one-month reinforcement condition, the 12 experimental subjects saved some 170 gallons (worth $102) of gasoline.

Foxx, R. M.; Hake, D. F.

1977-01-01

25

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: an approach to minimize environmental pollution risk.  

PubMed

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations. PMID:16930589

Paixão, J F; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B L; Carvalho, G C; Silveira, J S C; Rebouças, M; Matias, G R A; Rodrigues, I L P

2006-08-22

26

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15

27

Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30-120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10 mM pyruvate or glucose (1.28 or 5.5 mM). LDH leakage was increased above control by 0.25 and 0.5 mM PAP beginning at 60 min and by 0.1 mM PAP at 120 min. Pyruvate prevented an increase in LDH leakage at 60- and 120-min exposure to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate also prevented a decline in ATP levels. Glucose (1.28 and 5.5 mM) provided less protection than pyruvate from PAP toxicity. Total glutathione levels were diminished by 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP within 60 and 30 min, respectively. Pyruvate prevented the decline in glutathione by 0.1 mM PAP at both time periods and at 30 min for 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate reduced the magnitude of glutathione depletion by 0.25 mM PAP following a 60-min incubation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in renal slices were increased at 60 min by exposure to 0.25 mM PAP, while pyruvate prevented increased GSSG levels by PAP. Pyruvate also reduced the extent of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins present after a 90-min incubation with PAP. These results indicate that pyruvate provided protection for PAP toxicity by providing an energy substrate and reducing oxidative stress.

Harmon, R. Christopher [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States); Kiningham, Kinsley K. [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States); Valentovic, Monica A. [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States)]. E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu

2006-06-01

28

Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission—particularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

29

Regional doxorubicin delivery reduces testicular toxicity.  

PubMed

Many anti-cancer drugs cause infertility. Regional delivery of these agents is a potential method to avoid this problem. We investigated the protective effect of normothermic testicular circulatory arrest on gonadal toxicity during doxorubicin administration in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Four groups of eight rats each were used. Animals in group 1 received no treatment. Rats in group 2 were anesthetized and received a bolus of intravenous doxorubicin (6 mg/kg). In groups 3 and 4, normothermic circulatory isolation of the left testis was induced by cross-clamping of the spermatic cord and gubernaculum immediately before doxorubicin administration. This was maintained for 15 min after doxorubicin administration in group 3 and for 45 min in group 4. Cessation and return of testicular blood flow were confirmed by Doppler. On Day 56, all rats were killed and necropsied. Testicular toxicity was evaluated qualitatively by histology and quantitatively by measurement of testicular weight, sperm count, repopulation index, and epididymal index. The results indicated that 15 min of testicular circulatory isolation mitigated testicular toxicity to a small extent and that 45 min of circulatory isolation provided moderate protection against doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:3626547

Lui, R C; LaRegina, M C; Herbold, D R; Stern, J A; Johnson, F E

1987-09-01

30

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat\\/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5

Duncan E. Hutcheon; W. ten Hove; J. Boyle; J. D. Arnold

1996-01-01

31

Gasoline composition for reducing intake valve deposits in port fuel injected engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an unleaded fuel composition. It comprises a major amount of hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an effective amount to reduce intake valve deposits in electronic port fuel injected engines of a mixture of about 2.5 ppmw or higher of basic nitrogen based on the fuel composition in the form of an oil soluble aliphatic alkylene polyamine containing at least one olefinic polymer chain attached to at least one nitrogen or carbon atom of the alkylene radical connecting the amino nitrogen atoms and the polyamine having a molecular weight in the range of from about 600 to about 10,000 and from about 75 ppmw to about 125 ppmw based on the fuel composition of at least one component selected from a polymer of a C{sub 2} to C{sub 6} monoolefin, the corresponding hydrogenated polymer or copolymer, an oil soluble poly(oxyalkylene) alcohol, glycol or polyol or a mono or di ether thereof, which has the formula R{sub 1}-O-(R{sub 2}O){sub n}-R{sub 3} wherein R{sub 1} and R{sub 3} each independently is a hydrogen atom or an aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbon group of up to 40 carbon atoms, R{sub 2} represents an alkylene group and n is an integer of at least 7, a naphthenic or paraffinic oil having a viscosity of 100{degrees}C.

Aiello, R.P.; Riley, M.J.; Millay, H.D.

1991-04-09

32

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01

33

Reduce toxic hazards using passive mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of the Risk Management Program Rule promulgated under Section 112(r) of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments is to prevent the accidental release of those chemicals that pose the greatest threat to the public and the environment, and to encourage emergency preparedness to mitigate the severity of such releases. The Rule requires facility owners to identify, evaluate, and communicate to the public any potential worst-case scenarios that could involve accidental releases of toxic and flammable substances. A worst-case scenario is defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, DC) as: {hor_ellipsis}the release of the largest quantity of a regulated substance from a vessel or process line failure that results in the greatest distance to an endpoint. When designing systems to store or process hazardous materials, passive-mitigation methods--those that function without human, mechanical, or energy input--should be considered. Such systems contain or limit a potential release of hazardous materials. And, because they have no mechanical requirements, passive-mitigation techniques are considered more reliable than active methods, such as emergency-shutdown and water-spray systems. Passive mitigation should also be considered when defining potential release scenarios and modeling hazard zones.

Flamberg, S.A.; Torti, K.S.; Myers, P.M. [ERM-Four Elements, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-07-01

34

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of parti...

K. J. Nikula G. L. Finch R. A. Westhouse J. C. Seagrove J. L. Mauderly

1999-01-01

35

Histone deacetylase inhibitors reduce polyglutamine toxicity  

PubMed Central

Polyglutamine diseases include at least nine neurodegenerative disorders, each caused by a CAG repeat expansion in a different gene. Accumulation of mutant polyglutamine-containing proteins occurs in patients, and evidence from cell culture and animal experiments suggests the nucleus as a site of pathogenesis. To understand the consequences of nuclear accumulation, we created a cell culture system with nuclear-targeted polyglutamine. In our system, cell death can be mitigated by overexpression of full-length cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) or its amino-terminal portion alone. CBP is one of several histone acetyltransferases sequestered by polyglutamine inclusions. We found histone acetylation to be reduced in cells expressing mutant polyglutamine. Reversal of this hypoacetylation, which can be achieved either by overexpression of CBP or its amino terminus or by treatment with deacetylase inhibitors, reduced cell loss. These findings suggest that nuclear accumulation of polyglutamine can lead to altered protein acetylation in neurons and indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for polyglutamine disease.

McCampbell, Alexander; Taye, Addis A.; Whitty, Leslie; Penney, Ellen; Steffan, Joan S.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

2001-01-01

36

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-05

37

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline.  

PubMed

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). The major metabolites of the oxidative demethylation of MTBE in vivo were methanol and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), whereas formaldehyde and TBA were the principal products of hepatic microsomal oxidation by cytochrome P-450. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats treated with intragastric MTBE in corn oil gave an initial disposition T1/2 for MTBE of 0.32 h. The decline in the serum drug versus time curve for MTBE in rats was accompanied by a progressive increase in serum methanol concentrations to levels more than 50-200 times those of the parent compound. Repeated exposure of MTBE vapor by inhalation in rats resulted in dose-dependent increases in MTBE in the blood, brain, and adipose tissue compartments. Blood concentrations of TBA were also dose dependent and provided an estimate of the total amount of MTBE distributed to peripheral drug metabolizing compartments. Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 microgram/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 microgram/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 microgram/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 microgram/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitative safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. PMID:8614015

Hutcheon, D E; Arnold, J D; ten Hove, W; Boyle, J

1996-04-01

38

Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of

Shing Tet Leong; S Muttamara; Preecha Laortanakul

2002-01-01

39

In Vitro Relative Toxicity Screening of Combined Particulate and semivolatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine technology modifications designed to reduce engine emissions are likely to alter the physicochemical characteristics of the emissions. These changes may alter the biological effects of the emissions, but these effects cannot currently be predicted from the physical and chemical properties. Rapid in vitro toxicity screening techniques to compare the biological effects of emission samples would be useful as preliminary

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Steven K. Seilkop

2003-01-01

40

RISK MANAGEMENT TO REDUCE LIVESTOCK LOSSES FROM TOXIC PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Risk of livestock losses to poisonous plants can be reduced on many ranges through prudent management based on application of existing knowledge. Poisonous plants can be categorized using both acceptability to livestock and a plant's toxic potential. Acceptability encompasses forage qualities such...

41

Reducing U.S. oil-import dependence: a tariff, subsidy, or gasoline tax?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low oil prices and rising oil imports have caused growing concern about U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply shocks. Mine K. Yucel and Carol Dahl devise a measure of vulnerability and use it to compare three policies that have been proposed to reduce U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply disruptions: a 25-percent oil-import tariff, a $5-per-barrel subsidy to domestic oil producers, and an increase

Mine K. Yücel; Carol Dahl

1990-01-01

42

Reduced intravenous toxicity of amiodarone nanosuspension in mice and rats.  

PubMed

The toxicity of amiodarone Lek formulation (test formulation) was investigated after a single intravenous (i.v.) administration to mice and rats. When compared to the reference item, Cordarone (Cordarone(®); Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA), median lethal dose (LD(50)) after i.v. administration in female mice was 294.0?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for the test formulation and 227.5?mg/kg b.w. for Cordarone. In female rats after i.v. administration, the LD(50) value was 269.9?mg/kg b.w. for the test formulation and 192.4?mg/kg b.w. for Cordarone. By altering the particle size of amiodarone in the Lek formulation, we were able to improve the solubility of amiodarone, thereby decreasing the number and quantity of excipients needed for preparation of the i.v. formulation and, consequently, reduced the acute toxic effects observed in the present study. PMID:22950665

Barle, Ester Lovšin; Cerne, Manica; Peternel, Luka; Homar, Miha

2012-09-06

43

Gasoline additive  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for improving the quality and performance of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing gasoline into the fuel tank of the internal combustion engine; and adding to the gasoline, in an amount effective to improve the performance of an internal combustion engine, a stable dispersion of 3 to 20 volume percent of a compound consisting essentially of polyoxyethylene sorbitol polyoleate in a gasoline-miscible oxygenated organic solvent; and operating the engine.

Weil, O.A.; Smith, G.G.

1990-03-06

44

Mutagenicity and in vivo toxicity of combined particulate and semivolatile organic fractions of gasoline and diesel engine emissions.  

PubMed

Exposure to engine emissions is associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the relative effects of emissions produced by different operating conditions, fuels, or technologies. Rapid screening techniques are needed to compare the biological effects of emissions with different characteristics. Here, we examined a set of engine emission samples using conventional bioassays. The samples included combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound fractions of emissions collected from normal- and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles collected at 72 degrees F, and from normal-emitter groups collected at 30 degrees F. The relative potency of the samples was determined by statistical analysis of the dose-response curves. All samples induced bacterial mutagenicity, with a 10-fold range of potency among the samples. Responses to intratracheal instillation in rats indicated generally parallel rankings of the samples by multiple endpoints reflecting cytotoxic, inflammatory, and lung parenchymal changes, allowing selection of a more limited set of parameters for future studies. The parameters selected to assess oxidative stress and macrophage function yielded little useful information. Responses to instillation indicated little difference in potency per unit of combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound mass between normal-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles, or between emissions collected at different temperatures. However, equivalent masses of emissions from high-emitter vehicles of both types were more potent than those from normal-emitters. While preliminary in terms of assessing contributions of different emissions to health hazards, the results indicate that a subset of this panel of assays will be useful in providing rapid, cost-effective feedback on the biological impact of modified technology. PMID:12441366

Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob D; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Nikula, Kristen J; Seilkop, Steven K; Gurevich, Michael; Mauderly, Joe L

2002-12-01

45

Generation of Transgenic Cassava Having Reduced Cyanide Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cassava plants possess a cyanide toxicity that is harmful to humans. In fact, a correlation has now been demonstrated between the cyanide content of poorly processed cassava and the occurrence of the neurological disorder called Konzo. This paper describe...

R. T. Sayre W. Roca

1990-01-01

46

Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

Campbell, Brian

2010-01-01

47

Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

Campbell, Brian

2010-01-01

48

Gasoline Additive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bisethylxanthogene has been found to improve the performance quality of gasoline containing manganese cyclopentadienyltricarbonyl. It has been found in one 400-hour engine test that the chemical compound helps eliminate combustion products that can cause ...

V. A. Zaetsev A. N. Nesmeyanov K. N. Anisimov M. O. Lerner A. A. Egorova

1974-01-01

49

Unusual lipid structures selectively reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribbon-like structures result when amphotericin B interacts with lipid in an aqueous environment. At high ratios of amphotericin to lipid these structures, which are lipid-stabilized amphotericin aggregates, become prevalent resulting in a dramatic attenuation of amphotericin-mediated mammalian cell, but not fungal cell, toxicity. Studies utilizing freeze-etch electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, ³¹P NMR, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy revealed that

A. S. Janoff; L. T. Boni; M. C. Popescu; S. R. Minchey; P. R. Cullis; T. D. Madden; T. Taraschi; S. M. Gruner; E. Shyamsunder; M. W. Tate; R. Mendelsohn; D. Bonner

1988-01-01

50

Reducing groundwater pollution by toxic substances: Procedures and policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major source of water-related health problems is the improper disposal of toxic substances in the environment. Toxic materials leaching from unregulated and unlined pits, ponds, lagoons, and landfills have created a widespread environmental nightmare in the United States and many other parts of the world. At present, there are two major and interrelated components of this problem in the United States. The first is the issue of cleaning up abandoned disposal sites that pose actual or potential threats to water supplies. The second aspect of the problem concerns the necessity of siting proper management, treatment, or disposal facilities in the future. Priorities must be set to allow efficient, effective, and equitable allocation of the scarce resources that are available for accomplishing these tasks. This article examines a number of the issues involved in setting these priorities, and presents the results obtained from a study of risk estimation and evaluation in the context of groundwater contamination by toxic substances. The article introduces a new concept of risk estimation, which is shown to produce more accurate and credible risk analyses. Finally, the relationships between risk credibility and public perceptions of procedural fairness and equity are examined as these factors bear on the institutional aspects of implementing policies for site cleanup and/or facility siting.

Waterstone, Marvin

1987-11-01

51

Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

Louv, Richard

2006-01-01

52

Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

Louv, Richard

2006-01-01

53

Potassium reduces lithium toxicity: circadian rhythm actions are maintained.  

PubMed

We tested whether a high potassium diet alters lithium's effects on locomotor activity rhythms to the same extent as it prevents lithium toxicity. Rats fed a standard diet containing 0.47% potassium lost weight after subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic pump delivering 1.35 mg of lithium chloride per hour, and most died or became sick within three weeks after implantation. In contrast, all rats fed a diet containing 4.1% potassium gained weight at the same rate regardless of whether they had received lithium infusions or placebo. In a second experiment, lithium administration by either diet or osmotic pump delayed wheel running rhythms, showing that lithium's central nervous system action did not depend on potassium intake or method of lithium administration. Dietary potassium supplementation may provide a useful strategy for improving the therapeutic index of lithium treatment. PMID:3600167

Klemfuss, H; Kripke, D F

1987-06-29

54

Characterization of Reduced Toxicity, High Performance Monopropellants at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current U.S. Air Force programs are working to develop reduced toxicity monopropellant formulations to replace spacecraft hydrazine monopropellant and exceed the monopropellant performance objective (greater than 50% increase in density impulse) specified...

T. W. Hawkins A. J. Brand M. B. McKay I. M. Ismail

2001-01-01

55

DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON'S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California that is necessary for reducing the volumes of saline drainage that require disposal. A potential limitation to the use of these waters for agricultural production is the extent by wh...

56

Reduce Toxic Exposures: Get Involved and Take Action!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing concern about the connection between many chemical exposures and learning and other developmental disabilities (LDD). National and local groups are developing new programs around the country that are making this connection--and taking action with regard to policy, education and research efforts. They are working towards reducing

Exceptional Parent, 2006

2006-01-01

57

BDNF Reduces the Retinal Toxicity of Verteporfin Photodynamic Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the most effective treatment for age-related macular degeneration, using laser activation of a photosensitizing dye to achieve closure of choroidal neovascularization. Although PDT preferentially af- fects pathologic vessels, it can also cause collateral damage to the overlying retina. In the current study, it was found that the neuroprotective agent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduces

Daniel M. Paskowitz; George Nune; Douglas Yasumura; Haidong Yang; Robert B. Bhisitkul; Shivani Sharma; Michael T. Matthes; Marco A. Zarbin; Matthew M. LaVail; Jacque L. Duncan

2004-01-01

58

[Toxicology of ethyl gasoline 78 and 94].  

PubMed

The authors have described clinical pictures of acute and chronic intoxication, especially toxic effect of ethyl gasoline upon nervous sytem, parenchymatous organs, and irritating effect on skin and mucous membranes. PMID:723613

Starzy?ski, Z; Szyma?ska, S; Jaraczewska, W; My?lak, Z

1978-01-01

59

Dissolved organic carbon reduces the toxicity of aluminum to three tropical freshwater organisms.  

PubMed

The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the toxicity of aluminum (Al) at pH 5 (relevant to acid mine drainage conditions), to the tropical green hydra (Hydra viridissima), green alga (Chlorella sp.), and cladoceran (Moinodaphnia macleayi) was assessed. Two DOC sources, a natural in situ DOC in soft billabong water (SBW) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) standard, were compared. The order of sensitivity of the test organisms to dissolved Al (0.1 µm fraction) was Hydra viridissima > Moinodaphnia macleayi > Chlorella sp. with DOC reducing dissolved Al toxicity most for Hydra viridissima. However, colloidal or precipitated Al may contribute indirectly to the toxicity for M. macleayi and Chlorella sp. The toxicity of dissolved Al was up to six times lower in test waters containing 10 mg L(-1) DOC (in the form of SRFA), relative to toxicity observed at 1 mg L(-1) DOC. In contrast, the toxicity of Al was up to two times lower in SBW containing 10 mg L(-1) DOC, relative to water containing 1 mg L(-1) DOC. The increased ability of SRFA in reducing Al toxicity was linked to its greater affinity for complexing Al compared with the in situ DOC. This has important implications for studies that use commercial standards of humic substances to predict Al toxicity in local environments. Speciation modeling demonstrated that Al(3+) and AlOH(2+) provided a strong relationship with toxicity. An empirical relationship is provided for each organism that can be used to predict Al toxicity at a given Al and DOC concentration. PMID:22105345

Trenfield, Melanie A; Markich, Scott J; Ng, Jack C; Noller, Barry; van Dam, Rick A

2012-02-01

60

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22

61

Extraction of bioavailable contaminants from marine sediments: an approach to reducing toxicity using adsorbent parcels.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates an approach to reducing acute toxicity in marine sediments using adsorbent parcels. Acute toxicity tests were carried using the marine amphipod Corophium volutator. Marine sediments were spiked with two know contaminants tributyltin and naphthalene and then treated with adsorbent parcels containing either amberlite XAD4 or activated carbon. Results showed that both types of adsorbent parcels were effective in reducing acute toxicity, not only within spiked sediments containing naphthalene and/or tributyltin, but also in an environmental field samples form an expected contaminated site. Adsorbent parcels such as these could provide a practical approach to remediate areas of contaminated sediment within marine environments. Furthermore adsorbents can be used as an identification tool for problematic contaminants using a toxicity identification evaluation approach. PMID:23711841

Goodsir, Freya; Fisher, Tom T; Barry, Jon; Bolam, Thi; Nelson, Leah D; Rumney, Heather S; Brant, Jan L

2013-05-24

62

Attenuating the toxicity of cisplatin by using selenosulfate with reduced risk of selenium toxicity as compared with selenite  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported that high doses of sodium selenite can reduce side effects of cisplatin (CDDP) without compromising its antitumor activity, thus substantially enhancing the cure rate in tumor-bearing mice. However, the toxicity of selenite at high doses should be a concern. The present study revealed that selenosulfate had much lower toxicity, but possessed equal efficacy in selenium (Se) utilization, as compared with selenite at similar doses when used for the intervention of CDDP. In addition, Se accumulation in whole blood and kidney of mice treated with selenosulfate was highly correlated with the survival rate of mice treated with CDDP (both r > 0.96 and both p < 0.05), suggesting that whole blood Se is a potential clinical biomarker to predict host tolerance to CDDP. In either Se-deficient or -sufficient mice bearing solid tumors of hepatoma 22 (H22), selenosulfate did not disturb the therapeutic effect of CDDP on tumors but effectively attenuated the toxicity of CDDP. Furthermore, in a highly malignant cancer model, with Se-sufficient mice bearing ascitic H22 cells, 8 or 10 mg/kg CDDP alone only achieved a null or 25% cure rate, whereas coadministration of selenosulfate with the above two doses of CDDP achieved cure rates of 87.5% or 75%. These results together argue for consideration of selenosulfate as an agent to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP.

Zhang Jinsong [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)], E-mail: zjszyzzc@mail.hf.ah.cn; Peng Dungeng; Lu Hongjuan; Liu Qingliang [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, Anhui (China)

2008-02-01

63

Alternative approaches can greatly reduce the number of fish used for acute toxicity testing.  

PubMed

Acute toxicity tests with algae, daphnids, and fish are required for the classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals. The degree of risk is determined by the lowest of these acute toxicity values. Many ecotoxicological programs are seeking to reduce the numbers of fish used in acute toxicity testing. The acute threshold test is a recently proposed strategy that uses, on average, only 10 (instead of 54) fish per chemical. We examined the consequences of reducing the number of fish used in toxicity testing on the ultimate outcome of risk assessments. We evaluated toxicity data sets for 507 compounds, including agrochemicals, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals from our internal database. Theoretical applications of the acute threshold test gave similar results to those obtained with the standard fish median lethal concentration (LC50) test but required only 12% as many fish (3195 instead of 27,324 fish used for all compounds in the database). In 188 (90%) of the 208 cases for which a complete data set was available, the median effect concentration for algae or daphnids was lower than the LC50 for fish. These results show that replacement of the standard fish LC50 test by the acute threshold test would greatly reduce the number of fish needed for acute ecotoxicity testing without any loss of reliability. PMID:16704064

Hoekzema, Conny C; Murk, Albertinka J; Van de Waart, Beppy J; Van der Hoeven, Jan C M; De Roode, Daphne F

2006-05-01

64

INCREASED TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT 'SALMO GAIRDNERI' RESULTING FROM REDUCED CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The median lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow-through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6-8.6 mg/L, the fo...

65

Biocompatible gellan gum-reduced gold nanoparticles: cellular uptake and subacute oral toxicity studies.  

PubMed

Currently gold nanoparticles are being explored for drug delivery and other biomedical applications; therefore it is necessary to study the fate of such nanoparticles inside the body. The objective of the present study was to investigate the cellular uptake and toxicity of the gold nanoparticles synthesized using a microbial polysaccharide, gellan gum, as a capping and reducing agent. The cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles was studied on mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, NIH3T3 and human glioma cell line, LN-229. The cellular uptake study indicated that the gellan gum-reduced gold nanoparticles were located in cancer cells (LN-229) while no uptake was observed in normal mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (NIH3T3). The toxicity of the gold nanoparticles was evaluated by carrying out subacute 28 day oral toxicity studies in rats. Subacute administration of gum-reduced gold nanoparticles to the rats did not show any hematological or biochemical abnormalities. The weight and normal architecture of various organs did not change compared with control. The current findings, while establishing the specific uptake of nanoparticles into cancerous cells, also demonstrates that the gellan gum-reduced gold nanoparticles are devoid of toxicity in animals following oral administration. PMID:21089158

Dhar, Sheetal; Mali, Vishal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Shiras, Anjali; Prasad, B L V; Pokharkar, Varsha

2010-11-19

66

Reduced toxicity of fumonisin B1 in corn grits by single-screw extrusion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extrusion cooking under conditions of high heat and pressure reduces the concentration of fumonisins in corn-based products; however, the toxicity of heretofore uncharacterized fumonisin reactions products in extruded materials has not been determined. Uncontaminated corn grits, grits spiked with 3...

67

A community-based initiative to reduce children's exposure to toxics in household products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The program model was based on the premise that community health workers have the potential to deliver

Anne Berlin Blackman; Jack Luskin

2006-01-01

68

Comparative Toxicity Studies at Reduced and Ambient Pressures. I. Acute Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparison of the acute response to toxicants at ambient and reduced pressures (5 psia; 100% O2) were made by exposing monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice for 2 weeks of continuous inhalation exposure to NO2, O3, and CCl4. The experimental results show a defini...

J. M. McNerney J. D. MacEwen

1965-01-01

69

A Community-Based Initiative to Reduce Children's Exposure to Toxics in Household Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design/methodology/approach--The program model was based on the…

Blackman, Anne Berlin; Luskin, Jack

2006-01-01

70

Protecting the Great Lakes: The Costs and Benefits of Reducing Toxic Pollution in Three Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA recently issued common-sense guidelines to reduce toxic pollution in the Great Lakes and ensure protection for the environment and people living in the area. Will this protection come at a reasonable cost. Results from a detailed evaluation of impacts...

1995-01-01

71

Phlorizin pretreatment reduces acute renal toxicity in a mouse model for diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Streptozotocin (STZ) is widely used as diabetogenic agent in animal models for diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is also directly cytotoxic to kidneys, making it difficult to distinguish between DN-related and STZ-induced nephropathy. Therefore, an improved protocol to generate mice for DN studies, with a quick and robust achievement of the diabetic state, without direct kidney toxicity is required. To investigate the mechanism leading to STZ-induced nephropathy, kidney damage was induced with a high dose of STZ. This resulted in delayed gastric emptying, at least partially caused by impaired desacyl ghrelin clearance. STZ uptake in the kidneys is to a large extent mediated by the sodium/glucose cotransporters (Sglts) because the Sglt inhibitor phlorizin could reduce STZ uptake in the kidneys. Consequently, the direct toxic effects in the kidney and the gastric dilatation were resolved without interfering with the ?-cell toxicity. Furthermore, pancreatic STZ uptake was increased, hereby decreasing the threshold for ?-cell toxicity, allowing for single low non-nephrotoxic STZ doses (70 mg/kg). In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into the mechanism of STZ toxicity in kidneys and suggests a more efficient regime to induce DN with little or no toxic side effects. PMID:23940028

Brouwers, Bas; Pruniau, Vincent P E G; Cauwelier, Elisa J G; Schuit, Frans; Lerut, Evelyne; Ectors, Nadine; Declercq, Jeroen; Creemers, John W M

2013-08-11

72

Human endometrial cell coculture reduces the endocrine disruptor toxicity on mouse embryo development  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Previous studies suggested that endocrine disruptors (ED) are toxic on preimplantation embryos and inhibit development of embryos in vitro culture. However, information about the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on preimplantation development of embryo in human reproductive environment is lacking. Methods Bisphenol A (BPA) and Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) were used as endocrine disruptors in this study. Mouse 2-cell embryos were cultured in medium alone or vehicle or co-cultured with human endometrial epithelial layers in increasing ED concentrations. Results At 72 hours the percentage of normal blastocyst were decreased by ED in a dose-dependent manner while the co-culture system significantly enhanced the rate and reduced the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on the embryonic development in vitro. Conclusions In conclusion, although EDs have the toxic effect on embryo development, the co-culture with human endometrial cell reduced the preimplantation embryo from it thereby making human reproductive environment protective to preimplantation embryo from the toxicity of endocrine disruptors.

2012-01-01

73

Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD.

Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

2013-01-01

74

Effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the toxicity of a coal liquefaction product to juvenile channel catfish  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrotreatment in reducing the acute toxicity of a representative coal liquefaction product. Acute bioassays with juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were used to compare the toxicities of raw (nonupgraded) H-Coal oil, four samples of the same H-Coal oil subjected to different degrees of upgrading by hydrotreatment, and a petroleum crude oil. Channel catfish were chosen because they have considerable commercial and sport fisheries value and are likely to be abundant in large rivers where commercial coal liquefaction facilities will be located.

Cada, G.F.; Kenna, M.

1985-05-01

75

Studies on the Low Toxicity of Reduced Iron, B.P. 1932  

PubMed Central

Reduced iron, B.P. 1932, an old form of medicinal metallic iron powder, was given by mouth to albino rats. Measurable toxic effects were not produced until the dose reached 10 g./kg. body weight, which is 10 times the LD50 of iron similarly given as ferrous sulfate. Death occurred at three days and after from doses of 60 to 100 g./kg. and was due to hemoconcentration and vascular congestion of the liver and kidneys resulting from absorption of iron through an inflamed gastrointestinal mucosa. Larger doses produced death in one to three days from bowel obstruction due to impaction of iron in the stomach and intestines. The results suggest that reduced iron is the least toxic of all iron medicinal preparations and that re-investigation of its therapeutic value is warranted.

Boyd, Eldon M.; Shanas, M. N.

