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Sample records for gastric antisecretory activity

  1. Structural modification of H/sub 2/-receptor antagonists provide post-H/sub 2/-receptor gastric antisecretory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, S.T.; Dove, P.A.; Strike, D.P.; Schiehser, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    In the course of investigations into the gastric antisecretory activity of potential H/sub 2/-receptor antagonists, examples were discovered in which structural modification of the molecule altered a) antisecretory activity in the pylorus-ligated rat and b) the response to various stimulants of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine (AP) uptake in isolated rat gastric mucosal cell preparations. Wy-45,662 (N-(3-(3-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy)propyl)thieno(3,4-d) isothiazol-3-amine 1, 1-dioxide)), a very potent histamine H/sub 2/-antagonist and antisecretory agent in the rat (ED/sub 50/ (approx.) 0.3 mg/kg), had no effect in vitro at 1 ..mu..M on forskolin-induced (/sup 14/C)AP uptake while 10 nM Wy-45,662 completely suppressed histamine-stimulated (/sup 14/C)AP uptake. In contrast, the N-benzylated form of Wy-45,662, Wy-46,499 dose-dependently (10/sup -7/-10/sup -6/M) suppressed forskolin-stimulated (/sup 14/C)AP uptake while retaining modest antisecretory activity (ED/sub 50/approx.8 mg/kg) in vivo. Wy-46,499's modest antisecretory activity was thus attributable to inhibition via a post-histamine H/sub 2/-receptor mechanism.

  2. Role of antisecretory agents for gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Chiu, Philip W Y; Wang, Hsui-Po

    2013-03-01

    Gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) causes artificial gastric ulcers and there is no consensus regarding the optimal perioperative management in terms of prevention of intra- or postoperative bleeding and promotion of healing. Traditionally, 8-week administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and mucosal protective agents were used in the same way as for peptic ulcer management. However, recent studies have revealed that prior use of PPI might reduce intraoperative bleeding or early-phase postoperative bleeding, and combination of histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA), and second-look endoscopy might have a similar effect on postoperative bleeding to PPI. Additionally, the advantage of PPI over H2RA is not proven and the optimal duration of PPI may be shortened until 2 weeks when the deteriorating factors for ESD ulcer are excluded. Furthermore, mucosal protective agents may facilitate ulcer healing. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment protocol before and after ESD for both prevention of bleeding complication and promotion of ulcer healing, by using available antisecretory agents and mucosal protective agents. PMID:23368844

  3. The interaction between oral melphalan and gastric antisecretory drugs: Impact on clinical efficacy and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    KITAZAWA, FUMIAKI; KADO, YOKO; UEDA, KUMI; KOKUFU, TAKATOSHI; FUCHIDA, SHIN-ICHI; OKANO, AKIRA; HATSUSE, MAYUMI; MURAKAMI, SATOSHI; NAKAYAMA, YUKO; TAKARA, KOHJI; SHIMAZAKI, CHIHIRO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify whether gastric antisecretory drugs affect the clinical efficacy and toxicity of orally administered melphalan in patients with multiple myeloma. A total of 10 patients receiving bortezomib plus oral melphalan and prednisolone (VMP) therapy between December 2011 and November 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into a control group (seven patients) and a concomitant group (three patients, who were also administered with gastric antisecretory drugs). The gastric antisecretory drugs included rabeprazole sodium (two patients) and famotidine (one patient). No significant differences between the groups were observed in either the characteristics of the patients or the VMP regimen. The levels of monoclonal protein (M protein) in the control group tended to decrease (with a VMP cycle-dependency), although they were primarily stable in the concomitant group. During the second and third VMP cycles, the levels of M protein were markedly lower in the control group compared with the concomitant group. All the patients in the control group achieved a partial response, whereas those in the concomitant group exhibited stable disease. Hematological toxicity levels were revealed to be comparable between the two groups, whereas gastrointestinal toxicity was more prevalent in the control group. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that the clinical efficacy of melphalan may be reduced by the co-administration of gastric antisecretory drugs. This interaction may result in decreased toxicity and clinical efficacy of melphalan.

  4. Antisecretory Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Gastric Acid Secretion and the Involvement of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Mard, Seyyed Ali; Askari, Hasan; Neisi, Niloofar; Veisi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of H2S on distention-induced gastric acid secretion. Fifty-two rats were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups. The gastric acid secretion was stimulated by gastric distention. Two groups of rats received L-cysteine or saline for 5 days before stimulation of the gastric acid secretion. Two groups of animals also received NaHS or saline just prior to stimulation of the gastric acid secretion. The effect of L-NAME and propargylglycine was also investigated. The mucosal levels of the gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and H+/K+-ATPase α-subunit were quantified by qPCR and luminal concentrations of NO were determined. NaHS and L-cysteine decreased the gastric acid output in response to distention. The mRNA expression of H+/K+-ATPase α-subunit decreased by NaHS and L-cysteine as compared with the control group while gene expression of eNOS and COX-2 was upregulated. The inhibitory effect of NaHS on distention-induced gastric acid secretion was mitigated by pretreatment of L-NAME. These findings suggest the involvement of NO in mediating the antisecretory effect of H2S. PMID:24707486

  5. Antisecretory activity of pirenzepine versus cimetidine in man: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Procacciante, F; Citone, G; Montesani, C; Ribotta, G

    1984-01-01

    Antisecretory effect of single oral therapeutic doses of pirenzepine (25 mg and 50 mg) and cimetidine (200 mg and 400 mg) was studied in 12 patients with duodenal ulcer. Gastric secretion was studied in basal condition and after stimulation with pentagastrin. Basal, maximum and peak acid output, basal and maximum acidity, and basal and maximum volume were calculated after computerised correction for pyloric loss and duodenal reflux. Both drugs showed dose-related inhibition of all facets of gastric secretion. Cimetidine (200 mg) had a greater inhibitory effect on gastric basal secretion, but a similar effect on pentagastrin stimulated secretion as with pirenzepine (50 mg). Cimetidine (400 mg) showed about twice the inhibitory activity of pirenzepine (50 mg) both on basal and stimulated secretion. PMID:6546371

  6. Cytoprotective and Anti-secretory Effects of Azadiradione Isolated from the Seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem) on Gastric Ulcers in Rat Models.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Mishra, Vaibhav; Pandeti, Sukanya; Palit, Gautam; Barthwal, Manoj K; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Narender, Tadigoppula

    2015-06-01

    Azadirachta indica is well known medicinal plant mentioned in ancient herbal texts. It has been extensively used in Ayurvedic, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a luminary of modern medicine. As part of our drug discovery program we isolated azadiradione from the ethanolic extract of seeds of A. indica and evaluated for in-vivo antiulcer activity in cold restraint induced gastric ulcer model, aspirin induced gastric ulcer model, alcohol induced gastric ulcers model and pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. Azadiradione exhibited potent antiulcer activity through the inhibition of H+ K+-ATPase (proton pump) activity via its cytoprotective effect and also via its antisecretory effect. This combined effect has valuable potential in the future treatment of peptic ulceration. PMID:25851068

  7. Antisecretory, Gastroprotective, Antioxidant and Anti-Helicobcter Pylori Activity of Zerumbone from Zingiber Zerumbet (L.) Smith

    PubMed Central

    Sidahmed, Heyam Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Mohan, Syam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Fai, Loke Mun; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    Background Zingiber zerumbet Smith is a perennial herb, broadly distributed in many tropical areas. In Malaysia, it’s locally known among the Malay people as “lempoyang” and its rhizomes, particularly, is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease beyond other gastric disorders. Aim of the study The aim of the current study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of zerumbone, the main bioactive compound of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome, against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Materials and Methods Rats were pre-treated with zerumbone and subsequently exposed to acute gastric ulcer induced by absolute ethanol administration. Following treatment, gastric juice acidity, ulcer index, mucus content, histological analysis (HE and PAS), immunohistochemical localization for HSP-70, prostaglandin E2 synthesis (PGE2), non-protein sulfhydryl gastric content (NP-SH), reduced glutathione level (GSH), and malondialdehyde level (MDA) were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and anti-H. pylori activity were investigated in vitro. Results The results showed that the intragastric administration of zerumbone protected the gastric mucosa from the aggressive effect of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, coincided with reduced submucosal edema and leukocyte infiltration. This observed gastroprotective effect of zerumbone was accompanied with a significant (p <0.05) effect of the compound to restore the lowered NP-SH and GSH levels, and to reduce the elevated MDA level into the gastric homogenate. Moreover, the compound induced HSP-70 up-regulation into the gastric tissue. Furthermore, zerumbone significantly (p <0.05) enhanced mucus production, showed intense PAS stain and maintained PG content near to the normal level. The compound exhibited antisecretory activity and an interesting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori strain. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed that zerumbone promotes ulcer protection, which might be attributed to the maintenance of mucus integrity, antioxidant activity, and HSP-70 induction. Zerumbone also exhibited antibacterial action against H. pylori. PMID:25798602

  8. Animal pharmacology of reversible antagonism of the gastric acid pump, compared to standard antisecretory principles.

    PubMed

    Kromer, W; Postius, S; Riedel, R

    2000-05-01

    To define the basic antisecretory profile of a potassium-competitive antagonism of the gastric acid pump relative to other classes of acid-inhibitory drugs, they were compared to each other against all three major stimuli of acid secretion. Pumaprazole is an imidazo-pyridine derivative that was used in this investigation as an example of reversibly binding acid pump antagonists (APAs). It differs from covalently binding proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as omeprazole, both with respect to chemical structure and mode of interaction with the gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (i.e., the acid or proton pump). The present data show that a single dose of pumaprazole is able to elevate intragastric pH in the dog with gastric fistula under pentagastrin or carbachol stimulation from pH 1 to about pH 7 while still displaying a dose-dependent, well-controlable duration of action of a few hours. Ranitidine at the same oral dose also shows a short duration of action, but combined with a far lower efficacy. By contrast, a single oral dose of the PPI omeprazole elevates intragastric pH for a longer time period, but this pH elevation is far lower compared to that of the APA. Regarding the less stringent parameter of inhibition of total acid output in the Heidenhain pouch dog, the modified Shay rat or the Ghosh-Schild rat, pumaprazole is, overall, slightly more efficacious than ranitidine. The M(1)-muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine is ineffective (against histamine stimulation) or far less effective than pumaprazole (against pentagastrin-stimulation), but as effective as pumaprazole against carbachol stimulation in the Ghosh-Schild rat. Basal acid output in the same model is more effectively inhibited by pumaprazole than by ranitidine. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the exceptional ability of a reversibly binding APA to elevate intragastric pH up to neutrality even upon a first administration while still displaying a limited, dose-dependent duration of action. PMID:10828742

  9. Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of chebulinic acid isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula on gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vaibhav; Agrawal, Manali; Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Madhur, Gaurav; Rastogi, Preeti; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Palit, Gautam; Narender, Tadigoppula

    2013-04-15

    In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, the gastro protective mechanism of chebulinic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit was investigated. Chebulinic acid was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of chebulinic acid was observed against CRU (62.9%), AS (55.3%), AL (80.67%) and PL (66.63%) induced ulcer models. The reference drug omeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 77.73% protection against CRU, 58.30% against AS and 70.80% against PL model. Sucralfate, another reference drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 65.67% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Chebulinic acid significantly reduced free acidity (48.82%), total acidity (38.29%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 59.75% respectively. Further, chebulinic acid significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC50 of 65.01 ?g/ml as compared to the IC50 value of omeprazole (30.24 ?g/ml) confirming its anti-secretory activity. PMID:23462212

  10. Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of peganine hydrochloride isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala on gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Mishra, Vaibhav; Tiwari, Sriniwas; Khaliq, Tanvir; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Palit, Gautam; Narender, Tadigoppula

    2013-10-15

    Gastroprotective mechanism of peganine hydrochloride isolated from Peganum harmala seeds was investigated. Peganine hydrochloride was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of peganine was observed against CRU (50.0%), AS (58.5%), AL (89.41%) and PL (62.50%) induced ulcer models. The reference drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 77.45% protection against CRU, 49.97% against AS and 69.42% against PL model. Sucralfate, another reference drug (500mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.50% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Peganine significantly reduced free acidity (33.38%), total acidity (38.09%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 67.91%, respectively. Further, peagnine significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC50 of 73.47?g/ml as compared to the IC50 value of omeprazole (30.24?g/ml) confirming its anti-secretory activity. PMID:23880327

  11. Assessment of Antisecretory, Gastroprotective, and In-vitro Antacid Potential of Daucus carota in Experimental Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Phool; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In Indo China, carrots have been reported to regulate the functions of the stomach and intestines. The objective of the present investigation was to unravel the therapeutic potential of 50% ethanol extract from Daucus carota roots (EDC) on antisecretory, gastroprotective, and invitro antacid capacity using experimental rats. Methods Assessment of EDC antisecretory and invivo antacid capacities was carried out using a pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective effect was assessed with an absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. The integrity of gastric mucosa was evaluated using the estimation of glutathione and gastric mucus level and with histopathological examination of gastric mucosal cells. The in-vitro antacid capacity was evaluated using a titration method. The effect of the extract on the liver was assessed by measuring serum biochemical parameters. Results The EDC significantly (p<0.010.001) reduced gastric lesions in both models. Furthermore, the EDC also significantly (p<0.050.001) reduced the volume of gastric content whereas the total acidity was significantly (p<0.050.001) reduced with the doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg EDC. Moreover, the mucus content and glutathione level increased significantly (p<0.05) in the absolute alcohol-induced ulcer. The EDC also showed in-vitro antacid capacity. Histopathological studies further confirmed the potential of EDC by inhibiting congestion, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis in gastric mucosa. Conclusion The EDC exerted antisecretory, gastroprotective, and invitro antacid potential. These activities could be attributed due to the presence of glycosides, phenolics, tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. PMID:26835241

  12. Evaluation of antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of Fumaria indica in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Phool; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Fumaria indica is used for its anthelmintic, antidyspeptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative, stomachic, tonic properties and claimed to possess various properties for the ailments of blood, skin, gastrointestinal systems and central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of ethanol extract from F. indica in rats. Evaluation of F. indica extract as antisecretory was carried out by pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective effect was carried out by absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. Integrity of gastric mucosa was evaluated by estimation of GSH and gastric mucus level. The in-vitro antacid capacity was evaluated by titration method. Ethanol extract of F. indica at 200 mg kg(-1), orally showed inhibition of secretion in pyloric ligation model. GSH level (1.67 ?g mg(-1) protein), gastricwall mucus (240.76 ?g g(-1) wet glandular tissue) and percentage protection (77.59%) of ulcer were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. The in-vitro antacid capacity of ethanol extract of F. indica was compared with the standard. Conclusively, it appears that F. indica possess antisecretory (inhibition of acid secretion), gastroprotective (potentiation of defensive factors) and in-vitro antacid activity. PMID:26521557

  13. [Antisecretory therapy as a component of hemostasis in acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleedings].

