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1

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

Reese, E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kimbrough, R.D. [Inst. for Evaluating Health Risks, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01

2

Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels.

Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

1993-01-01

3

40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons...

2013-07-01

4

40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.815...

2013-07-01

5

40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person...

2013-07-01

6

40 CFR 80.1035 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to refiners...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline toxics compliance applicable to...

2013-07-01

7

40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820...

2013-07-01

8

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations  

PubMed Central

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Braslia, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds.

2009-01-01

9

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Braslia, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

2009-10-01

10

40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners...

2013-07-01

11

Method of reducing NOx emissions in gasoline vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An unleaded fuel composition is described comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an amount effective to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from electronic port fuel injected engines of an ammonium compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium formate, ammonium propionate, ammonium dicitrate, ammonium carbamate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and admixtures thereof.

Gwyn, J.E.

1993-08-10

12

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

13

Toxicity of prolonged exposure to ethanol and gasoline autoengine exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

A comparative chronic inhalation exposure study was performed to investigate the potential health effects of gasoline and ethanol engine exhaust fumes. Test atmospheres of gasoline and ethanol exhaust were given to Wistar rats and Balb C mice housed in inhalation chambers for a period of 5 weeks. Gas concentration and physical parameters were continually monitored during the exposure period. Several biological parameters were assessed after the exposure including pulmonary function, mutagenicity, and hematological, biochemical, and morphological examinations. The results demonstrated that the chronic toxicity of the gasoline-fueled engine is significantly higher than that of the ethanol engine.

Massad, E.; Saldiva, P.H.; Saldiva, C.D.; Caldeira, M.P.; Cardoso, L.M.; de Morais, A.M.; Calheiros, D.F.; da Silva, R.; Boehm, G.M.

1986-08-01

14

Toxicity reduction associated with bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated groundwaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ biodegradation has received increasing attention as a method to remediate gasoline-contaminated soils and groundwaters. Typically, oxygen is added to enhance aerobic biodegradation. However, since oxygen is not very soluble in water and is difficult to distribute uniformly throughout an aquifer, nitrate has been investigated as an alternate electron acceptor. Nitrate has recently been used to stimulate BTX (benzene, toluene

M. J. Carroquino; R. M. Gersberg; W. J. Dawsey; M. D. Bradley

1992-01-01

15

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

16

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

17

Gasoline composition for reducing intake valve deposits in port fuel injected engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an unleaded fuel composition. It comprises a major amount of hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an effective amount to reduce intake valve deposits in electronic port fuel injected engines of a mixture of about 2.5 ppmw or higher of basic nitrogen based on the fuel composition in the form of an oil soluble

R. P. Aiello; M. J. Riley; H. D. Millay

1991-01-01

18

Inhalation toxicity of methanol/gasoline in rats: effects of 13-week exposure.  

PubMed

The subchronic inhalation toxicity of a methanol/gasoline blend (85% methanol, 15% gasoline, v/v) was studied in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (10 animals per group) of both sexes were exposed to vapours of methanol/gasoline at 50/3, 500/30 and 5000/300ppm for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 13 weeks. Control animals inhaled filtered room air only. Control recovery and high dose recovery groups were also included which inhaled room air for an extra 4 weeks following the treatment period. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the treatment group and their growth curves were not significantly different from the control. Except for decreased forelimb grip strength in high dose females, no treatment-related neurobehavioural effects (4-6 hours post inhalation) were observed using screening tests which included cage-side observations, righting reflex, open field activities, and forelimb and hindlimb grip strength. At necropsy, the organ to body weight ratios for the liver, spleen, testes, thymus and lungs were not significantly different from the control group. There were no treatment-related effects in the hematological endpoints and no elevation in serum formate levels. Minimal serum biochemical changes were observed with the only treatment-related change being the decreased creatinine in the females. A dose-related increase in urinary ascorbic acid was detected in males after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, but not after the 12th week, and in females only at week-2. Increased urinary albumin was observed in treated males starting at the lowest dose and at all exposure periods, but not in females. A treatment-related increase in urinary beta 2-microglobulin was detected in males at week-2 only. Except for mild to moderate mucous cell metaplasia in nasal septum B, which occurred more often and with a slightly higher degree of severity in the low dose groups of both sexes, and presence of a minimal degree of interstitial lymphocyte infiltration in the prostate glands in the high dose males. No other significant microscopic changes were observed in the tissues of treated animals. Based on the marked increase in urinary ascorbic acid and albumin in the high dose males and the decreased forelimb grip strength in the high dose females, we concluded that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of methanol/gasoline vapour is 500/30 ppm. PMID:9664642

Poon, R; Park, G; Viau, C; Chu, I; Potvin, M; Vincent, R; Valli, V

1998-01-01

19

Can folate intake reduce arsenic toxicity?  

PubMed Central

Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a global environmental health concern. Inorganic arsenic is a known carcinogen, and epidemiologic studies suggest that persons with impaired arsenic metabolism are at increased risk for certain cancers, including skin and bladder carcinoma. Arsenic metabolism involves methylation to monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by a folate-dependent process. Persons possessing polymorphisms in certain genes involved in folate metabolism excrete a lower proportion of urinary arsenic as DMA, which may influence susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial in a population with low plasma folate observed that after 12 weeks of folic acid supplementation, the proportion of total urinary arsenic excreted as DMA increased and blood arsenic concentration decreased, suggesting an improvement in arsenic metabolism. Although no studies have directly shown that high folate intake reduces the risk of arsenic toxicity, these findings provide evidence to support an interaction between folate and arsenic metabolism.

Kile, Molly L; Ronnenberg, Alayne G

2014-01-01

20

Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30-120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10 mM pyruvate or glucose (1.28 or 5.5 mM). LDH leakage was increased above control by 0.25 and 0.5 mM PAP beginning at 60 min and by 0.1 mM PAP at 120 min. Pyruvate prevented an increase in LDH leakage at 60- and 120-min exposure to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate also prevented a decline in ATP levels. Glucose (1.28 and 5.5 mM) provided less protection than pyruvate from PAP toxicity. Total glutathione levels were diminished by 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP within 60 and 30 min, respectively. Pyruvate prevented the decline in glutathione by 0.1 mM PAP at both time periods and at 30 min for 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate reduced the magnitude of glutathione depletion by 0.25 mM PAP following a 60-min incubation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in renal slices were increased at 60 min by exposure to 0.25 mM PAP, while pyruvate prevented increased GSSG levels by PAP. Pyruvate also reduced the extent of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins present after a 90-min incubation with PAP. These results indicate that pyruvate provided protection for PAP toxicity by providing an energy substrate and reducing oxidative stress.

Harmon, R. Christopher [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States); Kiningham, Kinsley K. [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States); Valentovic, Monica A. [Department of Pharmacology, Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704-9388 (United States)]. E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu

2006-06-01

21

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15

22

Influent\\/effluent approach to mud formulation reduces toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An influent\\/effluent approach to formulating drilling mud reduces the toxicity of mud discharged offshore because potentially contaminating additives are considered and approved for the mud system design before the well is spudded. EPA has several regulatory approaches to limit toxicity in drilling muds on offshore drilling platforms and to reduce toxicity of drilling muds discharged offshore. EPA Region X for

1995-01-01

23

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

24

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01

25

The use of oxygenated hydrocarbons in gasoline and their contribution to reducing urban air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant advances to occur in automotive fuel technology over the past ten years has been the use of oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pzoduction of gasoline. Whereas ten years ago essentially all transportation fuel was 100% petroleum- based, today it is safe to say that over 40% of all cars in West Europe and 25% of those

M. A. Mays

1989-01-01

26

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-05

27

Air pollution: EPA's efforts to reduce and end the use of lead in gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency has relied on data generated by the U.S. Army and U.S. Postal Service to support its lead phasedown program. Both organizations had switched large fleets of vehicles from leaded to unleaded gasoline and experienced no mechanical or operating problems. In response to concerns expressed by the Congress, the Department of Agriculture, and the farm community about the impacts of low-lead gasoline or its possible ban on farm equipment, EPA agreed to reevaluate the standards. EPA expects that by January 1987, it will determine whether the low-lead standard needs to be changed to prevent adverse effects on farm machinery and what the final action should be on its proposal for a ban.

Not Available

1986-01-01

28

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae ( Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster ( Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical

J. F. Paixo; I. A.. Nascimento; S. A. Pereira; M. B. L. Leite; G. C. Carvalho; J. S. C. Silveira; M. Reboucas; G. R. A. Matias; I. L. P. Rodrigues

2007-01-01

29

In Vitro Relative Toxicity Screening of Combined Particulate and semivolatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine technology modifications designed to reduce engine emissions are likely to alter the physicochemical characteristics of the emissions. These changes may alter the biological effects of the emissions, but these effects cannot currently be predicted from the physical and chemical properties. Rapid in vitro toxicity screening techniques to compare the biological effects of emission samples would be useful as preliminary

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Steven K. Seilkop

2003-01-01

30

Wasting away: Policies to reduce trash toxicity and quantity  

SciTech Connect

Communities all around the world are facing growing mounds of trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW). Media coverage of the shrinking landfill capacity has greatly increased awareness of the need to improve management of MSW when it is generated. Many U.S. businesses, public-interest groups, states, and municipalities, which have primary responsibility for managing MSW, are trying to increase the collection, processing, and marketing of recyclable material partly to relieve the pressures on municipal landfills. While such management activities should be increased and intensified, another challenge, a more difficult one, is to change the way this society makes products and generates MSW in the first place - that is, to reduce the toxicity and/or quantity of MSW. There are two basic routes to reducing toxicity and quantity: manufacturers can modify the design of products (and packaging) to reduce their toxicity or quantity, and consumers can modify their purchasing decisions, for example, by buying products that are less toxic, more durable, or more repairable. Both routes are described, and government programs and policy options which could lift obstacles are discussed.

Levenson, H. (Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-03-01

31

Selected ebselen analogs reduce mechlorethamine toxicity in vitro.  

PubMed

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant. The lack of an effective antidote makes SM a continued threat to both military and civilian settings. A surrogate agent, namely mechlorethamine (HN2), was used here to mimic the toxicity of SM, and the main objective of this study was to demonstrate if selected organoselenium analogs could protect cultured A-431 skin cells from HN2 toxicity. Test compounds included ebselen (EB-1) and three related organoselenium analogs (EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4). In the absence of test compound, a reproducible and robust cell death was observed in the cells following incubation with HN2 (25?M, 24 or 48?h) while cells treated with test compound alone (15, 30 or 60?M) for similar periods of time were generally not affected. When incubated in the presence of both HN2 and test compound for 24 or 48?h, it was found that EB-1, EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4 could spare the cells from death, with the EB-4 compound being the most effective at reducing HN2 toxicity. Light microscopy confirmed these findings. The organoseleniums were also examined for their effects on reducing lipid peroxidation in the A-431 skin cells. Among the test compounds, EB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation by HN2 to the greatest extent. These studies, taken together, validate that the organoselenium antioxidants tested here may serve a purpose in the discovery of medical countermeasures to vesicants. PMID:23734969

Pino, Maria A; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Billack, Blase

2014-03-01

32

Saffron Reduced Toxic Effects of its Constituent, Safranal, in Acute and Subacute Toxicities in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Saffron and its constituents are widely used around the world as a spice and medicinal plant. Different constituents in medicinal herbs are thought to have the potential to induce useful and/or adverse effects. So, efforts have been made to find the best and most valuable tools to reduce their adverse effects. Objectives: According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), it is believed that administration of whole herbs exhibits more activity and fewer side effects than isolated constituents. Since toxicological studies have indicated that safranal is more toxic than other active components in saffron stigma, thus this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of co-administration of saffron extract and safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity, rats received safranal (1.2 mL/kg, IP) plus saffron aqueous extract (25-100 mg/kg, IP). One and four days after the treatment, percentage of mortality was assessed. In subacute toxicity, rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1) safranal (0.2 mL/kg, IP), Groups 2, 3 and 4) safranal plus saffron aqueous extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IP) Groups 5 and 6) Paraffin and normal saline, as solvents of safranal and saffron aqueous extract, respectively. Treatments were continued for 21 days. For sub-acute toxicity, the percentages of lethality as well as some biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that four days co-treatment of safranal and saffron significantly reduced mortality, so that the effect was more obvious in lower doses. Sub-acute toxicity studies showed that saffron could increase survival in rats so that no mortality was observed at dose of 10 mg/kg. Our data also indicated that the levels of triglyceride, BUN and ALT significantly increased after sub-acute interaperitoneal (IP) administration of safranal (0.2 mL/kg/day) and co-treatment of saffron aqueous extract (5 and 10 mg/kg) plus safranal significantly improved all toxic effects of safranal on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: The co-administration of saffron aqueous extract and safranal reduced toxic effects of safranal in acute and sub-acute toxicities.

Ziaee, Toktam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2014-01-01

33

Microbial desulfurization of gasoline by free whole-cells of Rhodococcus erythropolis XP.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus erythropolis XP could grow well with condensed thiophenes, mono-thiophenic compounds and mercaptans present in gasoline. Rhodococcus erythropolis XP was also capable of efficiently degrading the condensed thiophenes in resting cell as well as biphasic reactions in which n-octane served as a model oil phase. Free whole cells of R. erythropolis XP were adopted to desulfurize fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and straight-run (SR) gasoline oils. About 30% of the sulfur content of FCC gasoline and 85% of sulfur in SR gasoline were reduced, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis with atomic emission detection also showed depletion of sulfur compounds in SR gasoline. Rhodococcus erythropolis XP could partly resist the toxicity of gasoline and had an application potential to biodesulfurization of gasoline. PMID:16640586

Yu, Bo; Ma, Cuiqing; Zhou, Wenjuan; Wang, Ying; Cai, Xiaofeng; Tao, Fei; Zhang, Quan; Tong, Mingyou; Qu, Jingyao; Xu, Ping

2006-05-01

34

Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

2009-07-01

35

Structural Basis for the Reduced Toxicity of Dinophysistoxin-2  

SciTech Connect

Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) are algal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Recent studies indicate that DTX-2 is about half as toxic and has about half the affinity for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as OA. NMR structural studies showed that DTX-1 possessed an equatorial 35-methyl group but that DTX-2 had an axial 35-methyl group. Molecular modeling studies indicated that an axial 35-methyl could exhibit unfavorable interactions in the PP2A binding site, and this has been proposed as the reason for the reduced toxicity of DTX-2. Statistical analyses of published data indicate that the affinity of PP2A for DTX-1 is 1.6-fold higher, and for DTX-2 is 2-fold lower, than for OA. We obtained X-ray crystal structures of DTX-1 and DTX-2 bound to PP2A. The crystal structures independently confirm the C-35 stereochemistries determined in the earlier NMR study. The structure for the DTX-1 complex was virtually identical to that of the OA-PP2A complex, except for the presence of the equatorial 35-methyl on the ligand. The favorable placement of the equatorial 35-methyl group of DTX-1 against the aromatic {pi}-bonds of His191 may account for the increased affinity of PP2A toward DTX-1. In contrast, the axial 35-methyl of DTX-2 caused the side chain of His191 to rotate 140{sup o} so that it pointed toward the solvent, thereby opening one end of the hydrophobic binding cage. This rearrangement to accommodate the unfavorable interaction from the axial 35-methyl of DTX-2 reduces the binding energy and appears to be responsible for the reduced affinity of PP2A for DTX-2. These results highlight the potential of molecular modeling studies for understanding the relative toxicity of analogues once the binding site at the molecular target has been properly characterized.

Huhn, J.; Jeffrey, F; Larsen, K; Rundberget, T; Rise, F; Cox, N; Arcus, V; Shi, Y; Miles, C

2009-01-01

36

40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845...

2013-07-01

37

The use of a novel tobacco treatment process to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Institute of Medicine has encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One potential approach is to reduce levels of some smoke toxicant

Chuan Liu; Yves DeGrandpr; Andrew Porter; Alexander Griffiths; Kevin McAdam; Richard Voisine; France Ct; Christopher Proctor

2011-01-01

38

Attenuating the toxicity of cisplatin by using selenosulfate with reduced risk of selenium toxicity as compared with selenite  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that high doses of sodium selenite can reduce side effects of cisplatin (CDDP) without compromising its antitumor activity, thus substantially enhancing the cure rate in tumor-bearing mice. However, the toxicity of selenite at high doses should be a concern. The present study revealed that selenosulfate had much lower toxicity, but possessed equal efficacy in selenium (Se)

Jinsong Zhang; Dungeng Peng; Hongjuan Lu; Qingliang Liu

2008-01-01

39

Nicotinamide and methionine reduce the liver toxic effect of methotrexate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methotrexate is widely used as a therapeutic agent in different diseases. This therapy is connected with various side effects, including liver toxicity. We have developed a mouse model to demonstrate the toxic effects of methotrexate: mice were given 50 mg\\/kg acetaminophen, which itself has no effect on the liver. If, additionally, methotrexate is applied, there is an increase in the

H. Krger; A. Hauschild; M. Ohde; K. Bache; W. P. Voigt; W. Thefeldt; D. Krger

1999-01-01

40

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Axial Thruster and ACS Thruster Combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

41

RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

42

Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,

Campbell, Brian

2010-01-01

43

Reducing groundwater pollution by toxic substances: Procedures and policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major source of water-related health problems is the improper disposal of toxic substances in the environment. Toxic materials leaching from unregulated and unlined pits, ponds, lagoons, and landfills have created a widespread environmental nightmare in the United States and many other parts of the world. At present, there are two major and interrelated components of this problem in the United States. The first is the issue of cleaning up abandoned disposal sites that pose actual or potential threats to water supplies. The second aspect of the problem concerns the necessity of siting proper management, treatment, or disposal facilities in the future. Priorities must be set to allow efficient, effective, and equitable allocation of the scarce resources that are available for accomplishing these tasks. This article examines a number of the issues involved in setting these priorities, and presents the results obtained from a study of risk estimation and evaluation in the context of groundwater contamination by toxic substances. The article introduces a new concept of risk estimation, which is shown to produce more accurate and credible risk analyses. Finally, the relationships between risk credibility and public perceptions of procedural fairness and equity are examined as these factors bear on the institutional aspects of implementing policies for site cleanup and/or facility siting.

Waterstone, Marvin

1987-11-01

44

Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic

Louv, Richard

2006-01-01

45

Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants.

Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

2014-01-01

46

Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

2014-01-01

47

Reduced oxygen tolerance and toxicity of petroleum products to juvenile American shad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on juvenile American shad,Alosa sapidissima, to indicate tolerance to reduced oxygen, toxicity of petroleum products, and toxicity of petroleum products with accompanying\\u000a low dissolved oxygen. All mortalities in reduced oxygen tests occurred at dissolved oxygen values of less than 2 ppm with\\u000a lethal concentrations varying with the rate of reduction. No mortalities occurred when dissolved oxygen was

Marlin E. Tagatz

1961-01-01

48

BDNF Reduces the Retinal Toxicity of Verteporfin Photodynamic Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the most effective treatment for age-related macular degeneration, using laser activation of a photosensitizing dye to achieve closure of choroidal neovascularization. Although PDT preferentially af- fects pathologic vessels, it can also cause collateral damage to the overlying retina. In the current study, it was found that the neuroprotective agent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduces

Daniel M. Paskowitz; George Nune; Douglas Yasumura; Haidong Yang; Robert B. Bhisitkul; Shivani Sharma; Michael T. Matthes; Marco A. Zarbin; Matthew M. LaVail; Jacque L. Duncan

2004-01-01

49

Pumping oxygen into gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce atmospheric concentration of certain pollutants notably carbon monoxide (CO), incompletely combusted hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx), EPA as early as January 1988 began testing oxygenated fuels in such cities as Denver and Albuquerque, N.M. The CAA Amendments require using oxygenated gasoline in cities where CO levels exceed National Ambient Air Quality standards. The law, which became effective Nov.

Wray

1993-01-01

50

[Lead compound optimization strategy (2)--structure optimization strategy for reducing toxicity risks in drug design].  

PubMed

Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IDR) induce severe medical complications or even death in patients. Alert structure in drugs can be metabolized as reactive metabolite (RM) in the bodies, which is one of the major factors to induce IDR. Structure modification and avoidance of alert structure in the drug candidates is an efficient method for reducing toxicity risks in drug design. This review briefly summarized the recent development of the methodologies for structure optimization strategy to reduce the toxicity risks of drug candidates. These methods include blocking metabolic site, altering metabolic pathway, reducing activity, bioisosterism, and prodrug. PMID:24783499

Liu, Hai-Long; Wang, Jiang; Lin, Dai-Zong; Liu, Hong

2014-01-01

51

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

2013-07-01

52

40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.1000 ...requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or...

2013-07-01

53

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Provisions for Foreign Refiners...1030 What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries...

2009-07-01

54

2-picoline-borane: a non-toxic reducing agent for oligosaccharide labeling by reductive amination.  

PubMed

Analysis of N-glycans is often performed by LC coupled to fluorescence detection. The N-glycans are usually labeled by reductive amination with a fluorophore containing a primary amine to allow fluorescence detection. Moreover, many of the commonly applied labels also allow improved mass spectrometric detection of oligosaccharides. For reductive amination, the amine group of the label reacts with the reducing-end aldehyde group of the oligosaccharide to form a Schiff base, which is reduced to a secondary amine. Here, we propose the use of 2-picoline-borane as the reducing agent, as a non-toxic alternative to the extensively used, but toxic sodium cyanoborohydride. Using dextran oligosaccharides and plasma N-glycans, we demonstrate similar labeling efficacies for 2-picoline-borane and sodium cyanoborohydride. Therefore, 2-picoline-borane is a non-toxic alternative to sodium cyanoborohydride for the labeling of oligosaccharides. PMID:20391534

Ruhaak, L Renee; Steenvoorden, Evelyne; Koeleman, Carolien A M; Deelder, Andr M; Wuhrer, Manfred

2010-06-01

55

Complementary and alternative medicine in reducing radiation-induced skin toxicity.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy-induced acute and late effects, particularly skin toxicities, have significant impact on cancer patients' quality of life and long-term survival. To date, no effective topical agents have been routinely used in the clinical setting to prevent skin toxicity. Using SKH-hr1 hairless mice, we investigated two complementary and alternative medicine in their effects on inflammation and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced skin toxicity: Calendula officinalis (CO) and Ching Wan Hung (CWH). They were applied immediately following each IR dosing of 10Gy/day for 4days. Skin toxicity and inflammatory factors were evaluated at multiple time points up to 15days post-radiation. Serum interleukin (IL)-1?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were significantly induced by radiation. Both CO and CWH significantly inhibited IR-induced MCP1 (p<0.01), KC (p<0.05), and G-CSF (p<0.001). IR-induced erythema and blood vessel dilation were significantly reduced by CWH (p<0.001) but not by CO at day 10 post-IR. Both agents inhibited IR-induced IL-1? (p<0.01), MCP1 (p<0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (p<0.05). There were continuous inhibitory effects of CWH on IR-induced skin toxicities and inflammation. In contrast, CO treatment resulted in skin reactions compared to IR alone. Our results suggest that both CO and CWH reduce IR-induced inflammation and CWH reduced IR-induced erythema. In summary, CWH showed promising effects in reducing IR-related inflammation and skin toxicities, and future proof-of-principal testing in humans will be critical in evaluating its potential application in preventing IR-induced skin toxicities. PMID:24792319

Hu, Jennifer J; Cui, Tengjiao; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Allen, Glenn O; Li, Jie; Takita, Cristiane; Lally, Brian E

2014-08-01

56

Ebselen reduces the toxicity of mechlorethamine in A-431 cells via inhibition of apoptosis.  

PubMed

A series of test compounds were evaluated for an ability to reduce the toxicity of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) in vitro. The test compounds included resveratrol, pterostilbene, vitamin C, ebselen, ebselen diselenide, and ebselen-sulfur. Among them, ebselen demonstrated the highest degree of protection against HN2 toxicity. To this end, pretreatment of the cells with ebselen offered protection against the toxicant whereas no protection was observed when cells were first incubated with HN2 and then treated with ebselen. Significant increases in caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were observed in response to HN2, and ebselen was found to reduce these effects. Taken together, the data presented here indicate that ebselen is an effective countermeasure to nitrogen mustard in vitro, which is worthy of future investigation in vivo. PMID:23649643

Lulla, Anju; Pino, Maria A; Pi?tka-Ottlik, Magdalena; M?ochowski, Jacek; Sparavalo, Oleksiy; Billack, Blase

2013-06-01

57

A Community-Based Initiative to Reduce Children's Exposure to Toxics in Household Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design/methodology/approach--The program model was based on the

Blackman, Anne Berlin; Luskin, Jack

2006-01-01

58

Comparative Toxicity Studies at Reduced and Ambient Pressures. I. Acute Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparison of the acute response to toxicants at ambient and reduced pressures (5 psia; 100% O2) were made by exposing monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice for 2 weeks of continuous inhalation exposure to NO2, O3, and CCl4. The experimental results show a defini...

J. M. McNerney, J. D. MacEwen

1965-01-01

59

INCREASED TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT 'SALMO GAIRDNERI' RESULTING FROM REDUCED CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The median lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow-through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6-8.6 mg/L, the fo...

60

Biocompatible gellan gum-reduced gold nanoparticles: cellular uptake and subacute oral toxicity studies.  

PubMed

Currently gold nanoparticles are being explored for drug delivery and other biomedical applications; therefore it is necessary to study the fate of such nanoparticles inside the body. The objective of the present study was to investigate the cellular uptake and toxicity of the gold nanoparticles synthesized using a microbial polysaccharide, gellan gum, as a capping and reducing agent. The cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles was studied on mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, NIH3T3 and human glioma cell line, LN-229. The cellular uptake study indicated that the gellan gum-reduced gold nanoparticles were located in cancer cells (LN-229) while no uptake was observed in normal mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (NIH3T3). The toxicity of the gold nanoparticles was evaluated by carrying out subacute 28 day oral toxicity studies in rats. Subacute administration of gum-reduced gold nanoparticles to the rats did not show any hematological or biochemical abnormalities. The weight and normal architecture of various organs did not change compared with control. The current findings, while establishing the specific uptake of nanoparticles into cancerous cells, also demonstrates that the gellan gum-reduced gold nanoparticles are devoid of toxicity in animals following oral administration. PMID:21089158

Dhar, Sheetal; Mali, Vishal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Shiras, Anjali; Prasad, B L V; Pokharkar, Varsha

2011-07-01

61

Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTDs toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD.

Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

2013-01-01

62

Human endometrial cell coculture reduces the endocrine disruptor toxicity on mouse embryo development  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Previous studies suggested that endocrine disruptors (ED) are toxic on preimplantation embryos and inhibit development of embryos in vitro culture. However, information about the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on preimplantation development of embryo in human reproductive environment is lacking. Methods Bisphenol A (BPA) and Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) were used as endocrine disruptors in this study. Mouse 2-cell embryos were cultured in medium alone or vehicle or co-cultured with human endometrial epithelial layers in increasing ED concentrations. Results At 72 hours the percentage of normal blastocyst were decreased by ED in a dose-dependent manner while the co-culture system significantly enhanced the rate and reduced the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on the embryonic development in vitro. Conclusions In conclusion, although EDs have the toxic effect on embryo development, the co-culture with human endometrial cell reduced the preimplantation embryo from it thereby making human reproductive environment protective to preimplantation embryo from the toxicity of endocrine disruptors.

2012-01-01

63

40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines...requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner toxics baselines...a) Definitions. (1) A foreign refinery is a refinery that is located...

2010-07-01

64

MRI target delineation may reduce long-term toxicity after prostate radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Abstract Background and purpose. Aiming for minimal toxicity after radical prostate cancer (PC) radiotherapy (RT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) target delineation could be a possible benefit knowing that clinical target volumes (CTV) are up to 30% smaller, when CTV delineation on MRI is compared to standard computed tomography (CT). This study compares long-term toxicity using CT or MRI delineation before PC RT. Material and methods. Urinary and rectal toxicity assessments 36 months after image-guided RT (78 Gy) using CTC-AE scores in two groups of PC patients. Peak symptom score values were registered. One group of patients (n = 72) had standard CT target delineation and gold markers as fiducials. Another group of patients (n = 73) had MRI target delineation and a nickel-titanium stent as fiducial. Results. At 36 months no difference in overall survival (92% in both groups, p = 0.29) or in PSA-relapse free survival was found between the groups (MRI = 89% and CT = 94%, p = 0.67). A significantly smaller CTV was found in the MRI group (p = 0.02). Urinary retention and frequency were significantly reduced in the MRI group (p = 0.03 in the matter of both). The overall urinary and rectal toxicity did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion. MRI delineation leads to a significantly reduced CTV. Significantly lower urinary frequency and urinary retention toxicity scores were observed following MRI delineation. The study did not find significant differences in overall urinary or rectal toxicity between the two groups. PSA-relapse survival did not differ between the two groups at 36 months. PMID:24358954

Sander, Lotte; Langkilde, Niels Christian; Holmberg, Mats; Carl, Jesper

2014-06-01

65

Gasoline and Gasoline Container Fire Incidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gasoline was involved in 72 percent of the 645 volatile flammable liquids fire incidents found in the NBS Flammable Fabrics Accident Case and Testing System as of December 1973. These gasoline incidents, particularly those that were container-related, wer...

E. A. Tyrrell

1975-01-01

66

Salidroside Protects Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons from Polyglutamine-Mediated Toxicity by Reducing Oxidative Stress.  