1967-01-01

76

Salicylic Acid Reduces Napropamide Toxicity by Preventing Its Accumulation in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has\\u000a led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether\\u000a SA regulates plant response to herbicides

Jing Cui; Rui Zhang; Guo Lin Wu; Hong Mei Zhu; Hong Yang

2010-01-01

77

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG Reduces Aflatoxin B1 Transport, Metabolism, and Toxicity in Caco-2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is able to bind the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and thus potentially restrict its rapid absorption from the intestine. In this study we investigated the potential of GG to reduce AFB1 availability in vitro in Caco-2 cells adapted to express cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4, such that both transport and toxicity could be assessed. Caco-2

S. Gratz; Q. K. Wu; H. El-Nezami; R. O. Juvonen; H. Mykkanen; P. C. Turner

2007-01-01

78

Role of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Reducing Toxicity in Dose Escalation for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated to a total dose of 78 Gy with either a three-conformal radiotherapy technique with a sequential boost (SEQ) or a simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 78 prostate cancer patients participating in the randomized Dutch trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy were the subject of this analysis. They were all treated at the same institution to a total dose of 78 Gy. The median follow-up was 76 and 56 months for the SEQ and SIB-IMRT groups, respectively. The primary endpoints were acute and late GI and GU toxicity. Results: A significantly lower incidence of acute Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity occurred in patients treated with SIB-IMRT compared with SEQ (20% vs. 61%, p = 0.001). For acute GU toxicity and late GI and GU toxicity, the incidence was lower after SIB-IMRT, but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference were found in the 5-year freedom from biochemical failure rate (Phoenix definition) between the two groups (70% for the SIB-IMRT group vs. 61% for the SEQ group, p = 0.3). The same was true for the 5-year freedom from clinical failure rate (90% vs. 72%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that SIB-IMRT reduced the toxicity without compromising the outcome in patients with localized prostate cancer treated to 78 Gy radiation.

Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.al-mamgani@erasmusmc.nl; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2009-03-01

79

Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2012-04-01

80

Prevention of patulin toxicity on rumen microbial fermentation by SH-containing reducing agents.  

PubMed

Patulin, a toxic fungal metabolite, negatively affects rumen fermentation. This mycotoxin has also been associated with intoxication cases in cattle. This study investigates the use of SH-containing reducing compounds to prevent patulin's negative effects on the rumen microbial ecosystem. The effect of 50 microg/mL patulin on the fermentation of alfalfa hay was measured in batch cultures with and without reducing agents. Sulfhydryl-containing cysteine and glutathione prevented the negative effects of the toxin on dry matter degradation, gas, and volatile fatty acid production (P < 0.01). However, non-sulfhydryl-containing ascorbic and ferulic acids did not protect against patulin's toxicity (P > 0.01). Patulin was unstable in buffered rumen fluid as the concentration decreased by half after 4 h of incubation. In the presence of sulfhydryl groups, the toxin disappeared rapidly and was not detected after 1 h of incubation. The utilization of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as cysteine to avert patulin toxicity could have practical implications in ruminant nutrition. PMID:14582994

Morgavi, Diego P; Boudra, Hamid; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Graviou, Dominique

2003-11-01

81

Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

2013-10-01

82

High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury.

Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M.; Al-Dekheil, Ali; Babkr, Ali; Farahna, Mohammed; Mousa, Hassan M.

2010-01-01

83

Reduced in vitro and in vivo toxicity of siRNA-lipoplexes with addition of polyglutamate.  

PubMed

We previously designed a new siRNA vector that efficiently silences genes in vitro and in vivo. The vector originality is based on the fact that, in addition to the siRNA molecule, it contains two components: 1) a cationic liposome that auto-associates with the siRNA to form particles called "lipoplexes" and, 2) an anionic polymer which enhances the lipoplex's efficiency. This anionic polymer can be a nucleic acid, a polypeptide or a polysaccharide. We show here how the nature of the added anionic polymer into our siRNA delivery system impacts the toxic effects induced by siRNA lipoplexes. We first observed that: (i) siRNA lipoplexes-induced toxicity was cell line dependent, tumoral cell lines being the more sensitive; and (ii) plasmid DNA-containing siRNA lipoplexes were more toxic than polyglutamate-containing ones or cationic liposomes. We next determined that the toxicity induced by plasmid-containing lipoplexes is a long-lasting effect that decreased cell survival capacity for several generations. We also found that treated cells underwent death following apoptosis pathway. Systemic injection to mice of siRNA lipoplexes, rather than of cationic liposome, triggered a production of several cytokines in mice and replacement of plasmid by polyglutamate reduced the elevation of all assayed cytokines. In order to enhance siRNA lipoplexes efficiency, the addition of polyglutamate as anionic polymer should be preferred to plasmid DNA as far as in vitro as well as in vivo toxicity is concerned. PMID:23123257

Schlegel, Anne; Bigey, Pascal; Dhotel, Hélène; Scherman, Daniel; Escriou, Virginie

2012-11-02

84

Strategies for elimination of cyanogens from cassava for reducing toxicity and improving food safety.  

PubMed

Toxicity of cassava arises due to the presence of the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin which are hydrolysed by endogenous enzyme linamarase to acetonecyanohydrin (ACN) and cyanide (CN) which are toxic. Major research efforts to eliminate/reduce cyanoglucosides have focused on (i) development of acyanogenic cassava varieties by breeding; (ii) controlling its metabolism; and (iii) processing to remove cyanogens. The cyanoglucoside (CNG) content in cassava is genetically controlled and cultivars may be classified as low (<50 ?g/g), medium (50-100 ?g/g) and high CN (>100 ?g CN eq./g) varieties. Molecular techniques for reducing tuber CNG have focused on development of transgenic plants with reduced expression of cyt P 450 in leaves, or increased expression of hydroxynitrilelyase in tuber. For immediate solution, CNG content can be reduced using several processing methods. Traditional methods used for processing include boiling, drying, parboiling and drying, baking, steaming, frying and preparation of flour. These processes result in CN losses ranging from 25% to 98%. The cyanogen level in the final product is influenced both by the tuber CNG and the method of processing. In order to achieve safe levels of 10 ?g/g in cassava products, new methods of processing, especially for cassava containing more than 250 ?g CN eq./g, remains a challenging problem. PMID:21074593

Nambisan, Bala

2010-11-11

85

Rapid Selection of Cyclic Peptides that Reduce ?-Synuclein Toxicity in Yeast and Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Phage display has demonstrated the utility of cyclic peptides as general protein ligands, but cannot access proteins inside eukaryotic cells. Expanding a novel chemical genetics tool, we describe the first expressed library of head-to-tail cyclic peptides in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We applied the library to selections in a yeast model of ?-synuclein toxicity that recapitulates much of the cellular pathology of Parkinson’s disease. From a pool of five million transformants, we isolated two related cyclic peptide constructs which specifically reduce the toxicity of human ?-synuclein. These expressed cyclic peptide constructs also prevent dopaminergic neuron loss in an established Caenorhabditis elegans Parkinson’s model. This work highlights the speed and efficiency of using libraries of expressed cyclic peptides for forward chemical genetics in cellular models of human disease.

Kritzer, Joshua A.; Hamamichi, Shusei; McCaffery, J. Michael; Santagata, Sandro; Naumann, Todd A.; Caldwell, Kim A.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Lindquist, Susan

2009-01-01

86

Rapid selection of cyclic peptides that reduce alpha-synuclein toxicity in yeast and animal models.  

PubMed

Phage display has demonstrated the utility of cyclic peptides as general protein ligands but cannot access proteins inside eukaryotic cells. Expanding a new chemical genetics tool, we describe the first expressed library of head-to-tail cyclic peptides in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We applied the library to selections in a yeast model of alpha-synuclein toxicity that recapitulates much of the cellular pathology of Parkinson's disease. From a pool of 5 million transformants, we isolated two related cyclic peptide constructs that specifically reduced the toxicity of human alpha-synuclein. These expressed cyclic peptide constructs also prevented dopaminergic neuron loss in an established Caenorhabditis elegans Parkinson's model. This work highlights the speed and efficiency of using libraries of expressed cyclic peptides for forward chemical genetics in cellular models of human disease. PMID:19597508

Kritzer, Joshua A; Hamamichi, Shusei; McCaffery, J Michael; Santagata, Sandro; Naumann, Todd A; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A; Lindquist, Susan

2009-07-13

87

Toxic agent and radiation control: meeting the 1990 objectives for the nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic agent and radiation control is 1 of the 15 health priority areas addressed through the Public Health Service's Objectives for the Nation. Several gains in moving toward the 1990 goals for toxic agent and radiation control have been recorded. Research and technical assistance, combined with legislation to reduce the amount of lead in gasoline, have contributed to a decrease

Rall

2009-01-01

88

Curcumin reduces the toxic effects of iron loading in rat liver epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background/aims Iron overload can cause liver toxicity and increase the risk of liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the food spice turmeric, has antioxidant, iron binding, and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to quantify its effects on iron overload and resulting downstream toxic effects in cultured T51B rat liver epithelial cells. Methods T51B cells were loaded with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) with or without the iron delivery agent 8-hydroxyquinoline. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Iron uptake and iron bioavailability were documented by chemical assay, quench of calcein fluorescence, and ferritin induction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by fluorescence assay using 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Oxidative stress signaling to jnk, c-jun, and p38 was measured by western blot with phospho-specific antibodies. Results Curcumin bound iron, but did not block iron uptake or bioavailability in T51B cells given FAC. However, it reduced cytotoxicity, blocked generation of ROS, and eliminated signaling to cellular stress pathways caused by iron. Inhibition was observed over a wide range of FAC concentrations (50 – 500 ?M), with an apparent IC50 in all cases between 5 and 10 ?M curcumin. In contrast, desferoxamine blocked both iron uptake and toxic effects of iron at concentrations that depended on the FAC concentration. Effects of curcumin also differed from those of ?-tocopherol, which did not bind iron and was less effective at blocking iron-stimulated ROS generation. Conclusions Curcumin reduced iron-dependent oxidative stress and iron toxicity in T51B cells without blocking iron uptake.

Messner, Donald J.; Sivam, Gowsala; Kowdley, Kris V.

2008-01-01

89

Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Reduces Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients Treated With Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (AD) has been shown to increase late Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity when used concurrently with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicity by limiting the radiation dose received by the bowel and bladder. The present study compared the genitourinary and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in men treated with 3D-CRT+AD

Navesh K. Sharma; Tianyu Li; David Y. Chen; Alan Pollack; Eric M. Horwitz; Mark K. Buyyounouski

2011-01-01

90

Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to investigate the emissions effects of low-oxygenate gasoline blends on exhaust and evaporative emissions from a test fleet of California certified light-duty autos. Thirteen vehicles were procured and tested using four gasoline-oxygenate blends over three test cycles. The four gasoline blends were: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and 'match' and 'splash' blends of ethanol (in the 'match' blend the fuel Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is held constant, while in the 'splash' blend the fuel RVP is allowed to increase). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions were generally reduced for the oxygenated blends, the exception being the 'splash-blended' ethanol gasoline which showed mixed results. Older technology vehicles (e.g., non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst) showed the greatest emissions reductions regardless of gasoline blend, while later technology vehicles showed the smallest reductions. Evaporative emissions and toxics were generally reduced for ETBE, while results for the other blends were mixed.

Born, G.L.; Lucas, S.V.; Scott, R.D.; DeFries, T.H.; Kishan, S.

1994-02-01

91

Diadenosine Tetraphosphate Reduces Toxicity caused by High-Dose Methamphetamine Administration  

PubMed Central

Diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A), two adenosine moieties bridged by four phosphates, is an endogenous purinergic ligand found in brain. Previous studies have shown that AP4A reduced neurodegeneration caused by the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine in rat striatum and substantia nigra. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP4A is protective against methamphetamine (MA) –mediated toxicity. Primary neuronal cultures were prepared from rat embryonic (E14- E15) ventral mesencephalic tissue. Cultures treated with 2 mM MA exhibited decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity and increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity and TUNEL labeling. All these changes were lessened by pretreatment with AP4A. The protective effect of AP4A was also found in vivo. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with AP4A (25 ?g/ 20 ?l) or vehicle intracerebroventricularly followed by 4 doses of MA (5 or 10 mg/ kg), given subcutaneously every two hours. Administration of MA reduced locomotor activity one day after injection, which was significantly antagonized by the pretreatment with AP4A. Using immunohistochemical analysis, TH fiber density at the substantia nigra pars reticulata was found reduced while cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity in striatum was increased after MA treatment; these responses were also significantly antagonized by AP4A. Taken together, our data show that AP4A has protective effects against MA-mediated toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of action involves suppression of MA -induced apoptosis.

Harvey, Brandon K.; Chou, Jenny; Shen, Hui; Hoffer, Barry J.; Wang, Yun

2009-01-01

92

Protecting the Great Lakes: The costs and benefits of reducing toxic pollution in three communities  

SciTech Connect

EPA recently issued common-sense guidelines to reduce toxic pollution in the Great Lakes and ensure protection for the environment and people living in the area. Will this protection come at a reasonable cost. Results from a detailed evaluation of impacts for three communities in the region reveal that public health and environmental benefits will outweigh the costs of achieving those reductions. The three communities evaluated were the Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin; the Saginaw River near Bay City, Michigan; and the Black River near Cleveland, Ohio. Information on the case study results is provided.

NONE

1995-11-01

93

Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.  

PubMed

In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95?L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. PMID:23180692

Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

2013-03-01

94

Pumping oxygen into gasoline  

SciTech Connect

To reduce atmospheric concentration of certain pollutants notably carbon monoxide (CO), incompletely combusted hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx), EPA as early as January 1988 began testing oxygenated fuels in such cities as Denver and Albuquerque, N.M. The CAA Amendments require using oxygenated gasoline in cities where CO levels exceed National Ambient Air Quality standards. The law, which became effective Nov. 2, affects about 40 urban areas during the winter, when CO levels are higher. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), methanol, ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) or ethanol are used to increase the oxygen content of motor fuel. Do these additives improve air quality The answer is a qualified no. Although oxygenated fuels reduce emissions from older automobiles, there is no statistical improvement in automotive emissions for newer vehicles equipped with three-way catalytic converters. Oxygenates have increased overall fuel cost $14 million annually in the Denver area but have not improved air quality as expected.

Wray, T.K.

1993-10-01

95

Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity - Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity.

Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

2013-01-01

96

Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases.

Wang Hongmin [Medical Biotechnology Center, Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Room N352, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Monteiro, Mervyn J. [Medical Biotechnology Center, Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Room N352, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)]. E-mail: monteiro@umbi.umd.edu

2007-08-01

97

40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined? 80.825 Section 80.825... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.825 How is...

2009-07-01

98

40 CFR 80.825 - How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How is the refinery or importer annual average toxics value determined? 80.825 Section 80.825... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.825 How is...

2013-07-01

99

Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. PMID:12953887

Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

2003-08-15

100

Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol produced from biomass has high octane number and gives lower emissions. Therefore, it is used as alternative fuel in the gasoline engines. In this study, ethanol was used as fuel at high compression ratio to improve performance and to reduce emissions in a small gasoline engine with low efficiency. Initially, the engine whose compression ratio was 6\\/1 was tested

M. Bahattin Celik

2008-01-01

101

Comparative study of regulated and unregulated air pollutant emissions before and after conversion of automobiles from gasoline power to liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline dual-fuel retrofits.  

PubMed

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly being examined as an alternative to gasoline use in automobiles as interest grows in reducing air pollutant emissions. In this study, emissions of regulated (CO, THC, NO(x)) and unregulated air pollutants, including CO2, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and BTEX (acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), were measured before and after conversion of nine gasoline-powered automobiles to LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. The tests were conducted on a standard chassis dynamometer in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency FTP-75 test procedure, with the exception that all tests were conducted under hot-start driving conditions. The influences of LPG on air pollutant emission levels and carcinogenic potency were investigated and compared with gasoline. The results showed average emission factors of 0.14 g/km, 0.33 mg/km, 0.09 g/km, 0.44 g/km, and 197 g/km for CO, THC, NO(x), PM, and CO2, respectively, for LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. Paired-sample t-test results indicated that the emissions of CO (p = 0.03), THC (p = 0.04), and CO2 (p = 4.6 x 10(-8)) were significantly reduced with the retrofit in comparison with gasoline-powered automobiles. The reduction percentages were 71%, 89%, and 14% for CO, THC, and CO2, respectively. The average total PAH emission factor for LPG was 217 microg/km, which is significantly lower than gasoline (863 microg/km; p = 0.05). The PAH corresponding carcinogenicities (BaP(eq)) were calculated via toxic equivalencies based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Paired-sample t-test results fortotal BaP(eq) emissions showed no significant difference between gasoline (30.0 microg/km) and LPG (24.8 microg/km) at a confidence level of 95%. The discrepancy between PAH and BaP(eq) emissions resulted from the higher emission percentages of high molecular weight PAHs for LPG, which might be from lubricant oil. The average emission factors of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were 351, 4400, 324, and 1100 microg/ km, respectively, with LPG as fuel, which were all significantly lower than those for gasoline (95% confidence level). The average reduction percentages were 78%, 61%, 57%, and 58% for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, respectively. PMID:18200881

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Man-Ting; Peng, Chiung-Yu

2007-12-15

102

Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.co [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M. [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

2010-07-01

103

Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum).  

PubMed

There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50)=134 ?g L(-1)U at 20 mg CaCO(3 )L(-1) hardness, increasing to 547 ?g L(-1) U at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K=6.25 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness, decreasing to log K=5.64 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO(3) L(-1) hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO(2)(2+), UO(2)OH(+), UO(2)(OH)(2)) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) and UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO(2)(2+) (and/or UO(2)OH(+)) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer), and consequently, less U bound to physiologically active cell surface sites. In the absence of a biotic ligand model for U, the results of this study (together with previous work) reinforce the need for a more flexible, hardness-dependent, U guideline for the protection of selected freshwater biota. PMID:23220392

Markich, Scott J

2012-12-06

104

Gasoline additive composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gasoline additive composition comprising the following components: (a) from about 0.1 to about 20% by weight of an organic peroxide; (b) from about 0.5 to about 20% by weight of a gasoline detergent selected from fatty amines and the ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty diamines, fatty imidazolines formed by reaction of a fatty acid having from ten to twenty carbon atoms with ethylene diamine and derivatives; polymeric amines and derivates; and combinations of the amines, diamines, fatty imidazolines, and polymeric amines with carboxylic acids having from three to forty carbon atoms; (c) from about 99.4 to about 60% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent selected from unleaded gasoline and higher boiling solvents compatible with gasoline and having no adverse effect on the performance of gasoline in the engine; this composition is intended to be used in unleaded and leaded gasolines at a level of from about 0.01% to about 5%.

Vataru, M.; Schenach, T.A.

1987-08-04

105

Cisplatin toxicity reduced in human cultured renal tubular cells by oxygen pretreatment.  

PubMed

Abstract Cisplatin is an effective and widely used chemotherapy agent and its side effects, particularly nephrotoxicity, limit its usage and related platinum-based drugs. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity is mainly due to extremely increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to kidney tubular cell death. Preconditioning with oxidative stress has been demonstrated to stimulate the cellular adaptation to subsequent severe oxidative stress. Short term oxygen pre-exposure as a mild oxidative stress may enhance some endogenous defense mechanisms, so its effect on Cisplatin induced cell death was investigated in present research. We studied the effects of hyperoxic environment pre-exposure on Cisplatin toxicity in an in-vitro model of cultured human embryonic tubular epithelial cells (AD293). Viability of AD293 cells, as evaluated by MTT-assay, was affected by Cisplatin in a time (1-4?h) dependent model. Biochemical markers of cell apoptosis were evaluated using immunoblotting. Pretreatment with nearly pure oxygen (?90%) for 2?h significantly reduced the level of cell damage. Activated caspase 3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were significantly increased in Cisplatin-treated cells. Oxygen pretreatment inhibited caspase 3 activation and decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Oxygen pre-treatment itself not showed any cytotoxicity in exposure times up to 3?h. Our data indicate that hyperoxic preconditioning reduces Cisplatin toxicity in cultured human tubular epithelial cells. The exact mechanism of protection is unclear, though enhancement of some endogenous defense mechanisms and subsequently scavenging of free oxygen radicals may play an important role. PMID:24001324

Kaeidi, Ayat; Rasoulian, Bahram; Hajializadeh, Zahra; Pourkhodadad, Soheila; Rezaei, Maryam

2013-09-04

106

Phytoestrogenic isoflavones daidzein and genistein reduce glucose-toxicity-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction in ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence suggests a reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis in populations with a high dietary intake of plant estrogen or phytoestrogen. The clinical benefit of phytoestrogens in cereals, vegetables and medicinal plants is attracting increasing attention for the general public. In the present study, we examined the effect of phytoestrogenic isoflavones daidzein and genistein on glucose toxicity-induced cardiac mechanical malfunction simulating diabetic cardiomyopathy. Adult rat ventricular myocytes were isolated and maintained for 24 hours in normal (NG, 5.5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 25.5 mM) medium in the absence or presence of isoflavones daidzein (50 microM) or genistein (20 microM). Cardiac contractile indices were evaluated using an IonOptix MyoCam system including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt), time-to-PS (TPS) and time-to-90% relengthening (TR90). Myocytes maintained in HG medium displayed altered mechanical function simulating in vivo diabetes including reduced PS, +/- dL/dt and prolonged TR90 associated with normal TPS compared to those from NG myocytes. Interestingly, these HG-induced mechanical dysfunctions were abolished by co-incubation of daidzein or genistein. However, daidzein but not genistein itself depressed PS in NG myocytes. Neither daidzein nor genistein affected any other mechanical parameters tested in NG myocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that the phytoestrogenic isoflavones daidzein and genistein may reduce glucose toxicity-induced cardiac mechanical dysfunction and thus possess therapeutic potential against diabetes-associated cardiac defects. PMID:15473131

Hintz, Kadon K; Ren, Jun

2004-05-01

107

Sulfur and olefin management in the gasoline  

SciTech Connect

As transportation fuel composition is fine-tuned, sulfur and olefin concentration in the gasoline will come under increased scrutiny. This paper presents various options to limit sulfur and olefins with special emphasis on FCC Gasoline Desulfurization and C{sub 5} Skeletal Isomerization. Hydrodesulfurization of the C{sub 6} + FCC gasoline and processing of the FCC C{sub 5} cut in a Tame/Skeletal Isomerization complex is shown to meet the most stringent olefin and sulfur specifications while substantially reducing RVP and increasing refinery based oxygenates production.

Nocca, J.L.; Gialella, R.M. [IFP Enterprises, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Cosyns, J.; Burzynski, J.P. [IFP, Rueil Malmaison (France)

1995-09-01

108

Gasoline from alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

1981-03-01

109

The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposure on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 24h LC50 for copper exposure, with 100?M Trolox elevating the LC50 by almost seven-fold (from 0.36 to 2.43?M). Copper exposure (0.2?M) for

Bruce A. O’Gara; Phillip M. Murray; Erik M. Hoyt; Tifany Leigh-Logan; Michael B. Smeaton

2006-01-01

110

Distributional and efficiency impacts of gasoline taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the gasoline tax option being proposed in the U.S. in 2005, employing an econometrically based multi-market simulation model to explore the policy's efficiency and distributional implications. Because of its potential to improve the environment and enhance national security, reducing automobile-related gasoline consumption has become a major U.S. public policy issue. Policy impacts both in the aggregate and

Lawrence H Goulder; Roger H. Von Haefen; Mark R Jacobsen; Antonio M Bento; Emeric Henry

2005-01-01

111

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines? 80.1030 Section 80.1030...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners with Individual Toxics Baselines § 80.1030 What are...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines? 80.1030 Section 80.1030...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners with Individual Toxics Baselines § 80.1030 What are...

2013-07-01

113

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines? 80.1030 Section 80.1030...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners with Individual Toxics Baselines § 80.1030 What are...

2009-07-01

114

Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Gupta, G; Tao, J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

115

Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

116

Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales.

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

2010-01-01

117

Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

2013-03-01

118

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.915 How...

2010-07-01

119

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.915 How...

2009-07-01

120

40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.915 How...

2013-07-01

121

World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) Global Initiative to Eliminate and Reduce the Use of Toxic Chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has launched the WWF's Global Initiative (GTI) website. With this site, WWF hopes to increase public awareness of the effects of toxic chemicals on ecosystems, wildlife and human health. The overall goal of GTI is to "end the production, release and use of chemicals that are endocrine disrupters, bioaccumulative or persistent within one generation - by no later than 2020." Included in the site are the Toxic Chemicals and Wildlife and Toxic Chemical Facts pages. The Toxic Chemical and Wildlife page discusses how toxic chemicals have already affected many species, ranging from dolphins to alligators to whales to eagles. The toxic chemical facts page presents facts regarding toxic chemicals and their effect on the environment. An added feature of the site is its What Can You Do section. Available in the action kit page of this section is a list of recommendations and choices that can be utilized to make a difference and to cut down on the usage of toxic chemicals.

1998-01-01

122

Silica reduces the toxicity of aluminium to a tropical freshwater fish ( Mogurnda mogurnda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of aluminium (Al) to fish in acidic waters has been well documented. It was therefore expected that Al toxicity would be significant in fish communities in Gadjarrigamarndah (Gadji) Creek, a seasonally flowing stream in tropical northern Australia. This creek receives acidic groundwater containing elevated concentrations of Al from earlier land irrigation of treated mine tailings water from the

Caroline Camilleri; Scott J. Markich; Barry N. Noller; Catriona J. Turley; Gretel Parker; Rick A. van Dam

2003-01-01

123

Validation of the narcosis target lipid model for petroleum products: gasoline as a case study.  

PubMed

The narcosis target lipid model (NTLM) was used to predict the toxicity of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of six gasoline blending streams to algae (Pseudokirchnereilla subcapitata, formerly Selenastrum capricornutum), juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and water flea (Daphnia magna). Gasolines are comprised of hydrocarbons that on dissolution into the aqueous phase are expected to act via narcosis. Aquatic toxicity data were obtained using a lethal-loading test in which WAFs were prepared using different gasoline loadings. The compositions of the gasolines were determined by analysis of C3 to C13 hydrocarbons grouped in classes of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and olefins. A model was developed to compute the concentrations of hydrocarbon blocks in WAFs based on gasoline composition and loading. The model accounts for the volume change of the gasoline, which varies depending on loading and volatilization loss. The predicted aqueous composition of WAFs compared favorably to measurements, and the predicted aqueous concentrations of WAFs were used in the NTLM to predict the aquatic toxicity of the gasolines. For each gasoline loading and species, total toxic units (TUs) were computed with an assumption of additivity. The acute toxicity of gasolines was predicted to within a factor of two for algae and daphnids. Predicted TUs overestimated toxicity to trout because of experimental factors that were not considered in the model. This analysis demonstrates the importance of aliphatic hydrocarbon loss to headspace during WAF preparation and the contribution of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons test to the toxicity of gasolines in closed systems and loss of aliphatics to headspace during WAF preparation. Model calculations indicate that satisfactory toxicity predictions can be achieved by describing gasoline composition using a limited number of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon blocks with different octanol-water partition coefficients. PMID:16193769

McGrath, Joy A; Parkerton, Thomas F; Hellweger, Ferdi L; Di Toro, Dominic M

2005-09-01

124

Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.  

PubMed

This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. PMID:23455221

Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

2013-02-09

125

Clear stable gasoline composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for making a clear, stable gasoline blend from a hazy, water-saturated gasoline containing a mixture of hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range, from about 2.0 to about 12.0 volume percent of methanol, from about 2.0 to about 10.0 volume percent of a cosolvent (C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/) aliphatic alcohol, and 0.1 to 0.5 volume percent of contaminating water. The process consists of adding to the water-saturated gasoline, from about 0.5 to about 1.8 weight percent of a nonanionic surfactant of an adduct of soya sterol and a polyalkylene oxide.

Davis, M.E.; Sung, R.L.

1986-02-04

126

Conversion of gasoline to diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method involves formation of a specifically designed piston that defines a reduced combustion chamber with a reduced chamber in the cylinder head of a conventional gasoline engine and replacing the spark plug with a fuel injector. The piston includes a circular cylinder having a substantially flat end with an integral dome extending from the flat end and having an

Kulhavy

1979-01-01

127

Metal tolerating methylotrophic bacteria reduces nickel and cadmium toxicity and promotes plant growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L).  

PubMed

Inoculation of plants with microorganisms may reduce the toxicity of heavy metals to plants in contaminated soils. In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacteria Methylobacterium oryzae strain CBMB20 and Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 from rice reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cd in tomato and promote plant growth under gnotobiotic and pot culture experiments. The bacterial strains bound considerable amounts of Ni(II) and Cd(II) in their growing and resting cells and showed growth in the presence of NiCl2 and CdCl2. In gnotobiotic assay, inoculation with the bacterial strains reduced the ethylene emission and increased the tolerance index of the seedlings against different concentrations of NiCl2/CdCl2. In pot experiments carried out with non-polluted, Ni and Cd supplemented Wonjo-Mix bed soil, the results clearly demonstrated reduction in the accumulations of Ni(II) and Cd(II) in roots and shoots, with significant increase in the plant growth attributes with bacterial inoculations compared to untreated control. Strain CBMB20 performed better than CBMB40 in reducing the heavy metal accumulations in plants. Our results suggest conclusively, that protection against the heavy metals toxicity is rendered by these bacterial strains by reducing their uptake and further translocation to shoots in plants and promote the plant growth by other PGP characteristics. PMID:17512031

Madhaiyan, M; Poonguzhali, S; Sa, Tongmin

2007-05-23

128

Senate considers lead gasoline ban  

SciTech Connect

Debate in Congress over a bill to ban leaded gasoline by 1988 centers on the validity of epidemiological evidence that lead emissions are causing neurological damage. Disputing the public health arguments, the lead industry has fought control for over a decade. Its latest move was to file an injunction against the Centers for Disease Control to prevent their issuing warnings to doctors and state officials on new hazard documentation which lowers the toxic alert level from 30 to 25 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood. The accepted level has dropped from 120 micrograms in 1943 as physical effects were measured and the need for remedial medical action was identified. The lead industry sees Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) changes in acceptable blood levels of lead as a threat to sales. Increased emissions caused by misfueling automobiles has prompted both EPA and Congressional efforts to ban lead.

Marshall, E.