    PubMed

    Gostishchev, V K; Evseev, M A

    2005-01-01

    Results of antisecretory therapy (pyrenzepin, H(2)-blockers, inhibitors of proton pump, octreotid) in 962 patients with acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleedings (AGDUB) were analyzed over 14-years period. Antisecretory treatment in AGDUB has principally different goals and potential depending on risk of bleeding's recurrence and morphological changes in tissue of gastroduodenal ulcer. Antisecretory therapy is the main treatment in high risk of AGDUB recurrence or before urgent surgery. Intravenous infusion of omeprazol has demonstrated the highest clinical efficacy due to maximal inhibition of gastric secretion and absence of negative influences on oxygen regimen in tissue of ulcer. PMID:16091681

  14. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  15. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma in gastric ulcer: An overview of experimental evidences

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Lekha

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Three subtypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, have been identified so far. PPARα is expressed in the liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, and muscle, where it activates the fatty acid catabolism and control lipoprotein assembly in response to long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs (e.g., fenofibrate). PPARβ/δ is more broadly expressed and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation, keratinocyte differentiation, wound healing, and macrophage response to very low density lipoprotein metabolism. This isoform has been implicated in transcriptional-repression functions and has been shown to repress the activity of PPARα or PPARγ target genes. PPARγ1 and γ2 are generated from a single-gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. PPARγ1 is expressed in colon, immune system (e.g., monocytes and macrophages), and other tissues where it participates in the modulation of inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. PPARs regulate gene expression through distinct mechanisms: Ligand-dependent transactivation, ligand-independent repression, and ligand-dependent transrepression. Studies in animals have demonstrated the gastric antisecretory activity of PPARα agonists like ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and clofibrate. Study by Pathak et al also demonstrated the effect of PPARα agonist, bezafibrate, on gastric secretion and gastric cytoprotection in various gastric ulcer models in rats. The majority of the experimental studies is on pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, which are PPARγ activators. In all the studies, both the PPARγ activators showed protection against the gastric ulcer and also accelerate the ulcer healing in gastric ulcer model in rats. Therefore, PPARα and PPARγ may be a target for gastric ulcer therapy. Finally, more studies are also needed to confirm the involvement of PPARs α and γ in gastric ulcer. PMID:26558146

  16. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma in gastric ulcer: An overview of experimental evidences.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha

    2015-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Three subtypes, PPAR?, PPAR?/?, and PPAR?, have been identified so far. PPAR? is expressed in the liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, and muscle, where it activates the fatty acid catabolism and control lipoprotein assembly in response to long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs (e.g., fenofibrate). PPAR?/? is more broadly expressed and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation, keratinocyte differentiation, wound healing, and macrophage response to very low density lipoprotein metabolism. This isoform has been implicated in transcriptional-repression functions and has been shown to repress the activity of PPAR? or PPAR? target genes. PPAR?1 and ?2 are generated from a single-gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. PPAR?1 is expressed in colon, immune system (e.g., monocytes and macrophages), and other tissues where it participates in the modulation of inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. PPARs regulate gene expression through distinct mechanisms: Ligand-dependent transactivation, ligand-independent repression, and ligand-dependent transrepression. Studies in animals have demonstrated the gastric antisecretory activity of PPAR? agonists like ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and clofibrate. Study by Pathak et al also demonstrated the effect of PPAR? agonist, bezafibrate, on gastric secretion and gastric cytoprotection in various gastric ulcer models in rats. The majority of the experimental studies is on pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, which are PPAR? activators. In all the studies, both the PPAR? activators showed protection against the gastric ulcer and also accelerate the ulcer healing in gastric ulcer model in rats. Therefore, PPAR? and PPAR? may be a target for gastric ulcer therapy. Finally, more studies are also needed to confirm the involvement of PPARs ? and ? in gastric ulcer. PMID:26558146

  17. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents. PMID:15182901

  18. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Nailufar, Florensia; Arifin, Poppy F

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the gastric acid antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from Cinnamomum burmannii. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase) activity and its gene expression were observed, and the antioxidant activity of DLBS2411 was also investigated. Treatment of DLBS2411 decreased the level of H+/K+ ATPase messenger RNA expression on human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat gastric parietal cells in a dose-dependent manner, in vitro and ex vivo. DLBS2411 also acted as a competitive inhibitor by showing inhibition in gastric H+/K+ ATPase activity at various pHs. In gastric ulcer animal models induced with indomethacin and ethanol, DLBS2411showed a reduction in the number of petechiae, suggesting that the fraction also confers gastroprotective activity. Moreover, DLBS2411 was also found to have potent antioxidant activity. Taken together, DLBS2411 is a promising novel agent for the management of dyspepsia, a condition of hyperacidity and diseases in the stomach requiring gastroprotection. PMID:24101879

  19. Telomerase activity in gastric cancer and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Wen-Hua; Ma, Jin-Ping; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Gao, Jing-Song; Cai, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Zhang-Qing; Wang, Lei

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the telomerase expression in gastric carcinoma and its clinical implications. METHODS: Telomerase activity was examined in gastric cancer an d corresponding normal tissues using a modified TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol) assay (TRAP-eze) in tissue samples from 94 gastric carcinomas an d 58 normal tissues, 12 gastric adenomas and 9 gastric ulcer lesions. RESULTS: Telomerase activity was present in 81 of the 94 (86.2%) gastric cancer tissues, whereas no telomerase activity was detected in any normal tissues. The incidence of telomerase activity in gastric cancer tissues was unrelated to the tumor diameter, histological grade, tumor invasion in depth, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. CONCLUSION: Telomerase plays an important role in carcinogenes is and progression of gastric cancer, and it is suggested to be a useful tumor marker. PMID:11819456

  20. Antisecretory and antiulcer properties of prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Robert, A

    1978-07-01

    Certain prostaglandins inhibit gastric secretion and exert an antiulcer activity. These properties, first discovered in animals, were confirmed in humans and are likely to be useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer. On the other hand, several prostaglandins given at high doses favor the passage of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. This accumulation of fluid seems to be the cause of the diarrhea observed on occasion after prostaglandins are given. PMID:668288

  1. Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

  2. Enhanced cellular uptake of antisecretory peptide AF-16 through proteoglycan binding.

    PubMed

    Matson Dzebo, Maria; Reymer, Anna; Fant, Kristina; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt; Rocha, Sandra

    2014-10-21

    Peptide AF-16, which includes the active site of Antisecretory Factor protein, has antisecretory and anti-inflammatory properties, making it a potent drug candidate for treatment of secretory and inflammatory diseases such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intracranial hypertension. Despite remarkable physiological effects and great pharmaceutical need for drug discovery, very little is yet understood about AF-16 mechanism of action. In order to address interaction mechanisms, we investigated the binding of AF-16 to sulfated glycosaminoglycan, heparin, with focus on the effect of pH and ionic strength, and studied the influence of cell-surface proteoglycans on cellular uptake efficiency. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry experiments on wild type and proteoglycan-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells reveal an endocytotic nature of AF-16 cellular uptake that is, however, less efficient for the cells lacking cell-surface proteoglycans. Isothermal titration calorimetry provides quantitative thermodynamic data and evidence for that the peptide affinity to heparin increases at lower pH and ionic strength. Experimental data, supported by theoretical modeling, of peptide-glycosaminoglycan interaction indicate that it has a large electrostatic contribution, which will be enhanced in diseases accompanied by decreased pH and ionic strength. These observations show that cell-surface proteoglycans are of general and crucial importance for the antisecretory and anti-inflammatory activities of AF-16. PMID:25289567

  3. Antisecretory Action of the Extract of the Aerial Parts of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) Occurs through Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Andr Perfusion, Amang; Tan, Paul V.; Ernestine, Nkwengoua; Barthlemy, Nyasse

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to find out the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of Eremomastax speciosa. Method. Carbachol- and histamine-induced hypersecretion, associated with the pylorus ligation technique, were used in rats. Gastric mucosal ulceration, mucus production, pH, gastric volume, and acidity were measured. Results. Histamine and carbachol raised gastric acidity to 86.50 and 84.80?mEq/L, respectively, in the control rats, and the extracts (200?mg/kg) reduced gastric acidity to 34.60 and 39.00?mEq/L, respectively. Intraduodenal aqueous extract (400?mg/kg) in histamine- and carbachol-treated rats produced significant (P < 0.001) decreases in acid secretion to 28.50 and 28.80?mEq/L, respectively, and 100 percent inhibition of gastric ulceration. Augmented histamine-induced gastric acid secretion (90.20?mEq/L) was significantly reduced to 52.60 and 27.50?mEq/L by the 200 and 400?mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the volume of gastric secretion and significantly increased mucus production. The ulcer inhibition potential of the extract significantly dropped to 2544% (oral extract) and to 2937% (duodenal extract) in carbachol/indomethacin-treated rats. Conclusion. The aqueous extract of E. speciosa has both cytoprotective and antisecretory effects. The antisecretory effect may involve a mechanism common to both cholinergic and histaminergic pathways. PMID:24695819

  4. Reserpine, vagal adrenergic activity and stress-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Salim, A S

    1987-01-01

    1. Stress activates the hypothalamus causing central adrenergic discharge and stimulation of the autonomic sympathetic system. Reserpine produces the same effect and, therefore, its acute gastric mucosal injury is stress-induced. This injury was employed in the gastric diversion rat, a model for determining gastric acid secretion under basal conditions, to examine the relationship of the vagus nerve to the autonomic sympathetic system in the mechanism of stress-induced acute gastric mucosal injury. 2. After 6 h of reserpine (5 mg/kg I.P.), all rats developed oval or round lesions confined to the glandular stomach and of no constant relationship to rugal crests (lesion score 29 +/- 2.7 mm2, mean +/- S.E., n = 10). Microscopically, these lesions were vascular in origin, developing as intramural foci of haemorrhage or necrosis and expanding to communicate with the lumen. Pre-treatment with potent antisecretory doses of the anticholinergic atropine (5 mg/kg I.P.) or the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (40 mg/kg I.P.) did not influence this reserpine action (28 +/- 3 mm2 and 27.5 +/- 2.3 mm2, respectively, mean +/- S.E., n = 10). Protection against the reserpine lesions by the alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drugs phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine given in a dose of 10 mg/kg I.P. was significantly (P less than 0.01) more than that afforded by the 5 mg/kg I.P. dose. However, the 15 mg/kg I.P. dose was completely protective against the lesions. Vagotomy had a similar protective effect. Interruption of autonomic sympathetic delivery to the stomach by coeliac ganglionectomy had no influence on the macroscopic or microscopic effects of reserpine on the stomach (30.5 +/- 3.4 mm2, mean +/- S.E., n = 10). 3. The H+ output associated with 6 h of gastric diversion (61 +/- 4.5 mumol, mean +/- S.E.) was significantly (P less than 0.001) depressed by reserpine alone (26 +/- 2 mumol) or with atropine (19 +/- 1.8 mumol) or cimetidine (21 +/- 2 mumol). Protection against the reserpine lesions by phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine was associated with dose-dependent increase of H+ output, which with the 15 mg/kg dose was similar to that of control values (58 +/- 4.1 mumol and 60.3 +/- 2.8 mumol vs. 61 +/- 4.5 mumol). Vagotomy protection was associated with an H+ output significantly (P less than 0.001) lower than that with reserpine alone (14 +/- 1.4 mumol). Coeliac ganglionectomy had no influence on the H+ output associated with reserpine treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2895809

  5. The effect of drugs and stimulants on gastric myoelectrical activity

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecień, Jarosław; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive diagnostic method useful for the registration and analysis of gastric myoelectrical activity. Abnormalities within an electrogastrogram were found to correlate with a number of disorders and symptoms, like functional dyspepsia, diabetic gastroparesis and terminal hepatic or renal failure. The EGG is also a valuable diagnostic method enabling the evaluation of the effect of drugs on gastric myoelectrical activity, which can be intentional, as in the case of prokinetics, or can have an adverse character. Our review focuses on drugs with a proven impact on gastric myoelectrical activity and hence on the electrogastrogram. The paper assembles and discusses the results of investigations dealing with changes in the electrogastrograms evoked by various drugs. Moreover, the mechanisms of the influence on the gastric myoelectrical activity of drugs, curative substances and stimulants are presented. PMID:25097708

  6. Active Targeted Nanoparticles for Oral Administration of Gastric Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Zih-Rou; Lai, Chih-Ho; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Feng, Chun-Lung

    2015-09-14

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a commonly diagnosed type of cancer and has a dismal prognosis because of the rate at which it aggressively spreads and because of the lack of effective therapies to stop its progression. This study evaluated a type of oral drug delivery system of a potential target-activated nanosizer comprising a fucose-conjugated chitosan and polyethylene glycol-conjugated chitosan complex with gelatin containing encapsulated green tea polyphenol extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate, allowing oral administration of the drug through a site-specific release in gastric cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles effectively reduced drug release within gastric acids and that a controlled epigallocatechin-3-gallate release inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression. Furthermore, in vivo assay results indicated that the prepared epigallocatechin-3-gallate-loaded fucose-chitosan/polyethylene glycol-chitosan/gelatin nanoparticles significantly affected gastric tumor activity and reduced gastric and liver tissue inflammatory reaction in an orthotopic gastric tumor mouse model. PMID:26286711

  7. Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

  8. Gastric mesenchymal myofibroblasts maintain stem cell activity and proliferation of murine gastric epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Stem cells are influenced by a microenvironmental niche that includes mesenchymal cells. We established a novel long-term method for primary mouse glandular stomach culture with mesenchymal myofibroblasts to investigate gastric epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. A gastric mesenchymal myofibroblast (GMF) cell line was established from mouse glandular stomach. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice and GMF cells were co-cultured in a collagen gel. Cultured stomach cells yielded expanding sphere-like structures. In the GMF co-culture system, the number and size of gastrospheres were increased compared with control cultures (P=0.009 and 0.008, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed cells positive for human gastric mucin, HIK1083, and chromogranin A, indicating differentiation into surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells, respectively. RNA in situ hybridization for Lgr5 showed Lgr5(+) stem cells in the cultured gastrospheres. Lgr5(+) cells were observed persistently in the epithelium of gastrospheres in the GMF co-culture system for 2 months. GMFs allowed the cultured gastric epithelium to maintain active proliferation similar to that seen invivo. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that Gas1 expression was higher in GMFs (P=0.0445), and Hoxc8, Notch1, and Sox10 expressions were higher in intestinal mesenchymal myofibroblasts (P=0.0003, 0.0143, and 0.0488, respectively). We show the potential role of GMFs in sustaining Lgr5(+) stem cell activity and affecting normal gastric epithelial differentiation and proliferation. PMID:25546442

  9. Aripiprazole an atypical antipsychotic protects against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats

    PubMed Central

    Asmari, Abdulrahman Al; Arshaduddin, Mohammed; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Kadasah, Saeed; Robayan, Abdulrahman Al; Asmary, Saeed Al

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken, to study the gastro-protective potential of aripiprazole (ARI) an atypical antipsychotic drug in ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. ARI (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) was tested for gastric secretion and antiulcer activity in different groups of male Sprague Dawley rats. Gastric secretion and acidity studies were performed in pylorus ligated rats while indices of gastric ulcers were measured in ethanol (1 ml-100%) induced gastric ulcers. Histological changes and the levels of gastric wall mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and serotonin were used to assess ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries. Exposure of rats to ethanol resulted in gastric mucosal injury and a high index of ulcer. Pretreatment with ARI significantly (P < 0.001), reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol and also resulted in a significant decrease in the gastric secretion, and total acidity in pylorus ligated rats. ARI also significantly attenuated the ethanol induced reduction in the levels of gastric wall mucus, and NP-SH (P < 0.001). The histological changes and the increased MDA and MPO activity were also significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited by ARI. Ethanol induced depletion in the levels of serotonin in the gastric tissue were also significantly restored by pretreatment with ARI (p < 0.001). ARI showed significant antiulcer and gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers. The gastroprotective effects of ARI may be due to its anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and also due to the restoration of the depleted gastric serotonin levels. PMID:25232384

  10. Gastroprotective effect of minocycline in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats

    PubMed Central

    Asmari, Abdulrahman Al; Omani, Saud Al; Otaibi, Malfi Al; Abdulaaly, Abdul-Aziz Al; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Yahya, Khalid Al; Arshaduddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Minocycline (MCN), a semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative possesses pleiotropic effects and provides protection against a number of disease models. However its effect on gastric ulcers has not been studied. The present investigation was undertaken, to study the gastro-protective potential of MCN in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats. MCN (10, 30, 100 mg/Kg) was tested for gastric secretion and antiulcer activity in different groups of Wistar rats. Gastric secretion and acidity studies were performed in pylorus ligated rats while indices of gastric ulcers were measured in ethanol (1 ml-100%) and indomethacin (30 mg/kg), induced gastric ulcers. Histological changes and the levels of gastric wall mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), were used to assess ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries. Exposure of rats to ulcerogens resulted in gastric mucosal injury and a significant increase in the indices of ulcer. MCN conferred a protective effect against ethanol, and indomethacin induced gastric mucosal injuries. Treatment with MCN, resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of gastric secretion, and total acidity and significantly (P<0.001), reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin. MCN also significantly attenuated the ethanol induced reduction in the levels of gastric wall mucus, and NP-SH (P<0.001). The histological changes and the increased MDA and MPO activity were also significantly (P<0.001) inhibited by MCN. Minocycline showed significant antiulcer and gastroprotective activity against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The gastroprotective effects of minocycline may be due to its anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti inflammatory action. PMID:24753752

  11. Inhibition of intestinal chloride secretion by piperine as a cellular basis for the anti-secretory effect of black peppers.