PubMed

Polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of Huntington's disease and other polyQ disorders. Therefore, strategies aiming at restoring dysfunction and reducing stresses mediated by polyQ toxicity are of therapeutic interest for proteotoxicity diseases. Salidroside, a glycoside from Rhodiola rosea, has been shown to have a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant activity. Using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans models, we show here that salidroside is able to reduce neuronal death and behavioral dysfunction mediated by polyQ expressed in ASH neurons, but the neuroprotective effect is not associated with prevention of polyQ aggregation per se. Further experiments reveal that the neuroprotective effect of salidroside in C. elegans models involves its antioxidant capabilities, including decrease of ROS levels and paraquat-induced mortality, increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate that salidroside exerts its neuroprotective function against polyQ toxicity via oxidative stress pathways. PMID:24918543

Xiao, Lingyun; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Ju; Yang, Fan; Huang, Aizhen; Deng, Jingjing; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Hu, Minghua; Huang, Zebo

2014-01-01

67

A nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of indomethacin eye drops and enhances its corneal permeability.  

PubMed

Indomethacin (IMC) has been shown to reduce post-operative inflammation and to decrease intraocular irritation after cataract extraction and in cystoid macular edema; however, the clinical use of its most commonly used eye drops is limited due to topical side-effects that include burning sensation, irritation and epithelial keratitis. It is known that decreasing direct cell stimulation and reducing the amount applied via increasing bioavailability are useful for improving these issues. In this study, we designed ophthalmic formulations containing 0.5% IMC nanoparticles using zirconia beads and Bead Smash 12 (IMCnano eye drops; particle size 76 59 nm, mean S.D.), and investigated the corneal toxicity of these IMCnano eye drops. IMCnano eye drops are tolerated better by a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T) than commercially available NDSAIDs preparations (IMC, pranoprofen, diclofenac, bromfenac and nepafenac eye drops), and corneal wound healing in rat eyes with debrided corneal epithelium instilled with IMCnano eye drops is significantly better than that of eyes instilled with commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the accumulation of IMC in HCE-T cells treated with the IMCnano eye drops for 30 min was 19.9% that of the accumulation from commercially available IMC eye drops. On the other hand, the corneal penetration of IMC from IMCnano eye drops was significantly greater than in the case of the commercially available IMC eye drops in both in vivo and in vitro studies using rabbit corneas. Taken together, we hypothesize that a nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of IMC eye drops, probably because the accumulation of IMC from IMCnano eye drops in the eye is lower than that from commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the nanoparticle formulation may allow a decrease in the amount of IMC used due to the increase in bioavailability, resulting in reduced drug toxicity. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing less toxic eye drops. PMID:24598350

Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

2014-05-01

68

Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between

Richard B. Wilder; Greg A. Barme; Ronald F. Gilbert; Richard E. Holevas; Luis I. Kobashi; Richard R. Reed; Ronald S. Solomon; Nancy L. Walter; Lucy Chittenden; Albert V. Mesa; Jeffrey Agustin; Jessica Lizarde; Jorge Macedo; John Ravera; Kenneth M. Tokita

2010-01-01

69

Efficacy of two different types of montmorillonite to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to compare the efficacy of montmorillonite (M) and montmorillonite nanocomposite (MN) to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin (AF) in growing\\/finishing pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs were assigned to six dietary treatment groups (0 g of adsorbents and 0 mg of AF\\/kg feed; 3 g of M\\/kg feed; 3 g of MN\\/kg feed; 0.11 mg of

Ying Hua Shi; Zi Rong Xu; Cheng Zhang Wang; Yu Sun

2007-01-01

70

Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.  

PubMed

Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 ?g g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 ?g g and died at 200 ?g Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 ?g g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. PMID:22751058

Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

2012-01-01

71

A polymeric colchicinoid prodrug with reduced toxicity and improved efficacy for vascular disruption in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Colchicinoids are very potent tubulin-binding compounds, which interfere with microtubule formation, giving them strong cytotoxic properties, such as cell mitosis inhibition and induction of microcytoskeleton depolymerization. While this makes them promising vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) in cancer therapy, their dose-limiting toxicity has prevented any clinical application for this purpose. Therefore, colchicinoids are considered attractive lead molecules for the development of novel vascular disrupting nanomedicine. In a previous study, a polymeric colchicinoid prodrug that showed favorable hydrolysis characteristics at physiological conditions was developed. In the current study, this polymeric colchicinoid prodrug was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its toxicity and vascular disrupting potential. Cell viability studies with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as an in vitro measure for colchicine activity, reflected the degradation kinetics of the prodrug accordingly. Upon intravenous treatment, in vivo, of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice with colchicine or with the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug, apparent vascular disruption and consequent tumor necrosis was observed for the prodrug but not for free colchicine at an equivalent dose. Moreover, a five-times-higher dose of the prodrug was well tolerated, indicating reduced toxicity. These findings demonstrate that the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug has a substantially improved efficacy/toxicity ratio compared with that of colchicine, making it a promising VDA for cancer therapy.

Crielaard, Bart J; van der Wal, Steffen; Lammers, Twan; Le, Huong Thu; Hennink, Wim E; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Storm, Gert; Fens, Marcel HAM

2011-01-01

72

Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

2013-10-01

73

Prevention of patulin toxicity on rumen microbial fermentation by SH-containing reducing agents.  

PubMed

Patulin, a toxic fungal metabolite, negatively affects rumen fermentation. This mycotoxin has also been associated with intoxication cases in cattle. This study investigates the use of SH-containing reducing compounds to prevent patulin's negative effects on the rumen microbial ecosystem. The effect of 50 microg/mL patulin on the fermentation of alfalfa hay was measured in batch cultures with and without reducing agents. Sulfhydryl-containing cysteine and glutathione prevented the negative effects of the toxin on dry matter degradation, gas, and volatile fatty acid production (P < 0.01). However, non-sulfhydryl-containing ascorbic and ferulic acids did not protect against patulin's toxicity (P > 0.01). Patulin was unstable in buffered rumen fluid as the concentration decreased by half after 4 h of incubation. In the presence of sulfhydryl groups, the toxin disappeared rapidly and was not detected after 1 h of incubation. The utilization of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as cysteine to avert patulin toxicity could have practical implications in ruminant nutrition. PMID:14582994

Morgavi, Diego P; Boudra, Hamid; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Graviou, Dominique

2003-11-01

74

Angiotensin II protects against ?-synuclein toxicity and reduces protein aggregation in vitro  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) in a genetic in-vitro PD model produced by ?-synuclein (?-syn) overexpression in the human neuroglioma H4 cell line. We observed a maximal decrease in ?-syn-induced toxicity of 85% and reduction in inclusion formation by 19% when cultures were treated with AngII in the presence of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan and AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. When compared to AngII, the AT4 receptor agonist AngIV was moderately effective in protecting H4 cells against ?-syn toxicity and did not significantly reduce inclusion formation. Here we show that AngII is protective against genetic, as well as neurotoxic models of PD. These data support the view that agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of Parkinson disease.

Grammatopoulos, Tom N.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Standaert, David G.

2008-01-01

75

Curcumin reduces the toxic effects of iron loading in rat liver epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background/aims Iron overload can cause liver toxicity and increase the risk of liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the food spice turmeric, has antioxidant, iron binding, and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to quantify its effects on iron overload and resulting downstream toxic effects in cultured T51B rat liver epithelial cells. Methods T51B cells were loaded with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) with or without the iron delivery agent 8-hydroxyquinoline. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Iron uptake and iron bioavailability were documented by chemical assay, quench of calcein fluorescence, and ferritin induction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by fluorescence assay using 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Oxidative stress signaling to jnk, c-jun, and p38 was measured by western blot with phospho-specific antibodies. Results Curcumin bound iron, but did not block iron uptake or bioavailability in T51B cells given FAC. However, it reduced cytotoxicity, blocked generation of ROS, and eliminated signaling to cellular stress pathways caused by iron. Inhibition was observed over a wide range of FAC concentrations (50 500 ?M), with an apparent IC50 in all cases between 5 and 10 ?M curcumin. In contrast, desferoxamine blocked both iron uptake and toxic effects of iron at concentrations that depended on the FAC concentration. Effects of curcumin also differed from those of ?-tocopherol, which did not bind iron and was less effective at blocking iron-stimulated ROS generation. Conclusions Curcumin reduced iron-dependent oxidative stress and iron toxicity in T51B cells without blocking iron uptake.

Messner, Donald J.; Sivam, Gowsala; Kowdley, Kris V.

2008-01-01

76

Consumer Adjustment to a Gasoline Tax  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of how customers will respond to a tax based on miles per gallon indicates that the long-term effect on gasoline consumption could reduce crude oil imports by 27 percent. When demand elasticity of gasoline is broken down into the price elasticity of demand minus the price elasticity of demand for fuel mileage, it is learned that the short-term

Carol A Dahl

1979-01-01

77

Protecting the Great Lakes: The costs and benefits of reducing toxic pollution in three communities  

SciTech Connect

EPA recently issued common-sense guidelines to reduce toxic pollution in the Great Lakes and ensure protection for the environment and people living in the area. Will this protection come at a reasonable cost. Results from a detailed evaluation of impacts for three communities in the region reveal that public health and environmental benefits will outweigh the costs of achieving those reductions. The three communities evaluated were the Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin; the Saginaw River near Bay City, Michigan; and the Black River near Cleveland, Ohio. Information on the case study results is provided.

NONE

1995-11-01

78

Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and ~ 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

Gou, MaLing; Shi, HuaShan; Guo, Gang; Men, Ke; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Lan; Li, ZhiYong; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan

2011-03-01

79

Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.  

PubMed

In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95?L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. PMID:23180692

Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

2013-03-01

80

Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity - Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased plateletEC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity.

Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

2013-01-01

81

Genes required for alleviation of uranium toxicity in sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibio alaskensis G20.  

PubMed

The sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20 can grow in lactate sulfate medium with up to 4 mM uranyl acetate. In order to identify the genes that are required for the growth of strain G20 at toxic levels of uranium(VI) (U(VI)), 5,760 transposon insertion mutants were screened for U(VI) resistance defects, and 24 of them showed loss of U(VI) resistance in lactate sulfate medium with 2 mM uranyl acetate. In the 24 mutants, 23 genes were disrupted by transposon insertions, and one transposon is located in a non-coding region. In the ten mutants that were completely inhibited by 2 mM uranyl acetate, the disrupted genes are involved in DNA repair, rRNA methylation, regulation of expression and RNA polymerase renaturation. The remaining 14 mutants showed partial inhibition of growth by 2 mM U(VI), in which the disrupted genes participate in DNA repair, regulation of transcription, membrane transport, etc. In addition, none except one of these 24 mutants showed loss in its ability to reduce U(VI) to U(IV) in the washed cell test. These results altogether suggest that U(VI) toxicity mainly involves damage to nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:24510447

Li, Xiangkai; Zhang, He; Ma, Yantian; Liu, Pu; Krumholz, Lee R

2014-05-01

82

Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity  

PubMed Central

Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases.

Wang, Hongmin; Monteiro, Mervyn J.

2007-01-01

83

Ebselen analogues reduce 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide toxicity in A-431 cells.  

PubMed

Vesicants are potent blistering agents. The prototype vesicant is sulphur mustard gas, first used in World War I, which still has no effective antidote. We used a mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) to study the ability of resveratrol (RES) and pterostilbene (PTS), two well-established stilbene antioxidants, ebselen (EB-1), an organoselenium compound, and three EB-1 analogues (EB-2, EB-3, and EB-4) to reduce CEES toxicity in human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431). Following a 24-hour incubation of a toxic concentration of CEES (1000 ?mol L-1), we used the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] test to analyse cell viability. Different concentrations of test antioxidants alone (15 ?mol L-1, 30 ?mol L-1 or 60 ?mol L-1) did not decrease cell viability. Treatment with CEES and test antioxidants for 24 h showed that only EB-1 and its analogues EB-2, EB-3, and EB-4 but not the stilbene compounds could rescue the cells from death. EB-1 and EB-4 were the most effective at reducing CEES cytotoxicity and did so in a concentration-dependent manner, while EB-2 and EB-3 demonstrated the least protective effect. In summary, the data described herein indicate that organoselenium antioxidants, especially EB-4, may prove useful as countermeasures to blistering agents. PMID:23612526

Pino, Maria A; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Billack, Blase

2013-01-01

84

Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.  

PubMed

The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

2010-12-01

85

Identification of risk factors for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after reduced toxicity conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) of older or patients with comorbidities has become possible due to new regimens for reduced-intensity conditioning. The use of fludarabine, carmustine and melphalan as the preparative regimen (FBM) reduces toxicity while providing substantial anti-leukemic activity. Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) of the lung or bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains a serious non-infectious complication contributing to treatment-related morbidity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 259 patients (median age: 61.5, range: 24-76 years) transplanted after FBM conditioning to identify and characterize clinical risk factors for developing BOS. The cumulative incidence rate of BOS was 4.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4-7.6%) at 1 year and 8.5% (95% CI: 5.6-12.9%) at 5 years after allo-HCT with a median follow-up of 36.5 (range: 3-136) months. In multivariate analysis, age <55 years at allo-HCT (who received 25% higher carmustin-dose in preparative regimen), pulmonary complications after allo-HCT and GVHD prophylaxis without in-vivo T-cell depletion (cyclosporine-A/ATG or cyclosporine-A/alemtuzumab) were associated with BOS. We observed no significant differences in clinical variables such as smoking or lung diseases before allo-HCT. In contrast to cGVHD affecting other organs, BOS showed no impact on overall survival. In conclusion, we identified risk factors associated with developing BOS after conditioning with a reduced toxicity protocol. PMID:23376822

Duque-Afonso, J; Ihorst, G; Wsch, R; Bertz, H; Mller-Quernheim, J; Finke, J; Prasse, A; Marks, R

2013-08-01

86

Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.co [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M. [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

2010-07-01

87

Reduced toxicity of liposome-associated amphotericin B injected intravitreally in rabbits.  

PubMed

The ocular toxicity of liposome-intercalated amphotericin B and commercial amphotericin B were compared after intravitreal injection in healthy pigmented rabbits. Ophthalmoscopic observations over 5 weeks following a single intravitreal injection showed vitreal band formation and focal retinal damage after doses of commercial amphotericin B as low as 5 micrograms. Such lesions were not seen in animals given liposomal amphotericin B in doses up to 20 micrograms. Histopathologic examination showed areas of retinal atrophy or necrosis in five of 16 rabbits given commercial amphotericin B in doses of 5-20 micrograms but in none of 16 rabbits given the same doses of liposomal amphotericin B (P = 0.02). Small white vitreal bodies were seen clinically in virtually all animals given liposomal amphotericin B or "empty" (drug-free) liposomes but in only a few animals given commercial amphotericin B; these deposits may represent residual lipid. Concentrations of amphotericin B ranged from 0.4 to 1.0 micrograms per ml of vitreous humor 5 weeks after injection of 5-20 micrograms of either formulation. These studies indicate that liposome association markedly reduces the ocular toxicity of amphotericin B. PMID:3997420

Tremblay, C; Barza, M; Szoka, F; Lahav, M; Baum, J

1985-05-01

88

Activity, reduced toxicity, and scale-up synthesis of amphotericin B-conjugated polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AMB) arabinogalactan (AG) conjugate was synthesized by the conjugation of AMB to oxidized AG by reductive amination. The conjugate was evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity and in vivo toxicity. Optimization of the conjugation process was investigated using large batches of 100 g, which are 20 times larger than previously reported for AMB-AG conjugation. The efficacy of AMB-AG conjugates was studied as a function of reaction conditions and time, aldehyde/reducing agent mole ratio, and purification procedure. The most potent AMB-AG conjugate having low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and high maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was obtained following reduction with NaBH4 at 1:2 mol ratio (AG units/NaBH4) at 25 C for 24 h. AMB-AG conjugate prepared under these conditions demonstrated MIC of 0.5 mg/L (equiv of AMB) in Candida albicans, and an MTD of 60 mg/kg (equiv of AMB) in mice, while AMB clinical formulation (Fungizone) demonstrated high toxicity (MTD = 3 mg/kg). These findings confirm the simplicity and reproducibility of the conjugation allowing this method to be applied on larger scale production. PMID:24779556

Ickowicz, Diana E; Farber, Shimon; Sionov, Edward; Kagan, Sarah; Hoffman, Amnon; Polacheck, Itzhack; Domb, Abraham J

2014-06-01

89

Reducing levels of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke: a new Healthy People 2010 objective.  

PubMed

We developed and implemented a national surveillance system to monitor and reduce the levels of toxicchemicals in tobacco smoke. A developmental Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) objective was revised to report on levels of three categories of chemicals--tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds--in the smoke of leading U.S. cigarette brands. Unit-based sales-weighted average levels were calculated for each chemical category. The target for the new HP 2010 objective is a 10% reduction in unit-based sales-weighted average levels of each chemical category. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided the baseline, target data, and laboratory analyses. A national data source, national baseline data, and target were presented to the Healthy People Steering Committee during 2005 Midcourse Review. Approval of the revised objective initiated the surveillance of three major classes of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. The approved objective provides a feasible, innovative approach for monitoring and supporting measurable population-based reductions in levels of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco smoke. PMID:18348477

Richter, Patricia; Pechacek, Terry; Swahn, Monica; Wagman, Victoria

2008-01-01

90

The Vitamin E analog Trolox reduces copper toxicity in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus but is also toxic on its own  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the water-soluble Vitamin E analog, Trolox, to prevent the toxic effects of copper exposure on the behavior and neuronal physiology of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was examined. Trolox produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 24h LC50 for copper exposure, with 100?M Trolox elevating the LC50 by almost seven-fold (from 0.36 to 2.43?M). Copper exposure (0.2?M) for

Bruce A. OGara; Phillip M. Murray; Erik M. Hoyt; Tifany Leigh-Logan; Michael B. Smeaton

2006-01-01

91

Effects of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on motorcycle emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By investigating the effect of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on the criteria pollutant emissions [CO, total hydrocarbons (THCs), and NO x] and on air toxics in the exhaust from a non-catalyst four-stroke motorcycle engine, inferences can be made concerning the effect of fuel composition on motorcycle emissions. The fuels were blended with different contents of sulfur (40 and 150 ppmw) and aromatics (20 and 30 vol%). The data indicate that the sulfur content does not correlate with the emissions of the criteria pollutants from the catalyst free engine. Instead, lowering aromatic content in gasoline reduced the THC emission by over 30%, especially in the cruising test. The NO x emission, however, showed an inverse correlation with the aromatic content in gasoline. While a reduction of aromatic content in gasoline may decrease emissions of benzene and toluene, it will increase the emission of aldehyde. Since the percentage changes of emission factor of THC and air toxics in the motorcycle were larger than those in passenger cars, the benefit of emission reduction due to fuel composition changes in motorcycles may have significant impacts in health risk analysis.

Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, An-Lin; Jeng, Fu-Tien

92

Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.  

PubMed

Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity. PMID:17980956

Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezz, F

2008-05-30

93

Nanotitanium dioxide toxicity in mouse lung is reduced in sanding dust from paint  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known of how the toxicity of nanoparticles is affected by the incorporation in complex matrices. We compared the toxic effects of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle UV-Titan L181 (NanoTiO2), pure or embedded in a paint matrix. We also compared the effects of the same paint with and without NanoTiO2. Methods Mice received a single intratracheal instillation of 18, 54 and 162 ?g of NanoTiO2 or 54, 162 and 486 ?g of the sanding dust from paint with and without NanoTiO2. DNA damage in broncheoalveolar lavage cells and liver, lung inflammation and liver histology were evaluated 1, 3 and 28 days after intratracheal instillation. Printex 90 was included as positive control. Results There was no additive effect of adding NanoTiO2 to paints: Therefore the toxicity of NanoTiO2 was reduced by inclusion into a paint matrix. NanoTiO2 induced inflammation in mice with severity similar to Printex 90. The inflammatory response of NanoTiO2 and Printex 90 correlated with the instilled surface area. None of the materials, except of Printex 90, induced DNA damage in lung lining fluid cells. The highest dose of NanoTiO2 caused DNA damage in hepatic tissue 1 day after intratracheal instillation. Exposure of mice to the dust from paints with and without TiO2 was not associated with hepatic histopathological changes. Exposure to NanoTiO2 or to Printex 90 caused slight histopathological changes in the liver in some of the mice at different time points. Conclusions Pulmonary inflammation and DNA damage and hepatic histopathology were not changed in mice instilled with sanding dust from NanoTiO2 paint compared to paint without NanoTiO2. However, pure NanoTiO2 caused greater inflammation than NanoTiO2 embedded in the paint matrix.

2012-01-01

94

Effect of vitamin C in reducing the toxicity of endosulfan in liver in rabbits.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, and the ameliorating effect of vitamin C on the livers of New Zealand white rabbits were studied. Livers of the rabbits were examined grossly and histopathologically, and caspase-3 activity was detected by immunohistochemical methods. A total of twenty-four rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6). Rabbits in Group I (END) were daily given a sublethal dose of endosulfan (1mg/kgbw) in corn oil by oral gavage for 6 weeks. Group II (END+C) received the same dose of endosulfan and additionally Vit C (20mg/kgbw) every other day during this period. Group III (OIL+C) received corn oil daily by oral gavage and vitamin C every other day for 6 weeks. Group IV (OIL), the control group, received only corn oil daily, by oral gavage throughout the experiment. The concentration of alpha-endosulfan in the END group was higher in livers (0.102+/-0.012ppb) than the beta-endosulfan (0.072+/-0.001ppb). Decreased accumulation of alpha and beta endosulfan was observed in the END+C group (0.025+/-0.003 and 0.016+/-0.002ppb, respectively) (p<0.0001). The most prominent gross findings at the necropsy were seen in the END group, in which swollen and pale livers were commonly observed. Hemorrhages, degenerations, necrosis, and in some rabbits bile duct hyperplasia were the marked histopathological findings of the END group. Caspase-3 positive reaction was more severe in this group than in the others. An ameliorating effect of Vit C on gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings was observed in the END+C group. The results revealed that endosulfan is highly toxic for rabbit livers. However, toxicity was decreased by Vit C treatment, which reduced the accumulation of endosulfan in livers four-fold. PMID:19285844

Mor, Firdevs; Ozmen, Ozlem

2010-01-01

95

Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats.  

PubMed

Despite the reports on safety concerns regarding the relationship between aluminum salts and neurological and bone disease, many countries continue to use aluminum as phosphate binders among patients with renal failure. In search for a diet supplement that could reduce aluminum toxicity related to renal failure, we carried out this prospective animal study in which the fenugreek seeds were assessed for their effects on rats nephrotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Oral AlCl3 administration during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via drinking water) led to plasma biochemical changes, an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a decrease of total antioxidant status (TAS), and an induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the blood and brain, in addition to kidney atrophy and morphological alterations at the level of Bowman's capsule, the glomerulus and different sorts of tubules, reminiscent of some known kidney disease. The treatment with the whole fenugreek seed powder (FSP) (5% in the diet) during the last 2 months showed its effectiveness in restoring normal plasma values of urea, creatinine, ALP and glucose, as well as re-increasing the TAS, inhibiting LPO and alleviating histopathological changes in the injured kidneys. This study highlights the induced nephrotoxicicity, as well as the related toxicity in the brain and bone, by chronic oral ingestion of the aluminum salts. However, the maintenance of a diet supplemented with fenugreek seeds could offer protection for the kidney, bone and brain, at the same time. PMID:24353832

Belad-Nouira, Yosra; Bakhta, Hayfa; Haouas, Zohra; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

2013-12-01

96

Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.

1986-11-01

97

Amyloid ?-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of ?-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the ?-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of ?-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust ?-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid ?-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-? peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, ?2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, ?-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

2012-11-01

98

Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals  

PubMed Central

The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 6298 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 6468 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

2013-01-01

99

Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Gupta, G; Tao, J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

100

Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M?) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

2013-07-01

101

Zinc reduces copper toxicity induced oxidative stress by promoting antioxidant defense in freshly grown aquatic duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which Zn promotes Cu toxicity in duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L. was investigated in order to understand the possible interaction between these two metals. Cu uptake was gradually declined by Zn. The induction of oxidative stress is shown by increased levels of lipid peroxidation, total peroxide, superoxide anion and lipoxygenase activity. Zn interaction reduced the oxidative damage. However,

RishiKesh Upadhyay; Sanjib Kumar Panda

2010-01-01

102

Reduction of toxic chromate in an industrial effluent by use of a chromate?reducing strain of Enterobacter cloacae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detoxification and removal of hexavalent chromium (chromate: CrO4 ) in an industrial effluent was investigated using Enterobacter cloacae HO1. This bacterium could completely reduce chromate to less toxic trivalent chromium when appropiate nutrients were supplied to the effluent. The reduction rate was strongly dependent on the amount of added carbon and energy sources, and also on cell density. Since the

H. Ohtake; E. Fujii; K. Toda

1990-01-01

103

Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish  

PubMed Central

A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a?ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln?LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln?LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides.

Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

2013-01-01

104

(Conversion from gasoline to propane. Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The engines use more propane than gasoline. The larger engines average 5.5 miles per gallon on propane while the average gasoline mileage was 7.5 per gallon. The engines run cleaner - spark plugs after 10,000 miles look like new - oil has not thinned out at 2500 miles and looks like it was changed recently. I find that the vehicles have more power with the propane and the engines do not ping. Maintenance on engines has declined, however, the starting sometimes is a problem. The timing of engines has to be perfect for the propane to work correctly and efficiently. Propane prices have increased and if one expects a savings in the purchase of fuel there is none. However the propane fumes are not toxic and the octane in propane is higher than in the gasoline.

Not Available

1984-01-23

105

Persulfate Oxidation of Gasoline Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is a promising remediation technology that can be potentially applied to a wide range of organic contaminants. Gasoline compounds are of particular interest because they extensively impact the soil and groundwater, and are highly persistent and toxic. In this investigation, destruction of specific gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and naphthalene), and fractions (F1 and F2) by activated and inactivated persulfate was studied at the bench-scale. Aqueous phase batch reactors (25 mL) for inactivated systems employed persulfate at two concentrations (1 or 20 g/L), and activated systems were conducted with a persulfate concentration of 20 g/L. In the activated systems, the ability of hydrogen peroxide or chelated-ferrous as an activator was examined at two experimental conditions (peroxide molar ratio 0.1 and 1.0 with respect to persulfate; and citric acid chelated ferrous at 150 and 600 mg/L). All treatments and controls contained an initial gasoline concentration of approximately 25 mg/L and were run in triplicate. Sampling for gasoline compounds was conducted over <28 day reaction period. The controls showed insignificant degradation for all the gasoline compounds and fractions examined while inactivated persulfate at 1 g/L showed little (<10%) decrease in the concentration of gasoline compounds over the 28 day reaction period. Inactivated persulfate at 20 g/L demonstrated a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of BTEX (>99%), TMB (>94%) and naphthalene (>71%). Oxidation of the F1 fraction (>94%) was more pronounced than the F2 fraction (>80%), and >93% TPH was oxidized. Use of peroxide as an activator at a molar ratio of 0.1 improved the destruction of TMBs (>99%) and naphthalene (>85%) while maintaining the high removal of BTEX (>99%) compounds. Increase in activator strength (molar ratio 1.0) decreased the destruction of xylenes (>86%) and TMBs (>81%). The decrease in concentration of all the compounds was higher for a molar ratio of 1.0 (<27%) as compared with a molar ratio of 0.1 (<11%). The activation by ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of compounds (except naphthalene) as compared with unactivated or peroxide activated persulfate. 1,3,5-TMB was completed oxidized after 4 days using higher chelated ferrous concentration and after 12 days using lower chelated ferrous concentration for persulfate activation. In general, increase in chelated ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of the gasoline compounds. While oxidation of F1 fraction was similar for two ferrous activation conditions, the oxidation of F2 fraction was lower when ferrous activation at 600 mg/L was employed. Use of persulfate at high dosages by itself or in combination with higher doses of chelated ferrous or optimum doses of peroxide as an activator seems to be a viable option for remediation of gasoline compounds examined in this study. Persulfate appears to be particularly effective in the oxidation of BTEX compounds, but may require ferrous activation for a complete oxidation of TMBs and peroxide activation for oxidation of naphthalene.

Sra, K.; Thomson, N.; Barker, J.

2009-05-01

106

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

107

Combustion of gasolines in premixed laminar flames European certified and California phase 2 reformulated gasoline.  