1984-07-06

129

Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as

Sara Safari Kish; Alimorad Rashidi; Hamid Reza Aghabozorg; Leila Moradi

2010-01-01

130

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for

Jae-Soon Choi; Vitaly Y Prikhodko; William P Partridge Jr; II Parks; James E; Kevin M Norman; Shean P Huff; Paul H Chambon; John F Thomas

2010-01-01

131

Subject: Reducing Lead and Other Toxic Chemicals in Toys and Other Consumer Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 WHEREAS, many conditions, including asthma, cancer, birth defects, behavioral disorders, and learning deficits have been linked to harmful toxicants incurring enormous individual and

132

Rapid selection of cyclic peptides that reduce ?-synuclein toxicity in yeast and animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phage display has demonstrated the utility of cyclic peptides as general protein ligands but cannot access proteins inside eukaryotic cells. Expanding a new chemical genetics tool, we describe the first expressed library of head-to-tail cyclic peptides in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We applied the library to selections in a yeast model of ?-synuclein toxicity that recapitulates much of the cellular pathology

Joshua A Kritzer; Shusei Hamamichi; J Michael McCaffery; Sandro Santagata; Todd A Naumann; Kim A Caldwell; Guy A Caldwell; Susan Lindquist

2009-01-01

133

Algal blooms reduce the uptake of toxic methylmercury in freshwater food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury accumulation in fish is a global public health concern, because fish are the primary source of toxic methylmercury to humans. Fish from all lakes do not pose the same level of risk to consumers. One of the most intriguing patterns is that potentially dangerous mercury concentrations can be found in fish from clear, oligotrophic lakes whereas fish from greener,

Paul C. Pickhardt; Carol L. Folt; Celia Y. Chen; Bjoern Klaue; Joel D. Blum

134

Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

135

The potential for low petroleum gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

1996-06-01

136

Desulfurization of gasoline.  

PubMed

Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

Berger, J E

1975-04-01

137

Desulfurization of gasoline.  

PubMed Central

Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures.

Berger, J E

1975-01-01

138

Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing

Sen, Bisakha

2012-01-01

139

Is There an Association between Gasoline Prices and Physical Activity? Evidence from American Time Use Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Obesity is epidemic in the United States, and there is an imperative need to identify policy tools that may help fight this epidemic. A recent paper in the economics literature finds an inverse relationship between gasoline prices and obesity risk--suggesting that increased gasoline prices via higher gasoline taxes may have the effect of reducing

Sen, Bisakha

2012-01-01

140

Science Nation: Green Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the help of the National Science Foundation (NSF), George Huber has been working to unlock the solar energy that's stored in cellulose. Recently, he received additional NSF funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, which he says will allow his team to continue developing new processes that can economically produce renewable gasoline and diesel fuels from domestically produced non-food biomass resources. Huber, along with a team of dedicated researchers at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, has figured out how to make gasoline from woodchips that are loaded with cellulose and the energy stored in that cellulose.

141

Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.  

PubMed

Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used. PMID:9347900

Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

1997-08-01

142

Neurotoxic effects of gasoline and gasoline constituents.  

PubMed Central

This overview was developed as part of a symposium on noncancer end points of gasoline and key gasoline components. The specific components included are methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl tertiary butyl ether, tertiary amyl methyl ether, butadiene, benzene, xylene, toluene, methyl alcohol, and ethyl alcohol. The overview focuses on neurotoxic effects related to chronic low-level exposures. A few general conclusions and recommendations can be made based on the results of the studies to date. a) All the compounds reviewed are neuroactive and, as such, should be examined for their neurotoxicity. b) For most of the compounds, there is a substantial margin of safety between the current permissible exposure levels and levels that would be expected to cause overt signs of neurotoxicity in humans. This is not the case for xylene, toluene, and methanol, however, where neurologic effects are observed at or below the current Threshold Limit Value. c) For most of the compounds, the relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle neurotoxic effects has not been studied. Studies therefore should focus on examining the dose-response relationship between chronic low-level exposure and subtle changes in central nervous system function.

Burbacher, T M

1993-01-01

143

Strategies for eliminating and reducing persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances: common approaches, emerging trends, and level of success.  

PubMed

This paper reviews nine of the best-known strategies for eliminatine and reducing substances in the category known as "persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances" (PBTSs). The nine strategies are as follows: 1) Ontario's Candidate Substances List for Bans and Phase-outs (1992), 2) Canada's ARET Program (1994), 3) Canada's Toxic Substances Management Policy (1995), 4) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation's Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative (1995), 5) the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (1997), 6) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) draft National PBT Strategy (1998), 7) U.S. EPA's Waste Minimization Program (1998), 8) the U.N. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001), and 9) Washington State's Rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxins (2006). The review describes the commonalities among the strategies, including their goals and principles, design approaches, and other common elements. It also discusses several emerging trends, such as the increasing importance of economic considerations, human health information, and nonregulatory management approaches. The paper concludes with a discussion of how effective the strategies have been at achieving their goals of elimination and reduction of persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances. PMID:17190337

Davies, Kate

2006-12-01

144

Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during RT. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible if they had disease localized to the primary site and lymph nodes, with high-risk features. RT was delivered to the primary site and lymph nodes to a dose of 50 Gy and weekly carboplatin (area under the curve of 2) was given during RT. This was followed by three cycles of carboplatin and etoposide. A total of 18 patients were entered into the study, and their data were compared with the data from 53 patients entered into the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study. Results: Involved lymph nodes (Stage II) were present in 14 patients (77%). Treatment was completed as planned in 16 patients. The weekly carboplatin dose was delivered in 17 patients, and 15 were able to complete all three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide. Grade 3 and 4 neutrophil toxicity occurred in 7 patients, but no cases of febrile neutropenia developed. Compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 protocol (19 of 53 cases of febrile neutropenia), the reduction in the febrile neutropenia rate (p = 0.003) and decrease in Grade 3 skin toxicity (p = 0.006) were highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that weekly carboplatin at this dosage is a safe way to deliver synchronous chemotherapy during RT for MCC and results in a marked reduction of febrile neutropenia and Grade 3 skin toxicity compared with the three weekly regimen.

Poulsen, Michael [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)], E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Dickie, Graeme [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); O'Brien, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Keller, Jacqui; Tpcony, Lee [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

2008-11-15

145

The effect of adding dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol to unleaded gasoline on exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen containing additives are usually used to improve gasoline’s performance and reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effect of oxygen containing additives on gasoline blended fuels on exhaust emissions was investigated for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that CO and HC exhaust emissions are lower with the use of ethanol–gasoline and

Lan-bin Wen; Chen-Ying Xin; Shyue-Cheng Yang

2010-01-01

146

Cholesterol reduces and corticosteroids enhance the toxicity of vitamin D in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of a high-cholesterol (CHOL) diet and corticosteroids on the toxicity of vitamin D2 (VD2) in rats was studied. VD2 was administered orally at the dosage of 5-60 x 10(4) IU/kg, once daily for 4 days. Animals fed CHOL showed a decrease in mortality due to VD2 treatment. Dietary CHOL inhibited toxic responses such as a diminished growth rate following anorexia, elevated serum calcium level and calcium deposition in tissues, which were produced by a sublethal dose of VD2 (20 x 10(4) IU/kg, once daily for 4 days). Animals pretreated with the high-CHOL diet from 2 weeks before the first VD2 administration showed much more symptomatic relief than those given this diet after the first VD2 administration. On the other hand, dexamethasone (DEX) as well as corticosterone remarkably increased the mortality due to VD2. The degree of VD2 toxicity, enhanced by DEX, was correlated with the degree of hypercalcemia and tissue calcification. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of CHOL is not likely to be due to activation of the CHOL-corticosterone system in the adrenal gland. PMID:2747041

Kunitomo, M; Futagawa, Y; Tanaka, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Bandô, Y

1989-03-01

147

Gasifier evaluation for gasoline production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual engineering designs and process economics have been prepared to evaluate four gasifiers for the production of gasoline via the coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline process. The baseline process design taken as a starting point was that developed using Lurgi gasification of western coal to produce gasoline and SNG as a major byproduct. 5 refs.

A. J. Apte; H. L. Fein; J. M. Oyster

1981-01-01

148

Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol  

PubMed Central

Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups and fed 0%, 12%, 36% ethanol, or 36% ethanol plus folic acid (10 mg folic acid/L) diets. After 5 weeks, chronic consumption of the 36% ethanol diet significantly increased plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) (P < 0.05) and aspartate transaminase (AST) (P < 0.05), triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05), Hcy (P < 0.001), and low density lipoprotein conjugated dienes (CD) (P < 0.05) but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) (P < 0.001). These changes were prevented partially by folic acid supplementation. The 12% ethanol diet had no apparent effect on most parameters. Plasma Hcy concentration was well correlated with plasma ALT (r = 0.612**), AST (r = 0.652*), CD (r = 0.495*), and TRAP (r = -0.486*). The results indicate that moderately elevated Hcy is associated with increased oxidative stress and liver injury in alcohol-fed rats, and suggests that folic acid supplementation appears to attenuate hepatic toxicity induced by chronic ethanol consumption possibly by decreasing oxidative stress.

Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee

2011-01-01

149

Changes in levels of biomarkers of exposure observed in a controlled study of smokers switched from conventional to reduced toxicant prototype cigarettes.  

PubMed

Reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarettes with substantially reduced levels of tobacco smoke toxicants have been developed. Evaluation of these prototype cigarettes included measurement of biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to toxicants in smokers switched from conventional cigarettes to the RTPs. A 6-week single-blinded randomised controlled study with occasional clinical confinement was conducted (Trial registration: ISRCTN7215735). All smoking subjects smoked a conventional cigarette for 2-weeks. Control groups continued to smoke the conventional cigarette while test groups switched to one of three RTP designs. Clinical confinement and additional assessments were performed for all smoking groups after 2 and 4-weeks. A non-smoker group provided background levels of BoE. On average, smokers switched to RTPs with reduced machine yields of toxicants had reduced levels of corresponding BoEs. For vapour phase toxicants such as acrolein and 1,3-butadiene reductions of ?70% were observed both in smoke chemistry and BoEs. Reductions in particulate phase toxicants such as tobacco-specific nitrosamines, aromatic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons depended upon the technologies used, but were in some cases ?80% although some increases in other particulate phase toxicants were observed. However, reductions in BoEs demonstrate that it is possible to produce prototype cigarettes that reduce exposure to toxicants in short-term use. PMID:23537587

Shepperd, Christopher J; Eldridge, Alison; Camacho, Oscar M; McAdam, Kevin; Proctor, Christopher J; Meyer, Ingo

2013-03-25

150

Gasoline specifications, regulations, and properties  

SciTech Connect

This is a historical perspective on what has happened to gasoline. Gasoline was used as the fuel for the first four-stroke (Otto) cycle spark-ignition engine in about 1884, and at that time it was considered an undesirable by-product of kerosene manufacturing. As the demand increased for gasoline from 1900 to 1920, it ceased to be a by-product and the more volatile fractions of kerosene were diverted to gasoline. Thermal cracking in 1913 and other refining processes in subsequent years were introduced to convert a larger fraction of petroleum into gasoline.

Gibbs, L.M. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

151

Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air

G. R. Hadder; S. M. Chin

1994-01-01

152

Influence of ethanol and methanol gasoline blends on the mutagenicity of particulate exhaust extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheSalmonella mutagenicity test was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol fuel extenders on the genetic toxicity of particulate exhaust extracts. Four spark-ignition engine equipped vehicles were operated on gasoline alone, 10% blends of ethanol or methanol in gasoline, and a commercially available “gasohol.” The tests were conducted on a chassis dynomometer and the particulate exhaust was collected on high

Charles R. Clark; John S. Dutcher; Roger O. McClellan; Ted M. Naman; Donald E. Seizingert

1983-01-01

153

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01

154

Co-application of selenite and phosphate reduces arsenite uptake in hydroponically grown rice seedlings: toxicity and defence mechanism.  

PubMed

The study empirically evaluates the abatement of As(III) uptake in rice seedlings (7d), in presence of Se and phosphate (P) under hydroponic condition. Positive correlation between As(III) translocation to the shoots of As(III) and P treated seedlings, shows P dependent As(III) translocation in rice. Whereas, presence of both P (5 and 10?gml(-1)) and (0.75?gml(-1)) of Se significantly reduces the As(III) uptake in rice seedlings. Application of Se alone also reduces As(III) uptake both in shoots and roots significantly, however, the seedlings suffers from lipid peroxidation. Among all the studied treatments, lower rates of P (5?gml(-1)) and Se (0.75?gml(-1)) when co-applied, significantly reduced As(III) translocation to the shoots without inflicting much toxicity in the seedlings which is manifested as significant increase in biomass with lower thio-barbituric reactive substances (TBARS). Also, significantly lower TBARS in seedlings receiving As(4)+Se(0.75) and higher TBARS in As(4)+Se(1.5), demonstrates that Se applied at lower rates (0.75?gml(-1)), lowers As induced toxicity. Higher SOD, APX and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities in As(4)+P(5)+Se(0.75) compared to that of As(4)+P(5) and As(4)+Se(0.75), supports that lower rate of P and Se provides tolerance towards As induced stress. The nitrogen metabolism in As(4)+P+Se treated seedlings is affected adversely at higher rates of Se and P application. Overall study concluded that application of lower rates of P (5?gml(-1)) and Se (0.75?gml(-1)) provides maximum amelioration of As(III) toxicity in rice seedlings. PMID:23452556

Kumar, Navin; Mallick, Shekhar; Yadava, Ram Nayan; Singh, Amit Pal; Sinha, Sarita

2013-02-27

155

Olive oil hydroxytyrosol reduces toxicity evoked by acrylamide in human Caco-2 cells by preventing oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Humans are exposed to dietary acrylamide (AA) during their lifetime, it is therefore necessary to investigate the mechanisms associated with AA-induced toxic effects. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to AA cytotoxicity, thus, dietary antioxidants might have a protective role in colonic cells against AA toxicity. We have recently reported that hydroxytyrosol (HTy), a natural antioxidant abundant in olive oil, is able to enhance the cellular antioxidant defence capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluate the protective role of HTy on alterations of the redox balance induced by AA in Caco-2 intestinal cells. AA cytotoxicity was counteracted by HTy by powerfully reducing ROS generation, recovering the excited enzyme antioxidant defences and decreasing phospho-Jun kinase concentration and caspase-3 activity induced by AA. Therefore, AA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis are closely related to oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and the olive oil natural dietary antioxidant HTy was able to contain AA toxicity by improving the redox status of Caco-2 cells and by partly restraining the apoptotic pathway activated by AA. PMID:21777647

Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Martín, María Ángeles; Ramos, Sonia; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2011-07-12

156

Sodium nitroprusside toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster: delayed pupation, reduced adult emergence, and induced oxidative/nitrosative stress in eclosed flies.  

PubMed

The toxicity of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was tested on the Drosophila melanogaster model system. Fly larvae were raised on food supplemented with SNP at concentrations of 0.01-1.5 mM. Food supplementation with SNP caused a developmental delay in flies and reduced adult eclosion. Biochemical analyses such as levels of oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes were carried out on 2-day-old flies emerged from control and SNP-fed larvae. Larval exposure to SNP resulted in lower activities of aconitase and catalase in adult flies relative to the control cohort. However, larval treatment with SNP led to higher carbonyl protein content and higher activities of superoxide dismutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase in flies. Among the parameters tested, aconitase activity and developmental end points may be useful early indicators of toxicity caused by SNP. The study also suggests that the toxicity of SNP may arise not just from its direct effects, but also from its decomposition products such as nitric oxide and iron ions. PMID:22692768

Lozinsky, Oleksandr V; Lushchak, Oleh V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

2012-06-12

157

Coexpression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin reduces the toxic effect of expression of D-amino acid oxidase in E. coli.  

PubMed

Expression of the gene (daao) encoding D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) in Escherichia coli typically results in a marked decrease of cell viability, and it has generally been assumed that the consumption of intracellular D-alanine by DAAO is responsible for this effect. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene (vgb) was coexpressed with Rhodosporidium toruloides D-amino acid oxidase in E. coli BL21(DE3) and BL21(DE3)pLysS, expression hosts differing in the stringency of suppressing basal transcription. Not only was the toxic effect of DAAO on cell growth relieved but also the pronounced cell lysis of BL21(DE3)pLysS caused by the expression of DAAO was prevented by coexpressing VHb with DAAO. As a result of the higher cell density achieved, DAAO activity about 1.5-fold higher than that of DAAO-expressing control strains could be obtained by DAAO/VHb-coexpressing strains. The relieving effect of VHb on DAAO toxicity resulted from its oxygen-binding ability. The low availability of free intracellular oxygen reduced DAAO activity and consequently its toxicity. PMID:15458318

Chien, Liang-Jung; Wu, Jyh-Ming; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Cheng-Kang

158

Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice  

PubMed Central

Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell–derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell–deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function.

Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Abrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

159

Toxicity of reduced nitrogen in eelgrass (Zostera marina) is highly dependent on shoot density and pH.  

PubMed

In sheltered, eutrophicated estuaries, reduced nitrogen (NHx), and pH levels in the water layer can be greatly enhanced. In laboratory experiments, we studied the interactive effects of NHx, pH, and shoot density on the physiology and survival of eelgrass (Zostera marina). We tested long-term tolerance to NHx at pH 8 in a 5-week experiment. Short-term tolerance was tested for two shoot densities at both pH 8 and 9 in a 5-day experiment. At pH 8, eelgrass accumulated nitrogen as free amino acids when exposed to high loads of NHx, but showed no signs of necrosis. Low shoot density treatments became necrotic within days when exposed to NHx at pH 9. Increased NH3 intrusion and carbon limitation seemed to be the cause of this, as intracellular NHx could no longer be assimilated. Remarkably, experiments with high shoot densities at pH 9 showed hardly any necrosis, as the plants seemed to be able to alleviate the toxic effects of high NHx loads through joint NHx uptake. Our results suggest that NHx toxicity can be important in worldwide observed seagrass mass mortalities. We argue that the mitigating effect of high seagrass biomass on NHx toxicity is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to alternative stable states in field conditions. PMID:18813957

van der Heide, T; Smolders, A J P; Rijkens, B G A; van Nes, E H; van Katwijk, M M; Roelofs, J G M

2008-09-24

160

Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

2003-04-01

161

A milk growth factor extract reduces chemotherapeutic drug toxicity in epithelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) can attenuate drug-induced cell death in epithelial\\u000a cells. Since milk whey contains a mixture of these and other growth factors, we evaluated mitogenic bovine whey extract (MBWE)\\u000a for protective activity against chemotherapy drug damage in cultured epithelial cells (mink lung, Mu1.Lu). Etoposide and vinblastine\\u000a reduced cell survival by up to 90%.

Vicki L. Taylor; Chris Goddard; Leanna C. Read

2001-01-01

162

Pyrrolidinediones reduce the toxicity of thiazolidinediones and modify their anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties.  

PubMed

Thiazolidinediones have been established as a drug class of significant importance in the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus and have more recently displayed emergent potential as anti-cancer agents. However, their toxicity has hampered clinical development and usage in both therapeutic areas. Studies to date have implicated that the thiazolidinedione ring is responsible for the generation of reactive metabolites after metabolism. As an attempt to improve their safety profiles, we considered the bioisosteric replacement of the thiazolidinedione ring with a chemically conserved pyrrolidinedione heterocyclic system. Using pyrrolidinedione analogs of the thiazolidinedione drugs troglitazone (TGZ), rosiglitazone (RGZ), and pioglitazone (PGZ), we evaluated their PPAR(?) activities, anti-cancer properties as well as toxicological effects. Of significance, both pyrrolidinedione analogs demonstrated reduced toxicity. Pharmacologically, they also displayed diminished PPAR(?) binding and ap2 gene expression in a mouse pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1, but enhanced anti-cancer properties based on the suppression of liver cancer cell line (Huh-7) proliferation and the expression of tumor marker, afp. Overall, this study ascertains the general contribution of the thiazolidinedione ring to their cytotoxicity and proposes the applicability of the pyrrolidinedione ring as a selective and safer choice in anti-diabetic and cancer chemotherapeutics for future drug design. PMID:23041271

Saha, Sudipta; Chan, Debra Shu Zhen; Lee, Chern Yih; Wong, Winnie; New, Lee Sun; Chui, Wai Keung; Yap, Chun Wei; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Ho, Han Kiat

2012-10-04

163

Photoimmunotherapy and irradiance modulation reduce chemotherapy cycles and toxicity in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis: perspective and results  

PubMed Central

Significant toxicities from multiple cycles of chemotherapy often cause delays or early termination of treatment, leading to poor outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. Complementary modalities that potentiate the efficacy of traditional agents with fewer cycles and less toxicity are needed. Photodynamic therapy is a mechanistically-distinct modality that synergizes with chemo and biologic agents. A combination regimen with a clinically relevant chemotherapy cocktail (cisplatin + paclitaxel) and anti-EGFR targeted photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is evaluated in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis. Mice received either 1 or 2 chemotherapy cycles followed by PIT with a chlorine6-Erbitux photoimmunoconjugate and 25 J/cm2 light. PIT + 1 cycle of chemotherapy significantly reduced tumor burden, comparable to multiple chemotherapy cycles. Relative to 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the addition of PIT did not cause significant mouse weight loss, whereas 2 cycles of chemotherapy led to a significant reduction in weight. Irradiance-dependence on PIT efficacy was a function of the conjugation chemistry, providing an additional variable for optimization of PIT outcome.

Rizvi, Imran; Dinh, Tri A.; Yu, Weiping; Chang, Yuchiao; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Hasan, Tayyaba

2013-01-01

164

Reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA increases the toxicity of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (araG).  

PubMed

Incubation of cells with thymidine (dThd) is known to cause dNTP pool imbalance as well as deletions and depletion of the mtDNA. In order to gain further understanding in the events involved in dThd toxicity over time, H9 cells were cultured for 20 months in the presence or absence of 1 micro M dThd. The level of mtDNA was reduced by 90% in the cells grown in dThd as compared to the control cells. The H9/dThd cells also showed a 100-fold increased sensitivity towards the cytotoxicity of the antileukemic compound 9-beta-D-arabinofuranolsylguanine (araG). PMID:18600535

Bjerke, M; Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A

2008-06-01

165

Numerical Parametric Study of Diesel Engine Operation with Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric studies of direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline are presented. A multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, coupled with improved sub-models and the Chemkin library, was employed. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. The results show that high pressure DI gasoline engine combustion and emissions

Youngchul Ra; Jeong Eui Yun; Rolf D. Reitz

2009-01-01

166

Pharmacokinetic targeting of intravenous busulfan reduces conditioning regimen related toxicity following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

Optimal conditioning therapy for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) remains undefined. We retrospectively compared outcomes of a consecutive series of 51 AML patients treated with oral busulfan (1 mg/kg every 6 hours for 4 days) and cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg IV × 2 days) - (Bu/Cy) with 100 consecutive AML patients treated with pharmacokinetic targeted IV busulfan (AUC < 6000 ?M/L*min per day × 4 days) and fludarabine (40 mg/m2 × 4 days) - (t-IV Bu/Flu). The Bu/Cy and t-IV Bu/Flu groups significantly differed according to donor relation, stem cell source, aGVHD prophylaxis, remission status, primary vs. secondary disease, median age, and % blasts prior to HCT (p < 0.01 for each). Conditioning with t-IV Bu/Flu reduced early toxicity including idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) and hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Additionally, the trajectory of early NRM (100 day: 16% vs. 3%, and1 year: 25% vs. 15% for Bu/Cy and t-IV Bu/Flu, respectively) favored t-IV Bu/Flu. Grade II-IV aGVHD (48% vs. 82%, p < 0.0001), as well as moderate/severe cGVHD (7% vs. 40%, p < 0.0001) differed between the Bu/Cy and t-IV Bu/Flu groups, due to the predominance of peripheral blood stem cells in the t-IV Bu/Flu group. Pharmacokinetic targeting of intravenous busulfan in combination with fludarabine is associated with reduced conditioning regimen related toxicity compared to oral busulfan and cyclophosphamide. However, multivariable analysis did not demonstrate significant differences in overall survival (p = 0.78) or non-relapse mortality (p = 0.6) according to conditioning regimen delivered. PMID:20925957

Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Anasetti, Claudio; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Nishihori, Taiga; Field, Teresa; Perkins, Janelle; Perez, Lia; Fernandez, Hugo F

2010-10-06

167

Desulfurization of Gasoline by Pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide concerns over the environment have stimulated increasing interest both in academic and industry for the deep desulfurization of gasoline. Due to some inherent disadvantages associated with the conventional hydrodesulfurization, several non-conventional techniques are being tried by researchers. Pervaporation is such a recently developed technology for gasoline desulfurization. Its efficiency has attracted worldwide attention. Compared with conventional sulfur removal technology

Debarati Mitra

2012-01-01

168

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

Bernard Lachance; Agnès Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

2004-01-01

169

Vapor space flammability of automobile tanks containing low RVP gasolines  

SciTech Connect

This book reports that, as a means of reducing evaporative emissions from gasoline sources, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other legislative and regulatory bodies have required reductions in gasoline volatility. Further reduction are being proposed. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the resulting flammability potential of low volatility gasolines contained in automobile tanks when low ambient temperatures are experienced. The hydrocarbon composition and the flammability tendency of the vapor in fuel tanks of passenger cars were determined via a matrix of 45 different gasoline volatility, temperature, and tank level combinations. A flammability device was developed and used to ignite vapors drawn from the tanks of in-use vehicles at the test conditions. The Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) of the test gasolines ranged from 6.5 to 9.4 psi in the near-full tank level and 6.4 to 7.8 psi at a low tank level. Ambient test temperatures were selected to represent probable winter/spring and fall/winter transition period low temperatures. Results demonstrate that at moderately low temperatures and low gasoline volatility conditions, the vapor space of a vehicle's fuel tank will be flammable and no longer protected by the volatile components in the fuel. Such a condition will result in a flame if an ignition source is available. It was demonstrated that an initial fill of 9.4 psi RVP gasoline does not result in a flammable vapor space at temperatures above 0{degrees}F. However, upon drive-down to a low tank level, the same gasoline produced a fully flammable vapor space at 0{degrees}F and even a marginally flammable vapor space at 10{degrees}F. A simple model was developed to predict fuel tank hydrocarbon vapor concentrations as a function of the gasoline RVP and operating temperature.

Marshall, W.F.; Schoonveld, G.A.

1990-01-01

170

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part I. Carcinogenicity of motor fuels: gasoline.  

PubMed

Studies in humans and animals have shown that gasoline contains a number of cancer-causing and toxic chemicals such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, isoparaffins, methyltert-butylether, and others. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in its Monograph Supplement 7 (1987) concludes that "in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard agents for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals as if they present a carcinogenic risk to humans." Epidemiological studies in humans provide important evidence of potential increased risk of leukemia, lymphatic tissue cancers, cancers of the brain, liver, and other organs and tissues. Recently (July, 1990) the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH) recommended that the TLV-TWA for benzene be reduced from 1 ppm to 0.1 ppm (ACGIH, 1990). The Collegium Ramazzini and others have also recommended that the exposure level for 1,3-Butadiene be reduced from 1,000 ppm to below 0.2 ppm. This recommendation is based on the findings that were presented at the Symposium on Toxicology, Carcinogenesis, and Human Health Aspects of 1,3-Butadiene (Environ. Health Perspec., 1990). Thus, studies on health effects resulting from very low levels of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and other cancer-causing chemicals--components of gasoline--necessitate that all avoidable exposure to gasoline or gasoline vapors be avoided. PMID:1780852

Mehlman, M A

171

Betulinic acid delivered in liposomes reduces growth of human lung and colon cancers in mice without causing systemic toxicity.  

PubMed

Betulinic acid (BetA) is a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid with potent anticancer capacity that targets the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. BetA has a broad efficacy in vitro against prevalent cancer types, including lung, colorectal, prostate, cervix and breast cancer, melanomas, neuroblastomas, and leukemias. The cytotoxic effects of the compound against healthy cells are minimal, rendering BetA a promising potential anticancer drug. However, because of the weak hydrosolubility of BetA, it has been difficult to study its efficacy in vivo and a pharmaceutical formulation is not yet available. We report the development of a liposome formulation of BetA and show its successful application in mice. Large liposomes, assembled without cholesterol to reduce their rigidity, efficiently incorporated BetA. Nude mice xenografted with human colon and lung cancer tumors were treated intravenously with the BetA-containing liposomes. Tumor growth was reduced to more than 50% compared with the control treatment, leading to an enhanced survival of the mice. Oral administration of the liposomal formulation of BetA also slowed tumor growth. Any signs of systemic toxicity caused by BetA treatment were absent. Thus, liposomes are an efficient formulation vehicle for BetA, enabling its preclinical development as a nontoxic compound for the treatment of cancers. PMID:21263311

Mullauer, Franziska B; van Bloois, Louis; Daalhuisen, Joost B; Ten Brink, Marieke S; Storm, Gert; Medema, Jan Paul; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Kessler, Jan H

2011-03-01

172

40 CFR 80.990 - What are the toxics reporting requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What are the toxics reporting requirements? 80.990...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.990 What are the toxics reporting requirements?...

2013-07-01

173

Targeting therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with doxorubicin prodrug PDOX increases anti-metastatic effect and reduces toxicity: a preclinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to investigate the effects and safety of cathepsin B-cleavable doxorubicin (DOX)-prodrug (PDOX) for targeting therapy of metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using DOX as a positive control drug. Methods The orthotopic nude mice model of highly metastatic HCC was established and the animals were randomized and treated with PDOX, DOX and saline, respectively. Hematology, biochemistry and tumor markers were studied. At autopsy, liver tumor weight and size, ascites, abdominal lymph nodes metastases, experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis index (ePCI), and tumor-host body weight ratio were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies and western blotting were done to investigate key molecules involved in the mechanism of action. Results Compared with Control, both PDOX and DOX could similarly and significantly reduce liver tumor weight and tumor volume by over 40%, ePCI values, retroperitoneal lymph node metastases and lung metastases and serum AFP levels (P?reduce the Ki-67 positive rate of tumor cells, compared with DOX and Control groups. PDOX produced the effects at least via the ERK pathway. Conclusion Compared with DOX, PDOX may have better anti-metastatic efficacy and reduced side effects especially cardio-toxicities in this HCC model.