    PubMed

    Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Wongkrasant, Preedajit; Kumpun, Saowanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2015-10-01

    Piperine is the principal alkaloid in black peppers (Piper nigrum L.), which is a commonly included spice in anti-diarrheal formulations. Piperine has antispasmodic activities, but its anti-secretory effect is not known. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-secretory effect of piperine and its underlying mechanism. Piperine inhibited cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells, similar to black pepper extract. Intraluminal administration of piperine (2 ?g/loop) suppressed cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation by ?85% in mice. The anti-secretory mechanism of piperine was investigated by evaluating its effects on the activity of transport proteins involved in cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion. Notably, piperine inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity (IC50#8'6#10 ?M) without affecting intracellular cAMP levels. The mechanisms of piperine-induced CFTR inhibition did not involve MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux, AMPK or TRPV1. Piperine also inhibited cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels, but it had no effect on Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporters or Na+-K+ ATPases. Piperine suppressed Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) without affecting intracellular Ca2+ concentrations or Ca2+-activated basolateral K+ channels. Collectively, this study indicates that the anti-secretory effect of piperine involves the inhibition of CFTR, CaCC and cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels. Piperine represents a novel class of drug candidates for the treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by the intestinal hypersecretion of Cl-. PMID:26297981

  12. Gastric distention activates satiety circuitry in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Backus, Walter; Wang, Ruiliang; Telang, Frank; Geliebter, Allan; Korner, Judith; Bauman, Angela; Fowler, Joanna S; Thanos, Panayotis K; Volkow, Nora D

    2008-02-15

    Gastric distention during meal ingestion activates vagal afferents, which send signals from the stomach to the brain and result in the perception of fullness and satiety. Distention is one of the mechanisms that modulates food intake. We measured regional brain activation during dynamic gastric balloon distention in 18 health subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses. The BOLD signal was significantly changed by both inflow and outflow changes in the balloon's volume. For lower balloon volumes, water inflow was associated with activation of sensorimotor cortices and right insula. The larger volume condition additionally activated left posterior amygdala, left posterior insula and the left precuneus. The response in the left amygdala and insula was negatively associated with changes in self-reports of fullness and positively with changes in plasma ghrelin concentration, whereas those in the right amygdala and insula were negatively associated with the subject's body mass index. The widespread activation induced by gastric distention corroborates the influence of vagal afferents on cortical and subcortical brain activity. These findings provide evidence that the left amygdala and insula process interoceptive signals of fullness produced by gastric distention involved in the controls of food intake. PMID:18155924

  13. Gastroprotective Effect of an Aqueous Suspension of Black Cumin Nigella sativa on Necrotizing Agents-Induced Gastric Injury in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Al Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; Mossa, Jaber S.; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Rafatullah, Syed; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim Previous studies on Black seed or Black Cumin Nigella sativa (NS) have reported a large number of pharmacological activities including its anti-ulcer potential. These studies employed either fixed oil, volatile oil components or different solvent extracts. In folkloric practices, NS seeds are taken as such, in the form of coarse dry powder or the powdered seeds are mixed with water. This study examines the effect of NS aqueous suspension on experimentally induced gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretion in rats to rationalize its use by herbal and Unani medicine practitioners. Materials and Methods The study was conducted at the Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by various noxious chemicals (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin) in Wistar albino rats. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken in a separate group of rats. Gastric wall mucus contents and non-protein sulfhydryl concentration were estimated, and gastric tissue was examined histopathologically. Results An aqueous suspension of Black seed significantly prevented gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents. It also significantly ameliorated the ulcer severity and basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated Shay rats. Moreover, the suspension significantly replenished the ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus content levels and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion These findings validate the use of Black seed in gastropathies induced by necrotizing agents. The anti-ulcer effect of NS is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its antioxidant and anti-secretory activities. PMID:19568521

  14. Mucosal adenosine deaminase activity and gastric ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Namiot, Z; Marcinkiewicz, M; Jaroszewicz, W; Stasiewicz, J; Gorski, J

    1993-10-26

    Adenosine deaminase activity was studied in gastric corpus mucosa close to an ulcer crater. It was found that 6 weeks of therapy with ranitidine was accompanied by a decrease in enzyme activity in the mucosa around healed ulcers and an increase around those which failed to heal. The different activities of adenosine deaminase in the vicinity of healed and unhealed ulcers may indicate its possible role in peptic ulcer healing. PMID:8276083

  15. Biomagnetic Techniques for Assessing Gastric and Small Bowel Electrical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, L. Alan

    2004-09-01

    Recent advances in electrophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract have emphasized the need for methods of noninvasive assessment of gastric and small intestinal electrical activity (GEA and IEA). While the cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) may reveal the frequency dynamics of gastric electrical activity, other parameters important for characterizing the propagating electrical activity are not available from EGG recordings. Recent studies on the electroenterogram (EENG) are promising, but low-conductivity abdominal layers have complicated the identification of small intestinal electrical rhythms in cutaneous recordings. The magnetogastrogram (MGG) and magnetoenterogram (MENG) are able to characterize gastric and intestinal electrical activity noninvasively in terms of its frequency, power and characteristics of its propagation. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers are used to detect the minute magnetic fields associated with electrical activity of the gastrointestinal syncytium formed by interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle networks. Changes in GEA and IEA that occur in response to disease or abnormal conditions are reflected in MGG and MENG signals. Magnetic methods for assessing the electrical activity of the stomach and small bowel thus show great clinical promise.

  16. Normal gastric antral myoelectrical activity in early onset anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Ravelli, A M; Helps, B A; Devane, S P; Lask, B D; Milla, P J

    1993-01-01

    Anorexia, epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting may result from disordered gastric motility and emptying. These features have been found in many adults with anorexia nervosa, but have never been investigated in early onset anorexia nervosa. In 14 patients with early onset anorexia nervosa (eight of whom had upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms), six children with other eating disorders, four children with non-ulcer dyspepsia, and 10 controls matched for age and sex, the non-invasive technique of surface electrogastrography was used to measure fasting and postprandial gastric antral electrical control activity, which underlies antral motility. The electrical signal was recorded by four bipolar silver/silver chloride electrodes attached to the upper abdomen, amplified and low pass filtered at 0.33 Hz before being displayed on a polygraph, digitised at 1 Hz, and stored on the hard disk of a personal computer for later offline analysis. Patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia had gastric antral dysrhythmias. No significant difference was found in the mean (SD) dominant frequency of the antral electrical control activity between patients with early onset anorexia nervosa (2.86 (0.35) cycles/minute (cpm)), patients with other eating disorders (3.14 (0.65) cpm), and controls (3.00 (0.46) cpm). The amplitude of electrical control activity increased postprandially in all but one subject and the fasting/postprandial amplitude ratio did not significantly differ between patients with early onset anorexia nervosa and controls, though patients with longer established disease had a smaller increase in amplitude. Gastric antral electrical dysrhythmias are not a feature of early onset anorexia nervosa and therefore do not induce or perpetuate food refusal in this disorder. PMID:8215543

  17. Liposomes targeted to deliver antisecretory agents to jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Uwiera, R R; Romancyia, D A; Wong, J P; Forsyth, G W

    1992-01-01

    The B subunit of cholera toxin has been covalently attached to the surface of liposomes made from a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Adenylate cyclase inhibitors and chloride conductance inhibitors were encapsulated within the liposomes. These "targeted" liposomes were used to study the combined effects of this novel delivery system, and a limited number of possible antisecretory agents, on net fluid flux into the pig jejunum. A state of net secretory fluid flux was induced in isolated jejunal loops in weanling pigs by adding theophylline or cholera toxin to the lumen of the isolated loops. There was no reduction in net fluid secretion when liposome suspensions without encapsulated secretory inhibitors were added to fluid in the lumen of loops treated with theophylline. There was also no reduction in net fluid secretion when miconazole, alpha-phenylcinnamate or 5 nitro-2-(3-phenethylamino)benzoate were encapsulated within targeted liposomes added to isolated jejunal loops. The net fluid flux induced by exposure of jejunal loops to theophylline was significantly reduced by adding targeted liposomes containing 2'-deoxy-3'-AMP. The reduction involved a reversal of net secretory fluid flux to an absorptive value. The net fluid secretory response to treatment of loops with cholera toxin was also inhibited by treating loops with targeted liposomes containing 2'-deoxy-3'-AMP. However, the reversal of secretion was less complete for secretion induced by cholera toxin than for secretion induced by theophylline. The reduced antisecretory efficacy versus cholera toxin was not improved by encapsulating higher concentrations of 2'-deoxy-3'-AMP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423062

  18. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  19. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Uemura, Naomi

    2009-12-01

    From many findings, it has been established that persistent infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic active gastritis and subsequently causes the gastric mucosa of the high risk for gastric cancer development. On the other hand, recent Japanese-study results have shown the possibility of gastric cancer prevention by H. pylor eradication. Moreover the development of gastric cancer in uninfected subjects is very rare; therefore, prevention of gastric cancer by H. pylori eradication becomes a topic in Japan. To get rid of gastric cancer from Japan, the risk of gastric cancer should be determined by presence of H. pylori infection in a young fellow, on the other hand, the risk by the examination that combined serum PG method with serum antibody method in subjects after middle aged. It is now expected that eradication treatment should be performed for these high-risk subjects. PMID:19999121

  20. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; Andr, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:23036453

  1. Macrophage Infiltration Induces Gastric Cancer Invasiveness by Activating the ?-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Kuo, Min-Liang; Lin, Ming-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that activated macrophages act in an inflammatory microenvironment to promote gastric tumorigenesis via ?-catenin signaling, the effects of ?-catenin signaling on gastric cancer cell metastasis and the relationship of these cells with surrounding tumor associated macrophages have not been directly studied. Methods Immunohistochemical staining was employed to analyze 103 patients. An invasion assay was used to evaluate the relationship between macrophages and gastric cancer cells. ?-catenin gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were performed. To assess the ?-catenin regulation mechanism in gastric cancer cells, Western blotting and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used. Results Increased density of macrophages was associated with advanced stage and poor survival. Gastric cancer cell lines co-cultured with macrophages conditioned medium showed increased nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin and increased invading ability. AKT but not ERK regulated ?-catenin translocation. MMP7 and CD44, both ?-catenin downstream genes, were involved in macrophage-activated gastric cancer cell invasion. Conclusion(s) Collectively, the clinical data suggest that macrophage infiltration is correlated with increased grade and poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients who underwent radical resection. Macrophages may induce invasiveness by activating the ?-catenin pathway. PMID:26226629

  2. Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-04-01

    For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ?50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9. PMID:21286662

  3. Alkylating activity of processed fish products treated with sodium nitrite in simulated gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Yano, K

    1981-06-01

    The alkylating activity of extracts from several fish products with or without sodium nitrite in simulated gastric juice has been investigated. Some of the extracts had strong alkylating potency which may be due to the action of the formed N-nitrosamides. These compounds were not derived from nitrosation of methylguanidine and agmatine or from pyrolysis products of the processed fish. The results suggest an urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of nitrosation of various foods in simulated gastric juice. PMID:7319202

  4. Piperlongumine as a direct TrxR1 inhibitor with suppressive activity against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Xia, Yiqun; Ji, Jiansong; Chen, Weiqian; Zhang, Jinsan; Chen, Xi; Rajamanickam, Vinothkumar; Chen, Gaozhi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Lingfeng; Wang, Yifeng; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-05-28

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid isolated from the fruit of long pepper, is known to selectively kill tumor cells while sparing their normal counterparts. However, the cellular target and potent anticancer efficacy of PL in numerous types of human cancer cells have not been fully defined. We report here that PL may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, PL induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to PL treatment, and PL displays synergistic lethality with GSH inhibitors (BSO and Erastin) against gastric cancer cells. In vivo, PL treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden. Remarkably, TrxR1 was significantly overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and human gastric cancer tissues. Targeting TrxR1 with PL thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of PL and provides an in-depth insight into the action of PL in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26963494

  5. The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in gastric mucosal protection

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Susan; Steele, Islay; Lyons, Suzanne; Moore, Andrew R.; Murugesan, Senthil V.; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Dimaline, Rod; Pritchard, D. Mark; Varro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Gastric mucosal health is maintained in response to potentially damaging luminal factors. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) disrupt protective mechanisms leading to bleeding and ulceration. The plasminogen activator system has been implicated in fibrinolysis following gastric ulceration, and an inhibitor of this system, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, is expressed in gastric epithelial cells. In Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with normal gastric histology taking aspirin or NSAIDs, we found elevated gastric PAI-1 mRNA abundance compared with controls; the increase in patients on aspirin was independent of whether they were also taking proton pump inhibitors. In the same patients, aspirin tended to lower urokinase plasminogen activator mRNA. Immunohistochemistry indicated PAI-1 localization to epithelial cells. In a model system using MKN45 or AGS-GR cells transfected with a PAI-1 promoter-luciferase reporter construct, we found no evidence for upregulation of PAI-1 expression by indomethacin, and, in fact, cyclooxygenase products such as PGE2 and PGI2 weakly stimulated expression. Increased gastric PAI-1 mRNA was also found in mice following gavage with ethanol or indomethacin, but plasma PAI-1 was unaffected. In PAI-1−/− mice, gastric hemorrhagic lesions in response to ethanol or indomethacin were increased compared with C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice in which PAI-1 is overexpressed in parietal cells, there were decreased lesions in response to ethanol and indomethacin. Thus, PAI-1 expression is increased in gastric epithelial cells in response to mucosal irritants such as aspirin and NSAIDs probably via an indirect mechanism, and PAI-1 acts as a local autoregulator to minimize mucosal damage. PMID:23494120

  6. Inhibition of food stimulated acid secretion by fenoctimine, a new anti-secretory agent.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J G; Robertson, R J; Milton-Thompson, G J