PubMed

Two gasoline qualities, European unleaded certified gasoline (EUCG) and California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (P2 RFG), were analysed. EUCG contained about twice the amount of alkyl benzenes compared to P2 RFG and a large amount of cyclohexane. As a balance, P2 RFG contained higher amounts of isooctane and MTBE. The gasolines were burned in a premixed laminar flame burner at 1 atm and at about stoichiometric fuel/air ratio. The species profiles were measured using on-line GC/MS. About 40 compounds were be detected in the gasoline flames. The EUCG resulted in formation of more reactive and toxic compounds. The combustion profiles of the fuel components showed a similar slope, which suggests that the fuel components burn quite independently of each other. Ethene and propene were the dominating species produced from the two gasolines. Commonly, substantial amounts of higher alkenes were found. Combustion of P2 RFG produced higher amounts of isobutene, propene, propyne, propadiene and methanol compared to combustion of EUCG. The high amount of isobutene is reasonably a result of high concentration of isooctane and MTBE in the fuel. The high amount of methanol formed is probably due to the MTBE present in the gasoline. EUCG produced significantly higher amounts of 1,3-butadiene, which quite likely is formed from the cyclohexane in the fuel. The benzene profiles from both gasolines shows an almost constant level up to 800 microm from the burner surface; this is probably due to formation of benzene from alkyl benzenes. PMID:11513414

Hkansson, A; Strmberg, K; Pedersen, J; Olsson, J O

2001-08-01

108

Bacterial Reduction of Copper-Contaminated Ferric Oxide: Copper Toxicity and the Interaction Between Fermentative and Iron-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Fe(III) oxide is an important heavy-metal sink, and bacteria are responsible for much of the Fe(III) reduced in nonsulfidogenic\\u000a aquatic environments, yet factors governing the bacterial reduction of heavy metalcontaminated iron oxide are largely unknown.\\u000a In this study with a stabilized bacterial consortium enriched from metal-contaminated sediments, we demonstrate that Cu toxicity\\u000a impedes anaerobic carbon oxidation and bacterial reduction

J. T. Markwiese; P. J. S. Colberg

2000-01-01

109

Fluconazole coadministration concurrent with cyclophosphamide conditioning may reduce regimen-related toxicity postmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

In a previous study comparing fluconazole and itraconazole administered as antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, we found that fluconazole administration concurrent with cyclophosphamide (CY)-based conditioning was associated with fewer early toxicities compared to itraconazole. Fluconazole inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9, which is involved with the activation of CY, and so might provide protection from CY-related toxicities. To investigate this further, we compared CY and CY-metabolite data from patients who received fluconazole (n = 56) concurrent with CY-containing conditioning and in patients who did not (n = 17). The fluconazole group had greater exposure to CY, and lower peak serum concentration of CY-metabolite 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. In a separate cohort, we examined outcomes in patients randomized to receive either fluconazole (n = 152) or placebo (n = 147) concurrent with CY-containing conditioning in a prior randomized trial. Patients who received fluconazole experienced less hepatic and renal toxicity, and had lower mortality. No difference in relapsed malignancy was apparent. These data support the hypothesis that fluconazole, when coadministered with CY, decreases CY-related toxicities by inhibiting cytochrome P450 2C9 metabolism. PMID:17580253

Upton, Arlo; McCune, Jeannine S; Kirby, Katharine A; Leisenring, Wendy; McDonald, George; Batchelder, Ami; Marr, Kieren A

2007-07-01

110

Algal blooms reduce the uptake of toxic methylmercury in freshwater food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury accumulation in fish is a global public health concern, because fish are the primary source of toxic methylmercury to humans. Fish from all lakes do not pose the same level of risk to consumers. One of the most intriguing patterns is that potentially dangerous mercury concentrations can be found in fish from clear, oligotrophic lakes whereas fish from greener,

Paul C. Pickhardt; Carol L. Folt; Celia Y. Chen; Bjoern Klaue; Joel D. Blum

111

Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan  

SciTech Connect

The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

None

1980-06-01

112

Toxicity of tumor necrosis factor is synergistic with gamma-interferon and can be reduced with cyclooxygenase inhibitors.  

PubMed Central

In recent studies, we have demonstrated that recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rH TNF), as a single agent, has only minimal therapeutic activity for the treatment of metastatic disease, but when combined with recombinant murine gamma-interferon (rM gamma-IFN), we observed significantly more therapeutic activity than when either agent was administered alone. However, this combination also resulted in increased toxicity. Thus, we undertook a systematic toxicologic study of rH TNF alone or in combination with rM gamma-IFN. Briefly, the toxicity was similar to the generalized Shwartzman's reaction seen during endotoxin shock, with multifocal microthrombi and ischemic necrosis as sequelae. Lesions were observed in the lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract (preferentially in the duodenum and cecum), testes or uterus, and bone marrow. Our results suggest that TNF (either directly administered or induced in situ) and its induction of arachidonic acid metabolites form one element of toxicity in this model. This conclusion is supported by studies revealing that the toxicity of rH TNF in combination with rM gamma-IFN can be reduced by inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase pathway. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15

Talmadge, J. E.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.; Lee, S. H.; Shepard, H. M.; Liggitt, D.

1987-01-01

113

Trypsin and rosmarinic acid reduce the toxicity of Micrurus fulvius venom in mice.  

PubMed

CONTEXT. Antivenom is expensive and not always available, so alternative treatments are being investigated. OBJECTIVE. The efficacy of trypsin or rosmarinic acid (RA) in treating Micrurus fulvius in a murine model is determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Design: randomized controlled blinded study. Subjects: Fifty mice (20-30 g). Study groups: Intraperitoneal injections of: 1) 2 mg/kg M. fulvius venom (approximately twice the LD50 for mice; n = 10); 2) 2 mg/kg M. fulvius venom incubated in vitro for 1 h prior to injection with RA at a 1:10 ratio (n = 17); 3) 2 mg/kg M. fulvius venom incubated in vitro for 1 h prior to injection with 1 mg of trypsin (n = 17); 4)1 mg trypsin IP without venom (n = 3); and 5) RA IP without venom (n = 3). Main outcome: time to toxicity (respiratory distress (< 25 breaths/min.), loss of spontaneous locomotor activity, or inability to upright self). Statistical analysis: Time to toxicity using Tukey-Kramer HSD; Survival to 4, 6, and 12 h using Chi-square analysis. RESULTS. Onset of toxicity: venom + saline, 120.3 + 64.4 min; venom + rosmarinic acid, 238.1 139.2 min (p = 0.15 relative to venom + saline); venom + trypsin, 319.7 + 201.0 min (p = 0.007 relative to venom + saline). Venom + trypsin but not venom + RA survival to 4 h was significant compared to venom + saline (p = 0.023). Two mice in the venom + trypsin group and one mouse in the venom + RA group survived to 12 h. Mice receiving trypsin without venom or RA without venom survived to 12 h without toxicity. Discussion. This work suggests that trypsin and RA may have efficacy in treatment M. fulvius envenomation. CONCLUSION. In vitro neutralization of M. Fulvius venom by trypsin justifies progressing to an in vivo model in future studies. PMID:24409960

Parker-Cote, J L; O'Rourke, D P; Miller, S N; Brewer, K L; Rosenbaum, M D; Meggs, W J

2014-02-01

114

Development of silver\\/?-lactalbumin nanocomposites: a new approach to reduce silver toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current use of silver is limited to certain medical applications owing to two major toxicity concerns, namely low haemocompatibility and silver release-induced skin discoloration, both of which have been attributed to the interaction between silver and blood cysteine. To address these challenges, in this study silver\\/protein nanocomposites were prepared using ?-lactalbumin (ALA), a high-cysteine protein. The effect of the

Boce Zhang; Yaguang Luo; Qin Wang

2011-01-01

115

Strategies to reduce late-stage drug attrition due to mitochondrial toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the etiology of drug-induced toxicities and negative side-effect profiles. Early identification of mitochondrial liabilities for new chemical entities is therefore crucial for avoiding late-stage attrition during drug development. Limitations of traditional methods for assessing mitochondrial dysfunction have discouraged routine evaluation of mitochondrial liabilities. To circumvent this bottleneck, a high-throughput screen has been developed that

James A Dykens; Lisa D Marroquin; Yvonne Will

2007-01-01

116

Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during RT. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible if they had disease localized to the primary site and lymph nodes, with high-risk features. RT was delivered to the primary site and lymph nodes to a dose of 50 Gy and weekly carboplatin (area under the curve of 2) was given during RT. This was followed by three cycles of carboplatin and etoposide. A total of 18 patients were entered into the study, and their data were compared with the data from 53 patients entered into the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study. Results: Involved lymph nodes (Stage II) were present in 14 patients (77%). Treatment was completed as planned in 16 patients. The weekly carboplatin dose was delivered in 17 patients, and 15 were able to complete all three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide. Grade 3 and 4 neutrophil toxicity occurred in 7 patients, but no cases of febrile neutropenia developed. Compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 protocol (19 of 53 cases of febrile neutropenia), the reduction in the febrile neutropenia rate (p = 0.003) and decrease in Grade 3 skin toxicity (p = 0.006) were highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that weekly carboplatin at this dosage is a safe way to deliver synchronous chemotherapy during RT for MCC and results in a marked reduction of febrile neutropenia and Grade 3 skin toxicity compared with the three weekly regimen.

Poulsen, Michael [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)], E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Dickie, Graeme [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); O'Brien, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Keller, Jacqui; Tpcony, Lee [Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

2008-11-15

117

A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: How submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36?gL(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6?gL(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides. PMID:24630450

Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

2014-08-01

118

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995  

EIA Publications

Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gasoline in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining industry.

Tancred Lidderdale

1994-07-01

119

Gasoline blending optimization cuts use of expensive components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasoline blending optimization project has allowed Lindsey Oil Refinery Ltd., Humberside, England, to reduce quality giveaway and maximize use of the cheapest blending components. In June 1989, Lindsey Oil awarded a contract for a gasoline blending optimizer. The contract was part of an offsites modernization project, which also included an upgrade of the tank gauging system, automation of a

J. White; F. Hall

1992-01-01

120

Heat-induced superaggregation of amphotericin B reduces its in vitro toxicity: a new way to improve its therapeutic index.  

PubMed Central

Superaggregation of amphotericin B (AmB) was previously shown to occur upon heating of solutions at 70 degrees C. In the present study, we demonstrate that heat pretreatment of Fungizone (deoxycholate salt of AmB [AmB-DOC]) solutions induces a drastic decrease in the in vitro toxicity of this antibiotic. Heated AmB-DOC colloidal solutions, which mainly contained superaggregated and monomeric forms of the antibiotic, were strongly less hemolytic than unheated solutions (aggregates and monomers). Thermal pretreatment of AmB-DOC solutions also reduced the toxicity to the cell line HT29, as deduced from two simultaneous cell viability assays (3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase release). These heated colloidal solutions were only slightly less efficient than the unheated ones at inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans cells in vitro. Such results suggest that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a new and simple solution for improving the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity to mammalian cells.

Gaboriau, F; Cheron, M; Petit, C; Bolard, J

1997-01-01

121

Improved pharmacokinetics and reduced toxicity of brucine after encapsulation into stealth liposomes: role of phosphatidylcholine  

PubMed Central

Objective: Brucine was encapsulated into stealth liposomes using the ammonium sulfate gradient method to improve therapeutic index. Materials and methods: Four brucine stealth liposomal formulations were prepared, which were made from different phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with different phase transition temperatures (Tm). The PCs used were soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), and distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC). The stabilities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicities of these liposomal formulations were evaluated and compared. Results: Size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of brucine-loaded stealth liposomes (BSL) were not influenced by PC composition. In vitro release studies revealed that drug release rate increased with decreased Tm of PCs, especially with the presence of rat plasma. After intravenous administration, the area under the curve (AUC) values of BSL-SPC, BSL-DPPC, BSL-HSPC, and BSL-DSPC in plasma were 7.71, 9.24, 53.83, and 56.83-fold as large as that of free brucine, respectively. The LD50 values of brucine solution, BSL-SPC, BSL-DPPC, BSL-HSPC, and BSL-DSPC following intravenous injection were 13.17, 37.30, 37.69, 51.18, and 52.86 mg/kg, respectively. It was found in calcein retention experiments that the order of calcein retention in rat plasma was SPC < DPPC << HSPC < DSPC stealth liposomes. Conclusion: PC composition could exert significant influence on the stabilities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicities of brucine-loaded stealth liposomes. DSPC or HSPC with Tm above 50C should be used to prepare the stealth liposomal formulation for the intravenous delivery of brucine. However, it was found in the present paper that the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of BSL were not influenced by the PC composition when the Tm of the PC was in the range of ?20C to 41C.

Chen, Jun; Yan, Guo-jun; Hu, Rong-rong; Gu, Qian-wen; Chen, Ming-lei; Gu, Wei; Chen, Zhi-peng; Cai, Bao-chang

2012-01-01

122

Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.  

PubMed Central

Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.

Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

1997-01-01

123

Effects of l-cysteine and reduced glutathione on the toxicities of microcystin LR: the effect for acute liver failure and inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of l-cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on the liver toxicities of microcystin LR (MCLR). Ten millimolar MCLR in 10 mM Cys solution did not show acute liver toxicity of MCLR in mice. However, 10 mM MCLR in 10 mM GSH solution showed weaker acute toxicity of MCLR than intact MCLR. The Cys and GSH mixtures

Shigeyuki Takenaka; Ryuichi Otsu

2000-01-01

124

Fucoidan reduces the toxicities of chemotherapy for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFIRI) has become a standard regimen for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. Numerous studies have reported that long-term use of FOLFOX or FOLFIRI leads to better survival for these patients. Thus, control of the toxicity of these drugs may be crucial to prolonging survival. Fucoidan is one of the major sulfated polysaccharides of brown seaweeds and exhibits a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of fucoidan on suppressing the toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. A total of 20 patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer scheduled to undergo treatment with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI were randomly allocated into a fucoidan treatment group (n=10) and a control group without fucoidan treatment (n=10). Results showed that fucoidan regulated the occurrence of fatigue during chemotherapy. Chemotherapy with fucoidan was continued for a longer period than chemotherapy without fucoidan. Additionally, the survival of patients with fucoidan treatment was longer than that of patients without fucoidan, although the difference was not significant. Thus, fucoidan may enable the continuous administration of chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer, and as a result, the prognosis of such patients is prolonged.

IKEGUCHI, MASAHIDE; YAMAMOTO, MANABU; ARAI, YOSUKE; MAETA, YOSHIHIKO; ASHIDA, KEIGO; KATANO, KUNIYUKI; MIKI, YASUNARI; KIMURA, TAKAYUKI

2011-01-01

125

Science Nation: Green Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the help of the National Science Foundation (NSF), George Huber has been working to unlock the solar energy that's stored in cellulose. Recently, he received additional NSF funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, which he says will allow his team to continue developing new processes that can economically produce renewable gasoline and diesel fuels from domestically produced non-food biomass resources. Huber, along with a team of dedicated researchers at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, has figured out how to make gasoline from woodchips that are loaded with cellulose and the energy stored in that cellulose.

126

Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy and Reduced Systemic Toxicity of Sulfatide-Containing Nanoliposomal Doxorubicin in a Xenograft Model of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Sulfatide is a glycosphingolipid known to interact with several extracellular matrix proteins, such as tenascin-C which is overexpressed in many types of cancer including that of the colon. In view of the limited success of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer and high toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX), a sulfatide-containing liposome (SCL) encapsulation approach was taken to overcome these barriers. This study assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity, biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity in vivo of sulfatide-containing liposomal doxorubicin (SCL-DOX) using human colonic adenocarcinoma HT-29 xenograft as the experimental model. In vitro, SCL-DOX was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention compared with the free DOX. The use of this nanodrug delivery system to deliver DOX for treatment of tumor-bearing mice produced a much improved therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor growth suppression and extended survival in contrast to the free drug. Furthermore, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with SCL-DOX resulted in a lower DOX uptake in the principal sites of toxicity of the free drug, namely the heart and skin, as well as reduced myelosuppression and diminished cardiotoxicity. Such natural lipid-guided nanodrug delivery systems may represent a new strategy for the development of effective anticancer chemotherapeutics targeting the tumor microenvironment for both primary tumor and micrometastases.

Lin, Jia; Yu, Yan; Shigdar, Sarah; Fang, Ding Zhi; Du, Jun Rong; Wei, Ming Q.; Danks, Andrew; Liu, Ke; Duan, Wei

2012-01-01

127

Toxicity of copper to acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic activities of methanogens and sulfate reducers in anaerobic sludge.  

PubMed

Heavy metals could potentially negatively impact microorganisms in anaerobic sulfate reducing bioreactors. The objective of this is study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of copper to acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic activities of methanogens and sulfate reducers in sludge obtained from a full-scale sulfate reducing bioreactor. The 50% inhibiting concentration (50%IC) of Cu(2+) to acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens was 20.7 and 8.9 mg l(-1), respectively. The 50%IC of Cu(2+) to acetoclastic sulfate reduction was 32.3 mg l(-1). The hydrogenotrophic sulfate reducers were only inhibited by 27% at the highest concentration of Cu(2+) tested, 200 mg l(-1), indicating a high level of tolerance. The soluble Cu(2+) was observed to decrease rapidly in both the methanogenic and sulfate reducing assays. The highest level of decrease was observed in the hydrogenotrophic sulfate reducing assay which was over 99% in 5h. The results of this study indicate that sulfate reducing biotechnologies would be robust at relatively high inlet concentrations of Cu(2+). PMID:15936054

Karri, Srilakshmi; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

2006-01-01

128

Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults With Medulloblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4-103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11-63) for p-CSI. Results: p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2% vs 5.8%; P=.004), and less p-CSI patients had >5% weight loss compared with x-CSI (16% vs 64%; P=.004). p-CSI patients experienced less grade 2 nausea and vomiting compared with x-CSI (26% vs 71%; P=.004). Patients treated with x-CSI were more likely to have medical management of esophagitis than p-CSI patients (57% vs 5%, P<.001). p-CSI patients had a smaller reduction in peripheral white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets compared with x-CSI (white blood cells 46% vs 55%, P=.04; hemoglobin 88% vs 97%, P=.009; platelets 48% vs 65%, P=.05). Mean vertebral doses were significantly associated with reductions in blood counts. Conclusions: This report is the first analysis of clinical outcomes for adult medulloblastoma patients treated with p-CSI. Patients treated with p-CSI experienced less treatment-related morbidity including fewer acute gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities.

Brown, Aaron P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Groot, John F. de; Puduvalli, Vinay K. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crawford, Cody N.; Khan, Meena [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khatua, Soumen [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Mark R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-06-01

129

Demand for gasoline in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the demand for gasoline in Kuwait for the period 19701989 using a cointegration and error correction model (ECM). It is found that gasoline demand is inelastic with respect to price in the short and long run, and while it is elastic in the long run, gasoline demand is inelastic with respect to income in the short run.

M. N. Eltony; N. H. Al-Mutairi

1995-01-01

130

Batteries: Lower cost than gasoline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the lifecycle costs of an electric car to a similar gasoline-powered vehicle under different scenarios of required driving range and cost of gasoline. An electric car is cost competitive for a significant portion of the scenarios: for cars of lower range and for higher gasoline prices. Electric cars with ?150km range are a technologically viable, cost competitive, high

Mathew Werber; Michael Fischer; Peter V. Schwartz

2009-01-01

131

Encapsulation of cadmium selenide quantum dots using a self-assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) reduces their in vitro toxicity.  

PubMed

Although, nanometer-scale semi-conductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted widespread interest in medical diagnosis and treatment, many can have intrinsic toxicities, especially those composed of CdSe, associated with their elemental composition. Using our self-assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) formulations which we have previously reported to be composed of non-toxic components, i.e., such as vegetable oil, surfactant and water, we hypothesized that their appropriate utilization would reduce the toxicity of QDs by encapsulating the CdSe QDs in our (SANE) system using a modified phase-inversion temperature (PIT) method. SANE encapsulation of the QDs did not alter their emission wavelength of 600nm which remained unchanged during the encapsulation process. In contrast, zeta potential of encapsulated QDs was reduced from -30 to -6.59 mV, which we have previously reported to be associated with beneficial properties (increased bioavailability and efficacy) for SANE-encapsulated bioactives such as pharmaceuticals. Relative to the untreated controls, the viability of HeLa cells exposed for 48 h to un-encapsulated CdSe QDs at a concentration of 115 ?g/mL was 22.71.7% (p<0.05). In contrast, the percentage of viable HeLa cells following exposure to SANE-encapsulated CdSe QDs at the same concentration was 91.63.5% (p<0.05) or a 307% increase in the number of viable cells (p<0.05). When the dose of CdSe QDs was increased to 230 ?g/mL, the percentage of viable HeLa cells after exposure to the un-encapsulated CdSe QDs was 16.11.3% compared to controls (p<0.05). In contrast, at the same increased concentration (230 ?g/mL) of un-encapsulated CdSe QDs, the percentage of viable HeLa cells following exposure to SANE-encapsulated CdSe QDs was 87.93.3% relative to controls (p<0.05) or a 448% increase in the number of viable cells (p<0.05). Exposure of HeLa cells to a nanoblank, (nanoemulsion without QDs), showed no significant effect on cell viability (97.22.5%) compared to control cell culture. In conclusion, application of our SANE technology for encapsulating QDs increased cell viability of cells exposed to CdSe QDs while maintaining the original emission wavelength and therefore may be applied to reduce QD toxicity. PMID:21044677

Edmund, Anton R; Kambalapally, Swetha; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

2011-02-01

132

Linear blending values produce accurate results for EPA gasoline emission equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I described the method which linearizes gasoline emission equations of the EPA Simple and Complex Model forms. The goal is to develop constant component linear blending coefficients for VOC, toxics and NO[sub x] reductions that can be imbedded in linear programming models and used routinely as are other specifications. Applications include blending, planning and investment analyses to minimize gasoline

D. N. Dunbar; M. R. Tallett; J. Leather

2009-01-01

133

Failure of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion to Reduce Diazinon-induced Acute Toxicity: a Pilot Study in Rats.  

PubMed

Diazinon (DZN) is a synthetic organophosphorus (OPs) insecticide widely used in agricultural and household applications. OPs, particularly DZN, are highly lipid soluble liquids. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to reduce toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. We evaluated the antidote effect of ILE on acute toxicity of DZN. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats weighting 200-250 g were treated orally with dose of 480 mg/ kg of DZN gavaged at the volume of 0.5 mL/kg. Thirty minutes after administration of DZN, two groups were treated by either ILE 10% (ILE10) or normal saline (NS) (16 mL/kg) (NS16) that were infused for the duration of 15 minutes. Another two groups were also treated by either ILE 20% (ILE20) or NS (10 mL/kg: NS10) as above. The changes in body weight, diarrhea score, muscular power, fasciculation, convulsions and mortality rate of the animals were all monitored immediately after infusions and then every 6 h up to 48 h. There was no significant difference in animals mean weight between different groups during the observation period. In addition, during the 48-hour observation we could not find any difference in muscular power and diarrhea score between groups of ILE20-NS10 and ILE10-NS16 in comparison with each other, and neither ILE 10% nor ILE %20 could not reduce mortality rate of animals or increase the survival time of rats. In conclusion, ILE seems to be unable to reverse DZN acute toxicity and it might be due to conversion of DZN to potent and less lipid soluble agent. PMID:24523769

Moshiri, Mohammad; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Etemad, Leila; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2013-01-01

134

Gasoline Composition in 2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline composition in the U.S is determined by factors related to crude oil source, refinery capacity, geography and regulatory factors. Major regulation derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments determines the benzene and former oxygenate requirements for reformulated...

135

Enhanced antitumor and reduced toxicity effect of Schisanreae polysaccharide in 5-Fu treated Heps-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Previous study indicated that the refined polysaccharide from Schisandra could improve the CTX-induced inhibition of T and B lymphocytes proliferation. Accordingly, the enhanced antitumor and reduced toxicity effects of a low molecular weight purified polysaccharide from Schisandra (SCPP11) were investigated in 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) treated Heps-bearing mice. The results revealed that the SCPP11 (oral administration) exhibited a significant enhanced effect of antitumor activity when combined with 5-Fu. Moreover, a increased effect was also observed in boosting immunity functions when the Heps-bearing mice receiving SCPP11 combination with 5-Fu administration, including increased in thymus indexes and enhancing serum IL-2 and TNF-? secretion. In addition, SCPP11 could ameliorate the hematological and biochemical parameters changes induced by 5-Fu to normal level, and reduce the formation of MDA and enhance the activities of SOD in liver to against 5-Fu induced free radical damage. The above results suggested that the SCPP11 combined with 5-Fu presented enhanced effects on antitumor activity and the SCPP11 could attenuate the 5-Fu-induced toxicity effect. It could serve as a new and promising adjuvant for chemotherapy drugs. PMID:24189396

Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Zhang, Min; Zou, Ye; Feng, Weiwei; Gu, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yang; Mao, Riwen; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

2014-02-01

136

Reduced toxicity, myeloablative conditioning with BU, fludarabine, alemtuzumab and SCT from sibling donors in children with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

BU and CY (BU/CY; 200?mg/kg) before HLA-matched sibling allo-SCT in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with ~85% EFS but is limited by the acute and late effects of BU/CY myeloablative conditioning. Alternatives include reduced toxicity but more immunosuppressive conditioning. We investigated in a prospective single institutional study, the safety and efficacy of a reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen of BU 12.8-16?mg/kg, fludarabine 180?mg/m(2), alemtuzumab 54?mg/m(2) (BFA) before HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation in pediatric recipients with symptomatic SCD. Eighteen patients, median age 8.9 years (2.3-20.2), M/F 15/3, 15 sibling BM and 3 sibling cord blood (CB) were transplanted. Mean whole blood and erythroid donor chimerism was 91% and 88%, at days +100 and +365, respectively. Probability of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 17%. Two-year EFS and OS were both 100%. Neurological, pulmonary and cardiovascular function were stable or improved at 2 years. BFA RTC and HLA-matched sibling BM and CB allo-SCT in pediatric recipients result in excellent EFS, long-term donor chimerism, low incidence of GVHD and stable/improved organ function. PMID:24797180

Bhatia, M; Jin, Z; Baker, C; Geyer, M B; Radhakrishnan, K; Morris, E; Satwani, P; George, D; Garvin, J; Del Toro, G; Zuckerman, W; Lee, M T; Licursi, M; Hawks, R; Smilow, E; Baxter-Lowe, L A; Schwartz, J; Cairo, M S

2014-07-01

137

Heat shock treatment reduces beta amyloid toxicity in vivo by diminishing oligomers  

PubMed Central

Heat shock response, mediated by heat shock proteins, is a highly conserved physiological process in multicellular organisms for reestablishment of cellular homeostasis. Expression of heat shock factors and subsequent heat shock protein plays a role in protection against proteotoxicity in invertebrate and vertebrate models. Proteotoxicity due to ?-amyloid peptide (A?) oligomerization has been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we demonstrated that progressive paralysis induced by expression of human A?1-42 in transgenic C. elegans was alleviated by A? oligomer inhibitors ginkgo biloba extract and its constituents (Wu, et al., J. Neurosci 2006, 26:13102-13). In this study, we apply a protective heat shock to the transgenic C. elegans and demonstrate: 1) a remarkable delay in paralysis, 2) increased expression of small heat shock protein HSP16.2, and 3) significant reduction of A? oligomers in a heat shock time-dependent manner. These results suggest that transient heat shock lessens A? toxicity by diminishing A? oligomerization, which provide a link between up regulation of endogenous chaperone proteins and protection against A? proteotoxicity in vivo.

Wu, Yanjue; Cao, Zhiming; Klein, William L.; Luo, Yuan

2010-01-01

138

High-calcium flue gas desulfurization products reduce aluminum toxicity in an Appalachian soil  

SciTech Connect

An acid Appalachian soil was amended with two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, one consisting of wallboard-quality gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}) and the other containing CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O as a major component. Soil columns treated with FGD by-products were leached with deionized H{sub 2}O under unsaturated conditions. Aluminum amounts leached increased 25-fold over the control when CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O FGD by-product was incorporated into the soil. Leachate pH decreased with FGD product treatment, but bulk soil pH increased, and exchangeable Al and total soil acidity decreased. Mean 4-d root lengths of sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seedlings grown in the leached soils were as much as 440 and 310% the value of the control for CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O and CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O treatments, respectively. Mechanisms by which mitigation of Al toxicity occurs with addition of high-Ca FGD by-products to acid soils are discussed. 48 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Wendell, R.R.; Ritchey, K.D. [USDA-ARS, Beaver, WV (United States)

1996-11-01

139

Toxicity of topical lidocaine applied to the breasts to reduce discomfort during screening mammography  

PubMed Central

Background: We measured the effect of 30 milliliters (mL) of 4% lidocaine gel on the breasts and chest wall of healthy women covered for 1 h on plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its principal metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX), electrocardiogram (EKG) results, and adverse events. Materials and Methods: This institutional review board-approved, prospective, open-label study complied with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The study evaluated 10 healthy women aged 42-75 years with 30 mL of 4% lidocaine gel on the skin of the breasts and chest wall covered for 1 h. Cardiac and neurological assessments were performed and blood was drawn for lidocaine and MEGX levels at baseline and 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after application. EKGs were performed before application and at 3 h. Subjects provided informed written consent. Primary and secondary outcomes were plasma concentrations of lidocaine and MEGX and frequency of adverse events, respectively. Statistical analysis included paired t-tests for EKGs and repeated measures regression for vital signs. Results: No lidocaine was detected in the blood of 9 of 10 subjects. One subject had low plasma concentrations of lidocaine just above the level of detection the first 4 h after application only. No MEGX was detected. Mean decrease in heart rate was likely multifactorial. Conclusion: Thirty mL of 4% lidocaine gel on the breasts and chest wall covered for 1 h in healthy women resulted in plasma concentrations of lidocaine and MEGX well below therapeutic or toxic levels and no clinically significant adverse events.

Lambertz, Colleen K; Johnson, Christopher J; Montgomery, Paul G; Maxwell, James R; Fry, Stefanie J

2012-01-01

140

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01

141

40 CFR 80.995 - What if a refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Exemptions § 80.995 What...refiner or importer is unable to produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of...

2013-07-01

142

What toxicity may result from the xenobiotic responsible for the finding on this plain film? Answer: reduced iron, found in heating pads and instant hand warmers, may result in elevated serum iron concentrations and subsequent iron toxicity.  