2013-01-01

174

Hypotaurine and sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants reduce H2S toxicity in erythrocytes from a marine invertebrate.  

PubMed

Hypotaurine (HT) has been proposed to reduce sulfide toxicity in some deep-sea invertebrates by scavenging free radicals produced from sulfide oxidation or by scavenging sulfide via the reaction of HT with sulfide, forming thiotaurine (ThT). We tested whether HT or several antioxidants could reduce the total dissolved sulfide concentration in buffered seawater exposed to H(2)S, and whether HT, ThT or antioxidants could increase the viability of Glycera dibranchiata erythrocytes exposed to H(2)S in vitro. We found that 5 and 50 mmol l(-1) HT reduced the dissolved sulfide in cell-free buffer exposed to H(2)S by up to 80% whereas the antioxidants glutathione ethyl ester (GEE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), L-ascorbic acid (ASC), Tempol and Trolox had no consistent effect. Exposure of erythrocytes to 0.10%-3.2% H(2)S (producing 0.18-4.8 mmol l(-1) sulfide) decreased the fraction of viable cells, as evidenced by loss of plasma membrane integrity, with virtually no cells remaining viable at 1.0% or more H(2)S. Addition of HT (0.5-50 mmol l(-1)) significantly increased the fraction of viable cells (e.g. from 0.01 to 0.84 at 0.32% H(2)S) whereas ThT (0.5 and 5 mmol l(-1)) decreased cell viability. GEE (0.03-3 mmol l(-1)) and NAC (0.001-1 mmol l(-1)), which contain sulfhydryl groups, increased cell viability during H(2)S exposure but to a lesser extent than HT whereas ASC, Tempol and Trolox, which do not contain sulfhydryl groups, decreased viability or had no effect. These data show that HT can protect cells from sulfide in vitro and suggest that sulfide scavenging, rather than free radical scavenging, is the most important mechanism of protection. PMID:19043054

Ortega, J A; Ortega, J M; Julian, D

2008-12-01

175

40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional...Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are the product...transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...

2013-07-01

176

Conversion of hazy gasoline to clear stable gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process of making a clear, stable gasoline blend from a hazy, water-saturated gasoline containing a mixture of hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range, from about 2.0 to about 12.0 volume percent of methanol, from about 2.0 to about 10.0 volume percent of a cosolvent (C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/) aliphatic alcohol, and from about 0.1 to about 0.5 volume percent of contaminating water. The process consists of adding to the water-saturated gasoline from about 0.05 to about 3.0 weight percent of a nonionic surfactant of an aminated polyisopropoxylated polyethoxylated alkylphenol.

Davis, M.E.; Sung, R.L.

1986-02-04

177

Clinical and immunological correction of DOCK8 deficiency by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen.  

PubMed

Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency disorder characterized by an expanding clinical picture with typical features of recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections, atopic eczema, food allergies, chronic viral infections of the skin, and blood eosinophilia often accompanied by elevated serum IgE levels. The only definitive treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report a patient with early severe manifestation of DOCK8 deficiency, who underwent unrelated allogeneic HSCT at the age of 3 years following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen. The transplant course was complicated by pulmonary aspergilloma pretransplantation, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis 4 weeks after transplantation. With antifungal and antiviral treatment the patient recovered. Seven months after transplantation the patient is in excellent clinical condition. Eczematous rash, chronic viral skin infections, and food allergies have subsided, associated with normalization of IgE levels and absolute numbers of eosinophils. Chimerism analysis shows stable full donor chimerism. DOCK8 deficiency can be successfully cured by allogeneic HSCT. This treatment option should be considered early after diagnosis, as opportunistic infections and malignancies that occur more frequently during the natural course of the disease are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. PMID:22897717

Boztug, Heidrun; Karitnig-Weiß, Cäcilia; Ausserer, Bernd; Renner, Ellen D; Albert, Michael H; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Mann, Georg; Horcher, Ernst; Rümmele-Waibel, Alexandra; Geyeregger, Rene; Lakatos, Karoly; Peters, Christina; Lawitschka, Anita; Matthes-Martin, Susanne

2012-08-16

178

Improved efficacy and reduced toxicity by ultrasound-guided intrahepatic injections of helper-dependent adenoviral vector in gunn rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I is caused by mutations of the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene resulting in life-threatening increase of serum bilirubin. Life-long correction of hyperbilirubinemia was previously shown with intravenous injection of high doses of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing UGT1A1 in the Gunn rat, the animal model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. However, such high vector doses can activate an acute and potentially lethal inflammatory response with elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6). To overcome this obstacle, we investigated safety and efficacy of direct injections of low HDAd doses delivered directly into the liver parenchyma of Gunn rats. Direct hepatic injections performed by either laparotomy or ultrasound-guided percutaneous injections were compared with the same doses given by intravenous injections. A greater reduction of hyperbilirubinemia and increased conjugated bilirubin in bile were achieved with 1×10(11) vp/kg by direct liver injections compared with intravenous injections. In sharp contrast to intravenous injections, direct hepatic injections neither raised serum IL-6 nor resulted in thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of HDAd vectors into liver parenchyma resulted in improved hepatocyte transduction and reduced toxicity compared with systemic injections and is clinically attractive for liver-directed gene therapy of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. PMID:23947957

Pastore, Nunzia; Nusco, Edoardo; Piccolo, Pasquale; Castaldo, Sigismondo; Vaníkova, Jana; Vetrini, Francesco; Palmer, Donna J; Vitek, Libor; Ng, Philip; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

2013-10-01

179

Studies Pertaining to Hydrogen Car Development. Part B. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance with Gasoline and Hydrogen. Part C. Hydrogen Storage and Flow System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative study of the performance of an engine operating on gasoline and on hydrogen is presented. Results indicate thermal efficiencies of from 25 to 100% greater with hydrogen than with gasoline. The emission of nitrogen oxides was reduced approxim...

W. D. Van Vorst

1974-01-01

180

Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.  

PubMed

The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

2007-08-21

181

Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI  

SciTech Connect

The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2006-09-01

182

Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of amide conjugates of NSAIDs with L-cysteine ethyl ester, combining potent antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties with significantly reduced gastrointestinal toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of amide derivatives of NSAIDs with L-cysteine ethyl ester is described. The novel derivatives are potent antiinflammatory, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic–hypolipidemic agents, while they demonstrate considerably reduced gastrointestinal toxicity. This molecular modification may offer a general route to safer antiinflammatory agents, potentially suitable for chronic use in conditions such as neurodegenerative disorders.

Dimitrios Galanakis; Angeliki P Kourounakis; Karyophyllis C Tsiakitzis; Christos Doulgkeris; Eleni A Rekka; Antonios Gavalas; Constantina Kravaritou; Christos Charitos; Panos N Kourounakis

2004-01-01

183

Biofiltration of gasoline and ethanol-amended gasoline vapors.  

PubMed

Assuming the projected increase in use of ethanol as a biofuel, the current study was conducted to compare the biofiltration efficiencies for plain and 25% ethanol-containing gasoline. Two biofilters were operated in a downflow mode for 7 months, one of them being compost-based whereas the other using a synthetic packing material, granulated tire rubber, inoculated with gasoline-degrading microorganisms. Inlet concentrations measured as total hydrocarbon (TH) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 g m(-3) at a constant empty bed retention time of 6.84 min. Contrary to the expectations based on microbiological considerations, ethanol-amended gasoline was more readily biodegraded than plain hydrocarbons, with the respective steady state elimination capacities of 26-43 and 14-18 gTH m(-3) h(-1) for the compost biofilter. The efficiency of both biofilters significantly declined upon the application of higher loads of plain gasoline, yet immediately recovering when switched back to ethanol-blended gasoline. The unexpected effect of ethanol in promoting gasoline biodegradation was explained by increasing hydrocarbon partitioning into the aqueous phase, with mass transfer being rate limiting for the bulk of components. The tire rubber biofilter, after a long acclimation, surpassed the compost biofilter in performance, presumably due to the 'buffering' effect of this packing material increasing the accessibility of gasoline hydrocarbons to the biofilm. With improved substrate mass transfer, biodegradable hydrocarbons were removed in the tire rubber biofilter's first reactor stage, with most of the remaining poorly degradable smaller-size hydrocarbons being degraded in the second stage. PMID:22486670

Soares, Marlene; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Paca, Jan; Soccol, Carlos R

2012-01-01

184

Manganese in the U.S. gasoline supply.  

PubMed

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese compound recently approved for use in the United States as a gasoline additive. MMT use is expected to increase. This Commentary analyzes the impact of MMT use on population exposure to manganese, the health effects associated with manganese exposure, and the possibility that MMT use will lead to toxicity in the population. Although MMT use would result in only a small increment in most people's manganese exposure, certain populations will be disproportionately exposed. Although manganese is an essential nutrient at low levels, high-level manganese exposure leads to a characteristic severe nervous system toxicity. Pulmonary toxicity also occurs at high levels of exposure, and developmental toxicity to fetuses is an important concern based on more limited data. Selected subpopulations may be especially susceptible to the toxic effects of manganese. The critical question is whether the additional population exposure to manganese that would result from widespread MMT use would lead to toxic effects. Currently available evidence does not permit firm conclusions. Common sense and prudence therefore dictate that MMT not be used until further data are available and its safety is confirmed. Several measures are recommended to address the impending use of MMT in the U.S. gasoline supply. PMID:8986262

Frumkin, H; Solomon, G

1997-01-01

185

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section: (1) Reformulated gasoline. (2) Conventional gasoline. (3) Reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (âRBOBâ). (4) Conventional gasoline blendstock that becomes finished conventional gasoline upon the...

2009-07-01

186

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section: (1) Reformulated gasoline. (2) Conventional gasoline. (3) Reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (âRBOBâ). (4) Conventional gasoline blendstock that becomes finished conventional gasoline upon the...

2010-07-01

187

High Dose Rate Brachytherapy as Prostate Cancer Monotherapy Reduces Toxicity Compared to Low Dose Rate Palladium Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe evaluated the potential for differing acute and chronic toxicities between 2 monotherapy methods of image guided conformal brachytherapy, high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone and low dose rate (LDR) permanent palladium seeds.

INGA S. GRILLS; ALVARO A. MARTINEZ; MITCHELL HOLLANDER; RAYWIN HUANG; KENNETH GOLDMAN; PETER Y. CHEN; GARY S. GUSTAFSON

2004-01-01

188

Encapsulation of cadmium selenide quantum dots using a self-assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) reduces their in vitro toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although, nanometer-scale semi-conductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted widespread interest in medical diagnosis and treatment, many can have intrinsic toxicities, especially those composed of CdSe, associated with their elemental composition. Using our self-assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) formulations which we have previously reported to be composed of non-toxic components, i.e., such as vegetable oil, surfactant and water, we hypothesized that their appropriate

Anton R. Edmund; Swetha Kambalapally; Thomas A. Wilson; Robert J. Nicolosi

2011-01-01

189

GASOLINE PRICES, GOVERNMENT SUPPORT, AND THE DEMAND FOR HYBRID VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the determinants of hybrid vehicle demand, focusing on gasoline prices and income tax incentives. We find that hybrid vehicle sales in 2006 would have been 37% lower had gasoline prices stayed at the 1999 levels, and the effect of the federal income tax credit program is estimated at 20% in 2006. Under the program, the cost of reducing

Arie Beresteanu; Shanjun Li

2011-01-01

190

Direct Injection Ethanol Boosted Gasoline Engines: Biofuel Leveraging for Cost Effective Reduction of Oil Dependence and CO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ethanol biofuel could play an important role in reducing petroleum consumption,by enabling a substantial increase in the fuel efficiency of gasoline engine vehicles. This ethanol boosted engine concept uses a small amount,ethanol to increase the efficiency of use of a much,larger amount,of gasoline by approximately30%. Gasoline consumption and the corresponding CO 2 emissions would thereby be reduced by approximately25%.

D. R. Cohn; L. Bromberg; J. B. Heywood

2005-01-01

191

Baicalein reduces E46K ?-synuclein aggregation in vitro and protects cells against E46K ?-synuclein toxicity in cell models of familiar Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

The E46K is a point mutation in ?-synuclein (?-syn) that causes familial Parkinsonism with Lewy body dementia. We have now generated a cell model of Parkinsonism/Parkinson’s disease (PD) and demonstrated cell toxicity after expression of E46K in the differentiated PC12 cells. E46K ?-syn inhibited proteasome activity and induced mitochondrial depolarization in the cell model. Baicalein has been reported to inhibit fibrillation of wild type ?-syn in vitro, and to protect neurons against several chemical-induced models of PD. We now report that baicalein significantly attenuated E46K-induced mitochondrial depolarization and proteasome inhibition, and protected cells against E46K-induced toxicity in a cell model of PD. Baicalein also reduced E46K fibrilization in vitro, with a concentration-dependent decrease in beta sheet conformation, though it increased some oligomeric species, and decreased formation of E46K ?-syn-induced aggregates and rescued toxicity in N2A cells. Taken together, these data indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction, proteasome inhibition and specific aspects of abnormal E46K aggregation accompany E46K ?-syn-induced cell toxicity, and baicalein can protect as well as altering aggregation properties. Baicalein has potential as a tool to understand the relation between different aggregation species and toxicity, and might be a candidate compound for further validation by using in vivo ?-syn genetic PD models.

Jiang, Mali; Porat-Shliom, Yair; Pei, Zhong; Cheng, Yong; Xiang, Lan; Sommers, Katherine; Li, Qing; Gillardon, Frank; Hengerer, Bastian; Berlinicke, Cynthia; Smith, Wanli; Zack, Donald; Poirier, Michelle A.; Ross, Christopher A.; Duan, Wenzhen

2010-01-01

192

A method for removal of toxic chromium using dialysis-sac cultures of a chromate-reducing strain of Enterobacter cloacae.  

PubMed

A method for removal of toxic hexavalent chromium (chromate: CrO2-4) was developed by use of dialysis-sac cultures of a chromate-reducing strain of Enterobacter cloacae (HO1). E. cloacae strain HO1 cells were put in dialysis (semipermeable membrane) sacs, and the sacs were submerged in water containing toxic CrO2-4. The dialysis sacs allowed CrO2-4 to diffuse into the culture, and CrO2-4 was reduced anaerobically in the dialysis sacs by the E. cloacae cells. Because reduced chromium readily formed insoluble chromium hydroxides in the dialysis sacs, the greater part of reduced chromium was unable to diffuse out through the semipermeable membrane. Thus the dialysis culture of E. cloacae strain HO1 could successfully remove toxic chromium from the surrounding water. If the initial concentration of CrO2-4 was less than 4 mM (208 ppm as chromium), about 90% of the total chromium could be removed from water by the described method. PMID:1366562

Komori, K; Rivas, A; Toda, K; Ohtake, H

1990-04-01

193

Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel. Plume lengths, though, would not be proportionately reduced. One implication of these results was that the concentrations would be reduced, but the number of impacted wells would remain similar. Because the simulations included emplacement of the gasoline, dissolution from contact with flowing ground water and transient transport in the aquifer, a common-sense explanation of the results was difficult to construct. A simpler model was then used for the purpose of explaining to policy-makers why the plume length reductions were less than proportionate to the reduction of the amount of MTBE. The model was simple enough (one-dimensional, steady state, constant source concentration) so that the effect of each term of the transport equation on plume length could be easily shown. The weight of evidence from using multiple models, direct explanations from the transport equation, and field observation, then provided a sufficient basis for policy makers to understand scientifically how gasoline composition affects ground water impacts. >http://www.epa.gov/athens/learn2model/part- two/onsite/length.htm

Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

2001-12-01

194

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

195

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

196

Vehicle Driveability with Gasoline/Alcohol Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report addresses the issue of vehicle driveability with gasoline/ethanol and gasoline/methanol cosolvent blends. Oxygen content, volatility, heat vaporization, intake system deposits, driveability test programs and fleet programs are also examined.

J. Adler C. A. Harvey

1987-01-01

197

Physical Properties of Gasoline/Methanol Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental work was done to relate selected physical properties of gasoline/methanol solutions, containing contaminant levels of water, to compositional and physical properties of the blending gasoline. Water tolerance, octane number, vapor pressure, an...

B. H. Eccleston F. W. Cox

1977-01-01

198

Infrared Analysis of Gasoline/Alcohol Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An infrared method for qualitative and quantitative determination of alcohols in gasoline/alcohol blends has been developed. The method has high potential for speed, low cost, and specificity. Gasoline containing methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, t-butanol...

F. M. Newman S. M. Biela

1981-01-01

199

40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline...

2013-07-01

200

Water tolerance of gasoline-methanol blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method based on laser attenuation was devised to accurately measure the phase separation and, in turn, the water tolerance of gasoline-methanol blends with and without cosolvents. Water tolerances were quantified for a variety of blends in model and actual gasolines, as well as in major refinery streams - alkylate, FCC gasoline, and reformate - which make up commercial

Gary J. Green; Tsoung Y. Yan

1990-01-01

201

Water tolerance of gasoline-methanol blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a method based on laser attenuation that was devised to accurately measure the phase separation and, in turn, the water tolerance of gasoline - methanol blends with and without cosolvents. Water tolerances were quantified for a variety of blends in model and actual gasolines, as well as in major refinery streams-alkylate, FCC gasoline, and reformate -

G. J. Green; T. Y. Yan

1991-01-01

202

Competition in the retail gasoline industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by

Jedidiah Brewer

2007-01-01

203

The changing nature of gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the changes to the composition of gasoline since it was used in the first four-stroke cycle engine by Nikolaus Otto in 1876. The topics of the article include refining developments, gravity/density, lead anti-knock compounds, anti-knock quality, volatility, distillation, driveability index, vapor pressure, hydrocarbon composition, and oxygenates.

Not Available

1994-01-01

204

Toxicology and human health effects following exposure to oxygenated or reformulated gasoline.  

PubMed

In order to replace antiknock leaded derivatives in gasoline, legislations were enacted in the United States and other countries to find safer additives and to reduce CO, O3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in non-attainment areas. Oxygenates commonly used include various alcohols and aliphatic ethers. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used and studied ether oxygenate and is added to gasoline at concentrations up to 15% by volume. Inhalation of fumes while fueling automobiles is the main source of human exposure to MTBE. Humans are also exposed when drinking water contaminated with MTBE. Epidemiological, clinical, animal, metabolic and kinetic studies have been carried out to address human health risks resulting from exposure to MTBE. MTBE is an animal carcinogen, but its human carcinogenic potential remains unclear. Because MTBE functions as a non-traditional genotoxicant, several mechanisms were suggested to explain its mode of action, such as, functioning as a cytotoxic as opposed to a mitogenic agent; involvement of hormonal mechanisms; or operating as a promoter instead of being a complete carcinogen. Some studies suggested that carcinogenicity of MTBE might be due to its two main metabolites, formaldehyde or tributanol. A role for DNA repair in MTBE carcinogenesis was recently unveiled, which explains some, but not all effects. The totality of the evidence shows that, for the majority of the non-occupationally exposed human population, MTBE is unlikely to produce lasting adverse health effects, and may in some cases improve health by reducing the composition of emitted harmful VOCs and other substances. A small segment of the population (e.g. asthmatic children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency) may be at increased risk for toxicity. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate this hypothesis. Concern over ground and surface water contamination caused by persistent MTBE has lead the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to proposed reducing or eliminating its use as a gasoline additive. The major potential alternatives to MTBE are other forms of ethers such as ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and alcohols such as ethanol. More definitive studies are needed to understand the mechanism(s) by which aliphatic ethers may pose health and environmental impacts. The switch from MTBE to ethanol is not without problems. Ethanol costs more to produce, poses challenges to the gasoline distribution system, extends the spread of hydrocarbons through ground water in gasoline plumes, and in the short-term is unlikely to be available in sufficient quantity. Moreover, its metabolite acetaldehyde is a possible carcinogen that undergoes a photochemical reaction in the atmosphere to produce the respiratory irritant peroxylacetate nitrate (PAN). Congress is addressing whether the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) provisions concerning reformulated gasoline (RFG) should be modified to allow refineries to discontinue or lessen the use of oxygenates. PMID:11641038

Ahmed, F E

2001-09-15

205

Reduced Cellular Toxicity of a New Silver-Containing Antimicrobial Dressing and Clinical Performance in Non-Healing Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial colonisation of wounds may delay wound healing. Modern silver-containing dressings are antimicrobial, yet cellular toxicity is a serious side-effect. We provide data for a newly formulated silver-containing oint ment dressing, Atrauman Ag, for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. Atrauman Ag effectively killed a panel of commensal skin as well as pathogenic bacterial strains while cytotoxicity for HaCaT keratinocytes was only

K. Ziegler; R. Görl; J. Effing; J. Ellermann; M. Mappes; S. Otten; H. Kapp; P. Zoellner; D. Spaeth; H. Smola

2006-01-01

206

Multifunctional gasoline additives  

SciTech Connect

The reaction products of epoxides, containing from about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms, with unsubstituted alkylenediamines, N-alkyl alkylenediamines, N-alkoxyalkyl alkylenediamines and poly (ethyleneamines) are effective carburetor detergents and reduce deposits on various components of internal combustion engines. Internal epoxides containing at least one branched alkyl group afford reaction products with particularly desirable properties.

Childs, M.E.

1983-10-18

207

Determination of a Threshold Dose to Reduce or Eliminate CdTe-Induced Toxicity in L929 Cells by Controlling the Exposure Dose  

PubMed Central

With the widespread use of quantum dots (QDs), the likelihood of exposure to quantum dots has increased substantially. The application of quantum dots in numerous biomedical areas requires detailed studies on their toxicity. In this study, we aimed to determine the threshold dose which reduced or eliminated CdTe-induced toxicity in L929 cells by controlling the exposure dose. We established a cellular model of acute exposure to CdTe QDs. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of CdTe QDs (2.2 nm and 3.5 nm) followed by illustrative cytotoxicity analysis. The results showed that low concentrations of CdTe QDs (under 10 µg/mL) promoted cell viability, caused no obvious effect on the rate of cell apoptosis, intracellular calcium levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, while high concentrations significantly inhibited cell viability. In addition, reactive oxygen species in the 10 µg/mL-treated group was significantly reduced compared with the control group. In summary, the cytotoxicity of CdTe QDs on L929 cell is dose-dependent, time-dependent and size-dependent. Low concentrations of CdTe QDs (below 10 µg/mL) may be nontoxic and safe in L929 cells, whereas high concentrations (above 10 µg/mL) may be toxic resulting in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in L929 cells.

Liu, Xiaorun; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shanshan; Kong, Lu; Xue, Yuying

2013-01-01

208

Characterization and Control of Emissions from Heavy Duty Diesel and Gasoline Fueled Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers results from experimental work in measurement of emissions from heavy duty diesel and gasoline fueled engines and an investigation of the effectiveness of engine modifications and/or auxiliary devices for reducing emissions. Definitive e...

1972-01-01

209

Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.  

PubMed

Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 ?M), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (?-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (?-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants. PMID:23479061

Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

2013-03-13

210

Emissions from light duty gasoline vehicles operating on low blend ethanol gasoline and E85  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of two recent vehicle emission studies are described in this paper, along with a statistical analysis of the changes in tailpipe emissions due to the use of ethanol that includes the results from these two studies in combination with results from other literature reports. The first study evaluates the effect of two low blend ethanol gasolines (E10, E20) on tailpipe and evaporative emissions from three multi-port fuel injection vehicles and one gasoline direct injection vehicle at two different test temperatures. The second study evaluates the differences in tailpipe emissions and fuel consumptions of paired flexible fuel and conventional gasoline vehicles operating on California RFG Phase 2 and/or E85 fuels at 20 °C. The vehicles were tested over the four-phase FTP or UDDS and US06 driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions were characterized for criteria pollutants (CO, NO X, NMHC, NMOG), greenhouse gases (CO 2, CH 4, N 2O), and a suite of unregulated emissions including important air toxics (benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein), and ozone reactivity. In the low blend ethanol study, evaporative emissions were quantified and characterized for NMHC. While contradicting, results can be seen among the various literature reports and with these two new studies, the statistical analyses of the aggregated data offers much clearer pictures of the changes in tailpipe emissions that may be expected using either low blend ethanol gasoline (E10) or E85. The results of the statistical analysis suggest that the use of E10 results in statistically significant decreases in CO emissions (-16%); statistically significant increases in emissions of NMHC (9%), NMOG (14%), acetaldehyde (108%), 1,3-butadiene (16%), and benzene (15%); and no statistically significant changes in NO X, CO 2, CH 4, N 2O or formaldehyde emissions. The statistical analysis suggests that the use of E85 results in statistically significant decreases in emissions of NO X (-45%), NMHC (-48%), 1,3-butadiene (-77%), and benzene (-76%); statistically significant increases in emissions of formaldehyde (73%) and acetaldehyde (2540%), and no statistically significant change in CO, CO 2, and NMOG emissions.

Graham, Lisa A.; Belisle, Sheri L.; Baas, Cara-Lynn

211

Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to “total” heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including “volatile components” at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable.

Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

1977-01-01

212

Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats.

2009-01-01

213

Combustion advancements in gasoline engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical review of the recent combustion advancements made in gasoline engines for the reduction of fuel consumption and engine-out emissions, and the technologies associated with these advancements. For optimum combustion throughout their speed\\/load range, engines should operate in three combustion modes: stratified-charge spark-ignited (SCSI), homogeneous-charge spark-ignited (HCSI), and homogeneous-charge compression-ignited (HCCI). Key technologies to achieve this,

Alex C. Alkidas

2007-01-01

214

Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 summer Olympic Games in Beijing: The roles of chemical and biological components.  

PubMed

Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM2.5) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM2.5 collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20PM2.5 samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM2.5 was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM2.5. Endotoxin content in PM2.5 correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM2.5 toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM2.5 during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

2013-08-17

215

Toxic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure.

Kim, Jae Woo

2012-01-01

216

REVIEW The Removal of Lead from Gasoline: Historical and Personal Reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraethyllead (TEL) was first fabricated for use in gasoline in 1923. Shortly after manufacture be- gan, workers at all three plants began to become Boridly psychotic and die. A moratorium on TEL production was put into place, but was lifted in 1926. Between 1926 and 1965, the prevailing consen- sus was that lead toxicity occurred only at high levels of

Herbert L. Needleman

217

Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats.  

PubMed

Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5-50 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. PMID:22820422

Eyer, Florian; Steimer, Werner; Nitzsche, Thomas; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Müller, Christine; Schlapschy, Martin; Zilker, Thomas; Skerra, Arne

2012-07-20

218

26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline...

2013-04-01

219

Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

220

[98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-02-29

221

Premixed low-temperature combustion of blends of diesel and gasoline in a high speed compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study experimentally demonstrates the potential of using blends of diesel and gasoline to simultaneously reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions in premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) mode. Blends of diesel and gasoline have lower cetane numbers than diesel, and can provide more time for fuel\\/air mixing prior to combustion by extending ignition delay. When diesel is replaced by blends

Dong Han; Andrew M. Ickes; Stanislav V. Bohac; Zhen Huang; Dennis N. Assanis

2011-01-01

222

Spray properties of alternative fuels: A comparative analysis of ethanol–gasoline blends and gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is an attracted alternative fuel and ethanol–gasoline blends can be used as fuel in order to substitute some part of gasoline in engine applications. In this study, the spray properties of different blends of ethanol–gasoline (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% ethanol) as well as pure gasoline are investigated under various ambient conditions by means of high-speed schlieren photography technique.

Jian Gao; Deming Jiang; Zuohua Huang

2007-01-01

223

Automobile gasoline -- quality fuel or commodity  

SciTech Connect

The commercial availability and use of good quality gasolines are essential for the operation of high-technology automobiles without adverse effects on driveability and emissions. Some current and future fuel requirements for GM vehicles are addressed with a focus on certain trends in fuel composition and properties which are of importance or concern at this time. Examples include the contribution of elevated gasoline volatility to increased evaporative emissions, the compatibility of GM engines with gasolines blended with certain alcohols, and the need for gasolines without contaminants and with sufficient additives, such as detergents to keep port fuel injection systems clean.

France, W.D.

1986-01-01

224

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17

225

Exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: substitution of glutamic acid 553 with aspartic acid drastically reduces toxicity and enzymatic activity.  

PubMed Central

Glutamic acid 553 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) has been identified by photoaffinity labeling as a residue within the NAD binding site (S.F. Carroll and R.J. Collier, J. Biol. Chem. 262:8707-8711, 1987). To explore the function of Glu-553 we used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to replace this residue with Asp in cloned ETA and expressed the mutant gene in Escherichia coli K-12. ADP-ribosylation activity of Asp-553 ETA in cell extracts was about 1,800-fold lower and toxicity for mouse L-M929 fibroblasts was at least 10,000-fold lower than that of the wild-type toxin. Extracts containing Asp-553 ETA inhibited the cytotoxicity of authentic ETA on L-M929 fibroblasts, suggesting that the mutant toxin competes for ETA receptors. The results indicate that Glu-553 is crucial for ADP-ribosylation activity and, consequently, cytotoxicity of ETA. Substitution or deletion of this residue may be a route to new ETA vaccines. Images

Douglas, C M; Collier, R J

1987-01-01

226

AVGAS/AUTOGAS (aviation gasoline/automobile gasoline) comparison. Winter-grade fuels. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes dynamometer tests that simulated conditions found in a general-aviation aircraft. In these tests, automobile gasoline was tested and compared with aviation gasoline. The tendency for vapor lock and detonation was measured as a function of gasoline grade, Reid vapor pressure, and the age of the fuel.