    1983-01-01

    The effect of fenoctimine, a new anti-secretory agent, has been studied on food stimulated acid secretion in six normal volunteers. When tested between 2 and 4 h after dosing, and compared with placebo, fenoctimine 50 mg inhibited acid secretion by a mean of 29%, 150 mg by 43% and 250 mg by 47%. PMID:6871066

  7. Proliferative activity of gastric epithelial cells in Helicobacter pylori infected children.

    PubMed

    Janas, B; Orkisz, S; Bartel, H; Czkwianianc, E; P?aneta-Ma?ecka, I; Suski, S

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with gastric carcinogenesis. Gastric epithelial cells proliferative rate is accelerated in H. pylori infected adult patients. Our study was performed to evaluate proliferative cell activity in gastric epithelium in the course of H. pylori infection in the early stage of its natural history. Gastric antral biopsy specimens were obtained from thirteen H. pylori positive and seven negative children. To assess replication rates we used nucleolar organiser regions staining with colloidal silver nitrate technique (AgNOR). The number of AgNORs per nucleus, area of single AgNOR, and the quotient of these two parameters (AgNOR content) were analysed. The mean area of AgNOR was lower in H. pylori positive than in negative children. Conversely, both the mean number of AgNOR per nucleus and AgNOR content were higher in infected than non infected subjects. These results show accelerated proliferation of gastric antral epithelial cells in the course of H. pylori infection in children. Such alteration of cell replication occurring in an initial phase of natural history of long lasting infection provides an explanation for the association between acquisition of H. pylori infection in the first years of life and the development of gastric cancer. PMID:10833674

  8. Clinical implications of proliferation activity in T1 or T2 male gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Woo; Eom, Bang Wool; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Kim, Han-Seong; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, Hai-Li; Chandra, Vishal; Poojan, Shiv; Song, Yura; Koh, Jae-Soo; Bae, Chang-Dae; Ro, Jungsil; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation activity has already been established as a prognostic marker or as a marker for anticancer drug sensitivity. In gastric cancer, however, the prognostic significance of proliferation activity is still being debated. Several studies evaluating proliferation activity using Ki-67 have shown controversial results in terms of the relationship between proliferation activity and overall survival (OS) or drug sensitivity in gastric cancer patients. Because cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2) staining has recently been introduced as a marker of proliferation activity, we analyzed 437 gastric cancer tissues through CKAP2 immunohistochemistry, and we evaluated the chromatin CKAP2-positive cell count (CPCC) for proliferation activity. Although the CPCC did not show any significant correlation with OS in the male, female or total number of cases, it did show a significant correlation in the T1 or T2 male patient subgroup, according to log-rank tests (P=0.001) and univariate analysis (P=0.045). Additionally, multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazard regression model showed a significant correlation between the CPCC and OS (P=0.039) for the co-variables of age, gender, T stage, N stage, histology, tumor location, tumor size and adjuvant chemotherapy. In male gastric cancer cell lines, faster-growing cancer cells showed higher sensitivity to cisplatin than slow-growing cells. Thus our study indicates that CPCC-measured proliferation activity demonstrates a significantly worse prognosis in T1 or T2 male gastric cancer patients. The CPCC will help to more precisely classify gastric cancer patients and to select excellent candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy, which in turn will facilitate further clinical chemotherapeutic trials. PMID:26542785

  9. Peripheral PACAP inhibits gastric acid secretion through somatostatin release in mice

    PubMed Central

    Piqueras, Laura; Tach, Yvette; Martnez, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Studies in rats suggest that PACAP modulates gastric acid secretion through the release of both histamine and somatostatin. We characterized the effects of exogenous PACAP on gastric acid secretion in urethane-anesthetized mice implanted with a gastric cannula and in conscious 2-h pylorus ligated mice, and determined the involvement of somatostatin and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) by using somatostatin immunoneutralization, the SSTR2 antagonist, PRL-2903, and SSTR2 knockout mice. Urethane-anesthetized wild-type mice had low basal acid secretion (0.100.01 ?mol (10 min)?1) compared with SSTR2 knockout mice (0.930.07 ?mol (10 min)?1). Somatostatin antibody and PRL-2903 increased basal secretion in wild-type mice but not in SSTR2 knockout animals. In wild-type urethane-anesthetized mice, PACAP-38 (3270 ?g kg?1 h?1) did not affect the low basal acid secretion, but inhibited the acid response to pentagastrin, histamine, and bethanechol. In wild-type urethane-anesthetized mice pretreated with somatostatin antibody or PRL-2903 and in SSTR2 knockout mice, peripheral infusion of PACAP-38 or somatostatin-14 did not inhibit the increased basal gastric acid secretion. In conscious wild-type mice, but not in SSTR2 knockout mice, PACAP-38 inhibited gastric acid secretion induced by 2-h pylorus ligation. The antisecretory effect of PACAP-38 was prevented by immunoneutralization of somatostatin. These results indicate that, in mice, peripheral PACAP inhibits gastric acid secretion through the release of somatostatin and the activation of SSTR2 receptors. There is no evidence for stimulatory effects of PACAP on acid secretion in mice. PMID:15023860

  10. Evidence of the gastroprotective and anti- Helicobacter pylori activities of β-mangostin isolated from Cratoxylum arborescens (vahl) blume

    PubMed Central

    Sidahmed, Heyam Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Mohan, Syam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Yahayu, Maizatulakmal; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose β-Mangostin (BM) from Cratoxylum arborescens demonstrated various pharmacological activities such as anticancer and anti-inflammatory. In this study, we aimed to investigate its antiulcer activity against ethanol ulcer model in rats. Materials and methods BM was isolated from C. arborescens. Gastric acid output, ulcer index, gross evaluation, mucus production, histological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid–Schiff staining and immunohistochemical localization for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and Bax proteins were investigated. Possible involvement of reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, prostaglandin E2, antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, radical scavenging, nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds, and anti-Helicobacter pylori were investigated. Results BM showed antisecretory activity against the pylorus ligature model. The pretreatment with BM protect gastric mucosa from ethanol damaging effect as seen by the improved gross and histological appearance. BM significantly reduced the ulcer area formation, the submucosal edema, and the leukocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control. The compound showed intense periodic acid–Schiff staining to the gastric mucus layer and marked amount of alcian blue binding to free gastric mucus. BM significantly increased the gastric homogenate content of prostaglandin E2 glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds. The compound inhibited the lipid peroxidation revealed by the reduced gastric content of malondialdehyde. Moreover, BM upregulate HSP70 expression and downregulate Bax expression. Furthermore, the compound showed interesting anti-H. pylori activity. Conclusion Thus, it could be concluded that BM possesses gastroprotective activity, which could be attributed to the antisecretory, mucus production, antioxidant, HSP70, antiapoptotic, and anti-H. pylori mechanisms. PMID:26834460

  11. DIXDC1 activates the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cong; Qiao, Fan; Wei, Ping; Chi, Yayun; Wang, Weige; Ni, Shujuan; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Tongzhen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    DIXDC1 (Dishevelled-Axin domain containing 1) is a DIX (Dishevelled-Axin) domain-possessing protein that promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and increases the invasion and migration ability of non-small-cell lung cancer via the PI3K pathway. As a positive regulator of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, the biological role of DIXDC1 in human gastric cancer and the relationship between DIXDC1 and the Wnt pathway are unclear. In the current study, the upregulation of DIXDC1 was detected in gastric cancer and was associated with advanced TNM stage cancer, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. We also found that the overexpression of DIXDC1 could promote the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. The upregulation of MMPs and the downregulation of E-cadherin were found to be involved in the process. DIXDC1 enhanced ?-catenin nuclear accumulation, which activated the Wnt pathway. Additionally, the inhibition of ?-catenin in DIXDC1-overexpressing cells reversed the metastasis promotion effects of DIXDC1. These results demonstrate that the expression of DIXDC1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and that DIXDC1 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis through the activation of the Wnt pathway; E-cadherin and MMPs are also involved in this process. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648220

  12. Static magnetic field inhibits 5' nucleotidase activity in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Durak, Zahide Esra; Bber, Sleyman; Kocao?lu, Ender Hilmi; ztrk, Bahad?r

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate possible effects of static magnetic field (SMF) on 5' nucleotidase (5'NT-CD73) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric tissues in order to contribute to the elucidation of the anticancer activity of SMF. Cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric tissues removed from patients by surgical operations were used in the studies. SMF was created using two static magnets. Before and after treatment with SMF, 5'NT and XO activities in the tissue samples were measured. 5'NT activity was found to be lowered, but no significant change was observed in XO activity in the gastric tissues treated with the SMF. Our results suggest that SMF inhibits 5'NT enzyme in gastric tissues significantly. It is supposed that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, inhibition of purine catabolic activity due to inhibition of some key enzymes in the DNA turn-over like 5'NT might also play part in the anticancer activity of SMF. PMID:25372949

  13. Increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator system by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Susan; Duval, Cedric; Sammut, Stephen J; Steele, Islay; Pritchard, D Mark; Atherton, John C; Argent, Richard H; Dimaline, Rod; Dockray, Graham J; Varro, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, but the relevant pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. We now report that H. pylori stimulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and its receptor (uPAR) in gastric epithelial cells and the consequences for epithelial cell proliferation. Real-time PCR of biopsies from gastric corpus, but not antrum, showed significantly increased PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR in H. pylori-positive patients. Transfection of primary human gastric epithelial cells with uPA, PAI-1, or uPAR promoters in luciferase reporter constructs revealed expression of all three in H+/K+ATPase- and vesicular monoamine transporter 2-expressing cells; uPA was also expressed in pepsinogen- and uPAR-containing trefoil peptide-1-expressing cells. In each case expression was increased in response to H. pylori and for uPA, but not PAI-1 or uPAR, required the virulence factor CagE. H. pylori also stimulated soluble and cell surface-bound uPA activity, and both were further increased by PAI-1 knockdown, consistent with PAI-1 inhibition of endogenous uPA. H. pylori stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, which was inhibited by uPA immunoneutralization and uPAR knockdown; exogenous uPA also stimulated proliferation that was further increased after PAI-1 knockdown. The proliferative effects of uPA were inhibited by immunoneutralization of the EGF receptor and of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) by the mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197 and an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. H. pylori induction of uPA therefore leads to epithelial proliferation through activation of HB-EGF and is normally inhibited by concomitant induction of PAI-1; treatments directed at inhibition of uPA may slow the progression to gastric cancer. PMID:18599586

  14. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity. PMID:26715119

  15. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Freitas, Robson Borba; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Klimaczewski, Cludia Vargas; de vila, Daiana Silva; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and their development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. Scutia buxifolia, commonly known as coronilha, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its pharmacological properties and its potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the preventive effects of the crude extract of Scutia buxifolia (ceSb) against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol were evaluated in male Wistar rats. In addition, the composition of ceSb was clarified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). S. buxifolia extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight) attenuated oxidative and histopathological features induced by ethanol. Moreover, all evaluated doses of ceSb caused significant (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) and dose-dependent increase in sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Furthermore, the administration of ceSb reversed the increase in lipid peroxidation produced by ethanol. The protective effect of the extract could be attributed to antioxidant compounds present in the ceSb, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which were quantified by HPLC. Thus, an antioxidant effect of the extract leads to a protection on gastric tissue. These results indicate that S. buxifolia could have a beneficial role against ethanol toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and gastric tissue injury. PMID:26579405

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant and immuno-enhancing activities of Purslane polysaccharides in gastric cancer rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqiao; Hu, Yanke; Shi, Shaojun; Jiang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from plant or animal and used as a promising source of therapeutic agents for cancer. In this study, we examined the effects of Purslane polysaccharides (PPs) on the oxidative injury and immune status in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer rats. PPs administration (200, 400 or 800mg/kg body weight) could not only increase the body weight, peripheral white blood cells (WBC) count, thymus and spleen indexes, but also remarkably promote splenocytes proliferation of gastric cancer rats. Furthermore, the production of serum cytokines in gastric cancer rats, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) was enhanced by PPs treatment. Besides, treatment with PPs was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against MNNG-induced oxidative injury by enhancing SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities of gastric cancer rats. Taken together, we concluded that enhancement of antioxidants and immune response might be responsible for the anticancer effect of PPs in gastric cancer. PMID:24768972

  17. The Sum of Its Parts—Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Spetter, Maartje S.; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural evidence for the importance of sensory stimulation in the process of satiation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01644539. PMID:24614074

  18. Sensitivity and Specificity of Hypnosis Effects on Gastric Myoelectrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Weimer, Katja; Muth, Eric R.; Zipfel, Stephan; Martens, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. Design Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrogastrogram (EGG) was recorded. At the end of the session, participants drank water until they felt full, in order to detect EGG-signal changes after ingestion of a true gastric load. During both conditions participants reported their subjective well-being, hunger and disgust at several time points. Results Imagining eating food induced subjective feelings of hunger and disgust as well as changes in the EGG similar to, but more pronounced than those seen with a real gastric water load during both hypnosis and relaxation conditions. These effects were more pronounced when imagining an appetizing meal than with an unappetizing meal. There was no significant difference between the hypnosis and relaxation conditions. Conclusion Imagination with and without hypnosis exhibits similar changes in subjective and objective measures in response to imagining an appetizing and an unappetizing food, indicating high sensitivity but low specificity. PMID:24358287

  19. BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) promoting gastric cancer cells proliferation via regulation of NF-κB1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Xin-Yang; Ning, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Ai-Liang

    2015-09-18

    Background and objective: Long non-coding RNA, BANCR, has been demonstrated to contribute to the proliferation and migration of tumors. However, its molecular mechanism underlying gastric cancer is still unknown. In present study, we investigated whether BANCR was involved in the development of gastric cancer cells via regulation of NF-κB1. Methods: Human gastric cancer tissues were isolated as well as human gastric cell lines MGC803 and BGC823 were cultured to investigate the role of BANCR in gastric cancer. Results: BANCR expression was significantly up-regulated in gastric tumor tissues and gastric cell lines. Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis, and it also contributed to a significant decrease of NF-κB1 (P50/105) expression and 3′UTR of NF-κB1 activity. Overexpression of NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer cell growth and apoptosis. MiroRNA-9 (miR-9) targeted NF-κB1, and miR-9 inhibitor also reversed the effects of BANCR on gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Conclusion: BANCR was highly expressed both in gastric tumor tissues and in cancer cells. NF-κB1 and miR-9 were involved in the role of BANCR in gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. - Highlights: • BANCR up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines MGC803 and BGC823. • Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited GC cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis. • Down-regulation of BANCR contributed to decreased 3′UTR of NF-κB1 and its expression. • Overexpressed NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on GC cell growth. • miR-9 inhibitor reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer GC cell growth.