PubMed

Disposable heating pads are commonly used products, with reduced iron as their active ingredient. Reduced iron is not expected to cause significant toxicity when ingested orally. We report a case of accidental heating pad ingestion seen on abdominal plain films that resulted in significantly elevated serum iron concentrations. PMID:21818692

Cole, Jon B; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Lintner, Christian P

2011-12-01

143

Pyrrolidinediones reduce the toxicity of thiazolidinediones and modify their anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties.  

PubMed

Thiazolidinediones have been established as a drug class of significant importance in the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus and have more recently displayed emergent potential as anti-cancer agents. However, their toxicity has hampered clinical development and usage in both therapeutic areas. Studies to date have implicated that the thiazolidinedione ring is responsible for the generation of reactive metabolites after metabolism. As an attempt to improve their safety profiles, we considered the bioisosteric replacement of the thiazolidinedione ring with a chemically conserved pyrrolidinedione heterocyclic system. Using pyrrolidinedione analogs of the thiazolidinedione drugs troglitazone (TGZ), rosiglitazone (RGZ), and pioglitazone (PGZ), we evaluated their PPAR(?) activities, anti-cancer properties as well as toxicological effects. Of significance, both pyrrolidinedione analogs demonstrated reduced toxicity. Pharmacologically, they also displayed diminished PPAR(?) binding and ap2 gene expression in a mouse pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1, but enhanced anti-cancer properties based on the suppression of liver cancer cell line (Huh-7) proliferation and the expression of tumor marker, afp. Overall, this study ascertains the general contribution of the thiazolidinedione ring to their cytotoxicity and proposes the applicability of the pyrrolidinedione ring as a selective and safer choice in anti-diabetic and cancer chemotherapeutics for future drug design. PMID:23041271

Saha, Sudipta; Chan, Debra Shu Zhen; Lee, Chern Yih; Wong, Winnie; New, Lee Sun; Chui, Wai Keung; Yap, Chun Wei; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Ho, Han Kiat

2012-12-15

144

Reduced cellular toxicity of a new silver-containing antimicrobial dressing and clinical performance in non-healing wounds.  

PubMed

Bacterial colonisation of wounds may delay wound healing. Modern silver-containing dressings are antimicrobial, yet cellular toxicity is a serious side-effect. We provide data for a newly formulated silver-containing ointment dressing, Atrauman Ag, for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. Atrauman Ag effectively killed a panel of commensal skin as well as pathogenic bacterial strains while cytotoxicity for HaCaT keratinocytes was only around 10%. With these favourable in vitro tests, Atrauman Ag was analysed in 86 patients with traumatic and non-healing wounds of different aetiologies. The wound state was evaluated for 3 subsequent dressing changes. The slough score was reduced from 59.2 to 35.8%, granulation tissue increased from 27 to 40% and epithelialisation went up from 12.1 to 24%. We conclude that Atrauman Ag has a superior profile of antimicrobial activity over cellular toxicity and the low silver ion release rate may prevent interference with wound-healing mechanisms. PMID:16612141

Ziegler, K; Grl, R; Effing, J; Ellermann, J; Mappes, M; Otten, S; Kapp, H; Zoellner, P; Spaeth, D; Smola, H

2006-01-01

145

Photoimmunotherapy and irradiance modulation reduce chemotherapy cycles and toxicity in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis: perspective and results  

PubMed Central

Significant toxicities from multiple cycles of chemotherapy often cause delays or early termination of treatment, leading to poor outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. Complementary modalities that potentiate the efficacy of traditional agents with fewer cycles and less toxicity are needed. Photodynamic therapy is a mechanistically-distinct modality that synergizes with chemo and biologic agents. A combination regimen with a clinically relevant chemotherapy cocktail (cisplatin + paclitaxel) and anti-EGFR targeted photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is evaluated in a murine model for ovarian carcinomatosis. Mice received either 1 or 2 chemotherapy cycles followed by PIT with a chlorine6-Erbitux photoimmunoconjugate and 25 J/cm2 light. PIT + 1 cycle of chemotherapy significantly reduced tumor burden, comparable to multiple chemotherapy cycles. Relative to 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the addition of PIT did not cause significant mouse weight loss, whereas 2 cycles of chemotherapy led to a significant reduction in weight. Irradiance-dependence on PIT efficacy was a function of the conjugation chemistry, providing an additional variable for optimization of PIT outcome.

Rizvi, Imran; Dinh, Tri A.; Yu, Weiping; Chang, Yuchiao; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Hasan, Tayyaba

2013-01-01

146

Gasoline Vapor Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

1979-01-01

147

The development of response surface pathway design to reduce animal numbers in toxicity studies  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes the development of Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design, assesses its performance and effectiveness in estimating LD50, and compares RSP with Up and Down Procedures (UDPs) and Random Walk (RW) design. Methods A basic 4-level RSP design was used on 36 male ICR mice given intraperitoneal doses of Yessotoxin. Simulations were performed to optimise the design. A k-adjustment factor was introduced to ensure coverage of the dose window and calculate the dose steps. Instead of using equal numbers of mice on all levels, the number of mice was increased at each design level. Additionally, the binomial outcome variable was changed to multinomial. The performance of the RSP designs and a comparison of UDPs and RW were assessed by simulations. The optimised 4-level RSP design was used on 24 female NMRI mice given Azaspiracid-1 intraperitoneally. Results The in vivo experiment with basic 4-level RSP design estimated the LD50 of Yessotoxin to be 463 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 383535). By inclusion of the k-adjustment factor with equal or increasing numbers of mice on increasing dose levels, the estimate changed to 481 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 362566) and 447 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 378504 ?g/kgBW), respectively. The optimised 4-level RSP estimated the LD50 to be 473 ?g/kgBW (95% CI: 442517). A similar increase in power was demonstrated using the optimised RSP design on real Azaspiracid-1 data. The simulations showed that the inclusion of the k-adjustment factor, reduction in sample size by increasing the number of mice on higher design levels and incorporation of a multinomial outcome gave estimates of the LD50 that were as good as those with the basic RSP design. Furthermore, optimised RSP design performed on just three levels reduced the number of animals from 36 to 15 without loss of information, when compared with the 4-level designs. Simulated comparison of the RSP design with UDPs and RW design demonstrated the superiority of RSP. Conclusion Optimised RSP design reduces the number of animals needed. The design converges rapidly on the area of interest and is at least as efficient as both the UDPs and RW design.

2014-01-01

148

Association of phosphatidylcholine and NSAIDs as a novel strategy to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity.  

PubMed

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are highly effective drugs that inhibit pain and inflammation, and perhaps due to the role of inflammation in the underlying etiology, NSAIDs have also demonstrated efficacy in reducing a patient's risk of developing a number of cancers and neurological diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). The utility of these powerful drugs is limited due to their gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects, notably peptic ulceration and GI bleeding which is briefly reviewed here. We also describe the barrier property of the GI mucosa and how it is affected by NSAIDs, as it is our position that disruption of the surface barrier is an important component in the drugs' pathogenesis, in addition to selective inhibition of COX-2, which has proven to be problematic. We also discuss current alternative approaches being taken to mitigate the GI side-effects of NSAIDs, including developing combination drugs where NSAIDs are packaged with inhibitors of HCl secretion such as proton pump inhibitors or H2-receptor antagonists. We then present the rationale for the development of the PC associated NSAID technology which came out of our observation that the mammalian gastric mucosa has hydrophobic, nonwettable properties that provides a barrier to luminal acid, and the role of phospholipids and specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) in this barrier property. In the last section we review the development of our current lipid-based PC-NSAID formulations and our encouraging preclinical and clinical observations validating their GI safety and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20135022

Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Barron, Melisa; Marathi, Upendra

2009-12-01

149

NADH-generating substrates reduce peroxyl radical toxicity in RL-34 cells.  

PubMed

There is general agreement that oxidative stress may induce apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Recently it has been shown that NADH can be considered an important antioxidant as it reacts with peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals under in vitro conditions. Therefore, in the present study we hypothesized that an increase in intracellular NADH using specific substrates will protect RL-34 cells against cytotoxicity of 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which is a peroxyl radical generating compound. Cells treated for 24 hours with 6.0 mM AAPH were severely damaged: mitochondria were vacuolated, and the level of free radicals significantly increased. Both apoptotic and necrotic cells were detected (11.1% and 11.4%, respectively) even after 5 hours of treatment. Pretreatment of the cells with substrates which increase the intracellular level of NADH, such as lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and ethanol, distinctly inhibited AAPH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell death. On the other hand, acetoacetate (AcA), which decrease the intracellular level of NADH, had opposite effects. Interestingly, NADH-generating substrates augment, while AcA reduced superoxide radical formation induced by AAPH. These results may suggest that although NADH generating substrates may exert some deleterious effects within a cell by inducing reductive stress, they diminish alkoxyl or peroxyl radical cytotoxicity. The protection is associated with a decrease in ROS formation measured by dichlorofluorescein, but with an increase in superoxide radical formation. PMID:19950075

Antosiewicz, J; Spodnik, J H; Teranishi, M; Herman-Antosiewicz, A; Kurono, Ch; Soji, T; Wo?niak, M; Borkowska, A; Wakabayashi, T

2009-11-01

150

Antiprion drugs 6-aminophenanthridine and guanabenz reduce PABPN1 toxicity and aggregation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset syndrome characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles. OPMD is caused by extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Insoluble nuclear inclusions form in diseased muscles. We have generated a Drosophila model of OPMD that recapitulates the features of the disorder. Here, we show that the antiprion drugs 6-aminophenanthridine (6AP) and guanabenz acetate (GA), which prevent formation of amyloid fibers by prion proteins in cell models, alleviate OPMD phenotypes in Drosophila, including muscle degeneration and nuclear inclusion formation. The large ribosomal RNA and its activity in protein folding were recently identified as a specific cellular target of 6AP and GA. We show that deletions of the ribosomal DNA locus reduce OPMD phenotypes and act synergistically with sub-effective doses of 6AP. In a complementary approach, we demonstrate that ribosomal RNA accelerates in vitro fibril formation of PABPN1 N-terminal domain. These results reveal the conserved role of ribosomal RNA in different protein aggregation disorders and identify 6AP and GA as general anti-aggregation molecules.

Barbezier, Nicolas; Chartier, Aymeric; Bidet, Yannick; Buttstedt, Anja; Voisset, Cecile; Galons, Herve; Blondel, Marc; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Simonelig, Martine

2011-01-01

151

Nano-NRTIs: Efficient Inhibitors of HIV Type-1 in Macrophages with a Reduced Mitochondrial Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Macrophages serve as depot for HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS). To efficiently target macrophages, we developed nanocarriers for potential brain delivery of activated nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nano-NRTI). Methods Nanogel carriers consisting of PEG- or Pluronic-PEI biodegradable networks, star PEG-PEI, or PAMAM-PEI-PEG dendritic networks, as well as nanogels decorated with multiple ApoE peptide molecules, specifically binding to the apolipoprotein E receptor, were synthesized and evaluated. Nano-NRTIs were obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of triphosphates (AZTTP or ddITP) and nanocarriers followed by freeze-drying. Intracellular accumulation, cytotoxicity, and antiviral activity of Nano-NRTIs were monitored in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). HIV-1ADA viral activity in infected MDMs was measured by micro-RT assay following the treatment with Nano-NRTIs. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion in MDMs and human HepG2 cells was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results Nanogels were efficiently captured by MDMs and demonstrated low cytotoxicity, not affecting viral activity without drugs. All Nano-NRTIs demonstrated high efficacy of HIV-1 inhibition at drug levels as low as 1 ?mol/L, representing from 4.9 to 14-fold decrease in effective drug concentrations (EC90) as compared to NRTIs, while cytotoxicity effects (IC50) started at 200 times higher concentrations. Nanocarriers with core-shell structure and decorated with vector peptides (e.g. brain-targeting ApoE peptide) displayed the highest antiviral efficacy. The mtDNA depletion, a major cause of NRTI neurotoxicity, was reduced 3-fold compared to NRTIs at application of selected Nano-NRTIs. Conclusions Nano-NRTIs demonstrated a promising antiviral efficacy in MDMs and showed strong potential as nanocarriers for delivery of antiviral drugs to brain-harboring macrophages.

Poluektova, Larisa Y.; Makarov, Edward; Gerson, Trevor; Senanayake, Madapathage T.

2011-01-01

152

Human antibody fragments specific for Bothrops jararacussu venom reduce the toxicity of other Bothrops sp. venoms.  

PubMed

Approximately 20,000 snakebites are registered each year in Brazil. The classical treatment for venomous snakebite involves the administration of sera obtained from immunized horses. Moreover, the production and care of horses is costly, and the use of heterologous sera can cause hypersensitivity reactions. The production of human antibody fragments by phage display technology is seen as a means of overcoming some of these disadvantages. The studies here attempted to test human monoclonal antibodies specific to Bothrops jararacussu against other Bothrops sp. venoms, using the Griffin.1 library of human single-chain fragment-variable (scFv) phage antibodies. Using the Griffin.1 phage antibody library, this laboratory previously produced scFvs capable of inhibiting the phospholipase and myotoxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu venom. The structural and functional similarities of the various forms of phospholipase A2 (PLA?) in Bothrops venom served as the basis for the present study wherein the effectiveness of those same scFvs were evaluated against B. jararaca, B. neuwiedi, and B. moojeni venoms. Each clone was found to recognize all three Bothrops venoms, and purified scFvs partially inhibited their in vitro phospholipase activity. In vivo assays demonstrated that the scFv clone P2B7 reduced myotoxicity and increased the survival of animals that received the test venoms. The results here indicate that the scFv P2B7 is a candidate for inclusion in a mixture of specific antibodies to produce a human anti-bothropic sera. This data demonstrates that the human scFv P2B7 represents an alternative therapeutic approach to heterologous anti-bothropic sera available today. PMID:22954026

Roncolato, Eduardo Crosara; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Funayama, Jaqueline Carlos; Bertolini, Thas Barboza; Campos, Lucas Bencio; Barbosa, Jos Elpidio

2013-01-01

153

40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling of retail gasoline...

2013-07-01

154

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

Bernard Lachance; Agns Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

2004-01-01

155

Effects of selected food phytochemicals in reducing the toxic actions of TCDD and p,p ?DDT in U937 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effectiveness of selected food phytochemicals in reducing the toxic effects of the environmental toxicants,\\u000a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and p,p?-DDT (DDT), we tested the potencies of auraptene, nobiletin, zerumbone, and ()-13-hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid\\u000a (13-HOA) in reversing the inflammatory action of these toxicants in U937 human macrophages. Using quantitative RTPCR as the\\u000a initial screening assay, we identified antagonistic actions of zerumbone

Eric M. Sciullo; Christoph F. Vogel; Dalei Wu; Akira Murakami; Hajime Ohigashi; Fumio Matsumura

2010-01-01

156

Molecular Mechanisms of Reduced Nerve Toxicity by Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in the Phoxim-Exposed Brain of Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori (B. mori), silkworm, is one of the most important economic insects in the world, while phoxim, an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, impact its economic benefits seriously. Phoxim exposure can damage the brain, fatbody, midgut and haemolymph of B. mori. However the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates in phoxim-exposed B. mori can be improved by Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). In this study, we explored whether TiO2 NPs treatment can reduce the phoxim-induced brain damage of the 5th larval instar of B. mori. We observed that TiO2 NPs pretreatments significantly reduced the mortality of phoxim-exposed larva and relieved severe brain damage and oxidative stress under phoxim exposure in the brain. The treatments also relieved the phoxim-induced increases in the contents of acetylcholine (Ach), glutamate (Glu) and nitric oxide (NO) and the phoxim-induced decreases in the contents of norepinephrine (NE), Dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and reduced the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities and the activation of total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) in the brain. Furthermore, digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis and real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assay revealed that TiO2 NPs pretreatment inhibited the up-regulated expression of ace1, cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bm109 and down-regulated expression of BmIap caused by phoxim; these genes are involved in nerve conduction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. TiO2 NPs pretreatment also inhibited the down-regulated expression of H+ transporting ATP synthase and vacuolar ATP synthase under phoxim exposure, which are involved in ion transport and energy metabolism. These results indicate that TiO2 NPs pretreatment reduced the phoxim-induced nerve toxicity in the brain of B. mori.

Ni, Min; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui; Li, Bing

2014-01-01

157

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

2013-05-01

158

Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times. PMID:23375214

Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

2013-05-01

159

Office of Transportation and Air Quality: GASOLINE FUELS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers the user a variety of informational links that specifically address the testing, standards and regulations with which the gasoline manufacturers must comply. Since its implementation, one of the primary causes championed by the EPA has been to reduce emissions and pollutants by automobiles. In 1973 it called for a gradual phase-down of lead in gasoline, the primary fuel source for much of the transportation industry, culminating with passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of the 1990

2007-09-24

160

Stress Cracking of Plastics By Gasoline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The susceptibility of polycarbonate, poly (methyl methacrylate), and cellulose acetate butyrate to gasoline-induced stress cracking was evaluated by measuring the critical strains of specimens exposed to a variety of commercial gasolines and gasoline comp...

C. H. Jacques M. G. Wyzgoski

1976-01-01

161

Is the Gasoline Tax Regressive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than for middle or high-income households. This paper argues that annual expenditure provides a more reliable indicator of household well-being than annual income. It uses data from

James M. Poterba

1991-01-01

162

Data on Ethanol in Gasoline  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

163

NIRs monitor critical gasoline parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the Clean Air Act (CAA), US refiners must control blending concentrations for several regulated-gasoline components and maintain minimum octane number ratings. A gasoline blending system's criteria focus on reliability, accuracy and cost. In the process of specifying a blending system, one first identify the pros and cons of knock engines and near-infrared (NIR) analyzers. A better understanding of

Lang

1994-01-01

164

Desulfurization of Gasoline by Pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide concerns over the environment have stimulated increasing interest both in academic and industry for the deep desulfurization of gasoline. Due to some inherent disadvantages associated with the conventional hydrodesulfurization, several non-conventional techniques are being tried by researchers. Pervaporation is such a recently developed technology for gasoline desulfurization. Its efficiency has attracted worldwide attention. Compared with conventional sulfur removal technology

Debarati Mitra

2012-01-01

165

Synthetic Triterpenoids Can Protect Against Toxicity Without Reducing the Efficacy of Treatment with Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Experimental Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Synthetic oleanane triterpenoids are multifunctional drugs being developed for the prevention and treatment of a variety of chronic diseases driven by inflammation and oxidative stress. Low nanomolar concentrations of triterpenoids inhibit the induction of inflammatory cytokines, and these drugs are potent activators of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway. In contrast, low micromolar concentrations of triterpenoids increased the production of ROS and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in malignant MCF10 CA1a breast cancer cells. Because cancer cells respond differently to ROS than normal cells, it should be possible to exploit these differences therapeutically. In an experimental model of lung cancer, the triterpenoids activated the Nrf2 pathway, as seen by induction of the cytoprotective enzyme NQO1, and reduced the toxicity of carboplatin and paclitaxel. The induction of the Nrf2 pathway in the lung did not suppress the efficacy of treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel, as the average tumor burden in the group treated with the combination of CDDO-Me and carboplatin/paclitaxel decreased by 90% (P < 0.05 vs. the controls and both single treatment groups). Understanding the dose response of triterpenoids and related drugs will help provide the proper context for optimizing their potential clinical utility.

Liby, Karen T.

2014-01-01

166

Development of zwitterionic polymer-based doxorubicin conjugates: tuning the surface charge to prolong the circulation and reduce toxicity.  

PubMed

Polymer-drug conjugates are commonly used as nano drug vehicles (NDVs) to delivery anticancer drugs. Zwitterionic polymers are ideal candidates to conjugate drugs because they show higher resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption in complex media than that of nonionic water-soluble polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol). However, the charge balance characteristics of zwitterionic polymers used as NDVs will be broken from the inclusion of additional charged groups brought by conjugated drugs or functional groups, leading to the loss of resistance to protein adsorption. Consequently, the nonspecific protein adsorption on drug carriers will cause fast clearance from the blood system, an immune response, or even severe systemic toxicity. To overcome this drawback, a model zwitterionic polymer, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), was modified by the introduction of a negatively charged component, to neutralize the positive charge provided by the model drug, doxorubicin (DOX). A DOX-conjugated NDV which possesses excellent resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption was achieved by the formation of a strongly hydrated pCBMA shell with a slightly negative surface charge. This kind of DOX-conjugated NDV exhibited reduced cytotoxicity and prolonged circulation time, and it accelerated DOX release under mild acid conditions. In tumor-bearing mouse studies a 55% tumor-inhibition rate was achieved without causing any body weight loss. These results indicate the importance of charge tuning in zwitterionic polymer-based NDVs. PMID:24617705

Wang, Zhen; Ma, Guanglong; Zhang, Juan; Lin, Weifeng; Ji, Fangqin; Bernards, Matthew T; Chen, Shengfu

2014-04-01

167

Solid-phase treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor substantially reduces pharmaceutical concentrations and toxicity from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

For safe biosolid-land-applying, sludge should be contaminant-free. However, it may contain important amounts of micropollutants, not removed in the wastewater-treatment-processes. An alternative treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor was applied in sterile solid-phase systems consisting of sludge and a lignocellulosic substrate. Fungal colonization and activity were demonstrated during the process, according to monitoring of ergosterol, laccase activity and the naproxen-degradation test (ND24). Fourteen out of 43 analyzed pharmaceuticals were found in the raw sludge. After treatment, phenazone, bezafibrate, fenofibrate, cimetidine, clarithromycin, sulfamethazine and atenolol were completely removed, while removals between 42% and 80% were obtained for the remaining pharmaceuticals. Toxicological analyses (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and seed germination) showed an important reduction in sludge toxicity after treatment. Results suggest that a solid-phase treatment with T. versicolor may reduce the ecotoxicological impact of micropollutants present in sewage sludge. This is the first report of a fungal-approach for elimination of emerging pollutants from biosolids. PMID:21376580

Rodrguez-Rodrguez, Carlos E; Jeli?, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farr, Marinella; Caminal, Glria; Petrovi?, Mira; Barcel, Dami; Vicent, Teresa

2011-05-01

168

Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.  

PubMed

We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline. PMID:24870412

Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

2014-06-17

169

Mixed sulphate-reducing bacterial cultures for bioprecipitation of toxic metals: factorial and response-surface analysis of the effects of dilution rate, sulphate and substrate concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of process variables on alkalization and removal of typical contaminating toxic metals from a simulated acid leachate by continuous mixed cultures of sulphate-reducing bacteria was studied. It was shown that the amount of metal removed and rise in pH both varied with the amount of sulphate reduction occurring, the residual sulphate concentration being the main determinant of final

Christopher White; Geoffrey M. Gadd

1996-01-01

170

Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-01

171

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of...Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC...Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput...

2010-07-01

172

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of...Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC...Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput...

2009-07-01

173

High Dose Rate Brachytherapy as Prostate Cancer Monotherapy Reduces Toxicity Compared to Low Dose Rate Palladium Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe evaluated the potential for differing acute and chronic toxicities between 2 monotherapy methods of image guided conformal brachytherapy, high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone and low dose rate (LDR) permanent palladium seeds.

INGA S. GRILLS; ALVARO A. MARTINEZ; MITCHELL HOLLANDER; RAYWIN HUANG; KENNETH GOLDMAN; PETER Y. CHEN; GARY S. GUSTAFSON

2004-01-01

174

Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.  

PubMed

The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Jolle; Delmont, Olivier

2008-03-01

175

Development of lean NOx catalyst for lean burn gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean NOx catalyst for a lean burn gasoline engine was developed. This catalyst could constantly reduce NOx under lean burn driving condition by using hydrocarbon as a reducing agent. This catalyst consists of platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir) and rhodium (Rh) as active metals and H-MFI type zeolite as a support material. This catalyst had high thermal durability that was caused

H. Iwakuni; A. Takami; K. Komatsu

1999-01-01

176

Washington State gasoline prices study  

SciTech Connect

In spring 1990, responding to strong public and private concern over gasoline supplies and pricing policies, the Washington Legislature commissioned the Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) to study this issue. The responsible committee-the Legislative Transportation Committee asked WSEO to clearly explain why gasoline prices differ from city to city in the state of Washington. This report summarizes the conclusions of a 1 year investigation. To support this investigation, WSEO collected data from 51 cities throughout the state of Washington, representing 750 gasoline stations, 10 refiners, and 131 gasoline wholesalers. To try to explain city-to-city and region-to-region differences, we collected information prices, volumes sold, suppliers, on-site convenience stores, cash discounts, whether a station was independently owned or oil company owned, and a host of other factors. About 150 factors were sought to assist in the analysis.

Anderson, M.; Lagerberg, B.; Byers, D.

1991-07-01

177

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil.  

PubMed

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) were tested separately in adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) following a 14-d exposure to amended sandy loam forest soil. TNT, 4-ADNT, and 2-ADNT were lethal to earthworms (14-d LC(50) were: 580, 531 and 1088 micromol kg(-1), or 132, 105 and 215 mgkg(-1) dry soil, respectively) and gave the following order of toxicity: 4-ADNT>TNT>2-ADNT. Exposure to 2,4-DANT and to 2,6-DANT caused no mortality at 600 micromol kg(-1) or 100 mgkg(-1) dry soil. We found that all four TNT reduction products accumulated in earthworm tissues and 2-ADNT reached the highest levels at 3.0+/-0.3 micromol g(-1) tissue. The 14-d bioaccumulation factors were 5.1, 6.4, 5.1 and 3.2 for 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, 2,4-DANT and 2,6-DANT, respectively. Results also suggest that some TNT metabolites are at least as toxic as TNT and should be considered when evaluating the overall toxicity of TNT-contaminated soil to earthworms. PMID:15081777

Lachance, Bernard; Renoux, Agns Y; Sarrazin, Manon; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2004-06-01

178

Removal of toxic chromate using free and immobilized Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial cells of Intrasporangium sp. Q5-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromate-reducing microorganisms with the ability of reducing toxic chromate [Cr(VI)] into insoluble trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]\\u000a are very useful in treatment of Cr(VI)-contaminated water. In this study, a novel chromate-reducing bacterium was isolated\\u000a from Mn\\/Cr-contaminated soil. Based on morphological, physiological\\/biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence\\u000a analyses, this strain was identified as Intrasporangium sp. strain Q5-1. This bacterium has high Cr(VI)

Jinxia Yang; Minyan He; Gejiao Wang

2009-01-01

179

Gasoline blending optimization cuts use of expensive components  

SciTech Connect

A gasoline blending optimization project has allowed Lindsey Oil Refinery Ltd., Humberside, England, to reduce quality giveaway and maximize use of the cheapest blending components. In June 1989, Lindsey Oil awarded a contract for a gasoline blending optimizer. The contract was part of an offsites modernization project, which also included an upgrade of the tank gauging system, automation of a rail loading facility, and improvement of product movement monitoring. The modernization project was largely justified by anticipated benefit from optimized blend control of the gasoline and gas oil blending operations. The optimization targets included reducing quality giveaway and maximizing the use of the cheapest blend components. Fina Plc. and Total Oil (Great Britain) Ltd., joint owners of Lindsey Oil Refinery, required that there be an acceptable return on investment.

White, J. (Lindsey Oil Refinery Ltd., Humberside (United Kingdom)); Hall, F. (Foxboro Co., MA (United States))

1992-11-09

180

Reducing lead exposure in children  

SciTech Connect

The near elimination of lead-related childhood fatalities and encephalopathy by the 1970s and the sharp decline in mean blood lead levels nationwide documented between 1976 and 1980 are two milestones in the fight against lead poisoning. In the case of the latter, we know the antecedents, such as controls on the sale, use, and lead content of lead paint, improved chelation therapy, and increased awareness and case finding; however, the antecedents' relative contributions are not known due to a lack of evaluation. Similarly, the effect of a variety of social-welfare programs has not been evaluated. Since the 1970s, our perception of the problem of lead toxicity and consequently its control has changed. First steps have been made toward attaining one primary preventive objective, controlling the multiple sources of new inputs of lead to the biosphere that contribute to asymptomatic lead toxicity. The lead content of widely used commodities has been reduced (canned foods and gasoline) or virtually eliminated (paint). The benefits of passive measures used to attain reductions in lead exposure have been documented to a greater extent than those of active programs. The best example of a successful primary and passive preventive measure is the availability of lead-free gasoline since 1974, which largely accounts for decreases in ambient air lead concentrations nationwide and the recent shift to lower values in the distribution curve of children's blood lead levels. The latter provides a margin of safety for children before known toxic levels are reached. The contribution of reductions in dietary lead to changes in blood lead levels has not been well documented. Studies also show the benefits of the use of lead-free paint in new housing. Compared to children living in older homes with deteriorating lead paint, those living in lead-free homes are at low risk for lead toxicity.

Farfel, M.R.

1985-01-01

181

Prediction of the reduced glutathione (GSH) reactivity of dental methacrylate monomers using NMR spectra - Relationship between toxicity and GSH reactivity.  