Ferrara, A.M.

1986-07-01

227

Efficiency comparison between hydrogen and gasoline, on a bi-fuel hydrogen\\/gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of hydrogen compared to gasoline offer the potential of an increased engine efficiency, especially at part load. Here, results are presented of the brake thermal efficiency of a bi-fuel hydrogen\\/gasoline engine, at several engine speeds and loads. Results on hydrogen are compared to results on gasoline. Hydrogen offers the possibility of a more flexible load control strategy.

S. Verhelst; P. Maesschalck; N. Rombaut; R. Sierens

2009-01-01

228

Biodegradation of gasoline ether oxygenates.  

PubMed

Ether oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) are added to gasoline to improve fuel combustion and decrease exhaust emissions. Ether oxygenates and their tertiary alcohol metabolites are now an important group of groundwater pollutants. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the microorganisms, enzymes and pathways involved in both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds. This review also aims to illustrate how these microbiological and biochemical studies have guided, and have helped refine, molecular and stable isotope-based analytical approaches that are increasingly being used to detect and quantify biodegradation of these compounds in contaminated environments. PMID:23116604

Hyman, Michael

2012-10-29

229

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

Lammert, M.

2008-06-01

230

Chronic carcinogenicity study of gasoline vapor condensate (GVC) and GVC containing methyl tertiary-butyl ether in F344 rats.  

PubMed

Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m³ for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

Benson, Janet M; Gigliotti, Andrew P; March, Thomas H; Barr, Edward B; Tibbetts, Brad M; Skipper, Betty J; Clark, Charles R; Twerdok, Lorraine

2011-01-01

231

GC/MS analysis of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in gasolines  

SciTech Connect

To improve octane performance and reduce emissions, MTBE and to lesser degree ETBE and TAME are blended into gasolines. These oxygenates coelute with hydrocarbon components of gasoline in GC analysis. It is known that oxonium ions are formed in the electron impact mass spectrometry of aliphatic alcohols and ethers. The base ions of t-BuOH, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and BEE are either m/z 59 or 73 ions, and fragment ions of alkanes, alkenes, and naphthenes are at m/z 41, 43, 55, 57, 69, 71, 83, and 88. The maximum background m/z 59 and 73 ion abundances of three diluted (1:20) gasolines which are used to determine percent oxygenates in gasoline were less than 0.04% that of the lowest analyte standard used to determine the linear regression coefficients of these ethers. The background m/z 59 and 73 traces of undiluted gasoline were also studied. An ACN/gasoline partitioning cleanup technique was used to remove hydrocarbon interferences of less than 2% (v/v) oxygenated gasoline prior to identification by GC/MS. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kanai, Hiromitsu; Yazawa, L.; Maka, J. (Hawaii State Department of Agriculture, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Inouye, V. (Hawaiian Electric Industries, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Goo, R. (City and County of Honolulu, HI (United States)); Chow, R. (Hawaii State Department of Health, Honolulu, HI (United States))

1994-03-15

232

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 ...Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by §...

2011-10-01

233

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

234

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80...80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements...contained in this section in the case of California gasoline. (2) For purposes of...

2013-07-01

235

Quantification of personal exposure concentrations to gasoline vehicle emissions in high-end exposure microenvironments: effects of fuel and season.  

PubMed

Mobile-source air toxic (MSAT) levels increase in confining microenvironments (MEs) with numerous emission sources of vehicle exhaust or evaporative emissions or during high-load and cold-start conditions. Reformulated fuels are expected to reduce MSAT and ozone precursor emissions. This study, required under the Clean Air Act Section 211b, evaluated high-end exposures in cities using reformulated (methyl tertiary-butyl ether [MTBE] or ethanol [EtOH]) fuels and conventional gasoline blends. The study investigates 13 high-end MEs, sampling under enhanced exposure conditions expected to result in maximal fuel and exhaust component exposures to carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), MTBE, 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), EtOH,formaldehyde (HCHO), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). The authors found that day-to-day ME variations in high-end benzene, 1,3-BD, HCHO, and CO concentrations are substantial, but independent of gasoline composition and season, and related to the activity and emission rates of ME sources, which differ from day to day. PMID:23210226

Zielinska, B; Fujita, E; Ollison, W; Campbell, D; Sagebiel, J

2012-11-01

236

Gene Transfer of Mutant Mouse Cholinesterase Provides High Lifetime Expression and Reduced Cocaine Responses with No Evident Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH) derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G) were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH). The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a) serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD) with ApoE promoter, and b) serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV) or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP). Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg) with 3H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3×1011 particles) plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (1010 particles) to 20,000 fold (1013 particles), while the hdAD vector (1.7×1012 particles) yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7×1012 particles) prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg). This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase expression for lengthy periods without immune reactions or cholinergic dysfunction, while blocking toxicity from drug overdose.

Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Chen, Xiabin; Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Radic, Zoran; Parks, Robin J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh; Brimijoin, Stephen

2013-01-01

237

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE GASOLINE AND OXYFUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite the ubiquity of gasoline for several decades and more recent modifications in fuel formulations to achieve ?cleaner? gasoline, a quantitative comparative assessment of the health risks related to these fuels remains to be performed. Under authority of Clean Air Act secti...

238

Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

2004-01-01

239

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10

240

Octane number prediction for gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been developed to determine the Research Octane Number (RON) of gasoline blends produced in a Greek refinery. The developed ANN models use as input variables the volumetric content of seven most commonly used fractions in the gasoline production and their respective RON numbers. The model parameters (ANN weights) are presented such that the model

Nikos Pasadakis; Vassilis Gaganis; Charalambos Foteinopoulos

2006-01-01

241

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01

242

KCa2 channels activation prevents [Ca2+]i deregulation and reduces neuronal death following glutamate toxicity and cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Exacerbated activation of glutamate receptor-coupled calcium channels and subsequent increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) are established hallmarks of neuronal cell death in acute and chronic neurological diseases. Here we show that pathological [Ca2+]i deregulation occurring after glutamate receptor stimulation is effectively modulated by small conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels. We found that neuronal excitotoxicity was associated with a rapid downregulation of KCa2.2 channels within 3?h after the onset of glutamate exposure. Activation of KCa2 channels preserved KCa2 expression and significantly reduced pathological increases in [Ca2+]i providing robust neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest a critical role for KCa2 channels in excitotoxic neuronal cell death and propose their activation as potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21509037

Dolga, A M; Terpolilli, N; Kepura, F; Nijholt, I M; Knaus, H-G; D'Orsi, B; Prehn, J H M; Eisel, U L M; Plant, T; Plesnila, N; Culmsee, C

2011-04-21

243

KCa2 channels activation prevents [Ca2+]i deregulation and reduces neuronal death following glutamate toxicity and cerebral ischemia  

PubMed Central

Exacerbated activation of glutamate receptor-coupled calcium channels and subsequent increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) are established hallmarks of neuronal cell death in acute and chronic neurological diseases. Here we show that pathological [Ca2+]i deregulation occurring after glutamate receptor stimulation is effectively modulated by small conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels. We found that neuronal excitotoxicity was associated with a rapid downregulation of KCa2.2 channels within 3?h after the onset of glutamate exposure. Activation of KCa2 channels preserved KCa2 expression and significantly reduced pathological increases in [Ca2+]i providing robust neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest a critical role for KCa2 channels in excitotoxic neuronal cell death and propose their activation as potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

Dolga, A M; Terpolilli, N; Kepura, F; Nijholt, I M; Knaus, H-G; D'Orsi, B; Prehn, J H M; Eisel, U L M; Plant, T; Plesnila, N; Culmsee, C

2011-01-01

244

Stimulation of Sigma Receptors with Afobazole Blocks Activation of Microglia and Reduces Toxicity Caused by Amyloid-?25-35.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of senile dementia in the United States. Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) and the effects of this peptide on microglial cells contribute greatly to the etiology of AD. Experiments were carried out to determine whether the pan-selective ?-receptor agonist afobazole can modulate microglial response to the cytotoxic A? fragment, A?25-35. Treatment with afobazole decreased microglial activation in response to A?, as indicated by reduced membrane ruffling and cell migration. The effects of afobazole on A?25-35-evoked migration were concentration dependent and consistent with ?-receptor activation. When afobazole was coapplied with either BD-1047 [N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine dihydrobromide] or rimcazole, which are ?-1- and ?-2-selective antagonists, respectively, the inhibition of A?25-35-induced migration by afobazole was reduced. Prolonged exposure of microglia to A?25-35 resulted in glial cell death that was associated with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and the death protease caspase-3. Coapplication of afobazole with A?25-35 decreased the number of cells expressing both Bax and caspase-3 and resulted in a concomitant enhancement in cell survival. Although afobazole inhibited activation of microglia cells by A?25-35, it preserved normal functional responses in these cells after exposure to the amyloid peptide. Intracellular calcium increases induced by ATP were depressed in microglia after 24-hour exposure to A?25-35. However, coincubation in afobazole returned these responses to near control levels. Therefore, stimulation of ?-1 and ?-2 receptors by afobazole prevents A?25-35 activation of microglia and inhibits A?25-35-associated cytotoxicity, suggesting that afobazole may be useful for AD therapeutics. PMID:24006337

Behensky, Adam A; Yasny, Ilya E; Shuster, Alexander M; Seredenin, Sergei B; Petrov, Andrey V; Cuevas, Javier

2013-09-04

245

Transplantation-related mortality, graft failure, and survival after reduced-toxicity conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 100 consecutive pediatric recipients.  

PubMed

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with myeloablative conditioning is associated with a 10%-40% risk of day +100 transplantation-related mortality (TRM). We evaluated the feasibility and safety of reduced-toxicity conditioning and allo-HSCT in 100 consecutive children and adolescent recipients (mean age, 9.2 ± 6.8 years). The mean duration of follow-up was 1278 ± 1042 days. Fifty patients had malignant disease. The median time to neutrophil recovery was 18 days, and the median time to platelet recovery was 43 days. Median donor chimerism in engrafted patients was 98% on day +100 and 98% on day +365. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.1%-27.9%), and that of chronic GVHD was 13.5% (95% CI, 6.6%-20.4%). TRM was 3% (95% CI, 0%-6.4%) by day +100 and 13.6% (95% CI, 6.7%-20.5%) for the entire study period. The incidence of primary graft failure (PGF) was 16% overall, 31.4% after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT), and 0% after allo-HSCT with matched unrelated or matched sibling donors (P < .0001). The incidence of PGF in UCBT recipients was 46.7% (14 of 30) in chemotherapy-naive recipients, versus 9.5% (2 of 21) in non-chemotherapy-naive recipients (P = .019). Five-year event-free survival was 59.5% ± 5%, and 5-year overall survival was 72.9% ± 5%. Only PGF and poor-risk disease status were significantly associated with decreased overall survival (P = .03). Reduced-toxicity conditioning allo-HSCT in pediatric recipients is associated with low TRM; however, chemotherapy-naive UCBT recipients have a significantly higher incidence of PGF. PMID:23253557

Satwani, Prakash; Jin, Zhezhen; Duffy, Deirdre; Morris, Erin; Bhatia, Monica; Garvin, James H; George, Diane; Bradley, Mary Brigid; Harrison, Lauren; Petrillo, Kristen; Schwartz, Joseph; Foley, Sandra; Hawks, Ria; Baxter-Lowe, Lee Ann; Cairo, Mitchell S

2012-12-16

246

Human cytochrome P450 isozymes in metabolism and health effects of gasoline ethers.  

PubMed

To reduce the production of carbon monoxide and other pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE*), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are added to gasoline as oxygenates for more complete combustion. Among them, MTBE is the most widely used. The possible adverse effect of MTBE in humans is a public concern, but the human enzymes responsible for metabolism of these gasoline ethers and the causes or factors for increased sensitivity to MTBE in certain individuals are totally unknown. This information is important to understanding the health effects of MTBE in humans and to assessing the human relevance of pharmacokinetics and toxicity data obtained from animals. In the present study, we demonstrated that human liver is active in metabolizing MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a major circulating metabolite and an exposure marker of MTBE. The activity is localized in the microsomal fraction but not in the cytosol. Formation of TBA in human liver microsomes is NADPH-dependent and is significantly inhibited by carbon monoxide, which inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. These results provide strong evidence that CYP enzymes play a critical role in the metabolism of MTBE in human livers. Human liver is also active in the oxidative metabolism of 2 other gasoline ethers, ETBE and TAME. We observed a large interindividual variation in metabolizing these gasoline ethers in 15 microsomal samples prepared from normal human livers. The activity level (pmol metabolite/min/mg) ranged from 204 to 2,890 for MTBE; 179 to 3,134 for ETBE; and 271 to 8,532 for TAME. The microsomal activities in metabolizing MTBE, ETBE, and TAME correlated highly with each other (r = 0.91 to 0.96), suggesting that these ethers are metabolized by the same enzyme(s). Correlation analysis of the ether-metabolizing activities with individual CYP enzyme activities in the human liver microsomes showed that the highest degree of correlation was with CYP isoform 2A6 (CYP2A6)+ (r = 0.94 for MTBE, 0.95 for ETBE, and 0.90 for TAME), which is constitutively expressed in human livers and known to be polymorphic. CYP2A6 displayed the highest turnover number in metabolizing gasoline ethers among a battery of human CYP enzymes expressed in human B-lymphoblastoid cells. CYP2A6 coexpressed with human CYP reductase by a baculovirus expression system was also more active than CYP isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the metabolism of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. Kinetic studies on MTBE metabolism with human liver microsomes (n = 3) exhibited an apparent Michaelis constant (Km) of 28 to 89 microM and a maximum rate of metabolism (Vmax) of 215 to 783 pmol/min/mg. Metabolism of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME by human liver microsomes was inhibited by coumarin, a known substrate of human CYP2A6, in a concentration-dependent manner. Monoclonal antibody against human CYP2A6 caused a significant inhibition (75% to 95%) of the metabolism of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in human liver microsomes. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that, in human liver, CYP2A6 is a major enzyme responsible for metabolism of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. Although CYP2E1 metabolizes diethyl ether and was previously suggested to be involved PMID:11504148

Hong, J Y; Wang, Y Y; Mohr, S N; Bondoc, F Y; Deng, C

2001-05-01

247

Studies pertaining to hydrogen car development. Part B. A comparative study of engine performance with gasoline and hydrogen. Part C. Hydrogen storage and flow system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the performance of an engine operating on gasoline and on hydrogen is presented. Results indicate thermal efficiencies of from 25 to 100% greater with hydrogen than with gasoline. The emission of nitrogen oxides was reduced approximately 90% when operating on hydrogen. With quality-governed, hydrogen operation, however, maximum power output is reduced by as much as 50%;

Van Vorst

1974-01-01

248

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number, in particular lead-free gasoline  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing gasoline of high octane number from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts, such as those obtained by fractional distillation of a C/sub 3/ / C/sub 4/ catalytic cracking cut. It includes the steps of: (A) oligomerizing propylene of the C/sub 3/ cut to obtain a first gasoline fraction, (B) reacting the isobutene of the C/sub 4/ cut with methanol to produce methyl tert.-butyl ether which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons to form a second gasoline fraction, (C) alkylating said unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons with isobutane in the presence of an alkylation catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid, to form a third gasoline fraction, and (D) admixing, at least partially, said first, second and third gasoline fractions, so as to obtain gasoline of high octane number.

Chauvin, Y.; Gaillard, J.; Hellin, M.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q.D.

1981-06-02

249

Gasoline Blending System Modeling via Static and Dynamic Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Gasoline blending is an important unit operation in gasoline industry. A good model for the blending system is beneficial for supervision operation, prediction of the gasoline qualities and realizing model-based optimal control. Gasoline blending process involves two types proprieties: static blending property and dynamic property of blending tanks. Since the blending cannot follow the ideal mixing rule in practice. We

Wen Yu; América Morales

250

Biodesulfurization of Gasoline: A Technology Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CRC formed a panel to examine available information on the status of biodesulfurization and compile a report that: identified the processes that may work and the research that is critical for the commercial application of biocatalysis to refining gasoline...

R. M. Atlas D. J. Boron W. R. Deever A. R. Johnson B. L. McFarland J. A. Meyer

1998-01-01

251

Physical Properties of Gasoline/Alcohol Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental data were generated for the octane number, water tolerance, micro vapor pressure, and distillation characteristics of gasoline/alcohol blends. The alcohols studied were methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, i-butanol, and two synthetic methyl fuels;...

F. W. Cox

1979-01-01

252

Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)|

Stephens, Edgar R.

1977-01-01

253

Effects of ethanol and/or methanol in alcohol-gasoline blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the effect on exhaust gas emissions (carbon monoxide, CO, hydrocarbons, HC, and aldehydes, CHO) resulting from mixing methanol and/or ethanol with gasoline for automotive fuels studied experimentally. Tests were conducted on an OEM four-cylinder engine running at different conditions of equivalence ratio and spark timing. Fuel blends with different percentages of alcohol content and different ratios of methanol to ethanol in the alcohol mixture were tested. Results of this investigation indicate that the presence of either or both of the alcohols in fuel blends significantly reduced the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust emissions (up to 40-50 percent compared to pure gasoline only), with methanol slightly more effective than ethanol. Hydrocarbon emissions were also decreased by increasing the alcohol content of the fuel, with minimum hydrocarbon production occurring at percent alcohol-gasoline blends in conjunction with near-stoichiometric air-fuel ratios. However, aldehyde emissions were found to be markedly higher with alcohol-gasoline blends. The 10 percent alcohol-gasoline blends were found to produce about 50 percent more aldehyde emissions than pure gasoline.

Beta, R.M. (College of Engineering, Clemson Univ. Clemson, S.C. (US)); Roan, V.P. (College of Engineering, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (US))

1989-07-01

254

Composition, toxicity, and mutagenicity of particulate and semivolatile emissions from heavy-duty compressed natural gas-powered vehicles.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) and vapor-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected from three buses fueled by compressed natural gas. The bus engines included a well-functioning, conventional engine; a "high emitter" engine; and a new technology engine with an oxidation catalyst. Chemical analysis of the emissions showed differences among these samples, with the high emitter sample containing markers of engine oil constituents. PM + SVOC samples were also collected for mutagenicity and toxicity testing. Extraction efficiencies from the collection media were lower than for similarly collected samples from gasoline or diesel vehicles. Responses to the recovered samples were compared on the basis of exhaust volume, to incorporate the emission rates into the potency factors. Mutagenicity was assessed by Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Mutagenicity was greatest for the high emitter sample and lowest for the new technology sample. Metabolic activation reduced mutagenicity in strain TA100, but not TA98. Toxicity, including inflammation, cytotoxicity, and parenchymal changes, was assessed 24 h after intratracheal instillation into rat lungs. Lung responses were generally mild, with little difference between the responses to equivalent volumes of emissions from the normal emitter and the new technology, but greater responses for the high emitter. These emission sample potencies are further compared on the basis of recovered mass with previously reported samples from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles. While mutagenic potencies for the CNG emission samples were similar to the range observed in the gasoline and diesel emission samples, lung toxicity potency factors were generally lower than those for the gasoline and diesel samples. PMID:15976195

Seagrave, JeanClare; Gigliotti, Andrew; McDonald, Jacob D; Seilkop, Steven K; Whitney, Kevin A; Zielinska, Barbara; Mauderly, Joe L

2005-06-23

255

Petroleum fingerprinting: Dating a gasoline release  

SciTech Connect

Dating a gasoline releases is particularly important in situations involving a contaminated gasoline service station. Often the station begins under the control of a major oil company, and as it ages and deteriorates it may be operated by a series of smaller operators. When facing a claim for contamination, often operators blame former operators. Fingerprinting is one of several successful methods used to date petroleum releases on contaminated sites. The topics covered in this article are inventory reconciliation; reverse groundwater modeling; hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

Johnson, M.D. [Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Morrison, R.D. [R. Morrison and Associates, Valley Center, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

256

Aerobic biodegradation of butanol and gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to assess the aerobic biodegradation of butanol\\/gasoline blends (5; 10; 15 and 20% v\\/v), being the latter compared to the ethanol\\/gasoline blend (20% v\\/v). Two experimental techniques were employed, namely the respirometric method and the redox indicator DCPIP test. In the former, experiments simulating the contamination of natural environments (addition of 50mL of fuelkg?1 of soil from

Adriano Pinto Mariano; Richard Clayton Tomasella; Clara Di Martino; Rubens Maciel Filho; Mirna Helena Regali Seleghim; Jonas Contiero; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis

2009-01-01

257

Species profiles and normalized reactivity of volatile organic compounds from gasoline evaporation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, fast increase in passenger cars and gasoline consumption with yet quite limited vapor recovery during gasoline distribution has procured growing concern about gasoline evaporation as an important emission source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly in megacities hard-hit by air quality problems. This study presents VOC species profiles related to major pathways of gasoline evaporative loss in China, including headspace displacement, refueling operations and spillage/leakage. Apart from liquid gasoline and headspace vapors, gasoline vapors emitted when refueling cars in service stations or tank trucks in oil marketing depots were also sampled in situ with vapor recovery units (VRUs) turning on/off. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons accounted for 55-66, 21-35 and 4-8% in refueling vapors, 59-72, 18-28 and 4-10% in headspace vapors and 33-51, 8-15 and 38-48% in liquid gasoline samples, respectively. During refueling with VRUs turning on, total VOCs in vapors were less than one fifth of that with VRUs turning off, and aromatic hydrocarbons had higher weight percentages of about 8% in contrast with that of about 4% during refueling with VRUs turning off. Refueling vapors, especially for that with VRUs turning off, showed a larger fraction of light hydrocarbons including C3-C5 light alkenes when compared to headspace vapors, probably due to splashing and disturbance during filling operation. In refueling or headspace vapors the ratios of i-pentane/benzene, i-pentane/toluene, and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether)/benzene ranged 8.7-57, 2.7-4.8, and 1.9-6.6, respectively; and they are distinctively much higher than those previously reported in vehicle exhausts. Calculated normalized reactivity or ozone formation potential of the gasoline vapors in China ranged 3.3-4.4 g O3 g-1 VOC, about twice that of gasoline headspace vapors reported in USA as a result of larger fractions of alkenes in China's gasoline vapors. The results suggested that reducing VOC emission from gasoline distribution sector would particularly benefit ground-level ozone control in China.

Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; Lü, Sujun; Shao, Min; Lee, Frank S. C.; Yu, Jianzhen

2013-11-01

258

Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.  

PubMed Central

The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations.

Sawyer, R F

1993-01-01

259

Is benzene exposure from gasoline carcinogenic?  

PubMed

This article questions the basis for benzene as the carcinogenic surrogate in deriving health risk-based 'clean-up levels' for gasoline-impacted soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank properties. The epidemiological evidence suggests that acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) associated with chronic occupational benzene exposure can be best described by sigmoid dose-response relationships. A review of the molecular toxicology and kinetics of benzene points to the existence of threshold mechanisms in the induction of leukemia. The toxicological and epidemiological literature on chronic exposure to unleaded gasoline indicates that the benzene exposures required to induce a measurable carcinogenic response are substantially greater than exposures likely to be encountered from exposure to gasoline at contaminated properties. Thus, assuming that theoretical cancer risks associated with exposure to benzene from gasoline reflect actual health risks associated with such environmental exposures to gasoline and using these theoretical cancer risks and cancer potency factors for benzene to dictate soil and groundwater clean up of gasoline are not scientifically defensible. PMID:18246211

Jamall, Ijaz S; Willhite, Calvin C

2007-12-21

260

Gasoline formulations draw interest at technical meeting  

SciTech Connect

At the most recent NPRA Question and Answer Session on Refining and Petrochemical Technology, refiners exchanged information and experiences on reformulated gasoline recipes and blending systems. At the time the meeting was held--October 11--13, 1994, in Washington DC--US refiners were gearing up to produce the new fuel in time for the December 1 deadline. Under discussion were: blending instrumentation and control systems; flow metering; complex and simple models; and gasoline properties. Discussions are presented on the following questions. For an in-line gasoline blending system, is there a flowmeter which can measure flow independent of stream composition so that several different fluids can be blended and measured through one meter without recalibration? What changes in unit operations will result from the reformulated gasoline complex model vs. operations under the EPA simple model? Are any refiners planning to use the Complex Model prior to 1998 and if so, how will fungibility be handled? With the advent of new fuels mandated by EPA and some states, does anyone have tangible evidence concerning effects this will have on gasoline properties such as corrosivity, additive compatibility, polymerization, etc.? What precautions are being taken to prevent water contamination of MTBE during marine shipment? How do you deal with wet MTBE to prevent resulting haze in finished gasoline?

NONE

1995-05-22

261

Toxicity and residual action of the photoactivated compound, cyano-alpha-terthienyl, and its efficacy for reducing pre-imaginal populations of mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The photoactivated compound, cyano-alpha-terthienyl (cyano-alpha-T), was highly toxic to pre-imagines of the mosquitoes Culex restuans, Cx. tarsalis and Culiseta inornata when synergized with piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Lethal concentrations for 50% mortality, determined during an outdoor trial using caged fourth-instar Culex spp. larvae, were 19.4, 15.4 and 12.9 g/ha at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. No residual activity of cyano-alpha-T was observed beyond 24 h following treatment. In artificial pool tests, greatest population reductions were achieved using dosages of 20 and 40 g/ha; statistically significant reductions were not observed following applications of 5 g/ha. Cyano-alpha-T plus PBO was more effective for reducing mosquito populations than alpha-terthienyl (alpha-T) plus PBO at comparable dosages, although it exhibited slightly lower insecticidal activity at a dosage of 20 g/ha than a formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Vectobac 12 AS, 0.12 ml/m2). Greatest effectiveness of cyano-alpha-T plus PBO was observed in pools with low organic content relative to pools high in organic content. PMID:1359007

Dosdall, L M; Galloway, M M; Arnason, J T

1992-06-01

262

Inhibitors of TLR-4, NF-?B, and SAPK/JNK signaling reduce the toxic effect of lipopolysaccharide on RAW 264.7 cells.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine and compare the effects of three suppressors on the cytokine response in tandem with examining: the synthesis of inducible forms of heat shock proteins; HSP72 and HSP90?; activities of NF-?B and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways; and TLR4 expression. Pre-treatment with inhibitors offers promise as protective means to lower the activity of these cascades, thereby circumventing the formation of excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory molecules. Three inhibitors of TLR4, SAPK/JNK, and NF-?B signaling, namely CLI-095, SP600125, and IKK Inhibitor XII, respectively, were added to cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages before the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application. Treatments of RAW 264.7 cells with each of the inhibitors resulted in a reduced response to LPS as was visualized by a decrease of TNF-?, IL-1, and IFN-? production. In addition, inhibitors of the NF-?B and SAPK/JNK signaling reduced IL-6 production in LPS-treated cells, whereas the IKK inhibitor XII also decreased IL-10 production. Further, the NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages was significantly reduced following application of CLI-095 or IKK inhibitor XII. The results also showed that the inhibitors suppressed TLR4 production and decreased phosphorylation of NF-?B and SAPK/JNK proteins, thereby preventing the activation NF-?B and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways in LPS-activated cells. In addition, the production of inducible heat shock proteins, HSP72 and HSP90-?, was reduced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells pre-treated with inhibitors. These results suggest that inhibitors CLI-095, SP600125, and IKK inhibitor XII demonstrate potential effectiveness in the reduction of the inflammatory response by mechanisms involving both the cellular defense system and cellular signaling. In conclusion, suppressor of NF-?B cascade, IKK inhibitor XII, seems to be the most effective anti-toxic agent among studied inhibitors. PMID:22830990

Glushkova, Olga V; Parfenyuk, Svetlana B; Khrenov, Maxim O; Novoselova, Tatyana V; Lunin, Sergey M; Fesenko, Eugeny E; Novoselova, Elena G

2012-07-25

263

Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.  

PubMed

Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. PMID:11993859

Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

2002-04-15

264

Lead Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Patient Information Sheet What is lead? • ... water often. Page 1 of 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies ...

265

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. T...

A. Dutta J. K. Tarud M. J. Biddy S. D. Phillips

2011-01-01

266

Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.  

PubMed

Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range < 0.2-129 mg/m3) at the Stage II service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean refueling times were 57 seconds (range 23-207) at the Stage I and 66 seconds (range 18-120) at the Stage II station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged from 10 to 17 degrees C, and wind velocity was 2-4 m/s. The climatic conditions were very similar on the measurement days. Based on this study it was found that the Stage II vapor recovery system reduces gasoline emission considerably. The exposure level of customers at the Stage II station during refueling was circa 20-25 percent of the exposure at the Stage I service station when conditions were equal and no other confounding factors such as leaks or spills were present. PMID:10983401

Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

2000-09-01

267

Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles.  