  20. Loss of TFF1 promotes Helicobacter pylori-induced ?-catenin activation and gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Soutto, Mohammed; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Washington, M. Kay; Belkhiri, Abbes; Peek, Richard M.; El-Rifai, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the role of TFF1 in suppressing H. pylori-mediated activation of oncogenic ?-catenin in gastric tumorigenesis. A reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells decreased H. pylori-induced ?-catenin nuclear translocation, as compared to control (p < 0.001). These cells exhibited significantly lower ?-catenin transcriptional activity, measured by pTopFlash reporter, and induction of its target genes (CCND1 and c-MYC), as compared to control. Because of the role of AKT in regulating ?-catenin, we performed Western blot analysis and demonstrated that TFF1 reconstitution abrogates H. pylori-induced p-AKT (Ser473), p-?-catenin (Ser552), c-MYC, and CCND1 protein levels. For in vivo validation, we utilized the Tff1-KO gastric neoplasm mouse model. Following infection with PMSS1 H. pylori strain, we detected an increase in the nuclear staining for ?-catenin and Ki-67 with a significant induction in the levels of Ccnd1 and c-Myc in the stomach of the Tff1-KO, as compared to Tff1-WT mice (p < 0.05). Only 10% of uninfected Tff1-KO mice, as opposed to one-third of H. pylori-infected Tff1-KO mice, developed invasive adenocarcinoma (p = 0.03). These findings suggest that loss of TFF1 could be a critical step in promoting the H. pylori-mediated oncogenic activation of ?-catenin and gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:25980439

  1. Effect of peptide YY on gastric motor and secretory activity in vagally innervated and denervated corpus pouch dogs.

    PubMed

    Zai, H; Haga, N; Fujino, M A; Itoh, Z

    1996-03-22

    In this study, we examined the mechanism by which constant intravenous infusion of physiological doses of PYY affects gastric secretion and motility in the vagally innervated (Pavlov) and denervated (Heidenhain) corpus pouch. As a result, only in the Heidenhain pouch, PYY at a dose of 100 pmol/kg-h significantly inhibited gastric secretion in the interdigestive and postprandial states. A dose of 300 pmol/kg-h inhibited the gastric secretion in both types of pouch, but inhibition in the Pavlov pouch was less than in the Heidenhain pouch. The inhibitory effect of PYY on phase III contractile activity was dose-dependent and significant, except in the Heidenhain pouch, and no dose of PYY had any effect on postprandial gastric motility. After all, vagal denervation enhanced the inhibitory effect of PYY on gastric secretion, but abolished the inhibitory effect on phase III contractile activity. Our findings strongly suggest that the inhibitory effect of PYY on gastric secretion is in part mediated by a non-vagal pathway and the inhibitory effect of PYY on gastric motor activities is completely dependent on vagal innervation, but the vagus nerve acts as an inhibitory modulator of the inhibitory effect of PYY on gastric secretion. PMID:8701034

  2. Anticancer activity of CopA3 dimer peptide in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, In-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Yun, Eun-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Mi-Young; Kang, Dong-Chul; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2015-01-01

    CopA3 is a homodimeric ?-helical peptide derived from coprisin which is a defensin-like antimicrobial peptide that was identified from the dung beetle, Copris tripartitus. CopA3 has been reported to have anticancer activity against leukemia cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of CopA3 in human gastric cancer cells. CopA3 reduced cell viability and it was cytotoxic to gastric cancer cells in the MTS and LDH release assay, respectively. CopA3 was shown to induce necrotic cell death of the gastric cancer cells by flow cytometric analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. CopA3-induced cell death was mediated by specific interactions with phosphatidylserine, a membrane component of cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicated that CopA3 mainly caused necrosis of gastric cancer cells, probably through interactions with phosphatidylserine, which suggests the potential utility of CopA3 as a cancer therapeutic. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(6): 324-329] PMID:25047444

  3. TIPE2 functions as a metastasis suppressor via negatively regulating ?-catenin through activating GSK3? in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Zhang, Haitao; Xu, Chun; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Xiumin; Xie, Yufeng; Tao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced protein 8-like 2 (TNFAIP8L2, TIPE2) is a novel anti-inflammatory factor involved in maintaining immune homeostasis. Accumulating evidence has also shown that TIPE2 displays tumor-suppressive effects in several tumor types. Previous studies revealed that TIPE2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by repressing Ral and Rac1 GTPases. However, its antimetastatic activity and underlying mechanism in other human cancers is largely unknown. We investigated TIPE2 in AGS, HGC-27 and SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells compared with GES-1 normal human gastric mucous epithelial cells. We demonstrated that TIPE2 was expressed in GES-1 gastric mucous epithelial cells but lost in all three types of gastric cancer cells. We then performed a gain-of-function study by adenovirus-mediated TIPE2 overexpression (AdVTIPE2) and investigated the effects of TIPE2 on migration and invasion of AGS human gastric cancer cells. Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays showed that forced expression of TIPE2 markedly suppressed the gastric cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Mechanistically, TIPE2 remarkably reduced the total levels of pAKT, pGSK3? and ?-catenin as well as the nuclear level of ?-catenin in gastric cancer cells. The TIPE2-elicited antimetastatic effect in gastric cancer was closely associated with the inhibition of AKT signaling and enhancement of GSK3? activity followed by the degradation and decreased translocation to nucleus of ?-catenin. These results provide the first compelling evidence that TIPE2 suppresses gastric cancer metastasis via downregulating ?-catenin signaling through inhibiting AKT and activating GSK3?, indicating that TIPE2 is a promising therapeutic target for human gastric cancer metastasis. PMID:26530498

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2015-11-01

    The mortality rate of gastric cancer worldwide is as high as 70%, despite the development of novel therapeutic strategies. One reason for the high mortality is the rapid and uninhibited spread of the disease, such that the majority of patients are diagnosed at a stage when efficient therapeutic treatment is not available. Therefore, in-depth research is needed to investigate the mechanism of gastric cancer metastasis and invasion to improve outcomes and provide biomarkers for early diagnosis. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is widely expressed in multicellular organisms, with critical roles in multiple biological processes, such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation, migration, and invasion. The MAPK pathway typically responds to extracellular stimulation. However, the MAPK pathway is often involved in the occurrence and progression of cancer when abnormally regulated. Many studies have researched the relationship between the MAPK signaling pathway and cancer metastasis and invasion, but little is known about the important roles that the MAPK signaling pathway plays in gastric cancer. Based on an analysis of published data, this review aims to summarize the important role that the MAP kinases play in the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer and attempts to provide potential directions for further research and clinical treatment. PMID:26556994

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The mortality rate of gastric cancer worldwide is as high as 70%, despite the development of novel therapeutic strategies. One reason for the high mortality is the rapid and uninhibited spread of the disease, such that the majority of patients are diagnosed at a stage when efficient therapeutic treatment is not available. Therefore, in-depth research is needed to investigate the mechanism of gastric cancer metastasis and invasion to improve outcomes and provide biomarkers for early diagnosis. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is widely expressed in multicellular organisms, with critical roles in multiple biological processes, such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation, migration, and invasion. The MAPK pathway typically responds to extracellular stimulation. However, the MAPK pathway is often involved in the occurrence and progression of cancer when abnormally regulated. Many studies have researched the relationship between the MAPK signaling pathway and cancer metastasis and invasion, but little is known about the important roles that the MAPK signaling pathway plays in gastric cancer. Based on an analysis of published data, this review aims to summarize the important role that the MAP kinases play in the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer and attempts to provide potential directions for further research and clinical treatment. PMID:26556994

  6. Effects of eating on vection-induced motion sickness, cardiac vagal tone, and gastric myoelectric activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uijtdehaage, S. H.; Stern, R. M.; Koch, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of food ingestion on motion sickness severity and its physiological mechanisms. Forty-six fasted subjects were assigned either to a meal group or to a no-meal group. Electrogastrographic (EGG) indices (normal 3 cpm activity and abnormal 4-9 cpm tachyarrhythmia) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured before and after a meal and during a subsequent exposure to a rotating drum in which illusory self-motion was induced. The results indicated that food intake enhanced cardiac parasympathetic tone (RSA) and increased gastric 3 cpm activity. Postprandial effects on motion sickness severity remain equivocal due to group differences in RSA baseline levels. During drum rotation, dysrhythmic activity of the stomach (tachyarrhythmia) and vagal withdrawal were observed. Furthermore, high levels of vagal tone prior to drum rotation predicted a low incidence of motion sickness symptoms, and were associated positively with gastric 3 cpm activity and negatively with tachyarrhythmia. These data suggest that enhanced levels of parasympathetic activity can alleviate motion sickness symptoms by suppressing, in part, its dysrhythmic gastric underpinnings.

  7. Leptin activates STAT and ERK2 pathways and induces gastric cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Rama . E-mail: rpai@uci.edu; Lin Cal; Tran, Teresa; Tarnawski, Andrzej . E-mail: atarnawski@yahoo.com

    2005-06-17

    Although leptin is known to induce proliferative response in gastric cancer cells, the mechanism(s) underlying this action remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that leptin-induced gastric cancer cell proliferation involves activation of STAT and ERK2 signaling pathways. Leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation is independent of ERK2 activation. Leptin increases SHP2 phosphorylation and enhances binding of Grb2 to SHP2. Inhibition of SHP2 expression with siRNA but not SHP2 phosphatase activity abolished leptin-induced ERK2 activation. While JAK inhibition with AG490 significantly reduced leptin-induced ERK2, STAT3 phosphorylation, and cell proliferation, SHP2 inhibition only partially reduced cancer cell proliferation. Immunostaining of gastric cancer tissues displayed local overexpression of leptin and its receptor indicating that leptin might be produced and act locally in a paracrine or autocrine manner. These findings indicate that leptin promotes cancer growth by activating multiple signaling pathways and therefore blocking its action at the receptor level could be a rational therapeutic strategy.

  8. Regulation of Gastric Electrical and Mechanical Activity by Cholinesterases in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Amy A; Forrest, Abigail S; Peri, Lauren E; Ward, Sean M; Hennig, Grant W; Sanders, Kenton M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Gastric peristalsis begins in the orad corpus and propagates to the pylorus. Directionality of peristalsis depends upon orderly generation and propagation of electrical slow waves and a frequency gradient between proximal and distal pacemakers. We sought to understand how chronotropic agonists affect coupling between corpus and antrum. Methods Electrophysiological and imaging techniques were used to investigate regulation of gastric slow wave frequency by muscarinic agonists in mice. We also investigated the expression and role of cholinesterases in regulating slow wave frequency and motor patterns in the stomach. Results Both acetycholinesterase (Ache) and butyrylcholine esterase (Bche) are expressed in gastric muscles and AChE is localized to varicose processes of motor neurons. Inhibition of AChE in the absence of stimulation increased slow wave frequency in corpus and throughout muscle strips containing corpus and antrum. CCh caused depolarization and increased slow wave frequency. Stimulation of cholinergic neurons increased slow wave frequency but did not cause depolarization. Neostigmine (1 μM) increased slow wave frequency, but uncoupling between corpus and antrum was not detected. Motility mapping of contractile activity in gastric muscles showed similar effects of enteric nerve stimulation on the frequency and propagation of slow waves, but neostigmine (> 1 μM) caused aberrant contractile frequency and propagation and ectopic pacemaking. Conclusions Our data show that slow wave uncoupling is difficult to assess with electrical recording from a single or double sites and suggest that efficient metabolism of ACh released from motor neurons is an extremely important regulator of slow wave frequency and propagation and gastric motility patterns. PMID:25843073

  9. Protective activity of crocin against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Mard, Seyyed Ali; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hasan; Teimoori, Ali; Neisi, Niloofar; Mojahedin, Simindokht; Khani, Maryam Zolfaghari Sabzeh; Ahmadi, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the gastro-protective effect of crocin against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Crocin or pantoprazole was administered to rats 30min before indomethacin. Five hours later, the animals were killed and their stomachs were removed and examined macroscopically. Samples of gastric mucosa were collected for microscopic evaluation, mRNA expression of caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was quantified by RT-PCR, and protein levels of COX-1, COX-2, iNOS and caspase-3 were assessed by Western blotting. The pH, volume of gastric effluent and antioxidant activity were measured in 5 separate groups of rats following pylorus ligation. Indomethacin induced significant increases in mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and caspase-3 and increased MDA levels, and reduced the pH of the gastric effluent and protein and mRNA expression of COX-2 and protein expression of COX-1 and mucus content associated with gastric ulceration. Crocin and pantoprazole significantly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of iNOS, caspase-3 and MDA, and reduced mucus content induced by indomethacin. However, unlike pantoprazole, crocin failed to increase COX-1 and pH, but had variable increasing effects on mRNA and protein expression of COX-2. Macroscopic and microscopic observations showed that mucosal erosions induced by indomethacin were significantly inhibited by pantoprazole and crocin. These findings suggest that crocin exerts its gastro-protective effects mainly by inhibition of MDA, reduction in iNOS and caspase-3, and inhibition of the reduction in mucus content induced by indomethacin. Crocin is a novel agent that has potential in the prevention of ulceration induced by NSAIDs. PMID:26439477

  10. Effects of allicin on both telomerase activity and apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wang, Xu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of allicin on both telomerase activity and apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. METHODS: The gastric cancer SGC-7901 adenocarcinoma cells were treated with allicin and the cell cycle, inhibitory rate, apoptosis, telomerase activity and morphologic changes were studied by MTT assay, flow cytometry (FCM), TRAP-PCR-ELISA assay, light microscope, electron microscope respectively. Results were compared with that of AZT (3-Azido-3-deoxythymidine). RESULTS: SGC-7901 cells were suppressed after exposure to allicin of 0.016 mg/mL, 0.05 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL for 48 h. Compared with the control, the difference was significant (P < 0.05). Allicin could induce apoptosis of the cells in a dose-dependent and non-linear manner and increase the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase. Compared with the control, the difference was significant in terms of the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase (P < 0.05). Allicin could inhibit telomerase activity in a time-dependent and dose-dependent pattern. After exposure to allicin at 0.016 mg/mL for 24 hours, SGC-7901 cells showed typical morphologic change. CONCLUSION: Allicin can inhibit telomerase activity and induce apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Allicin may be more effective than AZT. PMID:12970878

  11. Stimulation of gastric acid secretion by rabbit parietal cell A2B adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Arin, Rosa Mara; Vallejo, Ana Isabel; Rueda, Yuri; Fresnedo, Olatz; Ochoa, Begoa

    2015-12-15

    Adenosine modulates different functional activities in many cells of the gastrointestinal tract; some of them are believed to be mediated by interaction with its four G protein-coupled receptors. The renewed interest in the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) subtype can be traced by studies in which the introduction of new genetic and chemical tools has widened the pharmacological and structural knowledge of this receptor as well as its potential therapeutic use in cancer and inflammation- or hypoxia-related pathologies. In the acid-secreting parietal cells of the gastric mucosa, the use of various radioligands for adenosine receptors suggested the presence of the A2 adenosine receptor subtype(s) on the cell surface. Recently, we confirmed A2BR expression in native, nontransformed parietal cells at rest by using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In this study, we show that A2BR is functional in primary rabbit gastric parietal cells, as indicated by the fact that agonist binding to A2BR increased adenylate cyclase activity and acid production. In addition, both acid production and radioligand binding of adenosine analogs to isolated cell membranes were potently blocked by selective A2BR antagonists, whereas ligands for A1, A2A, and A3 adenosine receptors failed to abolish activation. We conclude that rabbit gastric parietal cells possess functional A2BR proteins that are coupled to Gs and stimulate HCl production upon activation. Whether adenosine- and A2BR-mediated functional responses play a role in human gastric pathophysiology is yet to be elucidated. PMID:26468208