PubMed

It has been established that the toxicity of acrylate and methacrylate monomers is driven by their reactivity towards glutathione (GSH). With this relationship, the objective of this study was to predict the GSH reactivity of dental methacrylate monomers, and hence their toxicity, using the (13)C-NMR chemical shifts of beta-carbon (delta(Cbeta)) and the (1)H-NMR shifts of the protons attached to beta-carbon (delta(Ha), delta(Hb)). The different nucleophiles were chosen to compare the different nucleophilic reactions involving acrylate and methacrylate monomers. In conjunction with the use of literature data for monomer/GSH reactivity, significant linear relationships between GSH reactivity (log K) and delta(Cbeta )or delta(Ha )were observed (p<0.001). As for the oral LD(50 )values of some dental dimethacrylates in mice, they were estimated using linear regression curve fitting of GSH reactivity-toxicity response data. Results revealed an acceptable correlation between the oral LD(50 )values of acrylates and methacrylates and GSH reactivity (p<0.05, outlier: HEMA). In conclusion, the present findings suggested that NMR spectra might be useful for predicting the toxicity of dental methacrylates. PMID:20019424

Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

2009-11-01

182

Fluconazole Coadministration Concurrent with Cyclophosphamide Conditioning May Reduce Regimen-Related Toxicity Post-myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

In a previous study comparing fluconazole and itraconazole administered as antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, we found that fluconazole administration concurrent with cyclophosphamide (CY)-based conditioning was associated with fewer early toxicities compared to itraconazole. Fluconazole inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9, which is involved with the activation of CY, and so might provide protection from CY-related toxicities. To investigate this further, we compared CY and CY-metabolite data from patients who received fluconazole (n=56) concurrent with CY-containing conditioning in patients who did not (n=17). The fluconazole group had greater exposure to CY, and lower peak serum concentration of CY-metabolite 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. In a separate cohort, we examined outcomes in patients randomized to receive either fluconazole (n=152) or placebo (n=147) concurrent with CY-containing conditioning in a prior randomized trial. Patients who received fluconazole experienced less hepatic and renal toxicity, and had lower mortality. No difference in relapsed malignancy was apparent. These data support the hypothesis that fluconazole, when co-administered with CY, decreases CY-related toxicities by inhibiting cytochrome P450 2C9 metabolism.

Upton, Arlo; McCune, Jeannine; Kirby, Katharine A.; Leisenring, Wendy; McDonald, George; Batchelder, Ami; Marr, Kieren A

2009-01-01

183

Greatly reduced bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Hyalella azteca in sediments from manufactured-gas plant sites.  

PubMed

The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Hyalella azteca, was measured in 34 sediment samples collected from four manufactured-gas plant (MGP) sites ranging in total PAH16 (sum of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant PAHs) concentrations from 4 to 5700 mg/kg, total organic carbon content from 0.6 to 11%, and soot carbon from 0.2 to 5.1%. The survival and growth of H. azteca in 28-d bioassays were unrelated to total PAH concentration, with 100% survival in one sediment having 1,730 mg/kg total PAH16, whereas no survival was observed in sediment samples with concentrations as low as 54 mg/kg total PAH16. Twenty-five of the 34 sediment samples exceeded the probable effects concentration screening value of 22.8 mg/kg total PAH13 (sum of 13 PAHs) and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks for PAH mixtures (on the basis of the measurement of 18 parent PAHs and 16 groups of alkylated PAHs, [PAH34]); yet, 19 (76%) of the 25 samples predicted to be toxic were not toxic to H. azteca. However, the toxicity of PAHs to H. azteca was accurately predicted when either the rapidly released concentrations as determined by mild supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) or the pore-water concentrations were used to establish the bioavailability of PAHs. These results demonstrate that the PAHs present in many sediments collected from MGP sites have low bioavailability and that both the measurement of the rapidly released PAH concentrations with mild SFE and the dissolved pore-water concentrations of PAHs are useful tools for estimating chronic toxicity to H. azteca. PMID:17571679

Kreitinger, Joseph P; Neuhauser, Edward F; Doherty, Francis G; Hawthorne, Steven B

2007-06-01

184

Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

Information Center

2008-06-26

185

Heat-Induced Superaggregation of Amphotericin B Reduces Its In Vitro Toxicity: a New Way To Improve Its Therapeutic Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superaggregation of amphotericin B (AmB) was previously shown to occur upon heating of solutions at 70C. In the present study, we demonstrate that heat pretreatment of Fungizone (deoxycholate salt of AmB (AmB- DOC)) solutions induces a drastic decrease in the in vitro toxicity of this antibiotic. Heated AmB-DOC colloidal solutions, which mainly contained superaggregated and monomeric forms of the antibiotic,

FRANCOIS GABORIAU; MONIQUE CHERON; CAROLINE PETIT; JACQUES BOLARD; M. Curie

1997-01-01

186

A laboratory assessment of the toxic attributes of six 'reduced risk insecticides' on Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

The modified excised leaf disc method was used to measure the effects of six insecticides on eggs, larvae, adults, and female fecundity of Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) in a 'worst case laboratory exposure'. This study identified insecticides that would be recommended for tier II field evaluations for an integrated pest management program. Commercially formulated insecticides were applied with a thin-layer chromatography sprayer adjusted to 10.34 kPa (1.5 psi), at the recommended label concentrations in Canada. LC(50) values were estimated from aliquots above and below that concentration. Spinetoram and spirotetramat were toxic at label concentrations. The label concentration for spinetoram was 34.3-fold the LC(50) estimate (0.006 gL(-1)) and for spirotetramat the label concentration was 7.7-fold the LC(50) estimate (0.03 gL(-1)). Clothianidin was considerably less toxic and the label concentration was 0.15-fold the LC(50) estimate (2.29 gL(-1)). Estimates of LC(50) for novaluron and chlorantraniliprole could not be established. Both materials showed slight toxicity to at least one growth stage of the predator. Novaluron, clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole should be evaluated in the field for compatibility in IPM programs. Flubendiamide was harmless to all growth stages and it is recommended for inclusion in IPM programs without additional tier II field evaluations. Field evaluations with spinetoram and spirotetramat should be pursued only if alternatives are unavailable. PMID:21458842

Lefebvre, Maxime; Bostanian, Noubar J; Thistlewood, Howard M A; Mauffette, Yves; Racette, Gatan

2011-06-01

187

Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel. Plume lengths, though, would not be proportionately reduced. One implication of these results was that the concentrations would be reduced, but the number of impacted wells would remain similar. Because the simulations included emplacement of the gasoline, dissolution from contact with flowing ground water and transient transport in the aquifer, a common-sense explanation of the results was difficult to construct. A simpler model was then used for the purpose of explaining to policy-makers why the plume length reductions were less than proportionate to the reduction of the amount of MTBE. The model was simple enough (one-dimensional, steady state, constant source concentration) so that the effect of each term of the transport equation on plume length could be easily shown. The weight of evidence from using multiple models, direct explanations from the transport equation, and field observation, then provided a sufficient basis for policy makers to understand scientifically how gasoline composition affects ground water impacts. >http://www.epa.gov/athens/learn2model/part- two/onsite/length.htm

Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

2001-12-01

188

Characteristics of gasoline in-cylinder direct injection engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion characteristics of a gasoline direct-injection (DI) engine were studied with fuel injection timing varied. This study showed that emissions at part load are reduced by optimizing in-cylinder air motion and injection timing. Antiknock quality and volumetric efficiency are improved at high loads. With our DI system fuel does not stick on the intake port wall during engine warmup and

Keiji Shimotani; Katsuo Oikawa; Osamu Horada; Yoshio Kagawa

1996-01-01

189

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

190

Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

191

Analysis of Gasoline Markets Spring 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Retail gasoline prices in the United States rose sharply over the early months of 1996, impacting consumers' pocketbooks and raising questions as to the causes behind the increases. The national average retail price of regular self-serve gasoline, accordi...

1996-01-01

192

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

193

Feasibility of the fludarabine busulfan 3 days and ATG 2 days reduced toxicity conditioning in 51 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience.  

PubMed

In reduced-toxicity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, several studies failed to demonstrate the superiority of one conditioning over another. This study described 51 patients (median age of 58 years) allografted with the new FB3-ATG2 conditioning regimen for myeloid (66%) or lymphoid disease (33%). Comorbidity index ?3 was noted in 23.5% of patients. Toxicities were close to those observed with RIC. One-year cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 18.9% and 39.2%. The 2-year-NRM, DFS and OS were 25%, 57.5% and 66%. The FB3-ATG2 regimen is safe and efficient in both lymphoid and myeloid disorders. However, prospective comparative studies are needed. PMID:24655805

Chantepie, S P; Gac, A C; Reman, O

2014-05-01

194

Decreased dissolution of ZnO by iron doping yields nanoparticles with reduced toxicity in the rodent lung and zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn(2+) shedding leads to a series of sublethal and lethal toxicological responses at the cellular level that can be alleviated by iron doping. Iron doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1-10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium, and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung, and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release, and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn(2+) on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH, and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I; Mdler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E

2011-02-22

195

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

EIA Publications

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

Information Center

2003-04-01

196

Gasoline vapor recovery system and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasoline vapor recovery system is described which is particularly adapted for bulk flow plants. The system includes an absorber into which raw gasoline vapor is introduced, as by a connection from a tank truck while the tank truck is loaded with gasoline. Light oil, such as kerosine, is pumped into the absorber and acts as a carrier, carrying the

A. J. Doncer; H. R. White

1975-01-01

197

Diesel vs. gasoline emissions: Does PM from diesel or gasoline vehicles dominate in the US?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the US, the majority of the on-road fleet and vehicle miles travelled are attributed to light-duty vehicles, which are fuelled almost entirely by gasoline. However, due to their significantly higher PM emission rates, emissions inventories have tended to attribute the majority of the mobile source PM to contributions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles and strategies to reduce mobile source PM have focused on the contribution from this source. A limited number of source attribution studies have implied that PM emission inventories over-estimate the diesel contribution and emissions from gasoline vehicles may be greater than previously believed. Other receptor-modelling studies have found diesel vehicles to be the dominant source of motor vehicle PM. The former conclusion is supported by recent on-road PM emission rate results obtained in a highway tunnel and a series of crossroad experiments. This paper describes the often-conflicting results obtained from receptor modelling studies and emission inventories and uses on-road emission factor results to estimate the relative contributions from the diesel and gasoline sectors of the fleet.

Gertler, Alan W.

198

Reduced systemic toxicity from superselective chemoembolization compared with systemic chemotherapy in patients with high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The efficacy of chemoembolization of primary and metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasms was studied. Methods. Six female patients, 19-33 years old, with high-risk trophoblastic disease were subjected to one to five chemoembolizations in 3-week intervals. Three of the patients had metastases to the liver, 2 had local tumor extension to the pelvic wall, and all 5 had failed initial systemic chemotherapy. The sixth patient was treated for a trophoblastic remnant following surgical expression of a tubal pregnancy. For follow-up, beta hCG levels in urine and serum and dynamic or angiocomputed tomograms were obtained in biweekly to 6-month intervals. Results. Two of 3 patients with liver metastases are alive and free of disease 6 and 7 years after initial chemoembolization. The third is alive at 3 years but with evidence of recurrent disease. Two patients treated for locally invasive trophoblastic disease died 3 months and 4 years, respectively, after initial chemoembolization. One had a 21/2-year remission. The patient treated for a trophoblastic remnant in the tube is alive and free of disease at 6-year follow-up. Hematologic toxicity occurred in only one. Conclusion. Selective chemoembolization in our small series of patients with high-risk trophoblastic disease was equally effective as results reported for multi-drug systemic chemotherapy but had markedly lower renal, liver, and hematologic toxicity.

Lang, Erich K. [L.S.U. Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

1997-07-15

199

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

200

Processing of kansui roots stir-baked with vinegar reduces kansui-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity by decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and regulating the cell apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1) after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2) was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS), ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb. PMID:24896263

Yan, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Guo, Jianming; Cao, Yudan; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Ding, Anwei; Duan, Jin-Ao

2014-01-01

201

Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.  

PubMed

Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

2013-10-01

202

Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats  

SciTech Connect

Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.550 ?g/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 ?g/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 ?g/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ? We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ? We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ? We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin after intravenous anticalin administration. ? We provide clinical data on outcome improvement after anticalin administration.

Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl fr Biologische Chemie, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Mller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl fr Biologische Chemie, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl fr Biologische Chemie, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

2012-09-15

203

Upgrading gasoline derived from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a process for upgrading low grade gasoline made from synthesis gas, especially the gasoline made from coal-based processes. The process comprises contacting in the vapour phase the low-grade gasoline either alone or admixed with a C/sub 3//C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon feed with a gallium/aluminosilicate catalyst. The product gasoline so formed has an octane rating RON(clear) above 100 and a bromine number below 2. The process enables synthesis gas and coal to be used as a source of high grade gasoline.

Brown, C.J.; Hail, A.H.P.

1984-04-24

204

[Effect of biological membrane stabilizing drugs (coenzyme Q10, dextran sulfate and reduced glutathione) on adriamycin (doxorubicin)-induced toxicity and microsomal lipid peroxidation in mice].  

PubMed

The protective effects of the biological membrane stabilizing drugs, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ), dextran sulfate (DS) and reduced glutathione (GSH), on doxorubicin (adriamycin, ADM)-induced toxicity and microsomal lipid peroxidation were studied in mice. The mice administered ADM with combined treatment of CoQ, DS or GSH showed a significantly longer survival time than the ADM control group (which were injected with 15 mg/kg of ADM twice). The optimum protective doses of these drugs against ADM-induced toxicity were 10 mg/kg/day (p.o.) for CoQ, 100 mg/kg/day (s.c.) for DS and 100 mg/kg/day (i.p.) for GSH. The survival times of the mice (expressed as a percent of the treated group per control group) were 224.1% for CoQ, 220.7% for DS and 213.7% for GSH. The groups treated with these drugs showed a significant decrease in mouse liver and heart microsomal lipid peroxidation in comparison to that of the ADM control group. These results suggest that the heart microsomal lipid peroxidation levels may be one of the indications of ADM-induced cardiac toxicity. These drugs tested in the present study may stabilize the heart microsomal membrane lipid or may improve the myocardiac mitochondrial functions over those in ADM-treated mouse. PMID:8546477

Shinozawa, S; Kawasaki, H; Gomita, Y

1996-01-01

205

Bovine Insulin Filaments Induced by Reducing Disulfide Bonds Show a Different Morphology, Secondary Structure, and Cell Toxicity from Intact Insulin Amyloid Fibrils  

PubMed Central

Abstract Amyloid fibrils are associated with more than 20 diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Insulin is a 51-residue polypeptide hormone, with its two polypeptide chains linked by one intrachain and two interchain disulfide bonds, and has long been known to self-assemble invitro into amyloid fibrils. We demonstrate here that bovine insulin forms flexible filaments in the presence of a reducing agent, Tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine. The insulin filaments, possibly formed due to partial reduction of S-S bonds in insulin molecules, differ from intact insulin fibrils in terms of their secondary structure. The insulin filaments were determined to have an antiparallel ?-sheet structure, whereas the insulin fibrils have a parallel ?-sheet structure. Of importance, the cell toxicity of the insulin filaments was remarkably lower than that of the insulin fibrils. This finding supports the idea that cell toxicity of amyloids correlates with their morphology. The remarkably low toxicity of the filamentous structure should shed new light on possible pharmacological approaches to the various diseases caused by amyloid fibrils.

Zako, Tamotsu; Sakono, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Naomi; Ihara, Masaki; Maeda, Mizuo

2009-01-01

206

Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats.

2009-01-01

207

Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to total heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including volatile components at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable.

Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

1977-01-01

208

Effect of leaded and unleaded gasoline on the mutagenicity of vehicle exhaust particulate matter.  

PubMed

With the removal of lead from gasoline and the use of new technologies, there have been some changes in vehicle emissions. In order to find out if the unleaded gasoline has the ability to reduce the emission of pollutants, leaded and unleaded gasoline were tested on a Santana engine dynamometer under a standard test cycle. The concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in emission were analyzed. The extracts of total exhaust particles were also collected and the components were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A series of different end point genotoxicity tests, including the Ames test, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, and micronucleus induction assay, were performed to investigate the mutagenicity in the two kinds of gasoline. We found that unleaded gasoline could reduce the emission of CO and HC and significantly decrease the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matter by 60%. As for the component analysis, only 23 kinds of organic substances adsorbed onto the particles were identified in the unleaded gasoline, while 32 kinds of compounds were detected in the leaded gasoline. The genotoxicity tests indicated that both types of gasoline could enhance the number of histidine-independent colonies in the Ames test, cause DNA damage, and increase the frequency of induced micronucleus in the Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. For the same particle weight, no difference was found between their mutagenicity. Because of the decrease in the emission of CO, HC, and particles in unleaded gasoline, this gasoline has some benefits for the environment and human health. PMID:10905507

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S

2000-01-01

209

Report to the President and Congress on the Need for Leaded Gasoline on the Farm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engines designed for leaded gasoline were tested on low-lead gasoline, unleaded gasoline, and unleaded gasoline containing non-lead valve-protective additives. Low-lead gasoline were generally satisfactory for engine performance. Unleaded gasoline was sat...

1988-01-01

210

Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 F (-18 C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 F (22 C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 F (-7 C). PMID:24758145

Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

2014-05-20

211

A Synthetic Peptide Blocking the Apolipoprotein E/?-Amyloid Binding Mitigates ?-Amyloid Toxicity and Fibril Formation in Vitro and Reduces ?-Amyloid Plaques in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Alzheimers disease (AD) is associated with accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?). A major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is inheritance of the apolipoprotein (apo) E4 allele. ApoE can act as a pathological chaperone of A?, promoting its conformational transformation from soluble A? into toxic aggregates. We determined if blocking the apoE/A? interaction reduces A? load in transgenic (Tg) AD mice. The binding site of apoE on A? corresponds to residues 12 to 28. To block binding, we synthesized a peptide containing these residues, but substituted valine at position 18 to proline (A?1228P). This changed the peptides properties, making it non-fibrillogenic and non-toxic. A?1228P competitively blocks binding of full-length A? to apoE (IC50 = 36.7 nmol). Furthermore, A?1228P reduces A? fibrillogenesis in the presence of apoE, and A?/apoE toxicity in cell culture. A?1228P is blood-brain barrier-permeable and in AD Tg mice inhibits A? deposition. Tg mice treated with A?1228P for 1 month had a 63.3% reduction in A? load in the cortex (P = 0.0043) and a 59.5% (P = 0.0087) reduction in the hippocampus comparing to age-matched control Tg mice. Antibodies against A? were not detected in sera of treated mice; therefore the observed therapeutic effect of A?1228P cannot be attributed to an antibody clearance response. Our experiments demonstrate that compounds blocking the interaction between A? and its pathological chaperones may be beneficial for treatment of ?-amyloid deposition in AD.

Sadowski, Marcin; Pankiewicz, Joanna; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Ripellino, James A.; Li, Yongsheng; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Mathews, Paul M.; Fryer, John D.; Holtzman, David M.; Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Wisniewski, Thomas

2004-01-01

212

In vitro toxicity of serum protein-adsorbed citrate-reduced gold nanoparticles in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

We examined the cytotoxicity effect of the serum protein coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the A549 cells. Negatively charged AuNPs were prepared by chemical reduction using citrate. The dimension and surface charge of AuNPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs modified by the citrate anion were presumed to adsorb the serum proteins as indicated from the visible absorption spectroscopy, DLS, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) data. The QCM results indicated that among the constituents, fetal bovine serum (FBS) should be the major adsorbate species on the AuNPs incubated in the RPMI medium. The internalization of AuNPs into the A549 cells was also monitored using TEM and dark-field microscopy (DFM). Both methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays revealed that AuNPs were toxic as determined by their half-maximal inhibitory concentration. A flow cytometric and real-time PCR analysis of apoptotic genes along with the ATP depletion measurements suggested that AuNPs induce cell damages through extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:22178767

Choi, Seon Young; Jeong, Saeromi; Jang, Soo Hwa; Park, Jin; Park, Jin Ho; Ock, Kwang Su; Lee, So Yeong; Joo, Sang-Woo

2012-03-01

213

Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers.  

PubMed

In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies. PMID:16825731

Senden, R J; De Jean, P; McAuley, K B; Schreiner, L J

2006-07-21

214

The influence of the gasoline oxygenate ethanol on aerobic and anaerobic BTX biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microbial degradation of representative BTX compounds under electron acceptor conditions commonly found in intrinsic bioremediation projects. Under aerobic conditions,

Henry X. Corseuil; Craig S. Hunt; Ruy Carlos Ferreira dos Santos; Pedro J. J Alvarez

1998-01-01

215

THE INFLUENCE OF THE GASOLINE OXYGENATE ETHANOL ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BTX BIODEGRADATION. (R823420)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol is frequently found along with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) in groundwater contaminated with gasoline. Yet, little is known about its effect on bioremediation of the toxic BTX contaminants. Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of ethanol on microb...

216

Synthesis, identification and in vivo studies of tumor-targeting agent peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer with similar efficacy but reduced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Methods PDOX was synthesized using doxorubicin (DOX) attaching to a CTSB-cleavable dipeptide Ac-Phe-Lys and a para-amino-benzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) spacer. PC model was established by injecting VX2 tumor cells into the gastric sub-mucosa of 40 rabbits, which then were randomized into 4 groups: the Control (n?=?10) without treatment, the HIPEC (n?=?10) receiving cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the PDOX (n?=?10) and the DOX (n?=?10) receiving systemic chemotherapy with PDOX 50.0mg/kg or DOX 5.0mg/kg, respectively, after CRS?+?HIPEC. Results The median overall survivals (OS) were 23.0 d (95% CI: 19.9 d - 26.1 d) in the Control, 41.0 d (36.9 d - 45.1 d) in the HIPEC, 65.0 d (44.1 d - 71.9 d) in the PDOX, and 58.0 d (39.6 d - 54.4 d) in the DOX. Compared with the Control, the OS was extended by 70% in the HIPEC (p?toxicities with marked reduction of white blood cells and platelets, as well as cardiac toxicities with significant increases in creatine kinase mb isoenzyme, evident myocardium coagulation necrosis, significant nuclear degeneration, peri-nucleus mitochondria deletion, mitochondria-pyknosis, and abnormal intercalated discs. But these toxicities were not evident in the PDOX. Conclusions PDOX is a newly synthesized tumor-targeting prodrug of DOX. Compared with DOX, PDOX has similar efficacy but reduced hematological and cardiac toxicities in treating rabbit model of gastric PC.

2014-01-01

217

Gasoline Price Pass-through  

EIA Publications

Over the past several years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has extensively studied the relationships between wholesale and retail markets for transportation fuels. This article represents a return to gasoline markets, where EIA first performed this type of analysis and modeling in 1997. The current effort takes advantage of improvements and enhancements to our approach over the intervening years, resulting in more detailed and accurate results.

John Zyren

2003-01-01

218

Measurement of mercaptans in gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an r-FIA single-line manifold, 10-l portions of 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) and 2% (v\\/v) ethylenediamine in 80 : 20 inethanol: acetone are injected from pressurized containers via high-speed on\\/off valves into a flowing gasoline stream. The reaction product, 2-nitro-5-mercaptobenzoate, is detected optically at 412 nm after a reaction time of ~15s. The system is intended for the measurement of mercaptans

Wei Lei; Purnendu K. Dasgupta; Steve D. Matza; Don C. Olson

1989-01-01

219

Phase Out of Leaded Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sofia Institute on Local Air Quality is part of the Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe. Its report, Phase Out of Leaded Gasoline, explains why leaded gas is being eliminated and reviews current obstacles facing the phase out, technical and economic factors to consider, and policy measures and instruments for use in the phase out. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations and references. The report is available either online or as a [.pdf] file.

1998-01-01

220

Maitake beta-glucan MD-fraction enhances bone marrow colony formation and reduces doxorubicin toxicity in vitro.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated that MD-fraction (MDF), in which the active component is beta 1,6-glucan with beta 1,3-branches, has anti-tumor activity as an oral agent and acts as an immune adjuvant. Since some other beta glucans appear to promote mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, the effects of a beta glucan extract from the Maitake mushroom "MD-fraction" on hematopoietic stem cells were examined in a colony forming assay. Here we report for the first time that MDF has a dose response effect on mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) hematopoiesis in vitro. Using the Colony Forming Unit (CFU) assay to detect formation of granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies, and the XTT cytotoxicitiy assay to measure BMC viability, the data showed that the addition of MDF significantly enhanced the development of CFU-GM in a dose range of 50-100 microg/ml (p<0.004). The mechanism of action included significant increase of nonadherent BMC viability, which was observed at MDF doses of 12.5-100 microg/ml (p<0.005). In the presence of Doxorubicin (DOX), MDF promoted BMC viability and protected CFU-GM from DOX induced toxicity. In addition, MDF treatment promoted the recovery of CFU-GM colony formation after BMC were pretreated with DOX. These studies provided the first evidence that MDF acts directly in a dose dependent manner on hematopoietic BMC and enhances BMC growth and differentiation into colony forming cells. PMID:14975363

Lin, Hong; She, Yu-Hong; Cassileth, Barrie R; Sirotnak, Frank; Cunningham Rundles, Susanna

2004-01-01

221

Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

2013-01-02

222

Processing Respiratory Specimens with C18-Carboxypropylbetaine: Development of a Sediment Resuspension Buffer That Contains Lytic Enzymes To Reduce the Contamination Rate and Lecithin To Alleviate Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) procedure for processing respiratory specimens for the detection of mycobacteria was shown to provide significant increases in sensitivity by smear and culture. However, the procedure also produced increased contamination, a loss in liquid culture sensitivity, and a reduction in smear specificity. Because of these observations, the toxicity of CB-18 and the nature of the contamination were characterized. Preincubation in 1 mM CB-18 impacted viability in a time-dependent fashion, but the magnitude of the loss was species and isolate dependent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were the most susceptible, losing 20 to 30% of the CFU within 30 min and 30 to 60% after 3 h, whereas Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium fortuitum isolates were unaffected by CB-18. In liquid culture, when the concentration of CB-18 exceeded 5 ?g/ml, there was an impact on growth characteristics for the most susceptible M. tuberculosis isolate. In contrast, M. fortuitum isolates were able to grow in 100 ?g of CB-18 per ml. In liquid culture, the deleterious effects of CB-18 were enhanced in the presence of antibiotics, whereas growth on solid media was not similarly affected. Supplementation of the resuspension buffer with 0.15% lecithin alleviated toxicity. Initial attempts to modify the CB-18 procedure to control contamination incorporated acids or alkalis; however, losses in culture sensitivity occurred. Studies to identify these contaminants led to the development of a sediment resuspension buffer that contained lytic enzymes to combat contamination and lecithin to alleviate toxicity. This formulation included lysozyme, zymolyase, and Cytophaga and Trichoderma extracts and was seen to reduce contamination to acceptable levels (<5%).

Thornton, Charles G.; MacLellan, Kerry M.; Brink, Thomas L.; Wolfe, David M.; Llorin, Oscar J.; Passen, Selvin

1998-01-01

223

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

224

[98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-02-29

225

26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks....

2013-04-01

226

Lead optimization on conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: an approach to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity.  

PubMed

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most widely used therapeutics, primarily for the treatment for pain and inflammation. Prostaglandins mediate a number of characteristic features of the body's response to tissue injury or inflammation. These outstanding effects include their cytoprotective properties in the gastrointestinal tract and control of renal functions in the kidney. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exert their anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects by blocking the production of prostanoids from arachidonic acid through inhibition ofcyclooxygenase enzyme. Classic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as meclofenamic acid and indomethacin inhibit both isoforms of cyclooxygenase non-selectively or with low selectivity, exerting their anti-inflammatory activity via inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2, and their deleterious side-effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1. To provide an effective treatment for inflammatory disorders, the design of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is aimed at obtaining new drugs, devoid of the side-effects commonly associated with conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Several approaches have been explored to counteract the gastric damaging effects of these drugs. The chemical modification of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is aimed at improving their safety profile, where several studies have described the derivatization of the carboxylate function of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with less acidic analogs, which resulted in an increased anti-inflammatory activity with reduced ulcerogenicity. The present review explores the possible ways aimed to reduce ulcerogenicity. PMID:24460671

Narsinghani, Tamanna; Sharma, Rajesh

2014-07-01

227

Smoking Behavior and Exposure to Tobacco Toxicants During 6 months of Smoking Progressively Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background Recent federal legislation gives the FDA authority to regulate the nicotine content of cigarettes. A nationwide strategy for progressive reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential way to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. We conducted a trial of progressive nicotine content tapering over 6 months to determine the effects on smoking behaviors and biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects. Methods 135 healthy smokers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes followed by 5 types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each smoked for one month. A control group smoked their own brand of cigarettes for the same period of time. Results Nicotine intake, as indicated by plasma cotinine concentration, declined progressively as the nicotine content of cigarettes was reduced. Cigarette consumption and markers of exposure to carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as cardiovascular biomarkers remained stable, while urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) excretion decreased. No significant changes in biomarkers of exposure or cardiovascular effects were observed in controls. Conclusions Our data support the proposition that the intake of nicotine from cigarettes of smokers can be substantially lowered without increasing exposure to other tobacco smoke toxins. Impact These findings support the feasibility and safety of gradual reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes.

Benowitz, Neal L.; Dains, Katherine M.; Hall, Sharon M.; Stewart, Susan; Wilson, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

2012-01-01

228

New Evidence on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 1997 paper, Borenstein, Cameron, and Gilbert (BCG) claim that gasoline prices rise quickly following an increase in the price of crude oil, but fall slowly following a decrease. This note estimates an error-correction model with daily spot gasoline and crude-oil price data over the period 1985-1998 and finds no evidence of asymmetry in wholesale gasoline prices. The sources

Lance J. Bachmeier; James M. Griffin

2003-01-01

229

Compost amendment of Cu-Zn minespoil reduces toxic bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and promotes establishment and biomass production of Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.).  