PubMed

Carbonyls can be toxic and highly reactive in the atmosphere. To quantify trends in carbonyl emissions from light-duty (LD) vehicles, measurements were made in a San Francisco Bay area highwaytunnel bore containing essentially all LD vehicles during the summers of 1999, 2001, and 2006. The LD vehicle emission factor for formaldehyde, the most abundant carbonyl, did not change between 1999 and 2001, then decreased by 61 +/- 7% between 2001 and 2006. This reduction was due to fleet turnover and the removal of MTBE from gasoline. Acetaldehyde emissions decreased by 19 +/- 2% between 1999 and 2001 and by the same amount between 2001 and 2006. Absent the increased use of ethanol in gasoline after 2003, acetaldehyde emissions would have further decreased by 2006. Carbonyl emission factors for medium- (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks were measured in 2006 in a separate mixed-traffic bore of the tunnel. Emission factors for diesel trucks were higher than those for LD vehicles for all reported carbonyls. Diesel engine exhaust dominates over gasoline engines as a direct source of carbonyl emissions in California. Carbonyl concentrations were also measured in liquid-gasoline samples and were found to be low (< 20 ppm). The gasoline brands that contained ethanol showed higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in unburned fuel versus gasoline that was formulated without ethanol. Measurements of NO2 showed a yearly rate of decrease for LD vehicle emissions similar to that of total NOx in this study. The observed NO2/NOx ratio was 1.2 +/- 0.3% and 3.7 +/- 0.3% for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. PMID:18589949

Ban-Weiss, George A; McLaughlin, John P; Harley, Robert A; Kean, Andrew J; Grosjean, Eric; Grosjean, Daniel

2008-06-01

268

Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae.  

PubMed

Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota. PMID:20167351

Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luís André

2010-02-18

269

Retiring old cars: programs to save gasoline and reduce emissions  

SciTech Connect

Light-duty vehicles--automobiles and light trucks--account for a large portion of urban air quality problems. The Union Oil Company (Unocal) has demonstrated a successful program to retire 1970 and earlier vintage cars in the Los Angeles area, removing nearly 8,400 old cars by buying them from their owners for $700 each and scrapping them. The success of the program has spurred national interest: both the House and Senate have expressed interest, and recently the Administration has proposed a program based on awarding pollution credits to companies that participate. The Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce asked OTA to examine the costs and benefits of vehicle retirement programs. The report responds to the Subcommittee's request.

Not Available

1992-07-01

270

The effects of low-lead and unleaded fuels on gasoline engines  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently reduced the permissible concentration of lead in gasoline from 1.1 to 0.1 gram per gallon, and has proposed to eliminate lead entirely by 1988. In addition to its octane-enhancing properties, lead in gasoline protects exhaust valve seats in older engines from undue wear (''valve-seat recessione), and it and its scavengers have numerous other positive and negative effects. These include changes in octane requirements, hydrocarbon emissions, engine rusting, corrosive wear, oil thickening and degradation, spark-plug fouling, exhaust-valve burning, and exhaust system corrosion. This paper reviews the literature on the harmful and beneficial effects of lead and lead scavengers on engines, and examines some of the substantial body of operating experience that has been accumulated with unleaded gasoline in older engines. Based on this experience, it does not appear that valve-seat recession will be a major problem, even if all lead is eliminated from gasoline. Furthermore, the switch to unleaded gasoline should provide significant benefits in the form of reduced maintance costs and increased engine life.

Weaver, C.S.

1986-01-01

271

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

272

Gasoline marketing: Octane mislabeling in New York City  

SciTech Connect

The problem of octane mislabeling at gasoline stations in New York City has grown - from 46 or fewer citations in 1981 to 171 citations in 1986. No single source of octane mislabeling exists but the city has found both gasoline station operators and fuel distributors to blame. The problem does not seem to be unique to any one type of gasoline station but 57 percent of the 171 citations issued involved gasoline sold under the name of a major refiner; the rest involved unbranded gasoline. Octane cheating can be lucrative in New York City. A station intentionally mislabeling its gasoline could realize amounts many times the city's maximum $500 fine for cheating.

Not Available

1987-01-01

273

40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910 Protection...AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.910 How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? (a)(1) A refiner or...

2010-07-01

274

40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.910 How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? (a)(1) A...

2013-07-01

275

40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.910 How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? (a)(1) A...

2009-07-01

276

Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum  

SciTech Connect

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1995-10-01

277

Process for the treatment of olefinic gasoline  

SciTech Connect

In the process of contacting olefinic gasoline with an acidic crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite having a pore diameter greater than about 5 angstroms, a silica-to-alumina ratio of at least 12, and a constraint index within the range of 1-12 at elevated temperatures, the improvement which comprises utilizing an olefinic gasoline having an olefin content of at least 50 weight percent and (A) carrying out said contact at a temperature of from about 350 to 600/sup 0/F, a pressure of from about 100-1,000 psig and at a space velocity ranging from about 0.2 to 10 lhsv; (B) said temperature, space velocity and pressure being chosen so as to produce no more than 5 weight percent of aromatics, and (C) obtaining a product comprising both fuel oil and gasoline having enhanced gum stability.

Garwood, W.; Lee, W.

1980-07-08

278

Detection of gasoline on arson suspects' hands.  

PubMed

An arson suspect's contact with an ignitable liquid container can leave small traces of the substance on his hands, but detecting these traces is difficult. This research paper presents a method to obtain clear gasoline detection even 3h after hands have been moistened with 50 ?L of gasoline using activated charcoal strips to adsorb the ignitable liquid traces directly from the suspect's hands. Light heating of the hands to 45 °C significantly increases the ability to detect gasoline traces. This methodology is part of a system to sample a suspect's hands at the scene of crime or in a police station. Samples are taken by investigators then analyzed in a laboratory. The suggested method provides an important improvement in detection sensitivity for ignitable liquids on suspect's hands. PMID:20729020

Muller, Dan; Levy, Aharon; Shelef, Ran

2010-08-21

279

Individual and population exposures to gasoline.  

PubMed

Gasoline is a complex mixture of many constituents in varying proportions. Not only does the composition of whole gasoline vary from company to company and season to season, but it changes over time. The composition of gasoline vapors is dominated by volatile compounds, while "gasoline" in groundwater consists mainly of water-soluble constituents. Hydrocarbons, including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, make up the large majority of gasoline, but other substances, such as alcohols, ethers, and additives, may also be present. Given this inability to define "gasoline,h' exposures to individual chemicals or groups of chemicals must be defined in a meaningful exposure assessment. An estimated 111 million people are currently exposed to gasoline constituents in the course of refueling at self-service gasoline stations. Refueling requires only a few minutes per week, accruing to about 100 min per year. During that time, concentrations in air of total hydrocarbons typically fall in the range 20-200 parts per million by volume (ppmV). Concentrations of the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, and xylene rarely exceed 1 ppmV. Some liquid gasoline is also released, generally as drops less than 0.1 g each, but with enough larger spills to raise the average loss per gallon dispensed to 0.23 g for stations with conventional nozzles and 0.14 g per refueling for stations with vapor recovery nozzles (Stage II controls). Some skin exposure may occur from these spills but the exposure has not been quantified. Two major types of vehicular emissions have been studied. Evaporative emissions include emissions while the vehicle is driven (running losses), emissions after the engine has been shut off but is still warm (hot soak), and emissions during other standing periods (diurnal) emissions. These evaporative emissions are dominated by the more volatile gasoline components. Tailpipe emissions include some unreacted gasoline constituents as well as products of combustion (including chemicals identical to some of the original constituents of the gasoline) and a variety of hydrocarbons and related compounds. Running losses are reported to fall in the range of 0.2 to 2.8 g of total hydrocarbons per mile driven, while benzene evaporative emissions range from 0.002 to 0.007 g/mile. Benzene levels inside travelling vehicles have been reported to average about 13 ppbV in Los Angeles. Tailpipe emissions amount to 0.3 to 1.0 g/mile of total hydrocarbons; emissions of benzene, polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,3-butadiene have been reported to range from 0.015 to 0.04 g/mile, 0.00025 to 0.00046 g/mile, and 0.001 to 0.005 g/mile, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1380368

Wixtrom, R N; Brown, S L

280

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01

281

Terahertz surface plasmon sensor for distinguishing gasolines.  

PubMed

Gasolines of two different octane numbers are experimentally distinguished using a thin metal sheet perforated with a periodic hole array terahertz surface plasmon (SP) sensor. This sensor is proved to be very sensitive to the change in permittivities of analytes. The differences between the gasolines 93# and 97# in composition lead to various refractive indices, permittivities, and absorption coefficients, thus varying their interactions with surface waves on the sensor, which enables a distinction of 6 GHz between the two octane numbers in the transmission peaks. The freestanding SP sensor is effective and reliable and can be simply employed in analyte distinction, which has potential applications in the petroleum industry. PMID:23938420

Liu, Guanlin; He, Mingxia; Tian, Zhen; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Jiazheng

2013-08-10

282

40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80...375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline means any gasoline...

2013-07-01

283

Effect of the gasoline additives on PAH emission.  

PubMed

PAH emission from the powered engines fueled by a 95 leadfree gasoline (95-LFG), a 92 leadfree gasoline (92-LFG) and a Premium leaded gasoline (PLG) with two gasoline additives (SA and SB) were collected using a PAH sampling system with a particulate interception device. Twenty one PAHs were analyzed primarily by an GC/MS, while eight metal elements were determined mainly by an ICP-AES. This investigation showed that the gasoline additives contain more amounts of carcinogenic PAHs than gasolines do. Blending these additives do raise the PAH content in the gasolines, simultaneously, will emit more amount of PAHs from the tailpipe of engine exhaust. It is suggested that before a gasoline additive is commercialized, an assessment on its PAH emission should be evaluated to make sure that the additive will not emit more PAHs and cause adverse effect on public health. PMID:9532730

Mi, H H; Lee, W J; Chen, S J; Lin, T C; Wu, T L; Hu, J C

1998-04-01

284

Empirical Investigation of Product Differentiation in the Retail Gasoline Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Trident project constructed and estimated a model of product differentiation in the retail gasoline industry. Retail gasoline stations product differentiate by choosing location and offering amenities such as pay at the pump, full service, car washes...

J. J. Light

2004-01-01

285

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of oxygen by weight contained in a gasoline blend, based upon its percentage oxygenate by volume and density, shall exclude denaturants and water. (c) The properties of reformulated gasoline consist of per-gallon values separately...

2013-07-01

286

THE IMPACT OF A GROWING ETHANOL MARKET ON THE DEMAND ELASTICITY FOR GASOLINE IN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the oil shocks during the 1970s and the consequent deterioration of the country's balance of payments, the Brazilian government channeled efforts to the exploration of off-shore oil basins and to stimulating the use of biofuels in place of gasoline and diesel. The government national ethanol program aimed at reducing the consumption of fossil fuels by imposing the

Giovani Ferreira da Silva; Gisele Ferreira Tiryaki; Luiz Antônio; Magalhães Pontes

287

A control oriented model of a Common-Rail System for Gasoline Direct Injection engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics has greatly contributed to the development of internal combustion engine. This progress has resulted in reducing environmental degradation, and yet continuing to support improvements in performance. Regarding gasoline engine, a considerable step forward has been achieved by Common Rail (CR) technology able to exactly regulate the injection pressure during whole engine speed range. As a consequence, the injection of

Alessandro di Gaeta; Giovanni Fiengo; Angelo Palladino; Veniero Giglio

2009-01-01

288

Modeling the impact of ethanol on the persistence of benzene in gasoline-contaminatedgroundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of ethanol on the persistence of benzenein gasoline-contaminated aquifers is simulated using a multicomponent reactivetransport model. The conceptual model includes a residual gasoline sourcewhich is dissolving at the water table into an aquifer containing a limitedamount of dissolved oxygen. The coupled processes include nonaqueous phaseliquid (NAPL) source dissolution, transport of the dissolved components, andcompetitive aerobic biodegradation. Comparisons are made between dissolvedbenzene plumes from a gasoline spill and those from an otherwise equivalentspill containing 10% ethanol (gasohol). Simulations have shown that undersome conditions a 10% ethanol component in gasoline can extend the traveldistance of a benzene plume by up to 150% relative to that from an equivalentethanol-free gasoline spill. The increase occurs because ethanol preferentiallyconsumes oxygen, which reduces the biodegradation rate of benzene. The impactis limited, however, because sufficient oxygen disperses behind the ethanolplume into the slightly retarded benzene plume. A sensitivity analysis fortwo common spill scenarios showed that background oxygen concentrations andbenzene retardation have the most significant influence on ethanol-inducedbenzene persistence. The results are highly relevant in light of the increasinguse of ethanol-enhanced fuels throughout the world and the forthcoming banof methyl tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) in California and its probable replacementby ethanol by the end of 2002.

Molson, J. W.; Barker, J. F.; Frind, E. O.; Schirmer, M.

2002-01-01

289

Gasoline emissions dominate over diesel in formation of secondary organic aerosol mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although laboratory experiments have shown that organic compounds in both gasoline fuel and diesel engine exhaust can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the fractional contribution from gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions to ambient SOA in urban environments is poorly known. Here we use airborne and ground-based measurements of organic aerosol (OA) in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin, California made during May and June 2010 to assess the amount of SOA formed from diesel emissions. Diesel emissions in the LA Basin vary between weekdays and weekends, with 54% lower diesel emissions on weekends. Despite this difference in source contributions, in air masses with similar degrees of photochemical processing, formation of OA is the same on weekends and weekdays, within the measurement uncertainties. This result indicates that the contribution from diesel emissions to SOA formation is zero within our uncertainties. Therefore, substantial reductions of SOA mass on local to global scales will be achieved by reducing gasoline vehicle emissions.

Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; Brock, C. A.; Stark, H.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Hall, K.; Holloway, J. S.; Kuster, W. C.; Perring, A. E.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Szidat, S.; Wagner, N. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zotter, P.; Parrish, D. D.

2012-03-01

290

Environmental analysis of gasoline blending components through their life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts (PEI) are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from petroleum refining to vehicle refuelling. A sensitivity analysis is performed using different weighting factors for each potential environmental impact category, in

T. M. Mata; R. L. Smith; D. M. Young; C. A. V. Costa

2005-01-01

291

The impact of a gasoline crisis on retail sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasoline crises of the 1970s demonstrated the need for including gasoline prices and gasoline shortages in models explaining retail sales. In this article, a model is constructed that incorporates the aforementioned variables, other variables, and a lagged sales figure as independent variable. The results indicate a high degree of explanatory power in predicting retail sales for a specialty store

Myron Gable; Stephen A. Mathis

1991-01-01

292

Modelling of gasoline blending via discrete-time neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline blending is an important operation in chemical industry. A good model for the blending process is beneficial for supervision operation, prediction of gasoline qualities and realizing model-based optimal control. Gasoline blending process includes static and dynamic properties which are corresponded to thermodynamic and the storage tank respectively. Since the blending does not follow the ideal mixing rule in practice,

Wen Yu; Marco A. Moreno-Armendariz; E. Gomez-Ramirez

2004-01-01

293

Higher Busulfan Dose Intensity Does Not Improve Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Following Fludarabine, Busulfan-based Reduced Toxicity Conditioning  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the impact of busulfan dose-intensity in patients undergoing reduced toxicity/intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation in a multicenter retrospective study of 112 consecutive patients. Seventy-five patients were conditioned with busulfan (0.8 mg/kg/dose IV × 8 doses), fludarabine (30mg/m2/day, days ?7 to ?3), and 6mg/kg of ATG (RIC group), while 37 patients received a more-intense conditioning with busulfan (130mg/m2/day IV, days ?6 to ?3), fludarabine (40mg/m2/day, days ?6 to ?3), and 6mg/kg of ATG (RTC group). At baseline both groups were matched for median age, unrelated donor allografts, and HLA-mismatched allografts. More patients in RIC group had high-risk disease, and higher median co-morbidity index. There were no graft rejections. Median time to neutrophil (17 vs. 15 days; p=0.003) and platelet engraftment (16 vs. 11 days; p<0.001) was significantly longer in the RIC group. RTC group had significantly more bacterial (62.2% vs. 32%; p=0.004) and fungal infections (13.5% vs. 1.3% p=0.01). For RIC and RTC groups rates of grade II-IV acute GVHD (34% vs. 40%; p-value=0.54), and chronic GVHD (45% vs. 57%; p-value=0.30) were not significantly different. In similar order at 1-year the cumulative-incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) (12% vs. 21%; p-value=0.21) and relapse rates (38% vs. 39%; p=0.96) were not significantly different. Patients in RIC and RTC groups had similar 1-year overall survival (61% vs. 50% p=0.11) and progression free survival (50% vs. 36% p-value=0.39). Our data suggest that merits of higher busulfan dose-intensity in the context of fludarabine/busulfan-based RTC may be offset by higher early morbidity.

Hamadani, Mehdi; Craig, Michael; Phillips, Gary S.; Abraham, Jame; Tse, William; Cumpston, Aaron; Gibson, Laura; Remick, Scot C.; Bunner, Pamela; Leadmon, Sonia; Elder, Patrick; Hofmeister, Craig; Penza, Sam; Efebera, Yvonne; Andritsos, Leslie; Garzon, Ramiro; Benson, Don M.; Blum, William; Devine, Steven M.

2013-01-01

294

Toxic Synovitis  

MedlinePLUS

... goes away within a week or two. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis, also known as transient synovitis , is the ... the virus can pass to the other hip. Toxic synovitis is more common in boys and affects ...

295

The neurobehavioural consequences of petrol (gasoline) sniffing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will introduce petrol (gasoline) sniffing as a specific form of substance abuse. Petrol sniffing is associated with dysfunctions that range in severity from subtle cognitive impairment to encephalopathy and death, and these are discussed with respect to their specific neurological and cognitive bases. Morbidity and mortality rates will also be presented that suggest severe central nervous system damage

Sheree Cairney; Paul Maruff; Chris Burns; Bart Currie

2002-01-01

296

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenat...

G. R. Hadder

1998-01-01

297

Phase Partitioning from Theanol Blend Gasolines  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years, the use of ethanol and other alcohols as motor fuel additives has increased. Additionally, ethanol production has expanded due to the potential use of ethanol as a primary fuel source. Historical patterns of gasoline composition show strong dependency on regulato...

298

PBPK modeling of complex hydrocarbon mixtures: gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures such as gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and asphalt liquids typically contain hundreds of compounds. These compounds include aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons within a specific molecular weight range and sometimes lesser amounts of additives, and often exhibit qualitatively similar pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic properties. However, there are some components that exhibit specific biological effects, such as methyl

James E Dennison; Melvin E Andersen; Ivan D Dobrev; Moiz M Mumtaz; Raymond S. H Yang

2004-01-01

299

DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

300

Process for producing high octane gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for conversion of C/sub 2/+ olefins and C/sub 3/+ paraffins to high octane C/sub 5/+ gasoline rich in methyl tertiary alkyl ether and C/sub 5/+ gasoline rich in alkylated aromatics comprising the steps of: contacting a hydrocarbon feedstock mixture containing C/sub 4/+ iso-olefins and methanol with an etherification catalyst under etherification conditions whereby an etherification effluent stream is produced comprising methyl tertiary alky ethers, unreacted methanol and hydrocarbons; passed the effluent stream to a fractionator for separation in contact with a hydrocarbon stripping medium to produce a liquid stream comprising C/sub 5/+ gasoline rich in methyl tertiary alky either and a vapor stream comprising methanol and C/sub 5/ and lower hydrocarbons; reacting step b vapor stream and a feedstock stream comprising aromatic and olefins-rich hydrocarbon in contact with shape-selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst particles in a conversion zone at elevated temperature under olefins conversion and aromatics alkylation conditions to recover after separation reaction product streams comprising comprising a first C/sub 5/+ gasoline stream rich in alkylated aromatics, a second stream comprising C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffinic hydrocarbons and a third steam comprising C/sub 2/ and lower hydrocarbons.

Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

1989-05-30

301

U.S. GASOLINE COMPOSITION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents results from a 2004/2005 study of U.S. gasoline composition. Differences in composition are driven by regulation, octane requirements, refining methods, and performance needs. Major differences in composition were traced to a few compounds: benzene, MTB...

302

Cost effective options for future gasoline requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In North America, lead phaseout and an increasing demand for unleaded premium gasoline are resulting increased pool octane requirements. Refiners need flexible, yet economical ways to improve the current streams entering the pool. They also need to be able to select from among the high octane components and new processes available, the one which is most suitable for their needs.

J. A. Weiszmann; J. H. DAuria; R. E. Conser

1986-01-01

303

Alternate fuels versus gasoline: A market niche  

Microsoft Academic Search

America travel on oil. Although many other fuels have the capability of moving the nation's cars, trucks, and buses, none have been able to carve out a significant market niche in the United States, notes Deborah Gordon of the Union of Concerned Scientists in Berkeley, California. The inherent advantages of gasoline as a motor fuel are well known: cost, availability,

2009-01-01

304

Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of five terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for a basic gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the intermediate course guide see CE 010 946.) The materials were developed for a two semester (2 hours daily)…

Jones, Marion

305

Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?  

SciTech Connect

This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

NONE

1999-03-01

306

Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

1983-12-01

307

[Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].  

PubMed

The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC. PMID:15515949

Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

2004-07-01

308

The reproductive and developmental toxicity of High Flash Aromatic Naphtha.  

PubMed

Catalytic reforming is a refining process that converts naphthenes to aromatics by dehydrogenation to make higher octane gasoline blending components. A portion of this wide boiling range hydrocarbon stream can be separated by distillation and used for other purposes. One such application is a mixture of predominantly 9-carbon aromatic molecules (C9 aromatics, primarily isomers of ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene), which is removed and used as a solvent--High Flash Aromatic Naphtha. A program was initiated to assess the toxicological properties of High Flash Aromatic Naphtha since there may be human exposure through inhalation or external body contact. The current study was conducted to assess the potential for developmental toxicity in the mouse and for reproductive toxicity in the rat. In the developmental toxicity study in CD-1 mice, exposure of dams by inhalation to near lethal levels (1500 ppm) resulted in fetal mortality, reduced weight, delayed ossification, and an increased incidence of cleft palate. At 500 ppm, a level at which maternal weight gain was slightly reduced, fetal weight gain was also reduced, but there was no other evidence of developmental effects. The lowest exposure level (100 ppm) did not cause any maternal or developmental toxicity. There was no consistent evidence of reproductive toxicity in rats, even at exposure levels which resulted in significantly reduced parental weight gain. In addition, when parental exposure was stopped on GD (gestation day) 20, birth weights as well as postnatal survival were generally similar to control values, even in the 1500 ppm exposure group. Postnatal weight gain was also similar to controls early in weaning, but, if maternal exposure was reinitiated, weight gain was reduced in the high exposure group. However, when exposure was continued until delivery, pups in the high exposure group exhibited reduced litter size, birth weight and poor survival. Thus it was likely that the reduction in fetal weight, seen in the developmental toxicity study in mice, was transient and had no postnatal consequences if maternal exposure was terminated at any time prior to delivery. PMID:2237929

McKee, R H; Wong, Z A; Schmitt, S; Beatty, P; Swanson, M; Schreiner, C A; Schardein, J L

309

40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...subpart that applies to your gasoline storage tank. (b) You must comply with...

2012-07-01

310

Updating about reductions of air and blood lead concentrations in Turin, Italy, following reductions in the lead content of gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Considering its well known toxicity and the chronic human exposure to lead, international lawmakers enforced some directives or laws calling for the reduction of lead content in gasoline. All of these legislative acts aimed to reduce health risks for the general population. The aim of this study was to consider the effectiveness of these laws on air lead levels and consequently on blood lead levels in a randomly selected urban Italian population. In particular, these markers were analyzed over the course of several years, corresponding to the periods just before and after enforcements of the reductions of lead in petrol. Data presented point out some considerations: (1) enforcement of legislative measures concerning the reduction of lead in petrol has reduced atmospheric levels of lead. This result demonstrates a major environmental success in primary prevention efforts. (2) This success is clear especially considering that the actual Pb-B levels can be extended to the urbanized populations. Pb-B levels were consistently higher for drinkers, for older adults and for males. The mean of Pb-B level for the present urbanized population is higher than the U.S. overall population (6.4 vs 3 {mu}g/dl). This difference can be also explained considering the different historical period of enforcement of the restriction laws. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Bono, R.; Pignata, C.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin (Italy)] [and others

1995-07-01

311

Development of an acid soil conditioning agent from lignin by ozone treatment III: improvement of ability of lignin to form an aluminum complex and to reduce aluminum toxicity after ozone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin prepared by a modified Klason method (KSL) was modified with ozone followed by alkaline treatments. The original and\\u000a modified KSLs were subjected to a plant growth test with radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula Pers.) in the presence of AlCl3 (37.5 ?M) to assess their ability to reduce aluminum toxicity. The formation of an aluminum complex with these KSLs

Hikaru Aimi; Yasuji Kurimoto; Shigeru Yamauchi

312

Evaluation of Two Industrial By-products as Soil Conditioners for Reducing Potential Aluminium Toxicity and Acidity in a Palexerult of Western Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment evaluated the effects of surface applications of two industrial by-products (sugar foam and phosphogypsum) to an acidic Ultisol of the temperate zone in Spain to ameliorate topsoil and subsurface acidity and potential aluminium (Al) toxicity. The by-products were applied in single and combined amendments and at two different rates. Two years after their application, it was determined

F. Garrido; J. Aguilar-Carrillo; M. T. García-González

2011-01-01

313

Mobil-Badger technologies for benzene reduction in gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Many refiners will need to reduce the barrels per day of benzene entering the motor gasoline pool. Mobil and Badger have developed and now jointly license three potential refinery alternatives to conventional benzene hydrosaturation to achieve this: Mobil Benzene Reduction, Ethylbenzene and Cumene. The Mobil Benzene Reduction Process (MBR) uses dilute olefins in FCC offgas to extensively alkylate dilute benzene as found in light reformate, light FCC gasoline, or cyclic C[sub 6] naphtha. MBR raises octanes and lowers C[sub 5]+ olefins. MBR does not involve costly hydrogen addition. The refinery-based Mobil/Badger Ethylbenzene Process reacts chemical-grade benzene extracted from light reformate with dilute ethylene found in treated FCC offgas to make high-purity ethylbenzene. EB is the principal feedstock for the production of styrene. The Mobil/Badger Cumene Process alkylates FCC-derived dilute propylene and extracted benzene to selectively yield isopropyl benzene (cumene). Cumene is the principal feedstock for the production of phenol. All three processes use Mobil developed catalysts.

Goelzer, A.R.; Ram, S.; Hernandez, A. (Badger Engineers, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Chin, A.A.; Harandi, M.N.; Smith, C.M. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States) Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States))

1993-01-01

314

H. R. 2289: Deficit Reduction Gasoline Surtax Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 9, 1989  

SciTech Connect

H.R. 2289 would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to increase the excise tax on gasoline by 9 cents per gallon, and would provide that the increase in revenues be used to reduce Federal budget deficits. The bill provides for an excise tax of 8 cents on gasoline mixed with alcohol, an additional 3 cents per gallon tax if the gasoline is later separated from the gasohol, and provides persons using gasoline for noncommercial aviation to recover 6 cents per gallon on gasoline so used. This bill also establishes within the Treasury the Deficit Reduction Trust Fund whose amounts shall be available only for the retirement of outstanding obligations of the United States.

Not Available

1989-01-01

315

H. R. 2233: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to increase the gasoline tax for purposes of providing additional revenues for the Mass Transit Account in the Highway Trust Fund and for purposes of reducing the deficit. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 4, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The gasoline tax for the Highway Trust Fund would be increased from 9 cents to 12 cents per gallon, and the deficit reduction rate would be set at 7 cents per gallon. Four cents out of the 12 cent tax for the Highway Trust Fund is designated for mass transit. These increases will not apply to gasohol. The effective date will be the date of enactment.

Not Available

1989-01-01

316

Toxic agent and radiation control: meeting the 1990 objectives for the nation.  

PubMed Central

Toxic agent and radiation control is 1 of the 15 health priority areas addressed through the Public Health Service's Objectives for the Nation. Several gains in moving toward the 1990 goals for toxic agent and radiation control have been recorded. Research and technical assistance, combined with legislation to reduce the amount of lead in gasoline, have contributed to a decrease in the mean blood lead level of the general population. New testing procedures have been developed to evaluate both reproductive and developmental toxicities of chemicals. Educational implementation of pelvimetry referral criteria in a multiyear study involving approximately 200 U.S. hospitals has resulted in a 50 percent reduction in the number of pelvimetries performed. Health-related responses have been given to environmental problems such as exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Massachusetts and Florida and exposures to dioxin in Missouri and New Jersey. Chemical records for some 1,000 compounds likely to occur in chemical dumps or in bulk transit are being either created or updated to enhance online data retrieval services. For the foreseeable future, however, improvement of knowledge of the potential health risk posed by toxic chemicals and radiation must remain one of the most important priorities. To control toxic agents, development of surveillance systems and data bases are equally important.

Rall, D P

1984-01-01

317

Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.  

PubMed

Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine. PMID:17913184

Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

2006-04-01

318

A method of limiting pressure build-up in motorcycle gasoline tanks due to tank deformation in an accident  

SciTech Connect

Most motorcycle accidents are angle collisions, constituting 57% of the multi vehicle accidents. In some of these collisions, the motorcycle gasoline tank is dented, decreasing the internal volume and increasing the internal pressure. If this happens when the gasoline tank is full, or nearly full, the pressure build-up can be quite severe, blowing off the gasoline tank cap and drenching the rider with gasoline. The gasoline ofte ignites, burning the rider severely. This pressure build-up can be reduced considerably by a simple device which traps air in the tank and consists of a short tube inserted in the tank filler hole projecting downwards a short distance. This paper shows how the corresponding pressure reduction can be calculated as a function of tank volume, indentation ratio and length of tube, to enable a designer to make the necessary trade-offs in the design. This device can be easily retrofitted to an existing motorcycle gasoline tank to increase its crash worthiness.

Erza, M.A.; Erza, A.H.