  12. Baicalein inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer cells by suppressing the activity of the p38 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi; Rui, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Baicalein, one of the major flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis, has been used in anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapies for a long time. However, the antimetastatic effects and related mechanism(s) in gastric cancer remain unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that administration of baicalein may inhibit the proliferation, motility and invasion of human gastric cancer cell lines by regulating the p38 signaling pathway. In the present study, we found that baicalein could inhibit migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Additionally, after treating with baicalein for 24 h, the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 as well as proteinase activity in gastric cancer cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, baicalein clearly reduced the phosphorylated levels of p38. Combined treatment with p38 activator partially blocked the antimetastatic effects of baicalein, while p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and baicalein resulted in a synergistic reduction in MMP-2 and -9 expression; the invasive ability of gastric cancer cells was also inhibited. In conclusion, baicalein inhibits gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis by reducing cell motility and migration via suppression of the p38 signaling pathway, suggesting that baicalein is a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. PMID:25502212

  13. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage: a simulated large paracetamol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Hoegberg, L C G; Angelo, H R; Kampmann, J P

    2002-01-01

    Aims Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provided evidence of additional efficacy compared with the use of activated charcoal alone. There are also doubts regarding the efficacy of activated charcoal, when administered more than 1 h after the overdose. The aim of this study was to examine if there was a difference in the effect of the two interventions 1 h post ingestion, and to determine if activated charcoal was effective in reducing the systemic absorption of a drug, when administered 2 h post ingestion. Methods We performed a four-limbed randomized cross-over study in 12 volunteers, who 1 h after a standard meal ingested paracetamol 50 mg kg?1 in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h. Serum paracetamol concentrations were determined by h.p.l.c. Percentage reductions in the area under the curve (AUC) were used to estimate the efficacy of each intervention (paired observations). Results There was a significant (P < 0.005) reduction in the paracetamol AUC with activated charcoal at 1 h (median reduction 66%, 95% confidence intervals 49, 76) compared with controls, and a significant (P < 0.01) reduction for gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal at 1 h (median reduction 48.2%, 95% confidence interval 32.4, 63.7) compared with controls. There was no significant difference between the two interventions (95% confidence interval for the difference ?3.8, 34.0). Furthermore, we found a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the paracetamol AUC when activated charcoal was administered 2 h after tablet ingestion when compared with controls (median 22.7%, 95% confidence intervals 13.634.4). Conclusions These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention. PMID:11874395

  14. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22016781

  15. Allicin induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlu; Ha, Minwen; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Ying; Dong, Nannan; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-12-01

    Allicin is an active compound derived from garlic that has been shown to have antitumor properties in vitro. The current study was designed to explore the effects and the underlying mechanism of allicin on gastric cancer cells. The MTT assay was used to detect cell viability. Transmission electron microscopy, Rh123 and propidium iodide staining, annexin V/FITC assay and the mitochondrial membrane potential were used to assess for the presence of apoptosis. Immunocytochemistry, western blot analysis, and Q-RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression. We found that allicin reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, partly through induction of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. At the molecular level, allicin induced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation, with concomitant upregulation of bax and fas expression in the tumor cells. Allicin treatment inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cancer cells. Both intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic Fas/FasL-mediated pathways of apoptosis occur simultaneously in SGC-7901 cells following allicin treatment. Data from the current study demonstrated that allicin should be further investigated as a novel cancer preventive or therapeutic agent in control of gastric cancer, with potential uses in other tumor types. PMID:21042755

  16. Activation of nuclear PTEN by inhibition of Notch signaling induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Lee, H-W; Baek, J-H; Cho, Y-H; Kang, H G; Jeong, J S; Song, J; Park, H-S; Chun, K-H

    2016-01-14

    Mutation in PTEN has not yet been detected, but its function as a tumor suppressor is inactivated in many cancers. In this study we determined that, activated Notch signaling disables PTEN by phosphorylation and thereby contributes to gastric tumorigenesis. Notch inhibition by small interfering RNA or ?-secretase inhibitor (GSI) induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Notch inhibition induced dephosphorylation in the C-terminal domain of PTEN, which led to PTEN nuclear localization. Overexpression of activated Notch1-induced phosphorylation of PTEN and reversed GSI-induced mitotic arrest. Dephosphorylated nuclear PTEN caused prometaphase arrest by interaction with the cyclin B1-CDK1 complex, resulting in their accumulation in the nucleus and subsequent apoptosis. We found a correlation between high expression levels of Notch1 and low survival rates and, similarly, between reduced nuclear PTEN expression and increasing the TNM classification of malignant tumours stages in malignant tissues from gastric cancer patients. The growth of Notch1-depleted gastric tumors was significantly retarded in xenografted mice, and in addition, PTEN deletion restored growth similar to control tumors. We also demonstrated that combination treatment with GSI and chemotherapeutic agents significantly reduced the orthotopically transplanted gastric tumors in mice without noticeable toxicity. Overall, our findings suggest that inhibition of Notch signaling can be employed as a PTEN activator, making it a potential target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:25823029

  17. Effect of cholecystokinin and secretin on contractile activity of isolated gastric muscle strips in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Tian-Zhen; Qu, Song-Yi

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK- 8) and secretin on contractile activity of isolated gastric muscle strips in guinea pigs. METHODS: Each isolated gastric muscle strip was suspended in a t issue chamber containing 5 mL Krebs solution constantly warmed by water jacked at 37 C and supplied with a mixed gas of 95% O2 and 5% CO2. After incubating for 1h under 1g tension, varied concentrations of CCK-8 and se cretin were added respectively in the tissue chamber and the contractile response was measured isometrically on ink-writing recorders. RESULTS: CCK-8 could increase ? all regional circular and longitudinal muscular tension at rest (fundus LM 19.7% 2.1%, P < 0.01; fundus CM 16.7% 2.2%, P < 0.01; gastric body LM 16 .8% 2.3%, P < 0.01; body CM 12.7% 2.6%, P < 0.01; antrum LM 12.3% 1.3%, P < 0.01; antrum CM 16.7% 4.5%, P < 0.01; pylous CM 12.7% 5.0%, P < 0.05); ? contractile frequencies of body LM, both LM and CM of antrum and pylorus CM (5.1/min 0.2/min to 5.6/min 0.2/min, 5.9/min 0.2/min to 6.6/min 0.1/min, 5.4/min 0.3/min to 6.3/min 0.4/min, 1.3/min 0.2/min to 2.3/min 0.3/min, respectively, P < 0.05); ? the mean contractile amplitude of antral circular mus cle (58.6% 18.4%, P < 0.05) and ? the motility index of pylorus CM (145.0% 23.8%, P < 0.01), but decrease the mean contractile ampl itude of gastric body and antral LM (-10.3% 3.3%, -10.5% 4.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). All the CCK-8 effects were not blocked by atropine or ind omethacin. Secretin had no effect on gastric smooth muscle activity. CONCLUSION: CCK-8 possessed both excitatory and inhibitory action on contractile activity of different regions of stomach in guinea pigs.Its action was not mediated via cholinergic M receptor and endogenous prostaglandin receptor. PMID:11819531

  18. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells Promotes Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trans-Activation and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Roberta; Pallone, Francesco; Fina, Daniele; Gioia, Valentina; Peluso, Ilaria; Caprioli, Flavio; Stolfi, Carmine; Perfetti, Alessandra; Giusto Spagnoli, Luigi; Palmieri, Giampiero; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is involved in gastric cancer (GC) cell growth. However, the mechanism that sustains EGFR signaling in GC remains unknown. Since protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, has been shown to trans-activate EGFR in several cell types, we examined the role of PAR-2 in GC. We show here that in vitro activation of PAR-2 enhances the growth of two GC cell lines, AGS and MKN28. In both these cell lines, PAR-2 trans-activated EGFR and inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by AG1478 or specific EGFR siRNA completely prevented PAR-2-driven proliferation. Antibody blockade of EGF-like ligands to EGFR did not modify EGFR signaling or cell growth induced by PAR-2 activation. In contrast, PAR-2 promoted Src activation and interaction of this kinase with EGFR. In support of this, inhibition of Src kinase activity by PP1 or siRNA blocked PAR-2-induced EGFR signaling cascade and cell growth. Finally, PAR-2 was detectable in both normal and GC specimens, but its expression was more pronounced in GC than controls and correlated with activated EGFR. These data show that PAR-2 is overexpressed in GC and suggest a role of PAR-2 in EGFR trans-activation and cell growth. PMID:16816379

  19. Effects of aqueous extract from Silybum marianum on adenosine deaminase activity in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues

    PubMed Central

    ztrk, Bahad?r; Kocao?lu, Ender Hilmi; Durak, Zahide Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Investigation of possible effects of Silybum marianum extract (SME) on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues to obtain information about possible mechanism of anticancer action of S. marianum. Materials and Methods: Cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues removed from patients by surgical operations were used in the studies. The extract was prepared in distilled water. Before and after treatment with the extract, ADA activities in the samples were measured. Results: ADA activity was found to be lowered significantly in cancerous gastric tissues but not in noncancerous gastric tissues after treatment with the SME. In the colon tissues, ADA activities were however found to increase after the treatment of SME. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the aqueous extract from S. marianum inhibits ADA activity in cancerous gastric tissues significantly. It is suggested that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, accumulated adenosine due to the inhibition of ADA might also play a part in the anticancer properties of the S. marianum. PMID:25709224

  20. Psychosocial and physical activity changes after gastric restrictive procedures for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Hawke, A; O'Brien, P; Watts, J M; Hall, J; Dunstan, R E; Walsh, J F; Slavotinek, A H; Elmslie, R G

    1990-10-01

    Gastric restrictive procedures for morbid obesity are frequently performed to reduce problems arising from the physical limitations and social isolation of massive obesity. Numerous reports have described changes in weight after gastric restrictive operations, yet few studies have documented changes in the secondary effects of obesity. This report deals with changes in psychosocial status and physical activity occurring in 240 patients who remained in the study 3 years after surgery. These patients were members of a group of 310 patients who were entered into a prospective randomized trial to assess the relative benefits of three forms of gastric restrictive procedure. Prior to operation, and at yearly intervals after operation, the physical activities and psychosocial status of each patient was assessed by a standardized semi-structured interview. At the time of the three-year interview the median weight loss for these patients was 29.5 kg which represents 53% of excess weight lost. This weight loss was associated with a marked reduction in the amount of food eaten. There was a significant increase in the number of patients smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day and a mild increase in alcohol intake. There were significant improvements in the level of self-image and state of happiness. The social lives and sex lives of the majority of patients were improved and a significantly greater number of patients reported being in a stable emotional relationship at 3 years after operation than did so pre-operatively. There was a marked increase in the number of patients in full-time or part-time employment from 38% prior to surgery to 60% at 3 years after operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2206119

  1. The antisecretory factors: inducible proteins which modulate secretion in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Lnnroth, I; Lange, S; Skadhauge, E

    1988-01-01

    1. Cholera toxin and glucose induce the synthesis of antisecretory factors (ASF) of isoelectric points 5.0 and 4.3, respectively, and of a molecular mass of ca 60,000. 2. ASF, in nanogram amounts, inhibit intestinal secretion induced by cholera toxin, Campylobacter toxin, E. coli heat-stable toxin, C. difficile toxin A, and Dinophysis toxin. 3. Intraspinal injection of cholera toxin and glucose induces the synthesis of pituitary ASF much more effectively than does either peroral or intranasal administration. 4. Cholera toxin and glucose seem to act synergistically while inducing ASF. 5. Vagotomy abolishes both the intestinal effects of ASF and the peroral, but not the intraspinal induction of pituitary ASF. 6. ASF has no effect on ion transport across isolated intestinal mucosa from either pig or hen. 7. The results suggest that both the induction and the intestinal effects of ASF are mediated via the central and intestinal nervous system. PMID:2902968

  2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone activates KCa channels in gastric smooth muscle cells via intracellular Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Petkova-Kirova, P S; Lubomirov, L T; Gagov, H S; Kolev, V B; Duridanova, D B

    2001-03-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is released in high concentrations into gastric juice, but its direct effect on gastric smooth muscles has not been studied yet. We undertook studies on TRH effect on gastric smooth muscle using contraction and patch clamp methods. TRH was found to inhibit both acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions of gastric strips. TRH, applied to single cells, inhibited the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents and activated the whole-cell K+ currents. The TRH-induced changes in K+ currents and membrane potential were effectively abolished by inhibitors of either intracellular Ca2+ release channels or phospholipase C. Neither activators, nor blockers of protein kinase C could affect the action of TRH on K+ currents. In conclusion, TRH activates K+ channels via inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced release of Ca2+ in the direction to the plasma membrane, which in turn leads to stimulation of the Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance, membrane hyperpolarization and relaxation. The data imply that TRH may act physiologically as a local modulator of gastric smooth muscle tone. PMID:11508821

  3. Phytochemical composition, protective and therapeutic effect on gastric ulcer and ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Hamed, Manal A; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Al-Ghamdi, Samira N; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2016-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones [two germacranolides (micranthin and sintenin) and one guaianolide (4?,10?-dihydroxy-5?,7?,8?H-guaia-1,11(13)dien-12,8?-olide)] and four derivatives of 3-methoxy flavones (santin, quercetagetin-3,6,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyl ether, and 5,7 dihydroxy 3,3',4'-trimethoxy flavone) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the aerial parts of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae). Evaluation of protective and therapeutic effects of EAE against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was carried. Antiulcer activity evaluation was done through measuring ulcer indices, stomach acidity, gastric volume and lesion counts. Oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase were also estimated. The work was extended to determine the histopathological assessment of the stomach. Gastric ulcer exhibited a significant elevation of the ulcer index and oxidative stress markers. The extract attenuated these increments and recorded protective and therapeutic effects against gastric ulcer. Hyperglycaemia increases the mucosal susceptibility to ulcerogenic stimuli and predisposes gastric ulceration. In vitro ?-amylase inhibitory assay was applied to evaluate the post prandial antihyperglycaemia activity. The result showing that the EAE has the ability to reduce starch-induced postprandial glycaemic excursions by virtue of potent intestinal ?-amylase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated the remarkable potential of A. biebersteinii as valuable source of antiulcer agent with post prandial hyperglycaemia lowering effect. PMID:25567761

  4. A Newly Identified Extrinsic Input Triggers a Distinct Gastric Mill Rhythm via Activation of Modulatory Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Blitz, Dawn M.; White, Rachel S.; Saideman, Shari R.; Cook, Aaron; Christie, Andrew E.; Nadim, Farzan; Nusbaum, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal network flexibility enables animals to respond appropriately to changes in their internal and external states. We are using the isolated crab stomatogastric nervous system to determine how extrinsic inputs contribute to network flexibility. The stomatogastric system includes the well-characterized gastric mill (chewing) and pyloric (filtering of chewed food) motor circuits in the stomatogastric ganglion. Projection neurons with somata in the commissural ganglia (CoGs) regulate these rhythms. Previous work characterized a unique gastric mill rhythm that occurred spontaneously in some preparations, but whose origin remained undetermined. This rhythm includes a distinct protractor phase activity pattern, during which all active gastric mill circuit and projection neurons fire in a pyloric rhythm-timed activity pattern instead of the tonic firing pattern exhibited by these neurons during previously studied gastric mill rhythms. Here we identify a new extrinsic input, the post-oesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, relatively brief stimulation (30 sec) of which triggers a long-lasting (tens of minutes) activation of this novel gastric mill rhythm at least in part via its lasting activation of CoG projection neurons, including the previously identified MCN1 and CPN2. Immunocytochemical and electrophysiological data suggest that the POC neurons excite MCN1 and CPN2 by release of the neuropeptide Cancer borealis tachykinin-related peptide Ia (CabTRP Ia). These data further suggest that the CoG arborization of the POC neurons comprises the previously identified anterior commissural organ (ACO), a CabTRP Ia-containing neurohemal organ. This endocrine pathway thus appears to also have paracrine actions that include activation of a novel and lasting gastric mill rhythm. PMID:18310125