PubMed

A series of lab and greenhouse studies were undertaken to understand how Cu and Zn toxicity influences Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.) growth, to what degree an organic amendment (yard waste compost) may reduce Cu and Zn bioavailability in Cu-Zn minespoil and promote plant growth in combination with fertilizer, and how the vertical distribution of compost in the minespoil influences rooting depth. Root Cu and Zn toxicity thresholds were determined to be 1 mgL(-1) and 10 mgL(-1) in solution, respectively. The compost amendment had exceptionally high Cu and Zn binding capacities (0.17 and 0.08 g metal g C(-1), for Cu and Zn, respectively) that were attributed to high compost humic and fulvic acid concentrations. Maximum plant biomass was achieved when minespoil was amended with compost and fertilizer in combination. Fertilizer alone had no effect on plant growth. Mixing compost into the minespoil was essential to promote adequate rooting depth. PMID:17240016

O'Dell, Ryan; Silk, Wendy; Green, Peter; Claassen, Victor

2007-07-01

230

Chelating efficacy of CaNa(2) EDTA on nickel-induced toxicity in Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) through its effects on glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

In this age of modern biology, aquatic toxicological research has provided potential tools for ecotoxicologic investigations. Heavy metals primarily affect protein structures and induce a stress in the organisms. The present investigation was carried out to assess the effect of nickel chloride on the selected organs of the freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala and how CaNa(2) EDTA counters its effects as an antidote. Toxicity experiments were conducted for different exposure periods and also in certain tissues namely gill, liver, kidney and muscle. The total protein content, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were found to be decreased in the nickel chloride treated tissues and the treatment with CaNa(2) EDTA+nickel chloride returned to near normal levels. Histopathological observations also revealed that after the administration of nickel chloride+CaNa(2) EDTA the chelator induced reduction in nickel toxicity. It has also contributed towards reduction in the pathological damage, thus enabling the organs to attain their near normal histological appearance. The present study shown that CaNa(2) EDTA is an effective chelating agent for the removal of nickel and it has proved efficient in restoring both the biochemical variables and pathological features immediately after a sub lethal exposure of nickel chloride in fish. PMID:19632651

Gopal, Rengaswamy; Narmada, S; Vijayakumar, Remya; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

2009-08-01

231

A pilot study of reduced toxicity conditioning with BU, fludarabine and alemtuzumab before the allogeneic hematopoietic SCT in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

We report the results of a pilot study of a BU-fludarabine-alemtuzumab (BFA)-reduced toxicity conditioning (RTC) followed by allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AlloHSCT) in 12 children and adolescents (<21 years) with malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cell sources were: two unrelated cord blood, one unrelated BM, two related and seven unrelated PBSC. Positive CD34 selection was performed in five unrelated PBSC grafts. RCT was carried out with BFA, and GVHD prophylaxis was FK506 and mycophenolate mofetil. The median time for neutrophil and platelet engraftment was 16 and 31 days, respectively. The P of developing ? grade II, ? grade III aGVHD and cGVHD was 41.6, 25 and 9%, respectively. Only 1 out of 12 developed ? grade III toxicity. There was one primary and no secondary graft failure. Mixed donor chimerism on day 100 and 1?year was median 99 and 96%, respectively; ? 90% of recipients achieved ? 80% donor chimerism. The 3-year overall survival (OS) in all patients was 91.7 8% (100% for malignant vs. 80% for non-malignant diseases, ns). In all, 11 (91%) patients remain alive at median 2.8 (0.3-6.8) years. RTC followed by AlloHSCT, based on BFA conditioning, is feasible and tolerable in children and adolescents, and results in prompt achievement of durable mixed donor chimerism and excellent OS. PMID:20818441

Styczynski, J; Tallamy, B; Waxman, I; van de Ven, C; Milone, M C; Shaw, L M; Harrison, L; Morris, E; Satwani, P; Bhatia, M; George, D; Bradley, M B; Garvin, J H; Schwartz, J; Baxter-Lowe, L A; Cairo, M S

2011-06-01

232

Therapeutic suppression of translation initiation factor eIF4E expression reduces tumor growth without toxicity  

PubMed Central

Expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is commonly elevated in human and experimental cancers, promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth. Elevated eIF4E levels selectively increase translation of growth factors important in malignancy (e.g., VEGF, cyclin D1) and is thereby an attractive anticancer therapeutic target. Yet to date, no eIF4E-specific therapy has been developed. Herein we report development of eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) designed to have the necessary tissue stability and nuclease resistance required for systemic anticancer therapy. In mammalian cultured cells, these ASOs specifically targeted the eIF4E mRNA for destruction, repressing expression of eIF4E-regulated proteins (e.g., VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, c-myc, Bcl-2), inducing apoptosis, and preventing endothelial cells from forming vessel-like structures. Most importantly, intravenous ASO administration selectively and significantly reduced eIF4E expression in human tumor xenografts, significantly suppressing tumor growth. Because these ASOs also target murine eIF4E, we assessed the impact of eIF4E reduction in normal tissues. Despite reducing eIF4E levels by 80% in mouse liver, eIF4E-specific ASO administration did not affect body weight, organ weight, or liver transaminase levels, thereby providing the first in vivo evidence that cancers may be more susceptible to eIF4E inhibition than normal tissues. These data have prompted eIF4E-specific ASO clinical trials for the treatment of human cancers.

Graff, Jeremy R.; Konicek, Bruce W.; Vincent, Thomas M.; Lynch, Rebecca L.; Monteith, David; Weir, Spring N.; Schwier, Phil; Capen, Andrew; Goode, Robin L.; Dowless, Michele S.; Chen, Yuefeng; Zhang, Hong; Sissons, Sean; Cox, Karen; McNulty, Ann M.; Parsons, Stephen H.; Wang, Tao; Sams, Lillian; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Douglass, Larry E.; Neubauer, Blake Lee; Dean, Nicholas M.; Blanchard, Kerry; Shou, Jianyong; Stancato, Louis F.; Carter, Julia H.; Marcusson, Eric G.

2007-01-01

233

Chronic carcinogenicity study of gasoline vapor condensate (GVC) and GVC containing methyl tertiary-butyl ether in F344 rats.  

PubMed

Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

Benson, Janet M; Gigliotti, Andrew P; March, Thomas H; Barr, Edward B; Tibbetts, Brad M; Skipper, Betty J; Clark, Charles R; Twerdok, Lorraine

2011-01-01

234

Systemic Delivery of a Novel Liver-Detargeted Oncolytic Adenovirus Causes Reduced Liver Toxicity but Maintains the Antitumor Response in a Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Model  

PubMed Central

Abstract We are interested in developing oncolytic adenoviruses for the treatment of bone metastasis of cancer. A key limitation of systemic delivery of oncolytic adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is that the majority of the virus is taken up by the liver, causing liver damage and systemic toxicity. Given that Ad5 hexon binding with blood coagulation factor X is a key factor in liver sequestration, and that a rare serotype, Ad48, has a diminished capacity to bind with factor X, we have generated mHAd.luc2, a novel hexon-chimeric oncolytic adenovirus. To create mHAd.luc2, seven hypervariable regions of Ad5 hexon were substituted with the corresponding regions from Ad48. Compared with Ad5-based oncolytic virus Ad.luc2, intravenous injection of mHAd.luc2 into nude mice resulted in significantly reduced liver uptake. A single high dose (1.01011 viral particles/mouse) of Ad.luc2 resulted in 100% animal death by day 3; whereas none of the mice died in the mHAd.luc2 group. Liver enzyme and liver pathology studies indicated that mHAd.luc2 induced significantly less liver toxicity compared with Ad.luc2. Both mHAd.luc2 and Ad.luc2 exhibited similar binding with breast tumor cells, whereas in the presence of factor X, mHAd.luc2 binding was reduced. Both mHAd.luc2 and Ad.luc2 had nearly equal replication potential in breast cancer cells in vitro. Intravenous injection of mHAd.luc2 and Ad.luc2 into nude mice bearing bone metastases resulted in uptake of the viruses into skeletal tumors, and induced significant inhibition of established bone metastases. Thus, liver-detargeted oncolytic adenovirus can be developed for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis.

Zhang, Zhenwei; Krimmel, Jeffrey; Zhang, Zhiling; Hu, Zebin

2011-01-01

235

Combustion performance of bio-ethanol at various blend ratios in a gasoline direct injection engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-ethanol has the potential to be used as an alternative to petroleum gasoline for the purpose of reducing the total CO2 emissions from internal combustion engines and this paper is devoted to the investigation of using different blending-ratios of bio-ethanol\\/gasoline with respect to spark timing and injection strategies. The experimental work has been carried out on a direct injection spark

Dale Turner; Hongming Xu; Roger F. Cracknell; Vinod Natarajan; Xiangdong Chen

2011-01-01

236

Quantification of personal exposure concentrations to gasoline vehicle emissions in high-end exposure microenvironments: effects of fuel and season.  

PubMed

Mobile-source air toxic (MSAT) levels increase in confining microenvironments (MEs) with numerous emission sources of vehicle exhaust or evaporative emissions or during high-load and cold-start conditions. Reformulated fuels are expected to reduce MSAT and ozone precursor emissions. This study, required under the Clean Air Act Section 211b, evaluated high-end exposures in cities using reformulated (methyl tertiary-butyl ether [MTBE] or ethanol [EtOH]) fuels and conventional gasoline blends. The study investigates 13 high-end MEs, sampling under enhanced exposure conditions expected to result in maximal fuel and exhaust component exposures to carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), MTBE, 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), EtOH,formaldehyde (HCHO), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). The authors found that day-to-day ME variations in high-end benzene, 1,3-BD, HCHO, and CO concentrations are substantial, but independent of gasoline composition and season, and related to the activity and emission rates of ME sources, which differ from day to day. PMID:23210226

Zielinska, B; Fujita, E; Ollison, W; Campbell, D; Sagebiel, J

2012-11-01

237

Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity  

PubMed Central

Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 ?M) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death.

Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I.; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

2010-01-01

238

Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice  

SciTech Connect

Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ? During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ? Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ? Glial activation is not fully suppressed.

Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Dpartement de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Dpartement de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Dpartement de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Dpartement de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, Andr [Dpartement Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Dpartement Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valrie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Dpartement de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)] [Dpartement de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomdicale des armes Centre de recherches du Service de sant des armes IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grsivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

2012-03-01

239

40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having...

2013-07-01

240

40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. 80.66 Section 80.66...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume...

2013-07-01

241

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The...

2013-07-01

242

40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...Anti-Dumping § 80.90 Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination. ...a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline...

2013-07-01

243

40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The...

2010-07-01

244

46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust...ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460...starting gasoline engines for the time sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space...

2013-10-01

245

Nanomedicine for therapeutic drug therapy: Approaches to increase the efficacy of drug therapy with nanoemulsion delivery and reduce the toxicity of quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advancement of nanotechnology has paved the way for novel nanoscale materials for use in a wide range of applications. The use of these nanomaterials in biomedicine facilitates the improvement of existing technologies for disease prevention and treatment through diagnostics, tumor detection, drug delivery, medical imaging and vaccine development. Nanotechnology delivery systems for therapeutic uses includes the formulation of nanoparticles in emulsions. These novel delivery systems can improve drug efficacy by their ability to enhance bioavailability, minimize drug side effects, decrease drug toxicity, provide targeted site delivery and increase circulation of the drug in the blood. Additionally, these delivery systems also improve the drug stability and encapsulation efficiency. In the Introduction, this thesis will describe a novel technique for the preparation of nanoemulsions which was utilized in drug delivery and diagnostic applications. This novel Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) method is a solvent and polymer-free and low energy requiring emulsification method, typically utilizing oils stabilized by nonionic surfactants to prepare water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The correlation between the particle size, zeta potential and the emulsion stability is described. The use of this nanoemulsion delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals by utilizing in vitro systems was investigated. Using the PIT method, a self assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) of gamma Tocotrienols (gammaT3), a component of Vitamin E family has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol accumulation in HepG-2 cells. The nanoemulsion is stable and the particle size is around 20 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.065. The effect of the nano gammaT3 on the metabolism of cholesterol, HMG-CoA activity and Apo-B levels were evaluated in an in vitro system utilizing HepG2 cells. A new class of nanoparticles, Quantum dots (QDs) has shown immense potential as novel nanomaterials used as fluorescent labels. They have been studied extensively due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. The study of their applications has led to their use as novel platforms for delivery into living systems for use in medical imaging. The second part of this thesis discusses the toxicity of the various semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe and InP. The results show the toxicity of CdSe and InP QDs in in vitro cultures of whole skin biopsies exposed to similar concentrations. This forms the basis for further studies involving QDs and approaches to reduce the toxicity of these nanoparticles. Finally, ligand exchange mediated Solutol HS-15 modified CdSe QDs were prepared for the first time. The modified CdSe QDs demonstrated long term stability and reduced cytotoxicity. Such behavior is interpreted as arising from decreased aggregation of the QDs due to the incorporation of the surfactant.

Kambalapally, Swetha Reddy

246

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

247

Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.  

PubMed

Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

2001-07-01

248

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01

249

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63...

2013-07-01

250

40 CFR 80.1503 - What are the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the product transfer document requirements for gasoline-ethanol blends, gasolines, and conventional blendstocks for oxygenate...FUEL ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1503 What are...

2013-07-01

251

MAPPING GASOLINE REQUIREMENTS, APPLICABLE REGULATIONS AND BANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal and State regulations play an important role in understanding gasoline composition around the United States. Multiple sources of information on these programs were used to develop reliable, up-to-date maps showing gasoline requirements imposed by various regulations. Th...

252

Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and

Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

2004-01-01

253

Fuel Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this revised study, 10 gasoline-like test fuels are tested in an AVL (of Plymouth, MI) single cylinder engine equipped with a hydraulic variable valve train (VVT) and gasoline direct injection (GDI) system. By using VVT and GDI, three different intake ...

Y. Shen

2007-01-01

254

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW

Paul H Chambon; Shean P Huff; Kevin Dean Edwards; Kevin M Norman; Vitaly Y Prikhodko; John F Thomas

2011-01-01

255

EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENICITY OF UNLEADED GASOLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

In the document the likelihood that unleaded gasoline vapors are carcinogenic to humans is evaluated. From carcinogenicity data in animals, an estimate is made of the magnitude of cancer risk a person would experience, under the assumption that gasoline vapors are carcinogenic. A...

256

Coal to methanol to gasoline by the hydrocarb process  

SciTech Connect

The HYDROCARB Process converts coal or any other carbonaceous material to a clean carbon fuel and co-product gas or liquid fuel. By directing the co-product to liquid methanol, it becomes possible to produce methanol at costs as low as $0.13 to $0.14/gal as shown in Table 1 for a Western Lignite and Table 2 for an Eastern Bituminous coal. In the case of Western lignite, it is assumed that the carbon black fuel product can be sold at $3.00/MMBtu ($18/Bbl FOE) and for the Eastern coal at $2.50/MMBtu ($15/Bbl FOE). A methanol market is expected to develop due to the need for an automotive fuel with reduced pollutant emissions. However, should the methanol market not materialize as expected, then methanol can be readily converted to conventional gasoline by the addition of an MTG, methanol to gasoline process step. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-08-01

257

Thermal stress and toxicity.  

PubMed

Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at sub-thermoneutral temperatures of ~22?C. When exposed to chemical toxicants under these relatively cool conditions, rodents typically undergo a regulated hypothermic response, characterized by preference for cooler ambient temperatures and controlled reduction in core temperature. Reducing core temperature delays the clearance of most toxicants from the body; however, a mild hypothermia also improves recovery and survival from the toxicant. Raising ambient temperature to thermoneutrality and above increases the rate of clearance of the toxicant but also exacerbates toxicity. Furthermore, heat stress combined with work or exercise is likely to worsen toxicity. Body temperature of large mammals, including humans, does not decrease as much in response to exposure to a toxicant. However, heat stress can nonetheless worsen toxic outcome in humans through a variety of mechanisms. For example, heat-induced sweating and elevation in skin blood flow accelerates uptake of some insecticides. Epidemiological studies suggest that thermal stress may exacerbate the toxicity of airborne pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Overall, translating results of studies in rodents to that of humans is a formidable task attributed in part to the interspecies differences in thermoregulatory response to the toxicants and to thermal stress. Published 2014 Compr Physiol 4:995-1016, 2014. PMID:24944028

Gordon, Christopher J; Johnstone, Andrew F M; Aydin, Cenk

2014-07-01

258

The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

[1] With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NOx) control devices to reduce air pollution,''modern'diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NOx below

Mark Z. Jacobson; John H. Seinfeld; Greg R. Carmichael; David G. Streets

2003-01-01

259

Elemental Selenium at Nano Size (Nano-Se) as a Potential Chemopreventive Agent with Reduced Risk of Selenium Toxicity: Comparison with Se-Methylselenocysteine in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. As a promising chemopreventive agent, its use requires consumption over the long term, so the toxicity of Se is always a crucial concern. Based on clinical findings and recent studies in selenoprotein gene-modified mice, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or

Jinsong Zhang; Xufang Wang; Tongwen Xu

2008-01-01

260

Atomization and spray characteristics of bioethanol and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel injected through a direct injection gasoline injector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to investigate the spray characteristics and atomization performance of gasoline fuel (G100), bioethanol fuel (E100), and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel (E85) in a direct injection gasoline injector in a gasoline engine. The overall spray and atomization characteristics such as an axial spray tip penetration, spray width, and overall SMD were measured experimentally and predicted

Su Han Park; Hyung Jun Kim; Hyun Kyu Suh; Chang Sik Lee

2009-01-01

261

40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540...540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in...

2013-07-01

262

Ethanol/Gasoline Blends as Automotive Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vehicle tests were conducted to determine the influence of ethanol in a 10% ethanol/90% gasoline fuel mixture on fuel economy, regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions, exhaust hydrocarbon distribution, and road octane quality. Volumetric fuel economy ...

J. R. Allsup D. B. Eccleston

1979-01-01

263

Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

Stephens, Edgar R.

1977-01-01

264

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

EIA Publications

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

Information Center

2008-04-04

265

Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995  

EIA Publications

This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

John Zyren

1996-01-01

266

Trends in Motor Gasolines: 1942-1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annual...

E. M. Shelton M. L. Whisman P. W. Woodward

1982-01-01

267

METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE): Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation of Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), also known as an oxygenate, a chemical compound used as a gasoline additive to enhance the octane and subsequently burn the fuel more completely.

2007-04-08

268

Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated an...

L. M. Prieto L. R. Exum L. W. Weaver

2010-01-01

269

Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust Particle Sampling Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project obj...

A. Kasper D. Zarling D. B. Kittelson H. Burtscher J. J. Schauer J. P. Johnson U. Baltensperger W. F. Watts

2003-01-01

270

Petroleum fingerprinting: Dating a gasoline release  

SciTech Connect

Dating a gasoline releases is particularly important in situations involving a contaminated gasoline service station. Often the station begins under the control of a major oil company, and as it ages and deteriorates it may be operated by a series of smaller operators. When facing a claim for contamination, often operators blame former operators. Fingerprinting is one of several successful methods used to date petroleum releases on contaminated sites. The topics covered in this article are inventory reconciliation; reverse groundwater modeling; hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

Johnson, M.D. [Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Morrison, R.D. [R. Morrison and Associates, Valley Center, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

271

Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.  

PubMed Central

The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations.

Sawyer, R F

1993-01-01

272

Safety of stabilized, orally absorbable, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): a 26-week oral tablet administration of ENADA/NADH for chronic toxicity study in rats.  

PubMed

The safety of the stabilized, orally absorbable form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), known under the brand name ENADA, was investigated over a period of 26 weeks. Eighty healthy rats (40 males and 40 females) were divided into two groups. One tablet ENADA/NADH 5 mg per day was administered orally to one group while identical-looking white tablets not containing NADH (placebo) were given to the other group. The following parameters were statistically analyzed: body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight and organ histology. Clinical signs and mortality were recorded. There were no deaths associated with the study drug and no treatment-releated clinical signs. No differences in body weight between the placebo and the ENADA-treated males were observed. In the second half of the treatment period (weeks 13-26) females treated with NADH gained significantly (p < 0.05) more body weight than the controls. Food consumption in the treated males was similar to that in controls. From approximately week 15, the treated females consumed up to 10% more food than the controls. No differences were observed between the control and the treated groups in terms of hematology or clinical chemistry parameters. There was no apparent treatment-related effect on urine analysis parameters or on either the absolute or the relative organ weight. Furthermore, no macroscopic evidence of specific target organ toxicity associated with the test drug was observed. Histological findings in the treated rats were generally similar to those in control rats. A daily dose of 5 mg in a rat corresponds to a dose of 175 mg per day in a 70-kg human. This is 175 times the recommended daily dosage of 1 ENADA tablet per day. Hence ENADA/NADH 5 mg tablets can be generally regarded as safe. PMID:12635493

Birkmayer, J G D; Nadlinger, K

2002-01-01

273

A new approach to deep desulfurization of gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel by selective adsorption for ultra-clean fuels and for fuel cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel) for producing ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications, we explored a new desulfurization process by selective adsorption for removing sulfur (SARS). An adsorbent was developed and used for adsorption desulfurization of diesel fuel, gasoline and jet fuel at room temperature.

Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

2002-01-01

274

78 FR 20102 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions AGENCY: Environmental...collection request (ICR), ``Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions'' (EPA ICR...continue collecting notifications from gasoline retailers and wholesale...

2013-04-03

275

29 CFR 779.256 - Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments. 779.256...May Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise ...Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments....

2013-07-01

276

40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances....

2013-07-01

277

76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final Rule...Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals,...

2011-01-24

278

Gasoline demand and car choice: estimating gasoline demand using household information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, calls for carbon taxes as a policy tool to combat global warming have kept a discussion of the price and income elasticities of gasoline demand alive. To date, gasoline demand elasticity estimates are almost exclusively based on aggregate data that are subject to aggregation problems and make distributional concerns impossible to address. By using household-level data from

Hilke A. Kayser

2000-01-01

279

A Study of the Quarterly Demand for Gasoline and Impacts of Alternative Gasoline Taxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations of the response of the demand for gasoline to alternative levels of prices and incomes for the next 2 years, including specific evaluations of the direct and indirect effects of increases in the gasoline tax. The calculations are based on an ...

H. Houthakker P. Verleger

1973-01-01

280

[Investigation and application of gasoline sample identity technique].  

PubMed

Chemometrics method was used to solve the problem of automatic selecting model for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of gasoline samples by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The 29 peaks in GC/FID DHA chromatogram and their amounts were selected as the discriminating parameters to establish the five pattern models for different gasoline samples, such as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline, coking gasoline, straight run gasoline, reformed gasoline, and alkylation gasoline. The principle component analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) were used to classify the gasoline samples and to identify the unknown samples according to the above pattern models. One hundred gasoline samples, derived from known resources, were employed to validate the reliability of the sample identity technique. With the help of the pattern identity method referred here, the automation of GC/FID DHA method becomes possible. PMID:15706935

Liu, Yingrong; Xu, Yupeng; Yang, Haiying; Wang, Zheng

2004-09-01

281

Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982  

SciTech Connect

Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

Shelton, E M

1982-07-01

282

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

283

Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline. PMID:22432307

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

2011-01-01

284

Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Four Fuels for Metamysidopsis insularis , an Indigenous Tropical Mysid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of four fuels (leaded gasoline, unleaded gasoline, diesel, Jet A-1) to Metamysidopsis insularis, an indigenous tropical mysid species was determined. Approximately 10 000 barrels (bbl) of fuel are consumed daily in Trinidad and Tobago, and about 50 000 bbl are exported. Accidental discharges at points of transfer as well as from inadequate storage

Azad Mohammed

2005-01-01

285

40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline...

2013-07-01

286

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart...all other gasoline throughout production, distribution and sale to...

2009-07-01

287

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart...all other gasoline throughout production, distribution and sale to...

2010-07-01

288

PBPK modeling of complex hydrocarbon mixtures: gasoline.  

PubMed

Petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures such as gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and asphalt liquids typically contain hundreds of compounds. These compounds include aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons within a specific molecular weight range and sometimes lesser amounts of additives, and often exhibit qualitatively similar pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic properties. However, there are some components that exhibit specific biological effects, such as methyl t-butyl ether and benzene in gasoline. One of the potential pharmacokinetic interactions of many components in such mixtures is inhibition of the metabolism of other components. Due to the complexity of the mixtures, a quantitative description of the pharmacokinetics of each component, particularly in the context of differing blends of these mixtures, has not been available. We describe here a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach to describe the PKs of whole gasoline. The approach simplifies the problem by isolating specific components for which a description is desired and treating the remaining components as a single lumped chemical. In this manner, the effect of the non-isolated components (i.e. inhibition) can be taken into account. The gasoline model was based on PK data for the single chemicals, for simple mixtures of the isolated chemicals, and for the isolated and lumped chemicals during gas uptake PK experiments in rats exposed to whole gasoline. While some sacrifice in model accuracy must be made when a chemical lumping approach is used, our lumped PK model still permitted a good representation of the PKs of five isolated chemicals (n-hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene) during exposure to various levels of two different blends of gasoline. The approach may be applicable to other hydrocarbon mixtures when appropriate PK data are available for model development. PMID:21782697

Dennison, James E; Andersen, Melvin E; Dobrev, Ivan D; Mumtaz, Moiz M; Yang, Raymond S H

2004-03-01

289

Terahertz surface plasmon sensor for distinguishing gasolines.  

PubMed

Gasolines of two different octane numbers are experimentally distinguished using a thin metal sheet perforated with a periodic hole array terahertz surface plasmon (SP) sensor. This sensor is proved to be very sensitive to the change in permittivities of analytes. The differences between the gasolines 93# and 97# in composition lead to various refractive indices, permittivities, and absorption coefficients, thus varying their interactions with surface waves on the sensor, which enables a distinction of 6 GHz between the two octane numbers in the transmission peaks. The freestanding SP sensor is effective and reliable and can be simply employed in analyte distinction, which has potential applications in the petroleum industry. PMID:23938420

Liu, Guanlin; He, Mingxia; Tian, Zhen; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Jiazheng

2013-08-10

290

ChemoRadiotherapy For Localized Pancreatic Cancer: Increased Dose Intensity and Reduced Acute Toxicity with Concomitant Radiotherapy and Protracted Venous Infusion 5Fluorouracil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Although concomitant radiation therapy (RT) and bolus 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) have been shown to improve survival in locally confined pancreatic cancer, most patients will eventually succumb to their disease. Since 1994, we have attempted to improve efficacy by administering 5-FU as a protracted venous infusion (PVI). This study compares treatment intensity and acute toxicity of consecutive protocols of concurrent RT

Joseph C. Poen; Helen L. Collins; John E. Niederhuber; Harry A. Oberhelman; Mark A. Vierra; Augusto J. Bastidas; Harvey S. Young; Edward A. Slosberg; Brooke R. Jeffrey; Teri A. Longacre; George A. Fisher; Don R. Goffinet

1998-01-01

291

Treatment of Late Stage Disease in a Model of Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fever: T-705 Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity Suggests an Alternative to Ribavirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of arenaviruses are known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever (HF), a severe and life-threatening syndrome characterized by fever, malaise, and increased vascular permeability. Ribavirin, the only licensed antiviral indicated for the treatment of certain arenaviral HFs, has had mixed success and significant toxicity. Since severe arenaviral infections initially do not present with distinguishing symptoms and are difficult

Brian B. Gowen; Donald F. Smee; Min-Hui Wong; Jeffery O. Hall; Kie-Hoon Jung; Kevin W. Bailey; John R. Stevens; Yousuke Furuta; John D. Morrey; Peter Sommer

2008-01-01

292

Fuel options for the fuel cell vehicle: hydrogen, methanol or gasoline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell vehicles can be powered directly by hydrogen or, with an onboard chemical processor, other liquid fuels such as gasoline or methanol. Most analysts agree that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in terms of reducing vehicle complexity, but one common perception is that the cost of a hydrogen infrastructure would be excessive. According to this conventional wisdom, the automobile

C. E. Thomas; Brian D James; Frank D Lomax; Ira F Kuhn

2000-01-01

293

Determination of ethers and alcohols in gasolines by gas chromatography\\/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to clean fuel legislation, research is underway in the petroleum industry to develop fuels which reduce vehicle exhaust emissions. Part of this effort is the addition of certain ethers and alcohols such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol to gasolines. The capability of accurately measuring these compounds is important in maintaining minimum levels prescribed by law as

John W. Diehl; John W. Finkbeiner; Frank P. DiSanzo

1992-01-01

294

Preliminary computational studies of flash boiling for fuel injectors in gasoline direct injection automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flash boiling model is being developed to capture the effects of bubble nucleation and growth inside an injector. This model will be applied to the study of flash boiling fuel injector sprays in gasoline direct injection (GDI) automotive engines. There is potential for flash boiling to reduce drop sizes, increase spray cone angles, and ultimately produce more favorable combustible

Dar-Lon Chang; Chia-fon F. Lee

2002-01-01

295

A control oriented model of a Common-Rail System for Gasoline Direct Injection engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics has greatly contributed to the development of internal combustion engine. This progress has resulted in reducing environmental degradation, and yet continuing to support improvements in performance. Regarding gasoline engine, a considerable step forward has been achieved by Common Rail (CR) technology able to exactly regulate the injection pressure during whole engine speed range. As a consequence, the injection of

Alessandro di Gaeta; Giovanni Fiengo; Angelo Palladino; Veniero Giglio

2009-01-01

296

Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008  

EIA Publications

This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

Information Center

2008-04-08

297

46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except...

2013-10-01

298

40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255 Section...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate...

2013-07-01

299

Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimenta...