1982-01-01

319

Mechanisms of ozone toxicity in cultured cells. I. Reduced clonogenic ability of polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented fibroblasts. Effect of vitamin E  

SciTech Connect

The direct action of ozone on viability and survival of normal and modified mouse lung fibroblasts has been studied. By cell manipulation of fibroblasts in culture, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the phospholipids was increased from about 6% to about 40%. The cellular content of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) (vitamin E) could be drastically enhanced. Vitamin E supplementation to the cell did not influence the PUFA manipulation. Normal, PUFA, and PUFA(alpha-T) fibroblasts were exposed to ozone by bubbling 10 ppm through the cell suspensions for different periods of time (0-6 h). No significant effects of the ozone exposure could be established when normal fibroblasts were used. The PUFA fibroblasts, however, were very vulnerable to ozone toxicity, both in terms of dye uptake (Trypan blue) and cell death (clonogenic ability). When alpha-tocopherol was present in the cell (200 ng/10(6) cells), a clear protection against ozone toxicity was found. It is concluded that ozone toxicity might be higher under conditions of a relative high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membrane phospholipids of the cell and a low cellular antioxidant capacity. Cellular membranes are probably an important target for ozone-induced cell death.

Konings, A.W.

1986-01-01

320

Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments  

SciTech Connect

The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

2011-09-15

321

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL

2011-01-01

322

Physicochemical and redox characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline and diesel passenger cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) originating from mobile sources has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease, and an array of environmental problems, including global warming and acid rain. Till date, however, it is not clear which physical characteristics or chemical constituents of PM are significant contributors to the magnitude of the health risk. This study sought to determine the relationship between physical and chemical characteristics of PM while quantitatively measuring samples for redox activity of diesel and gasoline particulate emissions from passenger vehicles typically in use in Europe. The main objective was to relate PM chemistry to the redox activity in relation to vehicle type and driving cycle. Our results showed a high degree of correlation between several PM species, including elemental and organic carbon, low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace metals such as lithium, beryllium, nickel and zinc, and the redox activity of PM, as measured by a quantitative chemical assay, the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The reduction in PM mass or number emission factors resulting from the various engine configurations, fuel types and/or after-treatment technologies, however, was non-linearly related to the decrease in overall PM redox activity. While the PM mass emission rate from the diesel particle filter (DPF)-equipped vehicle was on average approximately 25 times lower than that of the conventional diesel, the redox potential was only eight times lower, which makes the per mass PM redox potential of the DPF vehicle about three times higher. Thus, a strategy aimed at protecting public health and welfare by reducing total vehicle mass and number emissions may not fully achieve the desired goal of preventing the health consequences of PM exposure. Further, study of the chemical composition and interactions between various chemical species may yield greater insights into the toxicity of the PM content of vehicle exhaust.

Geller, Michael D.; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Mamakos, Athanasios; Samaras, Zissis; Schmitz, Debra A.; Froines, John R.; Sioutas, Constantinos

323

Toxic chemicals and toxic laws  

SciTech Connect

Recently there was consternation when it was discovered that a program intended to help minorities and the underprivileged in Detroit might have to be canceled. The reason was that some of the land on which new buildings were built was thought to contain toxic chemicals and therefore fell under the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (or Superfund). This collision of two valuable programs illustrates how a program originally heralded to carry out a worthwhile goal can become flawed. Since 1980, when the Superfund Act was passed by an overwhelming majority in Congress, only 34 of 1,245 identified priority sites have been cleaned up while approximately 40% of the money has been spent in trial litigation and administrative oversight. Critics, many of them within the EPA, point out that if the chemical danger level had been scientifically determined, approximately 90% of the truly important sites could have been cleaned up by now and the money wisely spent. However, the program was designed so that Congress initially did not have to raise much money or raise taxes and instead could argue that the program would not cost the taxpayer anything because it soaked the corporations. What needs to be done First, priority decisions should be taken out of the hands of nonscientists and lawyers and placed in those of scientists who are knowledgeable about toxic agents, who can identify effective targets objectively and who can establish workable priorities for removal of toxic waste. Second, a significant fraction of the money should be dedicated to research and to new programs that are more cost-effective. The purpose is to get chemical manufacturers thinking about reducing pollutants and the cost of cleanup when they plan to manufacture a chemical.

Koshland, D.E. Jr.

1991-08-30

324

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry. VIII. Health effects of motor fuels: carcinogenicity of gasoline--scientific update.  

PubMed

1. Significant increases in tumors of kidney, liver, and other tissues and organs following exposure to gasoline provide sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity. 2. Benzene, a significant component of gasoline, has been established without question as a human carcinogen by IARC, EPA, and WHO. 3. 1,3-Butadiene, a component of gasoline, is a powerful carcinogen in both animals and humans. 4. Sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alkyl benzenes, very significant components of gasoline, has also been established. 5. Human epidemiologic studies show important increases in cancers of the kidney, stomach, brain, pancreas, prostate, lung, and skin as well as hematopoietic and lymphatic leukemias as a result of exposure to gasoline, its components, and its vapors. 6. Stage 2 controls are being implemented to reduce exposure of the human population to gasoline vapors. PMID:1425514

Mehlman, M A

1992-10-01

325

Identification and confirmation of ammonia toxicity in contaminated sediments using a modified toxicity identification evaluation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity identification of sediment pore waters from four sites in the Upper Scheldt (Belgium) was assessed using a simplified and discriminative toxicity identification evaluation procedure. The samples from all locations exhibited acute toxicity toward the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. Toxicity was removed or considerably reduced by the cation exchange resins and air stripping at pH 11. In addition, the toxicity

Patrick A. Van Sprang; Colin R. Janssen

1997-01-01

326

Asbestos Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Search The CDC Search Button Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your ... Transcript Presentation CE Posttest Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 4770 Buford Hwy NE ...

327

Toxic Hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Toxic hepatitis By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/toxic-hepatitis/DS00811 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications ...

328

Carbonyls emission from ethanol-blended gasoline and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel used in engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed carbonyls emissions from ethanol-blended gasoline (containing 10% v/v, ethanol, E-10) and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel (BE-diesel) were carefully investigated on an EQ491i gasoline engine equipped with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) and a Commins-4B diesel engine. In engine-out emissions for the gasoline engine, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 66.7-99.4 mg kW -1 h -1, which was 3.1-8.2% less than those from fossil gasoline (E-0). In tailpipe emissions, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 9.2-20.7 mg kW -1 h -1, which were 3.0-61.7% higher than those from E-0. The total carbonyls emissions from BE-diesel were 1-22% higher than those from diesel at different engine operating conditions. Compared with fossil fuels, E-10 can slightly reduce CO emission, and BE-diesel can substantially decrease PM emission, while both alternative fuels increased slightly NO x emission.

Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Yuan, Juan; He, Hong

329

40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? ...exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? Gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes...

2013-07-01

330

Assessment of unregulated emissions from gasoline oxygenated blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four gasoline or gasoline-oxygenate blend fuels were used in the evaluation of regulated and unregulated emissions for five test vehicles. The fuels listed below were all prepared from a common base gasoline and were blended to have equal octane ratings. They were Baseline, aromatic-enriched, 10% Ethanol blend, 16.4% Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) blend, and 19.1% Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) blend.

M. A. Warner-Selph; L. R. Smith

1991-01-01

331

Change in gasoline constituent mass transfer during soil venting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass transfer of gasoline constituents [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and naphthalene] to air during laboratory-simulated soil vapor extraction (referred to here as soil venting) was determined. Soil venting was conducted on laboratory-packed columns brought to residual water then residual gasoline saturations. The columns contained either a sandy, low organic soil, a sandy organic soil, or glass beads. Gasoline-air

N. J. Hayden; T. C. Voice; R. B. Wallace; M. D. Annable

2009-01-01

332

Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel\\u000a pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from\\u000a onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount\\u000a of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks

May Wu; Marianne Mintz; Michael Wang; Salil Arora

2009-01-01

333

Study of the mechanisms controlling gasoline hydrocarbon partitioning and transport in groundwater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impacts of spilled gasoline on groundwater resources are severe and long-term. Environmental regulation of underground fuel storage is limited in the U.S. Transport phenomena controlling the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater systems are poorly understood. Methods to restore contaminated gasoline spill sites are limited and usually only address recoverable gasoline product. A gasoline hydrocarbon fingerprinting

G. E. Hoag; C. J. Bruell; M. C. Marley

1984-01-01

334

Changes in evaporation rate and vapor pressure of gasoline with progress of evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaporation properties of motor gasoline are expected to change markedly with the progress of evaporation because gasoline is a multi-component fuel. The aim of this paper was to develop a prediction model of the amount of vapor generated from gasoline spill. The risks associated with gasoline spills can be accurately evaluated by the models. Degraded samples of regular gasoline

Katsuhiro Okamoto; Norimichi Watanabe; Yasuaki Hagimoto; Koji Miwa; Hideo Ohtani

2009-01-01

335

Future role of ethers in U. S. gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how the role of oxygenates in the U.S. gasoline pool has reached a turning point in favor of ethers. Ethers are attractive as blending agents because of high octane quality, relatively low vapor pressure, and compatibility with hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range. Therefore this class of oxygenates will eventually preempt the position of alcohols as gasoline blending agents. In fact, methanol and cosolvents have already been largely replaced by methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTHE). Ethyl tertiary butyl either (ETBE) could, in the future, eliminate ethanol as a practical gasoline component except for isolated downstream blending operations.

Unzelman, G.H. (Hy Ox Inc., Fallbrook, CA (US))

1989-01-01

336

Simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol in gasoline using NIR spectroscopy: Effect of gasoline composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was employed for simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol contents in gasoline. Spectra were collected in the range from 714 to 2500nm and were used to construct quantitative models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression. Samples were prepared in the laboratory and the PLS regression models were developed using the spectral range from 1105 to

Heitor L. Fernandes; Ivo M. Raimundo Jr; Celio Pasquini; Jarbas J. R. Rohwedder

2008-01-01

337

Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

McRae, R. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31

338

Gasoline additive requirements for today's smaller engines  

SciTech Connect

The performance and driveability of today's smaller engines, particularly those with port fuel injectors, often are adversely affected by deposits at various places throughout the fuel induction system. These deposits can, however, be controlled by the use of optimal detergent additives, which are surface-active agents containing polar heads and hydrocarbon tails. For convenience in discussion, the gasoline detergents may be divided into two groups: low and high molecular weight. Low molecular weight detergents typically are more effective in forming protective films on metal surfaces, and high molecular weight detergents are more effective in dispersing deposit precursors.

Udelhofen, J.H.; Zahalka, T.L

1988-01-01

339

Exposure of the general population to gasoline.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies. PMID:8020446

Akland, G G

1993-12-01

340

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards...

2010-07-01

341

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...16 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards...

2009-07-01

342

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80...845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart âCalifornia gasolineâ means any gasoline...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...person may combine any reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending with any other gasoline, blendstock, or oxygenate except...B) Subsequent to any oxygenate blending, the reformulated gasoline produced using the RBOB must...

2009-07-01

344

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...person may combine any reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending with any other gasoline, blendstock, or oxygenate except...B) Subsequent to any oxygenate blending, the reformulated gasoline produced using the RBOB must...

2010-07-01

345

Simulating the evolution of an ethanol and gasoline source zone within the capillary fringe.  

PubMed

Blending of ethanol into gasoline as a fuel oxygenate has created the scenario where inadvertent releases of E95 into soil previously contaminated by gasoline may remobilize these pre-existing NAPLs and lead to higher dissolved hydrocarbon (BTEX) concentrations in groundwater. We contribute to the development of a risk-based corrective action framework addressing this issue by conducting two laboratory experiments involving the release of ethanol into a gasoline source zone established in the capillary fringe. We then develop and apply the numerical model CompFlow Bio to replicate three specific experimental observations: (1) depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of the gasoline fuel mixture due to a reduction in the surface tension between the gas and liquid phases, (2) further depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of ethanol, and (3) remobilization of the gasoline fuel mixture LNAPL source zone due to the cosolvent behaviour of ethanol in the presence of an aqueous phase, as well as a reduction in the interfacial tension between the aqueous/non-aqueous phases due to ethanol. While the simulated collapse of the capillary fringe was not as extensive as that which was observed, the simulated and observed remobilized non-aqueous phase distributions were in agreement following ethanol injection. Specifically, injection of ethanol caused the non-aqueous phase to advect downwards toward the water table as the capillary fringe continued to collapse, finally collecting on top of the water table in a significantly reduced area exhibiting higher saturations than observed prior to ethanol injection. Surprisingly, the simulated ethanol and gasoline aqueous phase plumes were uniform despite the redistribution of the source zone. Dissolution of gasoline into the aqueous phase was dramatically increased due to the cosolvency effect of ethanol on the non-aqueous phase source zone. We advocate further experimental studies focusing on eliminating data gaps identified here, as well as field-scale experiments to address issues associated with ethanol-BTEX biodegradation and sorption within the development of a risk-based corrective action framework. PMID:19110339

Yu, Soonyoung; Freitas, Juliana G; Unger, Andre J A; Barker, James F; Chatzis, John

2008-11-17

346

Encapsulation of cisplatin in long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes improves its antitumor effect and reduces acute toxicity  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective and potent anticancer drugs used as first-line chemotherapy against several solid tumors. However, the severe side effects and its tendency to provoke chemoresistance often limit CDDP therapy. To avoid these inconveniences, the present study’s research group developed long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP). The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effect and toxicity of SpHL-CDDP, as compared with that of free CDDP, and long-circulating and non- pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (NSpHL-CDDP), after their intravenous administration in solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice. Antitumor activity was evaluated by analysis of tumor volume and growth inhibition ratio, serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical studies. Body weight variation and the histological examination of bone marrow and kidneys were used as toxicity indicators. A significant reduction in the tumor volume and a higher tumor growth inhibition ratio was observed after SpHL-CDDP treatment, compared with free CDDP and NSpHL-CDDP treatments. In addition, complete remission of the tumor was detected in 18.2% of the mice treated with SpHL- CDDP (16 mg/kg). As such, the administration of SpHL-CDDP, as compared with free CDDP and NSpHL-CDDP, led to a decrease in the area of necrosis and in the percentage of positive CDC 47 tumor cells. A significant reduction in the VEGF serum level was also observed after SpHL-CDDP treatment, as compared with free-CDDP treatment. SpHL-CDDP administered in a two-fold higher dose than that of free CDDP presented a loss in body weight and changes in the hematopoietic tissue morphology, which proved to be similar to that of free CDDP. No changes could be verified in the renal tissue after any formulations containing CDDP had been administered. These findings showed that SpHL-CDDP allowed for the administration of higher doses of CDDP, significantly improving its antitumor effect.

Leite, Elaine A; Souza, Cristina M; Carvalho-Junior, Alvaro D; Coelho, Luiz GV; Lana, Angela MQ; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Monica C

2012-01-01

347

[Unregulated emissions from the gasoline vehicle].  

PubMed

Based on the emission test cycle of China National Regulation Stage III, the aldehyde and alkone emissions and VOCs emissions of three typical gasoline cars were studied with HPLC and TD-GC/MS and the exhausted particulates number and mass concentration were researched using ELPI. The results indicate that the unregulated emissions of different cars is diverse changed, the brake specific emission of the carbonyls in three cars are 36.44, 16.71 and 10.43 mg/km respectively and TVOC are 155.39, 103.75 and 42.29 mg/km respectively. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone and cyclohexanone are the main compounds in gasoline cars exhaust, which accounted for 77.9%-89.7% of total carbonyl compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkane are the main part of VOCs, the detected number of which is occupied 31.6%-39.2% and 23.1%-27.9% of VOCs. Toluene, xylene and benzene have high concentration, which are occupied 16.68%, 16.87% and 5.23% of TVOC in average. Ultra-fine particles (< 100 nm) dominate the particulates emission. Exhausted particulate number of high speeds is higher than that of slow and medium speeds. PMID:19402478

You, Qiu-Wen; Ge, Ytun-Shan; You, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jun-Fang; He, Chao

2009-02-15

348

Structure and stability in gasoline markets  

SciTech Connect

This investigation of competition in gasoline marketing focuses on the instability of market shares of branded gasoline in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. It adopts the assumption that market-share stability is an outcome of tacit collusion and seeks to relate its absence (measured by a standard deviation) to the usual indicia of market structure. However, there is a strong possibility that instability itself restructures markets. Therefore, unlike other recent work, this research investigates the problem of two-way causality within a simultaneous-equation framework. Coupled with the finding that majors do have more stable market shares than nonmajors, the conclusion that vertical integration in oil is anticompetitive becomes much more credible. If these results do not definitively establish the case for vertical divestiture, they do shift the burden of proof. Advocates of the status quo have claimed that vertical integration offers real cost savings. It is not only appropriate, but also urgent, that they offer more empirical proof of this than they have so far. In the absence of such evidence, the case for vertical divestiture appears convincing. 47 references, 4 tables.

Allen, B.T.

1981-03-01

349

Continuous infusion or subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: increased efficacy and reduced toxicity when given subcutaneously.  

PubMed Central

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a haematopoietic growth factor with a wide variety of applications in the clinic. In early phase I studies the continuous intravenous (c.i.) route of administration was often used. Later it was shown that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration was also effective. The optimal route of administration remains, however, poorly defined, and no studies have made a direct comparison between these two routes of administration. We treated patients with advanced breast cancer with moderately high-dose doxorubicin and cylophosphamide and GM-CSF. The first 14 patients received GM-CSF by c.i, while subsequently 47 patients received it s.c. Comparison between the two groups showed that c.i. GM-CSF was more toxic in several respects. There was a higher need for erythrocyte and platelet transfusions and a significant deterioration in the performance status. This study indicates that subcutaneous GM-CSF is the preferred route of administration. Randomised trials are, however, needed to confirm these conclusions.

Honkoop, A. H.; Hoekman, K.; Wagstaff, J.; van Groeningen, C. J.; Vermorken, J. B.; Boven, E.; Pinedo, H. M.

1996-01-01

350

Recovery of Gasoline Range Fuels from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest has been focused on gasoline-rich engine fuel production from renewable sources. Possible acceptable recycling and re-refining processes of vegetable oils are cracking and pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a common practice and an effective method for recycling waste disposal. The properties of an important part of the liquid products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis are similar to gasoline. Compared

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

351

Benzene in Gasoline and Crude Oil: Occupational and Environmental Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of studies, published in peer-reviewed journals and articles available as technical reports of various organizations, regarding benzene in gasoline and crude oil was performed. The summarized data will be useful for retrospective exposure assessments in epidemiological studies. It shows that in the past, benzene in gasoline has been quite high, but now, there is a distinct trend in

Dave K. Verma; Karen des Tombe

2002-01-01

352

Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Increased US Gasoline Taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impacts of increased US gasoline taxes in a model that links the markets for new, used, and scrapped vehicles and recognizes the considerable heterogeneity among households and cars. Household choice parameters derive from an estimation procedure that integrates individual choices for car ownership and miles traveled. We find that each cent-per-gallon increase in the price of gasoline

Antonio M. Bento; Lawrence H. Goulder; Mark R. Jacobsen; Roger H. von Haefen

2009-01-01

353

FIELD AND LABORATORY METHODS FOR INVESTIGATING A MARINE GASOLINE SPILL  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of water and bivalve mollusks were collected during the 2-day period immediately following a spill of gasoline in Block Island Sound, RI, and were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These analyses showed gasoline compounds in the wate...

354

ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CONTROLLED GASOLINE SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of geophysical surveys were conducted over two controlled releases of about 100 gallons each of gasoline. In order to clearly identify the responses associated with the gasoline plume, measurements were made before, during and after the injection. The two experiments we...

355

Dermal Absorption of Methanol and Methanol/Gasoline Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dermally applied methanol/gasoline mixtures on 14C-methanol metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Following applications of 100% methanol or methanol/gasoline mixtures (95, 90, 85, 50 or 5% methanol)...

O. G. Raabe M. A. Al-Bayati P. D. Shulec F. Gielow D. Uyeminami N. Shimasaki

1992-01-01

356

How Do Gasoline Prices Affect Fleet Fuel Economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting a rich data set of passenger vehicle registrations in twenty U.S. metropolitan statistical areas from 1997 to 2005, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on the automotive fleet's composition. We find that high gasoline prices affect fleet fuel economy through two channels: (1) shifting new auto purchases towards more fuel-efficient vehicles, and (2) speeding the scrappage of older,

Shanjun Li; Roger von Haefen; Christopher Timmins

2008-01-01

357

26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...example, a mixture of gasoline and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or of gasoline and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE...i) and (ii) of this section that is used to produce the ETBE or MTBE, respectively, in a chemical reaction in which...

2013-04-01

358

26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...example, a mixture of gasoline and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or of gasoline and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE...i) and (ii) of this section that is used to produce the ETBE or MTBE, respectively, in a chemical reaction in which...

2010-04-01

359

Fire extinguishing tests -80 with methyl alcohol gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale tests and laboratory experiments were carried out for estimating the extinguishing effectiveness of three alcohol resistant aqueous film forming foams (AFFF), two alcohol resistant fluoroprotein foams and two detergent foams in various poolfires: gasoline, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, methyl-ethyl ketone, methyl alcohol and M15 (a gasoline, methyl alcohol, isobutene mixture). The scaling down of large scale tests for developing

G. Holmstedt; A. Ryderman; B. Carlsson; B. Lennmalm

1980-01-01

360

On the hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible origins of sulfur impurities in FCC gasoline are reviewed and discussed. Their mechanism of formation during the FCC process as well as their mechanism of transformation on hydrotreating catalysts are also examined.The article focuses on the desulfurization of FCC gasoline by means of catalytic processes considering the fact that deep desulfurization must be achieved (in accordance with new

Sylvette Brunet; Damien Mey; Guy Pérot; Christophe Bouchy; Fabrice Diehl

2005-01-01

361

Soot formation in ethanol\\/gasoline fuel blend diffusion flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine how adding ethanol to gasoline affects soot formation. This is currently an important question with respect to particulate emissions from gasoline powered motor vehicles, but in this paper the ethanol impact is examined in co-flow diffusion flames to decouple combustion chemistry from the effects of engine operating parameters. Soot size distributions are

M. Matti Maricq

362

Combustion characteristics of higher-alcohol\\/gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of combustion characteristics of higher alcohols\\/gasoline (UTG 96) blends is presented. Lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in the past as fuel extenders by mixing them with gasoline, but relatively little work has been reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol, and pentanol). All of these alcohols can be produced from coal derived syngas. Given the

Mridul Gautam; Daniel W. Martin II

2000-01-01

363

Fleet testing of methanol gasoline blends in public filling stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of adding a 3% methanol blend to the normal gasoline for the existing vehicle population in the climatic conditions of Israel. The fleet test was performed with the help of three public stations in which the methanol gasoline blend is sold to the general public on a voluntary basis. After

M. Gutman; A. Stotter; S. Borik; B. Cernia

1987-01-01

364

Application of genetic algorithm for optimization gasoline fractions blending compounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the application of a genetic algorithm for the solution of the task of gasoline fraction blending compounding, keeping the given conditions on octane numbers and the amount of given types of commodity gasolines. The principle of coding solutions is described. Several results of experiments on the determination of the effective genetic algorithm configuration are given.

J. A. Burgher; V. S. Vyshemirskij; N. A. Sokolova

2002-01-01

365

Performance features of 15% MTBE\\/gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a technical assessment of using MTBE up to 15 volume percent in gasoline. Pertinent properties, important for proper gasoline blending, are examined and data are provided on performance aspects of interest to the motoring public and the technical community. The primary motivation for using MTBE is to help satisfy octane marketing demands with ever-increasing sales of higher

W. H. Douthit; B. C. Davis; E. DeLieuSteinke; H. M Doherty

1988-01-01

366

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

367

Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the thickness of fuel films on the combustion chamber surface of a gasoline SI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 90% of the unburnt hydrocarbon emissions (UHCs) from modern 4-stroke gasoline engines occur during cold starting. Slow vapourisation particularly from films of fuel in the intake port, and on the manifold and cylinder walls leads regions of rich mixture and incomplete combustion. To reduce UHCs it is useful to know where, and how thick, these wall films are

M. C. Jerm; T. Nöel; W. G. Doherty

368

Synergistic effect between colistin and bacteriocins in controlling Gram-negative pathogens and their potential to reduce antibiotic toxicity in mammalian epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Pathogens resistant to most conventional antibiotics are a harbinger of the need to discover novel antimicrobials and anti-infective agents and develop innovative strategies to combat them. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activity of colistin alone or in combination with two bacteriocins, nisin A and pediocin PA-1/AcH, against Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610, and Escherichia coli ATCC 35150 (O157:H7). The strain most sensitive to colistin was enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, which was inhibited at a concentration of about 0.12 ?g/ml. When nisin A (1.70 ?g/ml) or pediocin PA-1/AcH (1.56 ?g/ml) was combined with colistin, the concentrations required to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 were 0.01 and 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively. The in vitro antigenotoxic effect of colistin was determined by using the comet assay method to measure the level of DNA damage in freshly isolated human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) incubated with colistin for 1 h at 37°C. Changes in the tail extents of PBLs of about 69.29 ± 0.08 ?m were observed at a final colistin concentration of about 550 ng/ml. Besides the synergistic effect, the combination of colistin (1 mg/ml) and nisin (2 mg/ml) permitted us to re-evaluate the toxic effect of colistin on Vero (monkey kidney epithelial) cells. PMID:23571533

Naghmouchi, Karim; Baah, John; Hober, Didier; Jouy, Eric; Rubrecht, Cédric; Sané, Famara; Drider, Djamel

2013-04-09

369

Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

NONE

1998-05-01

370

Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination.  

PubMed

Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha(-1). ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat. PMID:22301080

Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Miche, Hélène; Keller, Catherine

2012-01-16

371

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.  

PubMed

Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high levels at 100s ppm or higher. After the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether gasoline there were thousands of human health complaints. The sudden increase in widespread illnesses from which many thousands of individuals throughout the United States began to suffer immediately following the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline provides strong and unquestionable evidence that gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether is associated with human illnesses. When considering the severity of the illnesses in humans, it is prudent that this highly dangerous chemical be promptly removed from gasoline and comprehensive studies be conducted to assess the long-term effects that human may experience in the future from past and current exposure. PMID:8989842

Mehlman, M A

372

GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

2003-08-24

373

Emissions from IC engines fueled with alcohol-gasoline blends; A literature review  

SciTech Connect

Since air pollution by automotive exhaust gases is of increasing concern around the world, an examination of the work that has been done with regard to evaluating and reducing it can help focus future efforts in dealing with it. Alcohol-containing fuels not only have been shown to have the potential to produce less of many of the polluting gases, but they also constitute a viable alternative to gasoline from the standpoint of efficiency and reducing dependence on the rapidly dwindling supply of petroleum fuel. This report provides a survey of the literature concerning research reported since 1975 on emissions from IC engines operating on alcohol-gasoline fuel blends. The effects of alcohol on the exhaust emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and the aldehydes (CHO)) are reviewed. A comparison is made of the emissions benefits achieved when methanol or ethanol is used either in neat form or as the blending agent with gasoline. The primary dependent variable considered is emission level (reported on various bases) with the main independent variables being fuel composition, equivalence ratio, and ignition timing. Brief mention is also made of the potential emissions reduction that may be achieved by using dissociated methanol.

Beta, R.M.; Elrod, A.C.; Rice, R.E. (Clemson Univ., College of Engineering, Clemson, SC (US))

1989-07-01

374

Protozoa in subsurface sediments from sites contaminated with aviation gasoline or jet fuel  

SciTech Connect

Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H2O2 biotreatment. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel.

Sinclair, J.L.; Kampbell, D.H.; Cook, M.L.; Wilson, J.T.

1993-01-01

375

Regulated and nonregulated diesel and gasoline cold start emissions at different temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of modern cars are usually reduced in warm engine conditions by catalysts. Consequently emissions are significantly higher during the cold start, i.e. the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced during it depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's systems. The cold start emissions of Euro-3 gasoline cars, Euro-2 diesel cars and old pre-Euro-1 gasoline cars were investigated at cold ambient temperatures. Since the goal was to get real-world emissions, the measurements were done with cars belonging to private owners taken straight from the road with no maintenance. The chassis dynamometer tests were carried out at +23, -7 and -20 °C. The test cycle employed is a representative urban ride from a real-world driving behaviour study. Besides the regulated pollutants, methane, benzene and toluene were also measured online by chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

Weilenmann, Martin; Soltic, Patrik; Saxer, Christian; Forss, Anna-Maria; Heeb, Norbert

376

The lean hunting phenomenon in gasoline engines  

SciTech Connect

A quite interesting self-excited oscillation phenomenon in engine speed, which may not be explained with the classical theory of mechanical hunting, is studied experimentally. The effects of the various engine operating variables on the phenomenon are examined using a four cycle single cylinder gasoline engine with an inertia governor. It was found that the phenomenon occurs when engines are operated at a lean air fuel ratio under light load conditions, and that the hunting phenomenon is ascribable to the temporary shift in air fuel ratio from the steady state value. This shift in air fuel ratio occurs due to the fuel flow delay into the cylinder caused by the fact that the fuel flow into the cylinder cannot follow the movement of the throttle valve.

Tanaka, M.; Mochizuki, S.; Nishiwaki, N.; Miyake, M.

1987-01-01

377

Oxygen Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prolonged exposure to increased partial pressure of oxygen can result in toxic effects which become progressively more severe as the inspired partial pressure and/or duration of exposure is increased. The most dramatic of these are toxic effects upon the ...

T. C. Schmidt R. W. Hamilton

1973-01-01

378

Law: toxic lead aftermath  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the events which began with an EPA proposal to weaken the lead-in-gas regulations. Because of the outcry from environmentalists and expert testimony from the medical community, the EPA reversed its policy and issued new standards which would reduce lead emissions between 1983 and 1990 by 34 percent (128,000 tons). Scientific evidence presented showed a clear reduction in blood lead levels from 1976-1980 which paralleled decreases of lead in gasoline. Results from lead poisoning clinics which linked chronic low lead exposures to decreased classroom performance and other learning disabilities were presented. Lawyers from several environmental groups took the agency to court on the related issue of attaining national ambient air quality standards for lead. (JMT)

Goldstein, E.A.