  5. Differential Role of ERK and p38 on NF-?B Activation in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Hye; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, as well as inflammation, caused by Helicobacter pylori, activates the production of chemokines by activation of redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-?B in gastric epithelial cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinases including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase (p38) are activated by Helicobacter pylori, which may regulate NF-?B activation in the infected cells. However the mechanisms how ERK and p38 induce NF-?B activation have not been investigated. Present study aims to investigate the role of ERK and p38 on the activation of NF-?B in Helicobacter pylori-infected AGS cells. Western blot analysis was performed for determining the levels of I?B, p105, p50 and p65 in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori and treated with ERK inhibitor U0126 and p38 inhibitor SB203580. Helicobacter pylori induced the degradation of I?B? and upregulation of p105, p50 and p65 in the infected cells. U0126 inhibited the degradation of I?B? while SB203580 suppressed expression of p105, p50 and p65 in Helicobacter pylori-infected cells. ERK and p38 differentially activate NF-?B; ERK induces degradation of I?B? while p38 upregulates the expression of p50 and p65, subunits of NF-?B in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells. PMID:25337564

  6. Overexpression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Advanced Gastric Cancer with Aggressive Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yu, Jieun; Kim, Byung Chul; Choi, Boram; Han, Tae-Su; Ahn, Hye Seong; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Woo Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differentially expressed genes using DNA microarray between advanced gastric cancer (AGC) with aggressive lymph node (LN) metastasis and that with a more advanced tumor stage but without LN metastasis. Materials and Methods Five sample pairs of gastric cancer tissue and normal gastric mucosa were taken from three patients with T3N3 stage (highN) and two with T4N0 stage (lowN). Data from triplicate DNA microarray experiments were analyzed, and candidate genes were identified using a volcano plot that showed ? 2-fold differential expression and were significant by Welch's t test (p < 0.05) between highN and lowN. Those selected genes were validated independently by reverse-transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using five AGC patients, and tissue-microarray (TMA) comprising 47 AGC patients. Results CFTR, LAMC2, SERPINE2, F2R, MMP7, FN1, TIMP1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), ITGB8, SDS, and TMPRSS4 were commonly up-regulated over 2-fold in highN. REG3A, CD24, ITLN1, and WBP5 were commonly down-regulated over 2-fold in lowN. Among these genes, overexpression of PAI-1 was validated by RT-PCR, and TMA showed 16.7% (7/42) PAI-1 expression in T3N3, but none (0/5) in T4N0 (p=0.393). Conclusion DNA microarray analysis and validation by RT-PCR and TMA showed that overexpression of PAI-1 is related to aggressive LN metastasis in AGC. PMID:25687870

  7. Propeller-based wireless device for active capsular endoscopy in the gastric district.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Rieber, Fabian; Schurr, Marc Oliver

    2009-01-01

    An innovative approach to active locomotion for capsular endoscopy in the gastric district is reported in this paper. Taking advantage of the ingestion of 500 ml of transparent liquid by the patient, an effective distension of the stomach is safely achieved for a timeframe of approximately 30 minutes. Given such a scenario, an active swallowable capsule able to navigate inside the stomach thanks to a four propeller system has been developed. The capsule is 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and it is composed of a supporting shell containing a wireless microcontroller, a battery and four motors. The motors enable the rotation of propellers located in the rear side of the device, thus obtaining a reliable locomotion and steering of the capsule in all directions in a liquid. The power consumption has been properly optimized in order to achieve an operative lifetime consistent with the time of the diagnostic inspection of the gastric district, assumed to be no more than 30 minutes. The capsule can be easily remotely controlled by the endoscopist using a joystick together with a purposely developed graphical user interface. The capsule design, prototyping, in vitro, ex vivo and preliminary in vivo tests are described in this work. PMID:19707936

  8. Activated CD8+ T cells contribute to clearance of gastric Cryptosporidium muris infections.

    PubMed

    Kv?, M; Koddkov, A; Sak, B; Kv?to?ov, D; Jaloveck, M; Rost, M; Salt, J

    2011-04-01

    The role of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the development of a protective immune response against Cryptosporidium muris infection was studied by the reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with well-defined populations of either naive or immune CD8+ or CD4+ T lymphocytes. Adoptive transfer of both naive and immune CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulations protects SCID mice against cryptosporidiosis. Moreover, a significant biological impact of activated CD8+ T cells against gastric cryptosporidiosis was observed. The significant difference in the course and intensity of the infection in reconstituted SCID mice was found to be dependent on the protective function of both the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations transferred. While SCID mice reconstituted with either immune or naive CD4+ or immune CD8+ T-cell subpopulations resolved the infection within 29, 37 and 51 days post-infection, respectively, those reconstituted with naive CD8+ T cells suffered from chronic infection similar to control SCID mice. Reconstitution with CD4+ T cells resulted in suppression of oocyst excretion and shortening of patent period in comparison with SCID mice reconstituted with CD8+ T cells. Thus, although CD4+ T cells are considered important in protective immunity, our results are the first to demonstrate the involvement of activated CD8+ T lymphocytes in the protection of mice against gastric cryptosporidiosis. PMID:21204850

  9. Effects of genomic imbalances on telomerase activity in gastric cancer: clues to telomerase regulation.

    PubMed

    Gm?-Akay, Gvem; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Unal, Ali Ekrem; Demirkazik, Ahmet; Sunguro?lu, Asuman; Tkn, Ajlan

    2009-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized cellular reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric repeats (TTAGGG) at the ends of each chromosome. Nearly the complete spectrum of human cancers has been shown to be telomerase positive. The understanding of the telomerase regulation in concert with other genetic alterations in the process of malignant transformation of human cells has important clinical and practical implications. Regulation of telomerase activity (TA) is highly complex, and both putative positive and negative regulators have been reported. However, the mechanisms involved in telomerase regulation are not fully established. Identification of additional telomerase components and associated proteins will certainly contribute to further investigations of the effect of telomerase in telomere elongation, telomere length maintenance, oncogenesis, and functionally new, unidentified cellular functions. In this study our aim was to determine the chromosomal localizations of putative unidentified telomerase activator(s) and/or repressor(s) by high resolution-comparative genomic hybridization (HR-CGH) in highly telomerase expressing gastric tumor samples. For this purpose TAs and genomic imbalances were identified in the same tumor samples and relation between these was evaluated. Genomic changes affecting telomerase activity in 50 gastric tumor samples were investigated by HR-CGH. We have found that genomic imbalances including 1q+, 8p+, 8q+, 10q+, 17p-, and 20p+ are associated with the higher telomerase activity. Our results suggest that 1q24, 8p21-p11.2, 8q21.1-q23, 10q21-qter and 20pter-p11.2 may contain putative telomerase activator(s), whereas the 17p12 region may harbor candidate telomerase suppressor(s). PMID:19725225

  10. Esomeprazole: a review of its use in the management of gastric acid-related diseases in adults.

    PubMed

    McKeage, Kate; Blick, Stephanie K A; Croxtall, Jamie D; Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A; Keating, Gillian M

    2008-01-01

    Esomeprazole (Nexium); S-omeprazole) is a single optical isomer proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) approved for the management of reflux oesophagitis, the symptomatic treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), the prevention and healing of NSAID-associated gastric ulcer disease (and the prevention of NSAID-associated duodenal ulcers in the UK), the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated duodenal ulcer disease (and prevention of relapse of H. pylori-associated peptic ulcers in the UK), and the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (and other hypersecretory syndromes in the US).Once-daily oral esomeprazole 40 mg demonstrates greater antisecretory activity than other PPIs. Overall, in well designed clinical studies of 4 weeks' to 6 months' duration in patients with GORD, esomeprazole had similar or better efficacy than other agents. In patients requiring ongoing treatment with NSAIDs, co-therapy with once-daily esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg achieved relief of gastrointestinal symptoms or prevented ulcer occurrence, more effectively than placebo. Esomeprazole was also better than ranitidine 150 mg twice daily in healing NSAID-associated gastric ulcers. In addition, the drug has demonstrated efficacy as part of a triple-therapy regimen for the eradication of H. pylori infection, the healing of H. pylori associated duodenal ulcers and the prevention of relapse of gastric ulcers. Esomeprazole also effectively treated patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Esomeprazole is generally well tolerated with an adverse-event profile similar to that of other PPIs. Thus, the efficacy and tolerability of esomeprazole for the management of GORD and H. pylori eradication remains undisputed, and the data support its use for the first-line treatment of NSAID-associated gastric ulcer disease and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. PMID:18627213

  11. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 is downregulated in gastric cancer tissue and involved in cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhao, Deshou; Sun, Yunwei; Huang, Liya; Zhang, Shuxian; Yuan, Yaozong

    2012-12-01

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1) is a novel modulator of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway that negatively regulates the inflammatory response. It has been also reported to be downregulated in a variety of human cancer cell lines. However, the role of PIAS1 in gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of PIAS1 expression and its regulated mechanisms in gastric cancer cell metastasis. Therefore, the expression of PIASI was explored in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent tissues of gastric cancer with 31 cases of patients, and the prognostic value was analyzed. In addition, the growth and invasion in SGC7901 cells were investigated in the restoration of PIAS1 expression with Ad5/F35-PIAS1 or Ad5/F35-vector or PBS treatment, and the activity of P38MAPK, P-P38MAPK, JNK/SAPK, P-JNK/SAPK, ERK and P-ERK, were detected by western blotting. The tumor migratory factors MMP-9, MMP-2 and ICAM-1 were analyzed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that 22 of 31 (70.9%) gastric cancer specimens showed low levels of PIAS1 expression from immunohistochemistry staining using tissue microarrays. Statistical analysis suggested that the downregulation of PIAS1 was significantly correlated with tumor staging. Furthermore, we found that the restoration of PIAS1 expression mediated by Ad5/F35 virus suppressed cell proliferation and invasion accompanied by the inhibition of P38MAPK and ERK protein expression and activity, but not JNK/SAPK protein. Notably, PIAS1 restoration with the transfection of Ad5/F35-PIAS1 robustly decreased the expression of tumor migratory factors including MMP-9, MMP-2 and ICAM-1 compared to Ad5/F35-vector. These data suggest that PIAS1 may function as a tumor suppressor to regulate gastric cancer cell metastasis by targeting the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22972521

  12. TMPRSS4 promotes invasiveness of human gastric cancer cells through activation of NF-?B/MMP-9 signaling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jie; Shen, Xian; Chen, Lei; Bao, Luo-Wen; Zhu, Li-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4) is a type-II transmembrane serine protease that is frequently upregulated in human cancers. However, little is known about the biological roles of TMPRSS4 in gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the effect of TMPRSS4 on gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) were determined. The involvement of NF-?B/MMP-9 signaling was checked. Our data showed that TMPRSS4 silencing significantly (P<0.05) reduced the migration and invasion of AGS and MKN-45 gastric cancer cells, without affecting cell proliferation. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 significantly promoted cell migration and invasion. The expression and secretion of MMP-9 was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced in TMPRSS4-overexpressing cells. TMPRSS4-overexpressing cells had a significantly (P<0.05) lower level of I?B? and higher level of nuclear NF-?B. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that overexpression of TMPRSS4 resulted in a 3-5-fold increase in NF-?B-dependent luciferase activity. Downregulation of MMP-9 significantly (P<0.05) reversed the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells induced by TMPRSS4 overexpression. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B attenuated the invasion of TMPRSS4-overexpressing cells and the expression of MMP-9. Upregulation of TMPRSS4 enhances the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells, largely through activation of NF-?B and induction of MMP-9 expression. Our study provides the rationale for targeting TMPRSS4 in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26796262

  13. Aberrant blood group activities of ABH substances from human gastric linings.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, S; Nakajima, T; Kogure, T; Furukawa, K

    1987-01-01

    Recently it was shown that enzymes specific to blood groups A and B have an inherent function overlapping each other and that under certain in vitro conditions they exhibit a weak activity to synthesize aberrant blood group substance. In an attempt to examine the results of the in vivo activities of these enzymes, we investigated the activities of blood group substances from human materials. After partial purification and concentration of blood group substances, weak B activities were shown in some materials from group A individuals, especially from gastric linings, and weak A activities in group B materials. Weak A and/or B activities in substances from group O persons were recognized. The reciprocal activities were specifically destroyed by blood group-decomposing enzymes with enhancement of H activity. These results suggest that the A and B enzymes can utilize the reciprocal nucleotide substrate even under in vivo conditions. The results support the inference that blood group O gene-mediated proteins exist and have activities to synthesize A and B structures. PMID:3152541

  14. Prognostic role of telomerase activity in gastric adenocarcinoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    L, MU-HAN; DENG, JIA-QI; CAO, YA-LING; FANG, DIAN-CHUN; ZHANG, YAO; YANG, SHI-MING

    2012-01-01

    Activation of telomerase is involved in carcinogenesis in most types of cancers. However, the prognostic value of telomerase activity (TA) in patients with gastric carcinoma (GC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between TA and the clinical outcome of GC. A meta-analysis of 18 studies (886 patients) was performed to evaluate the association between TA and metastasis-related parameters in GC patients by searching databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science databases, Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) (last search updated in October 2011). We used the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association between TA and metastasis of GC. Our analysis results indicated that high telomerase activity expression tended to be associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (866 patients) (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.213.39, p=0.007), the depth of invasion (886 patients) (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.302.70, p=0.0007), distant metastasis (407 patients) (OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.594.63, p=0.0002), tumor size (466 patients) (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.313.50, p=0.002) and TNM stage (711 patients) (OR=2.39, 95% CI 1.304.41, p=0.005). However, high TA expression was not associated with the presence of histologic differentiation (791 patients) (OR=1.51, 95% CI 0.733.11, p=0.26). In conclusion, telomerase overexpression not only plays a key role in primary initiation, but also promotes invasion and metastatic progression of GC. These findings raise the possibility of using TA to screen for the prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:22969960

  15. MET activation mediates resistance to lapatinib inhibition of HER2-amplified gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Tung; Kim, Hyaehwan; Liska, David; Gao, Sizhi; Christensen, James G.; Weiser, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    HER2 amplification is found in >15% of gastric cancers (GC), and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Lapatinib, a dual HER2 and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has shown promising in-vitro results in treating HER2+ cancer cells. However, several studies have shown that activation of alternative receptor tyrosine kinases can mediate resistance to HER-targeted therapy. Here we investigated whether activated MET can confer resistance to lapatinib inhibition of GC cells. A panel of gastric cancer cell lines were treated with lapatinib and we observed that cell proliferation was reduced by 70% and that the degree of HER2 amplification corresponds to sensitivity to lapatinib. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that phosphorylation of HER2, EGFR, MET, AKT and ERK were inhibited by lapatinib and presumably led to cell cycle arrest as observed using flow cytometry. HGF activation of MET receptors rescued cells from lapatinib-induced growth inhibition by re-stimulating the downstream pathways and restoring normal cell cycle progression. This rescue effect could be abrogated by inhibiting MET using PHA-665752 (a highly specific MET inhibitor), or downregulating MET expression with siRNA. No synergy in growth inhibition was observed when cells were treated with a combination of lapatinib and PHA-665752. Repeat studies using insulin-like growth factor 1 and fibroblast growth factor 3 could not uniformly rescue the lapatinib treated GC cells. In conclusion, HGF/MET mediated resistance to lapatinib is a novel mechanism of resistance to HER2-targeted agents in GC cells. Development of inhibitors targeting multiple receptors or common downstream signaling proteins merits further investigation. PMID:22238368