W. A. Apel W. D. Kant F. S. Colwell B. Singleton B. D. Lee

1993-01-01

300

Empirical Investigation of Product Differentiation in the Retail Gasoline Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Trident project constructed and estimated a model of product differentiation in the retail gasoline industry. Retail gasoline stations product differentiate by choosing location and offering amenities such as pay at the pump, full service, car washes...

J. J. Light

2004-01-01

301

Evaluation of combustion by-products of MTBE as a component of reformulated gasoline.  

PubMed

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a gasoline oxygenate that is widely used throughout the US and Europe as an octane-booster and as a means of reducing automotive carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. The combustion by-products of pure MTBE have been evaluated in previous laboratory studies, but little attention has been paid to the combustion by-products of MTBE as a component of gasoline. MTBE is often used in reformulated gasoline (RFG), which has chemical and physical characteristics distinct from conventional gasoline. The formation of MTBE by-products in RFG is not well-understood, especially under "worst-case" vehicle emission scenarios such as fuel-rich operations, cold-starts or malfunctioning emission control systems, conditions which have not been studied extensively. Engine-out automotive dynamometer studies have compared RFG with MTBE to non-oxygenated RFG. Their findings suggest that adding MTBE to reformulated gasoline does not impact the high temperature flame chemistry in cylinder combustion processes. Comparison of tailpipe and exhaust emission studies indicate that reactions in the catalytic converter are quite effective in destroying most hydrocarbon MTBE by-product species. Since important reaction by-products are formed in the post-flame region, understanding changes in this region will contribute to the understanding of fuel-related changes in emissions. PMID:11219713

Franklin, P M; Koshland, C P; Lucas, D; Sawyer, R F

2001-01-01

302

The U. S. dollar value of gasoline: Currency crisis in Europe  

SciTech Connect

The recent currency crisis in Europe puts the possibility of European economic union in further jeopardy after the Maastricht Treaty was not approved by the Netherlands earlier this Summer. The increased value of European currencies relative to the US dollar during the past Summer had little effect upon national currency gasoline prices. However, the recent currency devaluations in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, already struggling with weak economies, definitely reduce consumer buying power. Governments may use the high taxes imposed on gasoline as a buffer against higher prices, but still, consumers may buy less gasoline as their money doesn't go as far as it once did. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Sept. 25, 1992; and (2) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 1992 Edition.

Not Available

1992-09-30

303

Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

Butters, R.A.

1990-09-30

304

Study of health hazards in use of methanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

The hygienic evaluation of mehanol for use as an additive to gasoline was performed under conditions of city driving of automotive vehicles operating on the blends MGB and BM 15-93 (the gasoline base stock had an octane number of 66). The workers handling MGB were examined for personality traits, emotional and volitional state, and anxiety level; also, certain features of psychic activity were evaluated (mental capability, attention, memory). The results show that a situation peceding the start of work with MGB was responsible for most of the freases in subjective indexes characterizing the emotion state, and the mobility and rate of occurence of psychic functions in comparison to background activity. The results indicate the possibility of using MGB to replace leaded and unleaded gasoline, since such replacement will reduce the environmental pollution by fuel combustion products, and the level of air pollution in the workplace will remain low.

Kasparov, A.A.; Golovkova, N.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.

1986-07-01

305

Investigations on surrogate fuels for high-octane oxygenated gasolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline is a complex mixture that possesses a quasi-continuous spectrum of hydrocarbon constituents. Surrogate fuels that decrease the chemical and\\/or physical complexity of gasoline are used to enhance the understanding of fundamental processes involved in internal combustion engines (ICEs). Computational tools are largely used in ICE development and in performance optimization; however, it is not possible to model full gasoline

Guilherme B. Machado; Jos E. M. Barros; Srgio L. Braga; Carlos Valois M. Braga; Edimilson J. de Oliveira; Antonio H. M. da F. T. da Silva; Leonardo de O. Carvalho

2011-01-01

306

In-Line Gasoline Blending at Suntide Refining  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-line gasoline blender installed at the Suntide Refinery, Corpus Christi, Texas, is discussed. The blender will produce blended gasoline at a maximum rate of 6000 barrels per hour. Up to eleven component streams are controlled to give the final gasoline blend. Each stream is controlled by a digital control system to maintain that component as a fixed percentage of

Jerry D. Johnson; C. Q. Williamson

1967-01-01

307

Crude oil and gasoline prices: an asymmetric relationship?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline is the petroleum product whose price is most visible and, therefore, always under public scrutiny. Many claim there is an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices - specifically, gasoline price changes follow oil price changes more quickly when oil prices are rising than when they are falling. To explore this issue, Nathan Balke, Stephen Brown and Mine Yucel

Nathan S. Balke; Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine Ycel

1998-01-01

308

40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section 79.32 Protection...Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly...commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby individually...

2013-07-01

309

46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 56.50-70 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-70 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Material... Outlets in fuel lines for drawing gasoline for any purpose are prohibited....

2013-10-01

310

46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5...Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine...drip to engine air intakes. (2) All gasoline engines must be equipped with...

2013-10-01

311

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

312

Mechanisms affecting the infiltration and distribution of ethanol-blended gasoline in the vadose zone.  

PubMed

One- and two-dimensional experiments were conducted to examine differences in the behavior of gasoline and gasohol (10% ethanol by volume) as they infiltrate through the unsaturated zone and spread at the capillary fringe. Ethanol in the spilled gasohol quickly partitions into the residual water in the vadose zone and is retained there as the gasoline continues to infiltrate. Under the conditions tested, over 99% of the ethanol was initially retained in the vadose zone. Depending on the volume of gasoline spilled and the depth to the water table, this causes an increase in the aqueous-phase saturation and relative permeability, thus allowing the ethanol-laden water to drain into the gasoline pool. Under the conditions tested, the presence of ethanol does not have a significant impact on the overall size or shape of the resulting gasoline pool at the capillary fringe. Residual gasoline saturations in the vadose zone were significantly reduced however because of reduced surface and interfacial tensions associated with high ethanol concentrations. The flux of ethanol in the effluent of the column ranged from 1.4 x 10(-4) to 4.5 x 10(-7) g/(cm2 min) with the LNAPL and from 6 x 10(-3) to 3.0 x 10(-4) g/(cm2 min) after water was introduced to simulate rain infiltration. The experimental results presented here illustrate that the dynamic effects of ethanol partitioning into the aqueous phase in the vadose zone create an initial condition that is significantly different than previously understood. PMID:12775051

McDowell, Cory J; Powers, Susan E

2003-05-01

313

Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.  

PubMed

While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity. PMID:10560539

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

1999-06-01

314

Oral (po) dosing with RSU 1069 or RB 6145 maintains their potency as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins but reduces systemic toxicity compared with parenteral (ip) administration in mice  

SciTech Connect

RB 6145 is a pro-drug of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 with reduced systemic toxicity. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of RSU 1069 for C3H/He mice was 80 mg/kg (0.38 mmol/kg) ip but 320 mg/kg (1.5 mmol/kg) following po administration. The MTD values of RB 6145 were 350 mg/kg (0.94 mmol/kg) ip and 1 g/kg (2.67 mmol/kg) po. Toxicity of RSU 1069 toward bone marrow stem cells was also less after po administration than after ip administration; 0.1 mmol/kg ip RSU 1069 and 0.38 mmol/kg po RSU 1069 both reduced the surviving fraction of clonogenic CFU-A cells by 50%. Oral administration of RSU 1069 resulted in lower spermatogenic toxicity. No loss of intestinal crypts was detected after ip or po administration of RSU 1069. Some nephrotoxicity was observed in half of the mice given the highest po dose of 1.5 mmol/kg of RSU 1069; this was not observed following the highest ip dose of drug. For RSU 1069 and RB 6145, administered by either route, the maximum hypoxic cell radiosensitization in murine KHT sarcomas, occurred when the drugs were given 45-60 min before 10 Gy of X rays. The degree of radiosensitization produced by a particular dose of either compound was largely independent of the route of administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies, using 3H-RSU 1069, suggested that anti-tumor efficacy correlated with peak blood level of label and concentration in the tumor at the time of irradiation, which were not reduced by po compared with ip administration. Normal tissue toxicity tended to correlate with total exposure over time, which was reduced approximately two-fold by po administration. Oral administration of RSU 1069 or RB 6145, as well as being convenient, may give therapeutic benefit since dose-limiting toxicity in mice was reduced compared with parenteral administration, whereas radiosensitizing activity was less affected.

Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Bowler, J.; Nolan, J.; Wright, E.G.; Lorimore, S.A.; Adams, G.E. (Medical Research Council, Radiobiology Unit, Didcot, Oxon (England))

1991-07-01

315

Updating about reductions of air and blood lead concentrations in Turin, Italy, following reductions in the lead content of gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Considering its well known toxicity and the chronic human exposure to lead, international lawmakers enforced some directives or laws calling for the reduction of lead content in gasoline. All of these legislative acts aimed to reduce health risks for the general population. The aim of this study was to consider the effectiveness of these laws on air lead levels and consequently on blood lead levels in a randomly selected urban Italian population. In particular, these markers were analyzed over the course of several years, corresponding to the periods just before and after enforcements of the reductions of lead in petrol. Data presented point out some considerations: (1) enforcement of legislative measures concerning the reduction of lead in petrol has reduced atmospheric levels of lead. This result demonstrates a major environmental success in primary prevention efforts. (2) This success is clear especially considering that the actual Pb-B levels can be extended to the urbanized populations. Pb-B levels were consistently higher for drinkers, for older adults and for males. The mean of Pb-B level for the present urbanized population is higher than the U.S. overall population (6.4 vs 3 {mu}g/dl). This difference can be also explained considering the different historical period of enforcement of the restriction laws. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Bono, R.; Pignata, C.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin (Italy)] [and others] [Univ. of Turin (Italy); and others

1995-07-01

316

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, "tar" and nicotine yields.  

PubMed

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user". In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that "herbal" waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D; Cobb, Caroline O; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-05-01

317

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields  

PubMed Central

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as tobacco-free alternatives for the health conscious user. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that herbal waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products.

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-01-01

318

Price Adjustments by a Gasoline Retail Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use daily data to examine price responses in the Swedish gasoline market to changes in the Rotterdam spot price, exchange rates and taxes. The distribution of price adjustments by a leading retail chain, for the period January 1980 to December 1996, is symmetric with no small adjustments. An error correction model shows that, in the short run, prices gradually

Marcus Asplund; Rickard Eriksson; Richard Friberg

2000-01-01

319

Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

320

Dynamic Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supergame models of tacit collusion show that supportable price-cost margins increase with expected future collusive profits, ceteris paribus. As a result, collusive margins will be larger when demand is expected to increase or marginal costs are expected to decline. Using panel data on sales volume and gasoline prices in 43 cities over 72 months, we find behavior consistent with tacit

Severin Boreinstein; Andrea Shepard

1996-01-01

321

SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's ORD is conducting a screening of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of selected automotive fuel (i.e., gasoline) systems. Although no specific guidelines exist on how to conduct such a streamlined approach, the basic idea is to use a mix of qualitative and quantitative generi...

322

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

EIA Publications

A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

Joanne Shore

2006-02-22

323

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenat...

G. R. Hadder

1998-01-01

324

Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

325

DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

326

Proposal for gasoline rationing. [Couponless computerized system  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 12, 1980, President Carter and the Department of Energy (DOE submitted to Congress a standby gasoline-rationing plan, to be implemented only in case of a 20% shortfall of petroleum supplies. The plan involves ration checks being mailed to each motor-vechile registrant quarterly, who could in turn exchange the checks for coupons at banks or other distribution points; the

T. Rueter; G. Enholm

2009-01-01

327

Expression in mammalian cells of the Escherichia coli O6 alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase gene ogt reduces the toxicity of alkylnitrosoureas  

Microsoft Academic Search

V79 Chinese hamster cells expressing either the O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) encoded by the E. coli ogt gene or a truncated version of the E. coli ada gene have been exposed to various alkylnitrosoureas to investigate the contribution of ATase repairable lesions to the toxicity of these compounds. Both ATases are able to repair O6-alkylguanine (O6-AlkG) and O4-alkylthymine (O4-AlkT) but the ogt

LC Harris; GP Margison

1993-01-01

328

Aerobic degradation of trichloroethylene by co-metabolism using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

2014-01-01

329

Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline.

Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

2014-01-01

330

Gasoline contributes more than diesel to secondary organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasoline-powered vehicles contribute more to secondary organic aerosol formation than diesel-fueled vehicles do, a new study shows. Organic compounds in gasoline fuel and diesel exhaust can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which negatively affect air quality, visibility, and health and have impacts on climate; however, few studies have investigated the relative contribution of gasoline and diesel to secondary aerosols. Traffic studies have found that the ratio of gasoline-to diesel-powered vehicles changes on weekends. For instance, in the Los Angeles, Calif., area, diesel emissions are about 54% lower on weekends than on weekdays, though gasoline emissions are about the same.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-05-01

331

An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.  

SciTech Connect

Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2011-09-01

332

Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration  

SciTech Connect

Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

1993-03-01

333

Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration  

SciTech Connect

Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

1993-03-01

334

40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

2013-07-01

335

40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk...

2013-07-01

336

A method of limiting pressure build-up in motorcycle gasoline tanks due to tank deformation in an accident  

SciTech Connect

Most motorcycle accidents are angle collisions, constituting 57% of the multi vehicle accidents. In some of these collisions, the motorcycle gasoline tank is dented, decreasing the internal volume and increasing the internal pressure. If this happens when the gasoline tank is full, or nearly full, the pressure build-up can be quite severe, blowing off the gasoline tank cap and drenching the rider with gasoline. The gasoline ofte ignites, burning the rider severely. This pressure build-up can be reduced considerably by a simple device which traps air in the tank and consists of a short tube inserted in the tank filler hole projecting downwards a short distance. This paper shows how the corresponding pressure reduction can be calculated as a function of tank volume, indentation ratio and length of tube, to enable a designer to make the necessary trade-offs in the design. This device can be easily retrofitted to an existing motorcycle gasoline tank to increase its crash worthiness.

Erza, M.A.; Erza, A.H.

1982-01-01

337

Reduction in local ozone levels in urban So Paulo due to a shift from ethanol to gasoline use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethanol-based vehicles are thought to generate less pollution than gasoline-based vehicles, because ethanol emissions contain lower concentrations of mono-nitrogen oxides than those from gasoline emissions. However, the predicted effect of various gasoline/ethanol blends on the concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as ozone varies between model and laboratory studies, including those that seek to simulate the same environmental conditions. Here, we report the consequences of a real-world shift in fuel use in the subtropical megacity of So Paulo, Brazil, brought on by large-scale fluctuations in the price of ethanol relative to gasoline between 2009 and 2011. We use highly spatially and temporally resolved observations of road traffic levels, meteorology and pollutant concentrations, together with a consumer demand model, to show that ambient ozone concentrations fell by about 20% as the share of bi-fuel vehicles burning gasoline rose from 14 to 76%. In contrast, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations increased. We caution that although gasoline use seems to lower ozone levels in the So Paulo metropolitan area relative to ethanol use, strategies to reduce ozone pollution require knowledge of the local chemistry and consideration of other pollutants, particularly fine particles.

Salvo, Alberto; Geiger, Franz M.

2014-06-01

338

Cadmium-free CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots for sentinel lymph node imaging with reduced toxicity.  

PubMed

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) could significantly impact the performance of biomedical near-infrared (NIR) imaging by providing fluorescent probes that are brighter and more photostable than conventional organic dyes. However, the toxicity of the components of NIR emitting II-VI and IV-VI QDs that have been made so far (Cd, Hg, Te, Pb, etc.) has remained a major obstacle to the clinical use of QDs. Here, we present the synthesis of CuInS(2)/ZnS core/shell QDs emitting in the NIR ( approximately 800 nm) with good quantum yield and stability even after transfer into water. We demonstrate the potential of these QDs by imaging two regional lymph nodes (LNs) in vivo in mice. We then compare the inflammatory response of the axillary LN induced by different doses of CuInS(2)/ZnS and CdTeSe/CdZnS QDs and show a clear difference in acute local toxicity, the onset of inflammation only occurring at a 10 times more concentrated dose for CuInS(2)/ZnS QDs than for their Cd-containing counterparts. PMID:20387796

Pons, Thomas; Pic, Emilie; Lequeux, Nicolas; Cassette, Elsa; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Guillemin, Franois; Marchal, Frdric; Dubertret, Benoit

2010-05-25

339

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09

340

Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments  

SciTech Connect

The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

2011-09-15

341

Exposure of the general population to gasoline.  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies.

Akland, G G

1993-01-01

342

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL

2011-01-01

343

A p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor-specific mutant of murine tumor necrosis factor alpha expressed from an adenovirus vector induces an antitumor response with reduced toxicity.  

PubMed

The toxic effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) have greatly limited its use in tumor therapy. Recently, clear evidence has been obtained linking the p55 TNF receptor (TNFR) to the induction of systemic toxicity. We have generated a p75 murine TNFR (mTNFR)-specific mutant of mTNFalpha (D142N-A144R), cloned this gene into a recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-75), and studied its efficacy for tumor immunotherapy of a murine transgenic breast cancer model. Cell culture supernatants from Ad-75-transduced cells showed no cytotoxic activity on L929 cells, but retained the ability to induce proliferation of a murine T-cell line (CT6); this activity was not blocked by soluble p55 mTNFR. Furthermore, it was shown that the mutant form of mTNFalpha was able to coimmunoprecipitate only with the p75 mTNFR and not with the p55 mTNFR. Tumors injected with Ad-75 became necrotic, and mice injected with < or =1 x 10(9) plaque-forming units showed no mortality, whereas both wild-type murine and human TNF vectors induced lethality at doses of 1 and 5 x 10(8) plaque-forming units. All Ad-TNF vectors induced partial or permanent tumor regressions, with cured mice showing immune memory against the tumor. These results demonstrate that a p75 mTNFR agonist expressed from a recombinant adenovirus vector does not induce mortality at doses that cause tumor regression. PMID:10505857

Marr, R A; Hitt, M; Gauldie, J; Muller, W J; Graham, F L

1999-01-01

344

Carbonyls emission from ethanol-blended gasoline and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel used in engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed carbonyls emissions from ethanol-blended gasoline (containing 10% v/v, ethanol, E-10) and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel (BE-diesel) were carefully investigated on an EQ491i gasoline engine equipped with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) and a Commins-4B diesel engine. In engine-out emissions for the gasoline engine, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 66.7-99.4 mg kW -1 h -1, which was 3.1-8.2% less than those from fossil gasoline (E-0). In tailpipe emissions, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 9.2-20.7 mg kW -1 h -1, which were 3.0-61.7% higher than those from E-0. The total carbonyls emissions from BE-diesel were 1-22% higher than those from diesel at different engine operating conditions. Compared with fossil fuels, E-10 can slightly reduce CO emission, and BE-diesel can substantially decrease PM emission, while both alternative fuels increased slightly NO x emission.

Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Yuan, Juan; He, Hong

345

Health risk assessment for toxic emissions from a manufacturing facility.  

PubMed

This paper presents the risk associated with the release of toxic chemicals from a manufacturing facility, following the State of California's approach to risk assessment. The facility emits five toxic substances from eight stacks. The building downwash is considered during dispersion calculations. The zone of impact, identified using a risk criteria (i.e. excess cancer risk of 10 in a million), is located in the southeast quandrant from the plant. The size of the impact area is 3.3 km(2). The cancer and non-cancer effects are considered for chromium (VI), benzene, formaldehyde, gasoline vapors, methylene chloride, and selenium using the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association Guidelines. No significant non-cancer effects are found due to the emissions. The maximum calculated risk is 1.19710(-5) and is an extremely conservative value. Analysis shows that the use of realistic assumptions for exposure duration and unit risk factors during the risk calculations could reduce the zone of impact to 0 km(2). PMID:24193579

Kumar, A; Madasu, R; Manocha, A

1996-09-01

346

Causes of lead toxicity in a Nigerian city  

PubMed Central

Background: Up to 70% of young Nigerian children have been reported to have blood lead concentrations ?10 g/dl. Aims: To better elucidate risk factors for lead toxicity among Nigerian families with children at risk for lead toxicity. Methods: Two geographic wards in Jos, Nigeria were selected for study, one previously reported to have a high mean blood lead level (37 (SD 13) g/dl) and one with a lower mean blood lead level (17 (SD 10) g/dl) in young children. Data pertaining to potential risk factors for lead exposure were collected from children and adults in 34 households. Results: The mean (SD) blood lead concentration of 275 subjects, aged 3 weeks to 90 years, was 8.7 (5.7) g/dl (range 134 g/dl); 92 (34%) had concentrations ?10 g/dl. In multivariate analysis, an age of 5 years and under, flaking house paint, residence near a gasoline seller, male gender, increasing maternal and paternal education, and use of a lead ore eye cosmetic were independently associated with greater blood lead concentration. Vehicle ownership was associated with reduced lead concentration. Compared with the low-lead ward, residence in the high-lead ward remained significantly associated with greater lead values, indicating that additional factors likely contribute to lead exposure. Conclusion: Although the cause of increased lead levels in Jos appears to be multi-factorial, several remediable sources contribute to lead exposure in Nigeria.

Wright, N; Thacher, T; Pfitzner, M; Fischer, P; Pettifor, J

2005-01-01

347

A Chronic Inhalation Study with Unleaded Gasoline Vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chronic inhalation study of unleaded gasoline vapor was conducted in mice and rats. The gasoline employed was typical of gasoline used in the US and contained 2% benzene. Groups of both sexes of B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 rats were exposed to three concentrations of vapor, 67, 292, and 2056 ppm. Exposures were for 6 hours per day, 5

H. N. MacFarland; C. E. Ulrich; C. E. Holdsworth; D. N. Kitchen; W. H. Halliwell; S. C. Blum

1984-01-01

348

[Analysis of sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking gasoline].  

PubMed

Sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) gasolines from Refinery of SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company and Refinery of Shijiazhuang were analyzed by gas chromatograph connected with flame photometric detector (FPD) and atomic emission detector (AED). Twelve and 26 kinds of sulfur compounds were detected by AED in RFCC gasolines from Yanshan and Shijiazhuang respectively. Only 0 and 19 kinds of sulfur compounds were found by FPD in these two gasolines respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that AED is more sensitive and selective to sulfur compounds than FPD. It also indicated that thiophenes were the major sulfur compounds in the RFCC gasoline. In addition, mercaptan, sulfoether and disulfide species were found. PMID:12541959

Liang, Yong-mei; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yao-fang

2002-05-01

349

Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

1921-01-01

350

Synergistic Effect between Colistin and Bacteriocins in Controlling Gram-Negative Pathogens and Their Potential To Reduce Antibiotic Toxicity in Mammalian Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Pathogens resistant to most conventional antibiotics are a harbinger of the need to discover novel antimicrobials and anti-infective agents and develop innovative strategies to combat them. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activity of colistin alone or in combination with two bacteriocins, nisin A and pediocin PA-1/AcH, against Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610, and Escherichia coli ATCC 35150 (O157:H7). The strain most sensitive to colistin was enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, which was inhibited at a concentration of about 0.12 ?g/ml. When nisin A (1.70 ?g/ml) or pediocin PA-1/AcH (1.56 ?g/ml) was combined with colistin, the concentrations required to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 were 0.01 and 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively. The in vitro antigenotoxic effect of colistin was determined by using the comet assay method to measure the level of DNA damage in freshly isolated human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) incubated with colistin for 1 h at 37C. Changes in the tail extents of PBLs of about 69.29 0.08 ?m were observed at a final colistin concentration of about 550 ng/ml. Besides the synergistic effect, the combination of colistin (1 mg/ml) and nisin (2 mg/ml) permitted us to re-evaluate the toxic effect of colistin on Vero (monkey kidney epithelial) cells.

Naghmouchi, Karim; Baah, John; Hober, Didier; Jouy, Eric; Rubrecht, Cedric; Sane, Famara

2013-01-01

351

Effect of H 2S partial pressure on the transformation of a model FCC gasoline olefin over unsupported molybdenum sulfide-based catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective HDS of FCC gasoline is a sensitive option for reducing sulfur content in commercial gasoline. For such applications, a minimum activity of the catalyst toward olefin hydrogenation is required to preserve the high octane number of the feedstock. The conversion of a model FCC olefin (2,3-dimethyl-2-ene: 23BMB2N) under close HDS conditions was investigated over unsupported molybdenum sulfide-based catalysts

A.-F. Lamic; A. Daudin; S. Brunet; C. Legens; C. Bouchy; E. Devers

2008-01-01

352

Gasoline Marketing: Premium Gasoline Overbuying May Be Occurring, but Extent Unknown.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline-regular, mid-grade, and premium-which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of your concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium...

1991-01-01

353

Evaluation of combustion by-products of MTBE as a component of reformulated gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a gasoline oxygenate that is widely used throughout the US and Europe as an octane-booster and as a means of reducing automotive carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. The combustion by-products of pure MTBE have been evaluated in previous laboratory studies, but little attention has been paid to the combustion by-products of MTBE as a component of

Pamela M. Franklin; Catherine P. Koshland; Donald Lucas; Robert F. Sawyer

2001-01-01

354

Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

McRae, R. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31

355

Simulating the evolution of an ethanol and gasoline source zone within the capillary fringe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blending of ethanol into gasoline as a fuel oxygenate has created the scenario where inadvertent releases of E95 into soil previously contaminated by gasoline may remobilize these pre-existing NAPLs and lead to higher dissolved hydrocarbon (BTEX) concentrations in groundwater. We contribute to the development of a risk-based corrective action framework addressing this issue by conducting two laboratory experiments involving the release of ethanol into a gasoline source zone established in the capillary fringe. We then develop and apply the numerical model CompFlow Bio to replicate three specific experimental observations: (1) depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of the gasoline fuel mixture due to a reduction in the surface tension between the gas and liquid phases, (2) further depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of ethanol, and (3) remobilization of the gasoline fuel mixture LNAPL source zone due to the cosolvent behaviour of ethanol in the presence of an aqueous phase, as well as a reduction in the interfacial tension between the aqueous/non-aqueous phases due to ethanol. While the simulated collapse of the capillary fringe was not as extensive as that which was observed, the simulated and observed remobilized non-aqueous phase distributions were in agreement following ethanol injection. Specifically, injection of ethanol caused the non-aqueous phase to advect downwards toward the water table as the capillary fringe continued to collapse, finally collecting on top of the water table in a significantly reduced area exhibiting higher saturations than observed prior to ethanol injection. Surprisingly, the simulated ethanol and gasoline aqueous phase plumes were uniform despite the redistribution of the source zone. Dissolution of gasoline into the aqueous phase was dramatically increased due to the cosolvency effect of ethanol on the non-aqueous phase source zone. We advocate further experimental studies focusing on eliminating data gaps identified here, as well as field-scale experiments to address issues associated with ethanol-BTEX biodegradation and sorption within the development of a risk-based corrective action framework.

Yu, Soonyoung; Freitas, Juliana G.; Unger, Andre J. A.; Barker, James F.; Chatzis, John

2009-02-01

356

Simulating the evolution of an ethanol and gasoline source zone within the capillary fringe.  

PubMed

Blending of ethanol into gasoline as a fuel oxygenate has created the scenario where inadvertent releases of E95 into soil previously contaminated by gasoline may remobilize these pre-existing NAPLs and lead to higher dissolved hydrocarbon (BTEX) concentrations in groundwater. We contribute to the development of a risk-based corrective action framework addressing this issue by conducting two laboratory experiments involving the release of ethanol into a gasoline source zone established in the capillary fringe. We then develop and apply the numerical model CompFlow Bio to replicate three specific experimental observations: (1) depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of the gasoline fuel mixture due to a reduction in the surface tension between the gas and liquid phases, (2) further depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of ethanol, and (3) remobilization of the gasoline fuel mixture LNAPL source zone due to the cosolvent behaviour of ethanol in the presence of an aqueous phase, as well as a reduction in the interfacial tension between the aqueous/non-aqueous phases due to ethanol. While the simulated collapse of the capillary fringe was not as extensive as that which was observed, the simulated and observed remobilized non-aqueous phase distributions were in agreement following ethanol injection. Specifically, injection of ethanol caused the non-aqueous phase to advect downwards toward the water table as the capillary fringe continued to collapse, finally collecting on top of the water table in a significantly reduced area exhibiting higher saturations than observed prior to ethanol injection. Surprisingly, the simulated ethanol and gasoline aqueous phase plumes were uniform despite the redistribution of the source zone. Dissolution of gasoline into the aqueous phase was dramatically increased due to the cosolvency effect of ethanol on the non-aqueous phase source zone. We advocate further experimental studies focusing on eliminating data gaps identified here, as well as field-scale experiments to address issues associated with ethanol-BTEX biodegradation and sorption within the development of a risk-based corrective action framework. PMID:19110339

Yu, Soonyoung; Freitas, Juliana G; Unger, Andre J A; Barker, James F; Chatzis, John

2009-02-27

357

40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502...ADDITIVES Additional Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502...the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any...

2013-07-01

358

40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 ...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the...

2013-07-01

359

40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1236 What...

2013-07-01

360

77 FR 35279 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude ``E85'' AGENCY: Environmental...compound emissions from the transfer of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle...

2012-06-13

361

78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast Wisconsin...systems are specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and...the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system...

2013-06-11

362

40 CFR 80.1230 - What are the gasoline benzene requirements for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline benzene requirements for refiners and importers...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1230 What are...