1983-03-01

379

40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers? 80.195... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the gasoline...

2010-07-01

380

A recombinant immunotoxin against the tumor-associated antigen mesothelin reengineered for high activity, low off-target toxicity, and reduced antigenicity.  

PubMed

SS1P is a recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) engineered for the targeted elimination of malignant cells that express the tumor-associated antigen mesothelin. It is composed of an antimesothelin antibody variable fragment (Fv) linked to a cytotoxic fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) that includes domains II and III of native PE. The clinical use of SS1P is limited by its propensity to induce neutralizing antibodies and to cause a dose-limiting capillary leak syndrome (CLS) in patients. In this article, we describe a reengineered SS1P with improved properties that overcome these deficits. The redesign of SS1P consists of (i) removing the bulk of PE domain II (residues 251-273 and 284-394 of native PE), leaving only an 11-residue furin cleavage site, (ii) adding a Gly-Gly-Ser peptide linker after the furin cleavage site, and (iii) replacing eight highly solvent-exposed residues in the catalytic domain of PE. The new molecule, SS1-LR/GGS/8M, has cytotoxic activity comparable with SS1P on several mesothelin-expressing cell lines and remarkably improved activity on primary cells from patients with mesothelioma. In a mouse xenograft tumor model, high doses of SS1-LR/GGS/8M elicit antitumor activity superior to the activity of SS1P at its maximum-tolerated dose. In addition, SS1-LR/GGS/8M has greatly decreased ability to cause CLS in a rat model and reduced antigenicity or reactivity with antibodies to the sera of patients previously treated with SS1P. PMID:23136186

Weldon, John E; Xiang, Laiman; Zhang, Jingli; Beers, Richard; Walker, Dawn A; Onda, Masanori; Hassan, Raffit; Pastan, Ira

2012-11-06

381

Update: Toxic Shock Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School health professionals can help reduce the incidence of Toxic Shock Syndrome by suggesting that women not use tampons continuously during menses and that tampons should not be left in place for long periods of time. Tampons should be changed every few hours and used intermittently with pads. (JN)|

Price, James H.

1981-01-01

382

[Butylglycol toxicity].  

PubMed

Basing on literature, the authors evaluate the toxicity of butylglycol, especially its narcotic effects and action inducing parenchymatous organs lesions, symptoms of inhalant, oral and percutaneous intoxications and their treatment. PMID:514071

Jaraczewska, W; Szyma?ska, S; Starzy?ski, Z; My?lak, Z

1979-01-01

383

Beryllium Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet Course : WB ... Patient Education Sheet [PDF - 48 KB] What Is Beryllium? Beryllium is a mineral found in nature. It ...

384

Toxic Newts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

385

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

(1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

2003-08-24

386

Chronic cardiotoxicity of anticancer anthracyclines in the rat: role of secondary metabolites and reduced toxicity by a novel anthracycline with impaired metabolite formation and reactivity  

PubMed Central

The anticancer anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) causes cardiomyopathy upon chronic administration. There is controversy about whether DOX acts directly or after conversion to its secondary alcohol metabolite DOXol. Here, the role of secondary alcohol metabolites was evaluated by treating rats with cumulative doses of DOX or analogues – like epirubicin (EPI) and the novel disaccharide anthracycline MEN 10755 – which were previously shown to form less alcohol metabolites than DOX when assessed in vitro. DOX induced electrocardiographic and haemodynamic alterations, like elongation of Q?T or S?T intervals and suppression of isoprenaline-induced dP/dt increases, which developed in a time-dependent manner and were accompanied by cardiomegaly, histologic lesions and mortality. EPI caused less progressive or severe effects, whereas MEN 10755 caused essentially no effect. DOX and EPI exhibited comparable levels of cardiac uptake, but EPI formed ?60% lower amounts of its alcohol metabolite EPIol at 4 and 13 weeks after treatment suspension (P<0.001 vs DOX). MEN 10755 exhibited the lowest levels of cardiac uptake; hence, it converted to its alcohol metabolite MEN 10755ol ?40% less efficiently than did EPI to EPIol at either 4 or 13 weeks. Cardiotoxicity did not correlate with myocardial levels of DOX or EPI or MEN 10755, but correlated with those of DOXol or EPIol or MEN 10755ol (P=0.008, 0.029 and 0.017, respectively). DOX and EPI inactivated cytoplasmic aconitase, an enzyme containing an Fe–S cluster liable to disassembly induced by anthracycline secondary alcohol metabolites. DOX caused greater inactivation of aconitase than EPI, a finding consistent with the higher formation of DOXol vs EPIol. MEN 10755 did not inactivate aconitase, which was because of both reduced formation and impaired reactivity of MEN 10755ol toward the Fe–S cluster. Aconitase inactivation correlated (P<0.01) with the different levels of cardiotoxicity induced by DOX or EPI or MEN 10755. These results show that (i) secondary alcohol metabolites are important determinants of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, and (ii) MEN 10755 is less cardiotoxic than DOX or EPI, a behaviour attributable to impaired formation and reactivity of its alcohol metabolite.

Sacco, Giuseppe; Giampietro, Rossella; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio; Bertani, Nicoletta; Graiani, Gallia; Animati, Fabio; Goso, Cristina; Maggi, Carlo A; Manzini, Stefano; Minotti, Giorgio

2003-01-01

387

Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Carbonyl compound emissions from two passenger cars fueled with different methanol/gasoline blends (M15 and M100) and operated with three-way catalytic converters (TWC) were investigated. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The hydrazones formed on the cartridge were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with a variable wavelength detector. The results show that when cars were fueled with methanol/gasoline blends, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions decreased by 9-21% and 1-55% respectively, while nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions increased by 175-233%. Compared with gasoline vehicles, formaldehyde emissions with M15 and M100 were two and four times higher respectively, and total carbonyls with M15 and M100 increased by 3% and 104% respectively. With the use of the new TWC, both regulated gas pollutants and formaldehyde decreased. The new TWC caused a decrease of 5% and 31% in formaldehyde concentration for M15 and M100, respectively. Specific reactivity (SR) with the new TWC was reduced from 5.92 to 5.72 for M15 and from 7.00 to 6.93 for M100, indicating that M15 and M100 with the new TWC were friendlier to the environment. PMID:20510438

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Chunxiao; Han, Xiukun; Fu, Mingliang; Yu, Linxiao; Shah, Asad Naeem

2010-05-26

388

Flexfuel vehicle alcohol-gasoline blend ratios determination by optical fiber sensoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high efficiency combustion of flexfuel engine depends on the precise determination of the alcohol-gasoline ratios. Presently, commercial technique available uses the Lambda probe, a post-combustion sensor to analyze the exhaust gases (after combustion). This ratio can be measured in real-time using an optical fiber sensor. In the present research, different ratios of alcohol-gasoline blends were measured at temperatures in the range 0 to 50°C, by a Fresnel reflectometer. The sensoring principle is based on the phenomenon of light reflectivity in the interface fiber-fuel. The reflected intensity is proportional to the refractive index difference between the fiber sensor and the fuel, while the refractive index of the mixture is a function of the volumetric ratio of the substances. The real time determination of the mixture ratio of alcohol-gasoline concentrations by the reflected intensity can be used to optimize the combustion efficiency of the flexfuel engine. It can be expected that this technology can reduce both, the pollutant emissions and the fuel consumption.

Takeishi, Rafael T.; Gusken, Edmilton; Raizer, Klaus; de Souza, Henrique G. E.; Meirelles, Bernardo M.; Giacomassi, José L.; Lucio, Gustavo C.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

2008-06-01

389

Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is found that the Internet data tend to accurately identify features of cycles that can be distinguished using company-operated, major brand station prices, while features that require individual independent station data or very high frequency data might not be well-identified.

Atkinson, Benjamin James

390

Conditions of phase stability in gasoline-methanol systems  

SciTech Connect

Phase stability in gasoline-methanol systems was investigated in a wide range of methanol concentrations. The effect of added isobutanol (from 3 to 15%) and water (from 0.07 to 2%), and the hydrocarbon makeup of the gasolines, on the stratification of the systems was studied. It is shown that an increase of the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in the gasolines and the addition of isobutanol permits the stratification temperature of the gasoline-methanol mixtures to be lowered. The addition of water in the amount of 0.3 to 0.5% leads to stratification of mixtures at temperatures above 0/sup 0/C. 6 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Leonov, V.E.; Mislavskaya, V.S.; Mislavskii, N.O.; Ryzhak, I.A.

1981-02-01

391

Oxygenates in Gasoline: A Versatile Experiment Using Gas Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment for introductory chemistry in which oxygenates are extracted from gasoline and analyzed by gas chromatography is described. The extraction of oxygenates from gasoline with water prior to analysis by gas chromatography allows for their easy identification and quantification since only the oxygenates dissolve in water. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of the experiment are described. Calculations which can be used to determine the weight percent of methanol, ethanol, or methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline samples are given. The use of this experiment in discussing good laboratory technique, separation of mixtures, chromatography, the use of calibration curves, and error analysis is presented. The value of this experiment because of its current interest, its potential for allowing students to see the utility outside the classroom of what they are learning, and its connection to the political and social issues involved in addition of oxygenates to gasoline is also discussed.

Brazdil, Linda C.

1996-11-01

392

Evaluating the Efficacy of Corrosion Inhibitors in Automotive Gasolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for assessing the corrosion properties of automotive gasolines containing oxygenates and the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors for these fuels similar to the method in ASTM D 665 is examined. Data on its use are reported.

I. V. Klokova; T. A. Klimova; V. E. Emel’yanov; I. F. Krylov

2005-01-01

393

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gasoline can be transferred into the container. (ii) Refrigeration-condensation system or equivalent designed to recover...readily adapted to retrofit with an adsorption system, refrigeration-condensation system, or equivalent vapor removal...

2013-07-01

394

CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE LOADING BY REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the capabilities of refrigeration systems, operated at three temperatures, to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from truck loading at bulk gasoline terminals. Achievable VOC emission rates were calculated for refrigeration sy...

395

Intake System Deposits and Gasoline/Alcohol Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six vehicles, four of them ethanol blend-fueled and two gasoline-fueled, were examined for intake system deposits. The engines were partially disassembled, photographs were taken, and deposits were evaluated by a professional rater. Elemental analysis was...

S. F. Martin

1988-01-01

396

Effect of oxygenates blending with gasoline to improve fuel properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of oxygenate additives into gasoline for the improvement of physicochemical properties of blends. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Methanol, Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and Tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) blend into unleaded gasoline with various blended rates of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Physicochemical properties of blends are analyzed by the standard American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Methanol, TBA, and TAA increase density of the mixtures, but MTBE decreases density. The addition of oxygenates lead to a distortion of the base gasoline's distillation curves. The Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline is found to increase with the addition of the oxygenated compounds. All oxygenates improve both motor and research octane numbers. Among these four additives, TBA shows the best fuel properties.

Babazadeh Shayan, Soheil; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Ommi, Fathollah

2012-07-01

397

Water-table correction factors applied to gasoline contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of correction factors to measured ground-water elevations is an important step in the process of characterizing sites contaminated by petroleum products such as gasoline. The water-table configuration exerts a significant control on the migration of free product (e.g., gasoline) and dissolved hydrocarbon constituents. An accurate representation of this configuration cannot be made on the basis of measurements obtained

P. F. Hudak; H. A. Loaiciga; K. M. Clements

2009-01-01

398

of Piezo-Electri c Injection for Gasoline DI Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drive for substantial CO2 reductions in gasoline engines in the light of the Kyoto Protocol and higher fuel efficiencies has increased research into Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. Moreover, using recently developed piezo-electric injection, stratified combustion can be achieved. This make possible combustion with low global fuel\\/air equivalence ratio which allows both a fuel saving and a decrease of

O. Laget

399

Vapour pressure measurements and predictions for alcohol–gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method to successfully predict vapour-pressures of gasoline–alcohol mixtures is demonstrated. Vapour-pressures of mixtures of gasoline with methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and t-butanol were measured at 37.8°C (100°F) as a function of mixture composition. Infinite dilution activity coefficients were found from this data and used to find constants in the Wilson equation, which predicted the vapour-pressure curves very accurately. For

J. A. Pumphrey; J. I. Brand; W. A. Scheller

2000-01-01

400

Optical fiber sensor for gasoline blend quality control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work shows the use of a long period grating to analyze the quality of a commercial gasoline blend. Samples with different single and double solvent proportions are characterized. It is shown that the addition of controlled amounts of a standard solvent allows differentiating legal blends from tampered blends. With the proper choice of that solvent, it is possible to shift the LPG operation towards a higher sensitivity range, and even samples that deviate little from the legal gasoline blend can be identified.

Falate, Rosane; Cacao, E., Jr.; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.; Fabris, Jose L.

2004-10-01

401

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used

J. Yanowitz; E. Christensen; R. L. McCormick

2011-01-01

402

Reassessing past European gasoline lead policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the foreseeable future, the atmosphere and the environment will remain a dumping ground for various anthropogenic substances. Some substances will have negative properties, and society will sooner or later begin regulating their emissions. To that end, science must provide society with the tools for retrospectively evaluating the physical and economical impacts of past regulations, and for evaluating scenarios in which alternative future regulations are implemented.A tool for reconstructing lead air concentrations and depositions across Europe from 1958 through 1995 has been developed that incorporates detailed emissions, a regionalized history of weather events, and an atmospheric transport model. This tool was used, in conjunction with lead measurements in both biota and human blood and with economic analysis, to assess past European gasoline-lead regulations. Some of the specific questions asked in this assessment were: How did lead emissions, atmospheric concentrations, and depositions develop since the 1950s? Was the decline in air concentrations matched by corresponding declines in plants, animals, and humans? Did the regulations result in considerable economic burdens in Germany, for example?

von Storch, Hans; Hagner, Charlotte; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Feser, Frauke; Pacyna, Józef; Pacyna, Elisabeth; Kolb, Steffen

403

Toxic woods.  

PubMed

Eighty-three cases of dermatitis caused by wood or sawdust have been seen at St John's Hospital for Dieases of the Skin, London, in the last 20 years. The clinical details and results of patch tests are reported. The literature on dermatitis, mucosal irritation, asthma and other toxic effects of woods of some 300 botanical species is reviewed at length, with an index of scientific, trade and vernacular names, chemical formulae of the known sensitizing substances, and a table of the 28 toxic woods most often encountered. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and prophylaxis are discussed. PMID:132958

Woods, B; Calnan, C D

1976-06-01

404

Cryoprotectant toxicity neutralization.  

PubMed

Cryoprotectant toxicity is a fundamental limiting factor for the successful cryopreservation of living systems by both freezing and vitrification, and the ability to negate it would be attractive. Past attempts to demonstrate "cryoprotectant toxicity neutralization" (CTN) have had many ups and downs. First convincingly introduced by Baxter and Lathe in 1971, the concept that certain amides can block toxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) was contradicted by direct experiments in 1990. But in 1995, the opposite mode of CTN, in which Me(2)SO blocked the damaging effects of formamide, was robustly demonstrated. Recent experiments have verified the original 1995 results and extended them to urea and acetamide, but no CTN was detected for N-methylamides (N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, and N-methylacetamide). On the theory that the latter amides and acetamide might serve as low-toxicity structural analogs of formamide, urea, or Me(2)SO, competition experiments were carried out between them and formamide or urea, but CTN was not observed for these amide-amide systems. The idea that the N-methylamides might have non-specific rather than specific toxicity was supported by the fact that the concentrations of these amides that cause toxicity are similar to the concentrations that denature model proteins. Clear examples of neutralization of the toxicity of glycerol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, or Me(2)SO are presently lacking, but effects of the latter that depend on sulfhydryl oxidation have been reversed with reducing agents. In summary, CTN is a useful phenomenon with significant theoretical and practical implications. PMID:19501081

Fahy, Gregory M

2009-06-06

405

TRITIUM PERMEATION AND TRANSPORT IN THE GASOLINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM COUPLED WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS (HTGRS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes scoping analyses on tritium behaviors in the HTGR-integrated gasoline production system, which is based on a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) plant. In this system, the HTGR transfers heat and electricity to the MTG system. This system was analyzed using the TPAC code, which was recently developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The global sensitivity analyses were performed to understand and characterize tritium behaviors in the coupled HTGR/MTG system. This Monte Carlo based random sampling method was used to evaluate maximum 17,408 numbers of samples with different input values. According to the analyses, the average tritium concentration in the product gasoline is about 3.05×10-3 Bq/cm3, and 62 % cases are within the tritium effluent limit (= 3.7x10-3 Bq/cm3[STP]). About 0.19% of released tritium is finally transported from the core to the gasoline product through permeations. This study also identified that the following four parameters are important concerning tritium behaviors in the HTGR/MTG system: (1) tritium source, (2) wall thickness of process heat exchanger, (3) operating temperature, and (4) tritium permeation coefficient of process heat exchanger. These four parameters contribute about 95 % of the total output uncertainties. This study strongly recommends focusing our future research on these four parameters to improve modeling accuracy and to mitigate tritium permeation into the gasol ine product. If the permeation barrier is included in the future study, the tritium concentration will be significantly reduced.

Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

2011-05-01

406

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-02-01

407

Boron toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst of lesser prevalence than B deficient soils, B-rich soils are important, causing B toxicity in the field and decreased crop yields in different regions of the world. The highest naturally occurring concentrations of soil B are in soils derived from marine evaporites and marine argillaceous sediment. In addition, various anthropogenic sources of excess B may increase soil B to

Ross O. Nable; Gary S. Bañuelos; Jeffrey G. Paull

1997-01-01

408

Toxic synovitis  

MedlinePLUS

... as: Septic hip Slipped capital femoral epiphysis Legg-Calve-Perthes disease Tests used to diagnose toxic synovitis include: Ultrasound of the hip X-ray of the hip ESR C-reactive protein (CRP) Complete blood count (CBC) Other tests that ...

409

Toxic remediation  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

1994-01-01

410

Exposure to emissions from gasoline within automobile cabins  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline is emitted from automobiles as uncombusted fuel and via evaporation. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from gasoline are at higher levels in roadway air than in the surrounding ambient atmosphere and penetrate into automobile cabins, thereby exposing commuters to higher levels than they would experience in other microenvironments. Measurements of VOC concentrations and carbon monoxide were made within automobiles during idling, while driving on a suburban route in New Jersey, and on a commute to New York City. Concentrations of VOC from gasoline were determined to be elevated above the ambient background levels in all microenvironments while VOC without a gasoline source were not. The variability of VOC concentrations with location within the automobile was determined to be smaller than inter-day variability during idling studies. VOC and carbon monoxide levels within the automobile cabin differed among the different routes examined. The levels were related to traffic density and were inversely related to driving speed and wind speed. Overall, daily VOC exposure for gasoline-derived compounds during winter commuting in New Jersey was estimated to range between 5 and 20% and constituted between 15 and 40% of an individual's daily exposure based on comparison to urban and suburban settings, respectively. VOC exposure during commuting in Southern California was estimated to range between 15 and 60%.

Weisel, C.P.; Lawryk, N.J.; Lioy, P.J. (UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Community Medicine, New Brunswick, NJ (United States))

1992-01-01

411

Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

Manuszak, Mark David

412

Fate of gasoline oxygenates in conventional and multilevel wells of a contaminated groundwater table in Düsseldorf, Germany.  

PubMed

In a gasoline-contaminated site in Düsseldorf, Germany a two-year monitoring program was carried out to determine the presence, behavior, and fate of 12 gasoline additives in a total of 96 samples from 14 groundwater wells. The origin of contamination was suspected to be a gasoline spill at a gas station. Target compounds were methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), its main degradation products, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl formate (TBF); other gasoline additives, oxygenate dialkyl ethers: Ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE); aromatics: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), and other compounds causing odor problems: Dicyclopentadiene and trichloroethylene. Purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry permitted detection of ng/L concentrations. Ninety of the 96 samples analyzed contained MTBE at levels varying between 0.01 to 645 microg/L. Five contaminated hot spots were identified with levels up to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) drinking water advisory values (20-40 microg/L) and one of them doubling Danish suggested toxicity level of 350 microg/L at a depth of 11 m. No significant natural attenuation was found in MTBE degradation, although samples with high levels of MTBE contained 0.1 to 440 microg/L of TBA. These levels were attributed to its presence in the contamination source more than MTBE degradation. tert-Butyl alcohol was found to be recalcitrant in groundwater. In all cases, BTEX were at low concentrations or not detected, showing less persistence than MTBE. The monitoring of the contamination plume showed that the distribution of the MTBE and TBA in the aquifer formed a similar vertical concentration profile that was influenced by the groundwater flow direction. PMID:16398114

Rosell, Monica; Lacorte, Sílvia; Forner, Claudia; Rohns, Hans-Peter; Irmscher, Rudolf; Barceló, Damià

2005-11-01

413

Brain Accumulation and Toxicity of Mn(II) and Mn(III) Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over the neurotoxic effects of chronic moderate exposures to manganese has arisen due to increased awareness of occupational exposures and to the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a manganese-containing gasoline anti- knock additive. Little data exist on how the oxidation state of manganese exposure affects toxicity. The objective of this study was to better understand how the oxidation state

Stephen H. Reaney; Graham Bench; Donald R. Smith

2006-01-01

414

Toxic chemicals and toxic laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there was consternation when it was discovered that a program intended to help minorities and the underprivileged in Detroit might have to be canceled. The reason was that some of the land on which new buildings were built was thought to contain toxic chemicals and therefore fell under the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

D. Koshland; D. E. Jr

1991-01-01

415

Exposure of gasoline road-tanker drivers to methyl tert -butyl ether and methyl tert -amyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic oxygenates, namely, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and methyl tert-amyl ether (MTAE), are added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide in exhausts and to enhance the octane number. The aim\\u000a of this study was to investigate road-tanker drivers' exposure to oxygenate vapors during road-tanker loading and unloading\\u000a as well as to evaluate the measurements of these ethers and their metabolites

Lauri Saarinen; Matti Hakkola; Kaija Pekari; Kaija Lappalainen; Antero Aitio

1998-01-01

416

Laser-induced ignition of gasoline direct-injection engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A q-switched Nd:YAG laser as well as an excimer laser with an unstable resonator have been used for ignition of combustion processes. Following first experiments with a combustion bomb a gasoline direct injection engine has been modified for laser ignition by installation of a focusing element and a beam entrance window. It was possible with the q-switched Nd:YAG laser which delivers short pulses with a duration of lesss than 6 ns to ignite the engine for several 100 hours without problems. Compared to conventional spark ignition, laser ignition allows a more flexible choice of the ignition location inside the combustion chamber with the possibility to ignite even inside the fuel spray. Measurements of fuel consumption and emissions prove that laser ignition has important advantages compared to conventional spark ignition systems. Experiments with the direct injection engine have been carried out at the fundamental wavelength of the Nd:YAG laser as well as with a frequency doubled system. No differences in the minimal pulse energy needed for ignition could be found, since the minimal pulse energy for ignition is mainly determined by the ablation thresholds of combustion deposits at the surface of the window to the combustion chamber. Such combustion deposits reduce the transparency of the window where the laser beam enters the combustion chamber and a "self-cleaning" mechanism of the window by ablation is essential for successful operation. Experiments show that above a certain threshold intensity of the laser beam at the window even highly polluted surfaces could be cleaned with teh first laser pulse which is important for operation in real-world engines. Theoretically calculated energy values for laser ignition are much lower since such mechanisms are usually not considered. Power and space requirements on possible future development of laser ignition systems are discussed briefly. Several concepts for laser ignition, like diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSS) with and without fiber coupling are presented and chances on realization are discussed.

Liedl, Gerhard; Schuoecker, Dieter; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

2005-03-01

417

40 CFR 80.415 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Attest Engagements § 80.415 What...attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...

2010-07-01

418

40 CFR 80.415 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners and...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Attest Engagements § 80.415 What...attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...

2009-07-01

419

40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? Importers...tank from which trucks used to transport gasoline into the...

2013-07-01

420

40 CFR 80.340 - What standards and requirements apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously...apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously...Any refiner who produces gasoline by blending blendstock into PCG must...

2009-07-01

421

40 CFR 80.340 - What standards and requirements apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously...apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously...Any refiner who produces gasoline by blending blendstock into PCG must...

2010-07-01

422

40 CFR 80.380 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? ...exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? ...subpart for gasoline used for research, development or testing...

2013-07-01

423

Catalytic control of mutagenic exhaust emissions from gasoline passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of exhaust emissions from passenger cars equipped with conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines were tested for PAHs, NPAHs and mutagenicity. When installed with an appropriate three-way or oxidation catalyst very large reductions in each of these measurements were observed. Engine exhaust emissions contain hydrocarbons which are potentially hazardous to human health. Although there is an extensive database on the levels of mutagenic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate, much less data are available for modern gasoline engines. The study discussed in this paper addresses this with particular reference to the effect of exhaust catalysts on potentially harmful hydrocarbon species emitted by conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines. The effects over the European Extra-Urban Cycle are also addressed.

Cooper, B.J.; Shore, P.R.

1989-01-01

424

Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

Donakowski, T. D.

1982-11-01

425

Identifying Toxicants: NETAC's Toxicity-Based Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Successful implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program with toxicity limits requires routine toxicity tests for monitoring as well as protocols for performing Toxicity Reduction Evaluations (TREs). TREs are perfor...

L. P. Burkhard G. T. Ankley

1989-01-01

426

Toxic gases.  

PubMed Central

An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given.

Matthews, G.

1989-01-01

427

Shellfish Toxicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

Arnold, Thomas

2010-03-24

428

Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1998-11-01

429

Distinguishing octane grades in gasoline using terahertz metamaterials.  

PubMed

Distinguishing octane numbers of commercial gasoline is experimentally demonstrated by use of single split-ring resonator metamaterials functioning at terahertz frequencies. The differences in frequency-dependent absorption coefficients and refractive indices of various grades of gasoline lead to a modification in the surrounding dielectric environment and consequently the resonance properties of the planar metamaterials. This consequently enables a distinct frequency shift in the inductive-capacitive electric dipolar resonances. This paper reveals that such metamaterial arrays, as highly sensitive chemical sensors, have promising potential in petroleum industrial applications. PMID:22695558

Li, J; Tian, Z; Chen, Y; Cao, W; Zeng, Z

2012-06-01

430

Low energy process of producing gasoline-ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline-ethanol mixtures useable as motor fuel are produced by a relatively low energy process comprising interrelated distillation and extraction steps. In the first step, aqueous ethanol, such as an ethanol fermentation beer, is subjected to fractional distillation to produce a distillate of at least 75 weight percent ethanol, which is then subjected to extraction with gasoline under conditions producing an extract containing the desired amount of ethanol, such as 8 to 14% by weight. The aqueous phase raffinate from the extraction is returned to the fractionation column for redistillation.

Kyle, B.G.

1981-10-27

431

Gasoline-aided production of alcohol and fuel  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline aids production of alcohol and fuel in a solvent extraction and recovery process. Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

Roth, E.R.

1984-04-10

432

Renal cell cancer and exposure to gasoline: A review  

SciTech Connect

A review of the epidemiology of renal cell cancer is presented. Risk factors for renal cell cancer such as cigarette smoking, obesity, diet, and use of analgesics and prescription diuretics are examined. Although uncommon, occupational risk factors are also reviewed. Studies examining gasoline exposure and renal cell cancer are evaluated, including investigations recently presented at a meeting on this topic. Overall, most studies find no link between gasoline exposure and renal cell cancer; moreover, the experimental evidence that initiated the health concern is no longer considered relevant to humans. Positive associations, however, reported in two recent studies prevent a firm conclusion of no risk for this exposure. 48 refs.

McLaughlin, J.K. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

1993-12-01

433

Cost of reducing aromatics and sulfur levels in motor-vehicle fuels. Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Linear-programming (LP) models were developed for five refineries representative of the California refining industry and validated against historic operation. Process options to reduce gasoline and diesel contaminants were selected and represented in the LP models. Costs were estimated to separately reduce aromatics levels in automotive gasoline, aromatics in diesel, and sulfur in diesel for 1991 and 1995. Cost impacts were scaled up to obtain the overall cost impact in California. Estimates were made of total aromatics and benzene levels in gasoline and of sulfur, aromatics, and cetane levels in diesel. Estimates were made of the impact on refinery emissions, automotive emissions, and automotive performance. The cost to reduce diesel sulfur level to .05% was 6.3 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce diesel aromatics level to 10% was 27.6 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce gasoline aromatics levels by 18% was 7.0 cents/gallon.

Felten, J.R.; McCarthy, K.M.

1988-08-01

434

40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section...1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, âCalifornia gasolineâ means any...

2013-07-01

435

40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80...Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline...under § 80.260. (a) Compliance commitment. By no later than June 1,...

2013-07-01

436

40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust...operation tests of gasoline-fueled heavy-duty engines. Diesel engines are...

2009-07-01

437

40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test...section applies to gasoline-fueled engines only. Diesel engines are...

2010-07-01

438

40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust...operation tests of gasoline-fueled heavy-duty engines. Diesel engines are...

2010-07-01

439

40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test...section applies to gasoline-fueled engines only. Diesel engines are...

2009-07-01

440

40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust...operation tests of gasoline-fueled heavy-duty engines. Diesel engines are...

2013-07-01

441

Save the Bay's "Toxic Diet" Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although progress has been made in curbing industrial pollutants in larger communities, small, nonindustrial communities lack strategies for reducing unregulated toxic sources to the influent stream. This article outlines one environmental organization's model for reducing these toxic sources that can be used to help small communities nationwide.…

Wilder, Diana

1994-01-01

442