2013-07-01

363

40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons...

2013-07-01

364

40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program...Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements and...

2013-07-01

365

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited...

2009-07-01

366

40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person...

2013-07-01

367

76 FR 40246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline Volatility; Correction AGENCY...for the purpose of establishing a gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) limit...pounds per square inch (psi) for gasoline sold in the Cincinnati and...

2011-07-08

368

78 FR 72033 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline Vapor Control; Correcting Amendment...Protection (FDEP), related to the State's gasoline vapor recovery program. This correcting...in a rulemaking related to Florida's gasoline vapor recovery program SIP...

2013-12-02

369

78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast Wisconsin...Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources; Section 420.02 Definitions...COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published...

2013-11-04

370

40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention requirements apply...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and...Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention requirements...

2013-07-01

371

76 FR 9013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...action are those who (1) Manufacture gasoline, post-refinery component, or detergent...2) blend detergent additives into gasoline or post-refinery component, or...

2011-02-16

372

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur...

2010-07-01

373

40 CFR 80.27 - Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility. 80.27 Section 80...80.27 Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility. (a)(1) Prohibited...supply, offer for supply, or transport gasoline whose Reid vapor pressure exceeds...

2013-07-01

374

40 CFR 80.1356 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline benzene compliance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline benzene compliance? 80.1356 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Attest Engagements § 80...the attest engagement requirements for gasoline benzene compliance? In...

2013-07-01

375

75 FR 26653 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Reformulated Gasoline and Diesel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quality Implementation Plans; Reformulated Gasoline and Diesel Fuels; California AGENCY...February 3, 2009, relating to reformulated gasoline (RFG) and diesel fuel sold or supplied...California regulations for reformulated gasoline (RFG) sold or supplied in...

2010-05-12

376

40 CFR 80.1354 - What are the reporting requirements for the gasoline benzene program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are the reporting requirements for the gasoline benzene program? 80.1354 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Recordkeeping and Reporting...are the reporting requirements for the gasoline benzene program? (a)...

2013-07-01

377

40 CFR 80.28 - Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions...80.28 Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions...ethanol blender) at whose refinery the gasoline was produced or the importer at...

2013-07-01

378

40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters. 80.46 Section 80...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.46 Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters. (a) Sulfur....

2013-07-01

379

76 FR 61062 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude ``E85'' AGENCY: Environmental...compound emissions from the transfer of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle...

2011-10-03

380

40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What...

2013-07-01

381

40 CFR 80.1360 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program? 80.1360 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties ...Who is liable for violations under the gasoline benzene program? (a) The...

2013-07-01

382

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur...

2009-07-01

383

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94...Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles...209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The...

2013-07-01

384

40 CFR 80.1358 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? 80.1358 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties ...What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? No person...

2013-07-01

385

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited...

2010-07-01

386

29 CFR 779.257 - Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the...Apply; Enterprise Coverage The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise § 779.257 Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under...

2013-07-01

387

76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility...Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order...

2011-01-31

388

40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection...FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited...

2013-07-01

389

40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur...

2013-07-01

390

75 FR 52591 - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Requirements on Gasoline Transport Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Conservation Requirements on Gasoline Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Pipeline...pressure- vacuum test results with the gasoline transport vehicle and retaining pressure-vacuum...NYSDEC's requirements for marking a gasoline transport vehicle, near the DOT...

2010-08-26

391

78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY: Environmental...control requirements for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State...Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks. In addition, rule...

2013-06-07

392

40 CFR 80.1361 - What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? 80.1361 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1361 What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Any...

2013-07-01

393

40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards? 80.240 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Hardship Provisions § 80.240 What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards? (a)...

2013-07-01

394

40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers? ...CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.195 What are the...

2013-07-01

395

40 CFR 80.94 - Requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries. 80...Anti-Dumping § 80.94 Requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries. ...foreign refinery. (3) FRGAS means gasoline produced at a foreign refinery...

2013-07-01

396

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for...Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the...

2013-07-01

397

40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What requirements apply to California gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For...

2013-07-01

398

40 CFR 80.1220 - What are the implementation dates for the gasoline benzene program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the implementation dates for the gasoline benzene program? 80.1220 Section...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene General Information § 80...What are the implementation dates for the gasoline benzene program? (a) Benzene...

2013-07-01

399

76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility...Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order...

2011-10-21

400

Evaluation of natural attenuation rate at a gasoline spill site.  

PubMed

Contamination of groundwater by gasoline and other petroleum-derived hydrocarbons released from underground storage tanks (USTs) is a serious and widespread environmental problem. Natural attenuation is a passive remedial approach that depends upon natural processes to degrade and dissipate contaminants in soil and groundwater. Currently, in situ column technique, microcosm, and computer modeling have been applied for the natural attenuation rate calculation. However, the subsurface heterogeneity reduces the applicability of these techniques. In this study, a mass flux approach was used to calculate the contaminant mass reduction and field-scale decay rate at a gasoline spill site. The mass flux technique is a simplified mass balance procedure, which is accomplished using the differences in total contaminant mass flux across two cross-sections of the contaminant plume. The mass flux calculation shows that up to 87% of the dissolved total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) isomers removal was observed via natural attenuation at this site. The efficiency of natural biodegradation was evaluated by the in situ tracer method, and the first-order decay model was applied for the natural attenuation/biodegradation rate calculation. Results reveal that natural biodegradation was the major cause of the BTEX mass reduction among the natural attenuation processes, and approximately 88% of the BTEX removal was due to the natural biodegradation process. The calculated total BTEX first-order attenuation and biodegradation rates were 0.036 and 0.025% per day, respectively. Results suggest that the natural attenuation mechanisms can effectively contain the plume, and the mass flux method is useful in assessing the occurrence and efficiency of the natural attenuation process. PMID:11240068

Kao, C M; Prosser, J

2001-04-20

401

Conversion of methanol to gasoline commercial plant study. Coal to gasoline via methanol  

SciTech Connect

Under the joint sponsorship of the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology (BMFT) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), a research program was initiated concerning the ''Conversion of Methanol to Gasoline (MTG), Engineering, Construction and Operation of a Demonstration Plant''. The purpose of the 100 BPD demonstration plant was to demonstrate the feasibility of and to obtain data required for scale-up of the fluid-bed MTG process to a commercial size plant. As per requirements of Annex 3 of the Governmental Agreement, this study, in addition to the MTG plant, also includes the facilities for the production of methanol. The feedstock basis for the production of methanol shall be coal. Hence this study deals with the production of gasoline from coal (CTG-Coal to Gasoline). The basic objective of this study is to assess the technical feasibility of the conversion of methanol to gasoline in a fluid-bed system and to evaluate the process economies i.e., to evlauate the price of the product in relation to the price of the feedstock and plant capacity. In connection with technical feasibility, the scale up criteria were developed from the results obtained and experience gathered over an operational period of 8600 hours of the ''100 BPD Demonstration Plant''. The scale up philosophy is detailed in chapter 4. The conditions selected for the design of the MTG unit are detailed in chapter 5. The scope of the study covers the production of gasoline from coal, in which MTG section is dealt with in detail (refer to chapter 5). Information on other plant sections in this study are limited to that sufficient to: generate overall mass balance; generate rate of by-products and effluents; incorporate heat integration; generate consumption figures; and establish plant investment cost.

Thiagarajan, N.; Nitschke, E.

1986-03-01

402

An Anti-Human Thymocyte Globulin-Based Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen Is Associated with a Higher Quality of Life and Lower Organ Toxicity without Affecting Lymphocyte Reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Reduced-intensity (RIT) conditioning regimens are gaining increased attention as a result of their advantages and efficacy. However, no data are available regarding whether these regimens improve patient quality of life (QoL). In our study, health-related QoL (HRQoL) was retrospectively assessed in 111 patients with hematological malignancies. Analysis of the Quality of Life Questionnaire indicated that 35 of the RIT patients were able to perform their normal work and returned to their baseline levels of function 2 to 3 months after transplantation. In the myeloablative (MA) group, only 24 patients were able to resume work, and these patients returned to their baseline levels of function 6 to 8 months after transplantation (68.6% vs. 40.0%, P?=?0.004). Grade IIIIV organ toxicity occurred in 20% of the RIT patients and in 52% of the MA patients (P?=?0.001), and the cumulative incidences of grades IIIIV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 13.7% and 35.0% in RIT and MA patients, respectively (P?=?0.015). In conclusion, the RIT conditioning regimens were well tolerated by the patients, with a low incidence of transplant-related mortality (TRM) and serious acute GVHD. In addition, these regimens minimized procedure-related toxicity, improved QoL and did not influence lymphocyte reconstitution; however, OS was similar for both regimens because the relapse rate was relatively increased in the RIT groups.

Yu, Zheng-Ping; Ding, Jia-Hua; Chen, Bao-An; Li, Yu-Feng; Ding, Bang-He; Qian, Jun

2013-01-01

403

[Unregulated emissions from the gasoline vehicle].  

PubMed

Based on the emission test cycle of China National Regulation Stage III, the aldehyde and alkone emissions and VOCs emissions of three typical gasoline cars were studied with HPLC and TD-GC/MS and the exhausted particulates number and mass concentration were researched using ELPI. The results indicate that the unregulated emissions of different cars is diverse changed, the brake specific emission of the carbonyls in three cars are 36.44, 16.71 and 10.43 mg/km respectively and TVOC are 155.39, 103.75 and 42.29 mg/km respectively. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone and cyclohexanone are the main compounds in gasoline cars exhaust, which accounted for 77.9%-89.7% of total carbonyl compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkane are the main part of VOCs, the detected number of which is occupied 31.6%-39.2% and 23.1%-27.9% of VOCs. Toluene, xylene and benzene have high concentration, which are occupied 16.68%, 16.87% and 5.23% of TVOC in average. Ultra-fine particles (< 100 nm) dominate the particulates emission. Exhausted particulate number of high speeds is higher than that of slow and medium speeds. PMID:19402478

You, Qiu-Wen; Ge, Ytun-Shan; You, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jun-Fang; He, Chao

2009-02-15

404

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide present: (1) the three gasoline consumption-reducing options for which attitudes are to be explored; (2) exercises; and (3) appendices including an energy attitudes survey. (MR)

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

405

Gasoline residual saturation in unsaturated uniform aquifer materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the importance of the residual saturation capacity of a soil to gasoline and proposes a rapid, approximate method for determining the residual saturation capacity of soil to gasoline. Residual saturation capacity was experimentally measured for several soils. Soil particle size, soil density and moisture content were varied in the experiments. Sands at field capacity moisture content had

George E. Hoag; Michael C. Marley

1986-01-01

406

The atmospheric aerosol-forming potential of whole gasoline vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of sunlight-irradiated, smog-chamber experiments confirmed that the atmosphere organic aerosol formation potential of whole gasoline vapor can be accounted for solely in terms of the aromatic fraction of the fuel. The total amount of secondary organic aerosol produced from the atmospheric oxidation of whole gasoline vapor can be represented as the sum of the contributions of the individual

J. R. Odum; T. P. W. Jungkamp; R. J. Griffin

1997-01-01

407

Sticky Prices, Inventories, and Market Power in Wholesale Gasoline Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model with costly adjustment of production and costly inventories implies that wholesale gasoline prices will respond with a lag to crude oil cost shocks. Unlike explanations that rely upon menu costs, imperfect information, or long-term buyer\\/seller relationships, this model predicts that futures prices for gasoline will adjust incompletely to crude oil price shocks that occur close to the expiration

Severin Borenstein; Andrea Shepard

2002-01-01

408

Testing for asymmetric pricing in the Canadian retail gasoline market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a Threshold Regression model to test for asymmetric pricing in the retail gasoline market in Canada, using weekly data for the period January 1990 to December 1996. We present results for 13 Canadian cities for both premium and regular gasoline. Within the context of an error correction model we test for the presence of asymmetric price behaviour

Rob Godby; Anastasia M. Lintner; Thanasis Stengos; Bo Wandschneider

2000-01-01

409

View from shore showing the Tshaped configuration of the Gasoline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from shore showing the T-shaped configuration of the Gasoline Wharf. Note the large cleats on the curbs of the top section of the wharf - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gasoline Wharf, Offshore, near the intersection of Hornet Avenue & Curtis Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

410

Selling Costs and Switching Costs: Explaining Retail Gasoline Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical work has shown that price discrimination can take place in imperfectly competitive, as well as monopoly, markets. The persistence of higher retail margins on unleaded than on leaded gasoline during the 1980s suggests that discrimination may occur even in very competitive markets. This article studies a number of cost-based explanations for such gasoline pricing, as well as the

Severin Borenstein

1991-01-01

411

Dermal Absorption of Methanol and Methanol/Gasoline Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dermally applied methanol/gasoline mixtures on 14C-methanol metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Following applications of 100% methanol or methanol/gasoline mixtures (95, 90, 85, 50 or 5% methanol)...

O. G. Raabe M. A. Al-Bayati P. D. Shulec F. Gielow D. Uyeminami N. Shimasaki

1992-01-01

412

Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000  

EIA Publications

Phase 2 of the U.S. reformulated gasoline program begins at the end of this year. This article, published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly, April 1999, provides a forecast and analysis of the demand and price for Phase 2 reformulated gasoline for the year 2000.

Information Center

1999-05-19

413

CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBON BEDS FOR GASOLINE VAPOR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the practical working capacity of activated carbon to cyclically adsorb gasoline vapor which would otherwise be lost to the atmosphere; e.g., during gasoline transfer operations at a service station. Quantitative measurements, made in the la...

414

Deposit control additives for future gasolines: A global perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crucial interactions now being researched between gasoline composition, engine design and fuel additives are discussed. Base-fuel composition, engine design and additives each have critical effects on the formation of deposits in engines. Base-fuel composition affects both the absolute level of deposits and the ability of a gasoline additive to control deposits. In the critical fuel metering areas, olefins, diolefins,

Peyla

1995-01-01

415

Light olefins dimerization to high quality gasoline components  

Microsoft Academic Search

New attractive technologies can be designed in the field of light olefins dimerization (C3C5) in order to obtain products useful as gasoline blending components; the technologies are characterized both by low investment costs and by high product quality. Isobutene dimerization is a powerful alternative to MTBE production whenever the use of the latter will be forbidden in gasoline. Also the

Mario Marchionna; Marco Di Girolamo; Renata Patrini

2001-01-01

416

Effects of Recent Gasoline Shortage on Retail Service Station Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results from a survey of retail gasoline operations in the Greater Washington Metropolitan Area. The purpose of the survey was to interview a selected group of gasoline dealers in an attempt to discover the effects of the recent ga...

N. Popeck J. Miller

1979-01-01

417

Making Clean Gasoline: The Effect on Jet Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Persistently high concentrations of carbon monoxide and low-altitude ozone in the air of the Nation's major urban centers led Congress in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to mandate changes to the composition of gasoline and diesel fuel. Those gasoline c...

R. W. Salthouse

1992-01-01

418

Object Oriented Modeling of a Gasoline Direct Injection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of this paper is the object oriented model- ing of a Common Rail Direct Injection System of a gasoline engine. The injection system of a gasoline engine is described; the main functional elements are detailed and an object oriented implementation using the Modelica language is proposed. The availability of a fast and easily reconfigurable simulator allows to study

Matteo Corno; Francesco Casella; Sergio M. Savaresi; Riccardo Scattolini

2008-01-01

419

Recovery of Gasoline Range Fuels from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest has been focused on gasoline-rich engine fuel production from renewable sources. Possible acceptable recycling and re-refining processes of vegetable oils are cracking and pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a common practice and an effective method for recycling waste disposal. The properties of an important part of the liquid products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis are similar to gasoline. Compared

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

420

Gasoline on hands: Preliminary study on collection and persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and

Melinda Darrer; Jolle Jacquemet-Papilloud; Olivier Delmont

2008-01-01

421

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR GASOLINE LOADING OF BARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility, safety, and cost of methods to control the emission of hydrocarbon vapor during the loading of gasoline barges. Approximately 4 lb of hydrocarbons are emitted per 1000 gal. of gasoline loaded; annually about 1 mill...

422

Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls  

SciTech Connect

Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01

423

Integrated process offers lower gas-to-gasoline investment  

SciTech Connect

Many natural gas fields are in remote locations and of a size which cannot justify construction of a pipeline or liquified natural gas (LNG) plant. In these situations, the natural gas price can be low and the manufacture of gasoline an attractive alternative to producing ammonia or other petro-chemicals. Haldor Topsoe A/S has developed an integrated process scheme to convert natural-gas-derived synthesis gas to gasoline in a single loop. The process, Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (Tigas), incorporates Mobil's methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. The first step is a synthesis of oxygenates. The second step is the MTG process run at conditions selected to achieve optimum operation of the integrated loop. An industrial pilot plant has been in operation since January 1984. The plant has been running successfully, with long catalyst life, producing high-octane gasoline.

Topp-Jorgensen, J.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R.

1986-05-19

424

Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

NONE

1998-05-01

425

Assessment of metal content and toxicity of leachates from teapots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic teapots traditionally used in Morocco were investigated for release of toxic metals from the teapots and their toxicity, as determined by MetPAD, a bacterial toxicity test that is specific for heavy metal toxicity. Our data show that some teapots were non-toxic while a few others were highly toxic, as shown by MetPAD. Tea addition reduced somewhat heavy metal toxicity

Ali Boularbah; Gabriel Bitton; J. L Morel

1999-01-01

426

New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is under study in a new NASA program. The objective of the program is to determine the feasibility of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. A catalytic hydrogen generator will be incorporated as part of the air induction system of a Lycoming turbocharged engine and will generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen will then be mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The paper summarizes the results of a systems analysis study. Calculations assuming a Beech Duke aircraft indicate that fuel savings on the order of 20% are possible. An estimate of the potential for the utilization of hydrogen enrichment to control exhaust emissions indicates that it may be possible to meet the 1979 Federal emission standards.

Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

1976-01-01

427

Regulated and nonregulated diesel and gasoline cold start emissions at different temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of modern cars are usually reduced in warm engine conditions by catalysts. Consequently emissions are significantly higher during the cold start, i.e. the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced during it depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's systems. The cold start emissions of Euro-3 gasoline cars, Euro-2 diesel cars and old pre-Euro-1 gasoline cars were investigated at cold ambient temperatures. Since the goal was to get real-world emissions, the measurements were done with cars belonging to private owners taken straight from the road with no maintenance. The chassis dynamometer tests were carried out at +23, -7 and -20 C. The test cycle employed is a representative urban ride from a real-world driving behaviour study. Besides the regulated pollutants, methane, benzene and toluene were also measured online by chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

Weilenmann, Martin; Soltic, Patrik; Saxer, Christian; Forss, Anna-Maria; Heeb, Norbert

428

Gasoline from Biomass through Refinery-Friendly Carbohydrate-Based Bio-Oil Produced by Ketalization.  

PubMed

The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect. PMID:24753476

Batalha, Nuno; da Silva, Alessandra V; de Souza, Matheus O; da Costa, Bruna M C; Gomes, Elisa S; Silva, Thiago C; Barros, Thalita G; Gonalves, Maria L A; Caramo, Elina B; Dos Santos, Luciana R M; Almeida, Marlon B B; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Lam, Yiu L; Carvalho, Nakdia M F; Miranda, Leandro S M; Pereira, Marcelo M

2014-06-01

429

Lithium toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... easily interfere with lithium in your body and cause it to build up. Acute on chronic toxicity occurs when you take lithium every day for bipolar disorder, but one day you take an extra amount ( ...

430

Toxic Newts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

431

Inclusion of a portion of the native SNCA 3?UTR reduces toxicity of human S129A SNCA on striatal-projecting dopamine neurons in rat substantia nigra  

PubMed Central

Experimental models of Parkinsons disease (PD) created by aberrant expression of the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) coding region have been reported. However, non-coding regions function in normal physiology and recent in vitro studies have shown that microRNAs-7 and -153 regulate SNCA expression by binding the 3?UTR. Here, effects of different hSNCA forms were examined in vivo. Adult, male rats were injected into one substantia nigra (SN) with AAV-wtSNCA, AAV-S129A hSNCA, or AAV-S129DhSNCA either with or without a portion of the native 3?UTR. DA neurons in SN that maintained striatal (ST) projections at the end of treatment were retrogradely labeled by bilateral ST fluorogold (FG) injections and FG-positive DA neurons in SN were counted. At 5wks, hSNCA coding vectors reduced numbers of FG-positive neurons in injected SN compared to uninjected SN (wtSNCA, p?0.05; S129A/D hSNCA, p?0.01). At 7 and 9wks, wtSNCA- and S129D hSNCA-treated rats exhibited recovery, but S129A hSNCA-injected rats did not (p?0.01). In contrast, numbers of FG-positive neurons were unaffected by hSNCA expression when the 3?UTR was included. When FG-positive neurons were expressed as the ratio of numbers in injected to uninjected sides, the S129AhSNCA coding vector resulted in the highest decrease at 9wks versus wtSNCA (p?0.05) or S129D hSNCA (p?0.01). Inclusion of the 3?UTR resulted in no significant differences in FG-positive neuron ratios. These data suggest that inclusion of the 3?UTR protects against S129A hSNCA-induced loss of nigrostriatal-projecting DA neurons in vivo and that mis-regulation of hSNCA expression and function at non-coding regions contribute to PD pathogenesis.

Khodr, Christina E.; Pedapati, Jyothi; Han, Ye; Bohn, Martha C.

2012-01-01

432

Gasoline-Related Compounds in Lakes Mead and Mohave, Nevada, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of man-made organic compounds, specifically gasoline-derived compounds, was investigated from 2004 to 2006 in Lakes Mead and Mohave and one of its tributary streams, Las Vegas Wash. Compounds contained in raw gasoline (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes; also known as BTEX compounds) and those produced during combustion of gasoline (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds; also known as PAH compounds) were detected at every site sampled in Lakes Mead and Mohave. Water-quality analyses of samples collected during 2004-06 indicate that motorized watercraft are the major source of these organic compounds to the lakes. Concentrations of BTEX increase as the boating season progresses and decrease to less than detectable levels during the winter when few boats are on the water. Volatilization and microbial degradation most likely are the primary removal mechanisms for BTEX compounds in the lakes. Concentrations of BTEX compounds were highest at sampling points near marinas or popular launching areas. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected during 2004 but concentrations decreased to less than the detection level during the latter part of the study; most likely due to the removal of MTBE from gasoline purchased in California. Distribution of PAH compounds was similar to that of BTEX compounds, in that, concentrations were highest at popular boating areas and lowest in areas where fewer boats traveled. PAH concentrations were highest at Katherine Landing and North Telephone Cove in Lake Mohave where many personal watercraft with carbureted two-stroke engines ply the waters. Lake-bottom sediment is not a sink for PAH as indicated by the low concentrations detected in sediment samples from both lakes. PAH compounds most likely are removed from the lakes by photochemical degradation. PAH compounds in Las Vegas Wash, which drains the greater Las Vegas metropolitan area, were present in relatively high concentrations in sediment from the upstream reaches. Concentrations of PAH compounds were low in water and sediment samples collected farther downstream, thus the bottom sediment in the upstream part of the wash may be an effective trap for these compounds. Bioavailable PAH compounds were present in all samples as determined using the Fluoroscan method. Microtox acute toxicity profiles indicated that Callville Bay in Lake Mead and the two Lake Mohave sites had only minor evidence that toxic compounds are present.

Lico, Michael S.; Johnson, B. Thomas

2007-01-01

433

The atmospheric aerosol-forming potential of whole gasoline vapor  

SciTech Connect

A series of sunlight-irradiated, smog-chamber experiments confirmed that the atmosphere organic aerosol formation potential of whole gasoline vapor can be accounted for solely in terms of the aromatic fraction of the fuel. The total amount of secondary organic aerosol produced from the atmospheric oxidation of whole gasoline vapor can be represented as the sum of the contributions of the individual aromatic molecular constituents of the fuel. The urban atmospheric, anthropogenic hydrocarbon profile is approximated well by evaporated whole gasoline, and thus these results suggest that it is possible to model atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Odum, J.R.; Jungkamp, T.P.W.; Griffin, R.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); and others

1997-04-04

434

40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program...What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1)...

2013-07-01

435

Biodegradability of trimethylbenzene isomers under the strictly anaerobic conditions in groundwater contaminated by gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trimethylbenzene (TMB), as a constituent of gasoline, is often expected to be used as a conservative tracer in anaerobic BTEX-contaminated groundwater site to correct for attenuation due to dispersion, dilution and sorption along a flow path. To evaluate the suitability of using TMB as a tracer and to better understand biodegradability of TMB in contaminated groundwater by gasoline under anaerobic conditions, laboratory microcosms were conducted with mixed nitrate/iron/sulfate electron-acceptor amendments, using aquifer materials collected from Canadian Forces Base (CFB), Borden, Ontario, Canada. The results showed that under denitrifying conditions, biodegradation of 1,3,5-TMB, 1,2,4-TMB and 1,2,3-TMB were relatively slow and after 204 days of incubation approximately 27, 24, and 16% of the initial concentrations, respectively, were degraded in the microcosms. Under sulfate-reducing conditions, TMB isomers were recalcitrant. In contrast, significant biodegradation of TMB was observed under iron-reducing conditions. 1,3,5-TMB, 1,2,4-TMB and 1,2,3-TMB were degraded to 44, 47, and 24% of initial concentrations with first-order biodegradation rate constants of 0.003, 0.006 and 0.013 d-1, respectively. This study indicates that TMB biodegradation is insignificant under nitrate and sulfate-reducing conditions but significant under iron-reducing conditions. Therefore, the use of TMB as a tracer for interpreting removal of other biodegradable gasoline constituents such as BTEX requires caution, especially in the presence of iron-reducing conditions.

Chen, Yu Dao; Gui, Lai; Barker, James F.; Jiang, Yaping

2009-01-01

436

Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

2011-06-01

437

Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Carbonyl compound emissions from two passenger cars fueled with different methanol/gasoline blends (M15 and M100) and operated with three-way catalytic converters (TWC) were investigated. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The hydrazones formed on the cartridge were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with a variable wavelength detector. The results show that when cars were fueled with methanol/gasoline blends, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions decreased by 9-21% and 1-55% respectively, while nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions increased by 175-233%. Compared with gasoline vehicles, formaldehyde emissions with M15 and M100 were two and four times higher respectively, and total carbonyls with M15 and M100 increased by 3% and 104% respectively. With the use of the new TWC, both regulated gas pollutants and formaldehyde decreased. The new TWC caused a decrease of 5% and 31% in formaldehyde concentration for M15 and M100, respectively. Specific reactivity (SR) with the new TWC was reduced from 5.92 to 5.72 for M15 and from 7.00 to 6.93 for M100, indicating that M15 and M100 with the new TWC were friendlier to the environment. PMID:20510438

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Chunxiao; Han, Xiukun; Fu, Mingliang; Yu, Linxiao; Shah, Asad Naeem

2010-08-01

438

The relative performance obtained with several methods of control of an overcompressed engine using gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents some results obtained during an investigation to determine the relative characteristics for several methods of control of an overcompressed engine using gasoline and operating under sea-level conditions. For this work, a special single cylinder test engine, 5-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, and designed for ready adjustment of compression ratio, valve timing and valve lift while running, was used. This engine has been fully described in NACA-TR-250. Tests were made at an engine speed of 1,400 R. P. M. for compression ratios ranging from 4.0 to 7.6. The air-fuel ratios were on the rich side of the chemically correct mixture and were approximately those giving maximum power. When using plain domestic gasoline, detonation was controlled to a constant, predetermined amount (audible), such as would be permissible for continuous operation, by (a) throttling the carburetor, (b) maintaining full throttle but greatly retarding the ignition, and (c) varying the timing of the inlet valve to reduce the effective compression ratio. From the results of the tests, it may be concluded that method (b) gives the best all-round performance and, being easily employed in service, appears to be the most practicable method for controlling an overcompressed engine using gasoline at low altitudes.

Gardiner, Arthur W; Whedon, William E

1928-01-01

439

New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is under study in a new NASA program. The objective of the program is to determine the feasibility of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. A catalytic hydrogen generator will be incorporated as part of the air induction system of a Lycoming turbocharged engine and will generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen will then be mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The special properties of the hydrogen-enriched gasoline allow the engine to operate at ultralean fuel/air ratios, resulting in higher efficiencies and hence less fuel consumption. This paper summarizes the results of a systems analysis study. Calculations assuming a Beech Duke aircraft indicate that fuel savings on the order of 20% are possible. An estimate of the potential for the utilization of hydrogen enrichment to control exhaust emissions indicates that it may be possible to meet the 1979 Federal emission standards.

Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

1976-01-01

440

Oxygen toxicity.  

PubMed

Oxygen is one of the most widely available and used therapeutic agents in the world. However, it is all too easy forget that oxygen is a prescribable drug with specific biochemical and physiologic actions, a distinct range of effective doses and well-defined adverse effects at high doses. The human body is affected in different ways depending on the type of exposure. Short exposures to high partial pressures at greater than atmospheric pressure lead to central nervous system toxicity, most commonly seen in divers or in hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Pulmonary and ocular toxicity results from longer exposure to elevated oxygen levels at normal atmospheric pressure. PMID:24767867

Thomson, Louise; Paton, James

2014-06-01

441

[Ecstasy toxicity].  

PubMed

The substance, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy, is an amphetamine derivate. A mistaken belief that it is a safe drug of low toxicity and a long duration of action has led to its widespread popularity among teenagers and young adults in recent years. Unfortunately, ecstasy use has increas