  16. Gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, E G; Sinar, D R; Swanson, M

    1987-06-01

    The success of gastric bypass probably depends on factors other than merely the restrictive size of the gastric pouch and outlet. Postoperative dumping and a mild degree of malabsorption derived from the redirection of intestinal contents contribute to long-term success. Thus, gastric bypass combines some elements of both malabsorptive and gastric restrictive procedures. PMID:3692600

  17. Electrogastrography in Adults and Children: The Strength, Pitfalls, and Clinical Significance of the Cutaneous Recording of the Gastric Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive technique to record gastric myoelectrical activity from the abdominal surface. Although the recent rapid increase in the development of electrocardiography, EGG still suffers from several limitations. Currently, computer analysis of EGG provides few reliable parameters, such as frequency and the percentage of normal and altered slow wave activity (bradygastria and tachygastria). New EGG hardware and software, along with an appropriate arrangement of abdominal electrodes, could detect the coupling of the gastric slow wave from the EGG. At present, EGG does not diagnose a specific disease, but it puts in evidence stomach motor dysfunctions in different pathological conditions as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Despite the current pitfalls of EGG, a multitasking diagnostic protocol could involve the EGG and the 13C-breath testing for the evaluation of the gastric emptying time—along with validated gastrointestinal questionnaires and biochemical evaluations of the main gastrointestinal peptides—to identify dyspeptic subgroups. The present review tries to report the state of the art about the pathophysiological background of the gastric electrical activity, the recording and processing methodology of the EGG with particular attention to multichannel recording, and the possible clinical application of the EGG in adult and children. PMID:23762836

  18. MicroRNA-19a mediates gastric carcinoma cell proliferation through the activation of nuclear factor-?B

    PubMed Central

    YANG, FAN; WANG, HONGJIAN; JIANG, ZHENYU; HU, ANXIANG; CHU, LISHA; SUN, YILING; HAN, JUNQING

    2015-01-01

    In gastric carcinoma, the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway is highly active, and the constitutive activation of NF-?B prompts malignant cell proliferation. MicroRNAs are considered to be important mediators in the regulation of the NF-?B signaling pathway. The present study predominantly focussed on the effects of microRNA (miR)-19a on NF-?B activation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the relative levels of miR-19a in gastric carcinoma cells. MTT assays were used to determine the effect of miR-19a on cellular proliferation. To detect the activation of NF-?B, western blotting was performed to measure the protein levels of NF-?B and the products of its downstream target genes. To define the target genes, luciferase reporter assays were used. miR-19a was found to be markedly upregulated in gastric carcinoma cells. The overexpression of miR-19a resulted in proliferation and enhanced migratory capabilities of the MGC-803 gastric carcinoma cell line. The results of the western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels of p65 increased when the MGC-803 cells were transfected with miR-19a mimics. In addition, the downstream target genes of miR-19a, including intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, were upregulated. The results of the luciferase assay indicated that I?B-? was the target gene of miR-19a. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that miR-19a enhances malignant gastric cell proliferation by constitutively activating the NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:26239140

  19. A new bisphosphonate derivative, CP, induces gastric cancer cell apoptosis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-jun; Liu, Yu; Fan, Li-qiao; Han, Cai-li; Jiang, Ye; Cheng, Shu-jie; Li, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of a new derivative of bisphosphonates, [2-(6-aminopurine-9-yl)-1-hydroxy-phosphine acyl ethyl] phosphonic acid (CP), on human gastric cancer. Methods: Human gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, BGC-823, MKN-45, and MKN-28) and human colon carcinoma cell lines (LoVo and HT-29) were tested. Cell growth was determined using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry, Western blot, caspase activity assay and siRNA transfection were used to examine the mechanisms of anticancer action. Female BALB/c nude mice were implanted with SGC-7901 cells. From d6 after inoculation, the animals were injected with CP (200 ?g/kg, ip) or vehicle daily for 24 d. Results: CP suppressed the growth of the 6 human cancer cell lines with similar IC50 values (3239 ?mol/L). In SGC-7901 cells, CP arrested cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase. The compound activated caspase-9, increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Furthermore, the compound selectively activated ERK1/2 without affecting JNK and p38 in SGC-7901 cells. Treatment of SGC-7901 cells with the specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 or ERK1/2 siRNA hampered CP-mediated apoptosis. In the human gastric cancer xenograft nude mouse model, chronic administration of CP significantly retarded the tumor growth. Conclusion: CP is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of human carcinoma cells in vitro, and it also exerts significant inhibition on gastric cancer cell growth in vivo. CP induces human gastric cancer apoptosis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:24241351

  20. Nardilysin and ADAM proteases promote gastric cancer cell growth by activating intrinsic cytokine signalling via enhanced ectodomain shedding of TNF-?.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Keitaro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Sawabu, Tateo; Ishizu, Shoko; Nakanishi, Yuki; Nakatsuji, Masato; Akitake-Kawano, Reiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Kawada, Mayumi; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsumoto, Kyoichi; Kunichika, Makoto; Kimura, Takeshi; Seno, Hiroshi; Nishi, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2012-05-01

    Nardilysin (NRDc), a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family, promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of ADAM proteins. Here, we show the growth-promoting role of NRDc in gastric cancer cells. Analyses of clinical samples demonstrated that NRDc protein expression was frequently elevated both in the serum and cancer epithelium of gastric cancer patients. After NRDc knockdown, tumour cell growth was suppressed both in vitro and in xenograft experiments. In gastric cancer cells, NRDc promotes shedding of pro-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (pro-TNF-?), which stimulates expression of NF-?B-regulated multiple cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. In turn, IL-6 activates STAT3, leading to transcriptional upregulation of downstream growth-related genes. Gene silencing of ADAM17 or ADAM10, representative ADAM proteases, phenocopied the changes in cytokine expression and cell growth induced by NRDc knockdown. Our results demonstrate that gastric cancer cell growth is maintained by autonomous TNF-?-NF-?B and IL-6-STAT3 signalling, and that NRDc and ADAM proteases turn on these signalling cascades by stimulating ectodomain shedding of TNF-?. PMID:22351606

  1. Nardilysin and ADAM proteases promote gastric cancer cell growth by activating intrinsic cytokine signalling via enhanced ectodomain shedding of TNF-?

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Keitaro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Sawabu, Tateo; Ishizu, Shoko; Nakanishi, Yuki; Nakatsuji, Masato; Akitake-Kawano, Reiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Kawada, Mayumi; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsumoto, Kyoichi; Kunichika, Makoto; Kimura, Takeshi; Seno, Hiroshi; Nishi, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Nardilysin (NRDc), a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family, promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of ADAM proteins. Here, we show the growth-promoting role of NRDc in gastric cancer cells. Analyses of clinical samples demonstrated that NRDc protein expression was frequently elevated both in the serum and cancer epithelium of gastric cancer patients. After NRDc knockdown, tumour cell growth was suppressed both in vitro and in xenograft experiments. In gastric cancer cells, NRDc promotes shedding of pro-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (pro-TNF-?), which stimulates expression of NF-?B-regulated multiple cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. In turn, IL-6 activates STAT3, leading to transcriptional upregulation of downstream growth-related genes. Gene silencing of ADAM17 or ADAM10, representative ADAM proteases, phenocopied the changes in cytokine expression and cell growth induced by NRDc knockdown. Our results demonstrate that gastric cancer cell growth is maintained by autonomous TNF-?NF-?B and IL-6STAT3 signalling, and that NRDc and ADAM proteases turn on these signalling cascades by stimulating ectodomain shedding of TNF-?. PMID:22351606

  2. miR-30b, Down-Regulated in Gastric Cancer, Promotes Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth by Targeting Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, En-Dong; Li, Na; Li, Bo-Sheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Mao, Xu-Hu; Guo, Gang; Zou, Quan-Ming; Xiao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with tumor development and progression. Our previous studies have revealed that H. pylori infection was able to induce the altered expression of miR-30b in gastric epithelial cells. However, little is known about the potential role of miR-30b in gastric cancer. Methods We analyzed the expression of miR-30b in gastric cancer cell lines and human gastric cancer tissues. We examined the effect of miR-30b mimics on the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro by flow cytometry (FCM) and caspase-3/7 activity assays. Nude mouse xenograft model was used to determine whether miR-30b is involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. The target of miR-30b was identified by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay and Western blot. Finally, we performed the correlation analysis between miR-30b and its target expression in gastric cancer. Results miR-30b was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and human gastric cancer tissues. Enforced expression of miR-30b promoted the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, and miR-30b could significantly inhibit tumorigenicity of gastric cancer by increasing the apoptosis proportion of cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was identified as the potential target of miR-30b, and miR-30b level was inversely correlated with PAI-1 expression in gastric cancer. In addition, silencing of PAI-1 was able to phenocopy the effect of miR-30b overexpression on apoptosis regulation of cancer cells, and overexpression of PAI-1 could suppressed the effect of promoting cell apoptosis by miR-30b, indicating PAI-1 is potentially involved in miR-30b-induced apoptosis on cancer cells. Conclusion miR-30b may function as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer by targeting PAI-1 and regulating the apoptosis of cancer cells. miR-30b could serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer. PMID:25170877

  3. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  4. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  5. Antisecretory therapy with no improvement in functional level in Mnire's disease.

    PubMed

    Ingvardsen, Charlotte J; Klokker, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion Antisecretory factor-inducing (AF) specially processed cereals (SPC) were not shown to significantly improve the functional level in patients with MD. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AF-inducing SPC in patients suffering from Mnire's disease (MD). Methods A randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted. All patients had a 2 months intake of SPC and control cereal with a 2 months washout period in between. The severity of MD was classified according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AOO-HNS) functional scale, and the frequency of attacks was registered. Results Thirty-two patients completed the study. No carryover effect was found. In both functional level and frequency of attacks no significant effect of SPC was found. Seventeen patients showed improvement in functional level when treated with SPC (mean improvement?=?0.9 points) and 14 when treated with placebo (mean improvements?=?0.7 points). No patients showed worsening in functional level during treatment with SPC, but three showed worsening when treated with placebo. Seventeen patients reported fewer attacks when treated with SPC, and 22 when treated with placebo. Three patients reported more frequent attacks when treated with SPC, and three when treated with placebo. A non-parametric comparison and a parametric analysis supported the findings. PMID:26635204

  6. A system and method for online high-resolution mapping of gastric slow-wave activity.

    PubMed

    Bull, Simon H; O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution (HR) mapping employs multielectrode arrays to achieve spatially detailed analyses of propagating bioelectrical events. A major current limitation is that spatial analyses must currently be performed "off-line" (after experiments), compromising timely recording feedback and restricting experimental interventions. These problems motivated development of a system and method for "online" HR mapping. HR gastric recordings were acquired and streamed to a novel software client. Algorithms were devised to filter data, identify slow-wave events, eliminate corrupt channels, and cluster activation events. A graphical user interface animated data and plotted electrograms and maps. Results were compared against off-line methods. The online system analyzed 256-channel serosal recordings with no unexpected system terminations with a mean delay 18 s. Activation time marking sensitivity was 0.92; positive predictive value was 0.93. Abnormal slow-wave patterns including conduction blocks, ectopic pacemaking, and colliding wave fronts were reliably identified. Compared to traditional analysis methods, online mapping had comparable results with equivalent coverage of 90% of electrodes, average RMS errors of less than 1 s, and CC of activation maps of 0.99. Accurate slow-wave mapping was achieved in near real-time, enabling monitoring of recording quality and experimental interventions targeted to dysrhythmic onset. This work also advances the translation of HR mapping toward real-time clinical application. PMID:24860024

  7. Helicobacter pylori Activates Calpain via Toll-Like Receptor 2 To Disrupt Adherens Junctions in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells ?

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Pamela M.; Lapointe, Tamia K.; Jackson, Shannon; Beck, Paul L.; Jones, Nicola L.; Buret, Andre G.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-induced disruption of epithelial adherens junctions (AJs) is thought to promote the development of severe disease; however, the mechanisms whereby H. pylori alters AJ structure remain incompletely understood. The present study demonstrates that H. pylori infection in human patients is associated with elevated serum levels of an 80-kDa E-cadherin ectodomain, whose presence is independent of the presence of serum antibodies against CagA. In vitro, a heat-labile H. pylori surface component activates the host protease calpain in human gastric MKN45 cells independently of the virulence factors CagA and VacA. H. pylori-induced calpain activation results in cleavage of E-cadherin to produce a 100-kDa truncated form and induce relocalization of E-cadherin and ?-catenin. Stimulation of MKN45 cells with the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand P3C activated calpain and disrupted E-cadherin and ?-catenin in a pattern similar to that induced by H. pylori. Inhibition of TLR2 prevented H. pylori-induced calpain activation and AJ disassembly. Together, these findings identify a novel pathway whereby H. pylori activates calpain via TLR2 to disrupt gastric epithelial AJ structure. PMID:21825064

  8. Gastric Na+K+ATPase activity and intestinal urea hydrolysis of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Harlow, H J; Braun, E J

    1997-11-01

    The blood diet of the vampire bat represents an extraordinarily high ratio of protein to other nutrients and the highest water consumption per body weight of any other mammal. This bat has a unique gastrointestinal morphology that is characterized by a reduced small intestine, absence of a large intestine and intestinal cecum and the presence of a water-absorptive gastric fundus. The present study demonstrates that the gastric fundus has a greater Na+K+ATPase activity for active ion transport compared with other equally sized mammals. This activity is believed to be necessary to establish a gradient favoring water absorption across what would otherwise be an osmotic disequilibrium. The absence of a large intestine and intestinal cecum may reflect a reduced urea hydrolysis by the vampire bat. The present study demonstrated that the vampire bat does not hydrolyze urea as does an equally sized non-sanguinivorous mammal. These data suggest that the blood diet and the relocation of water-absorptive tissue from the lower intestinal tract to the stomach is associated with an active ion transport mechanism in the gastric tissue and a reduced capacity for ureolytic microbes to hydrolyze urea in the intestine. Both processes are specializations for a diet high in protein and water. PMID:9406442

  9. Sonic hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of rat gastric mucosal cells through ERK activation by elevating intracellular calcium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Hirohide . E-mail: hohnishi@jichi.ac.jp; Takano, Koji; Noguti, Takasi; Mashima, Hirosato; Hoshino, Hiroko; Kita, Hiroto; Sato, Kiichi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2006-06-02

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced DNA synthesis in RGM-1 cells and elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). In addition, Shh as well as calcium ionophore A32187 rapidly activated ERK. However, Shh failed to activate ERK under calcium-free culture condition. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059 attenuated the DNA synthesis promoted by Shh. Moreover, when cells were pretreated with cyclopamine, Shh could not elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, activate ERK or promote DNA synthesis. On the other hand, although Shh induced Gli-1 nuclear accumulation in RGM-1 cells, Shh activated ERK even in cells pretreated with actinomycin D. These results indicate that Shh promotes the proliferation of RGM-1 cells through an intracellular calcium- and ERK-dependent but transcription-independent pathway via Patched/Smoothened receptor system.

  10. Ethanol induced NF-{kappa}B activation protects against cell injury in cultured rat gastric mucosal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Harri; Hietaranta, Antti; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kemppainen, Esko; Paimela, Hannu; Kiviluoto, Tuula; Kivilaakso, Eero

    2007-06-01

    Ethanol is a well-established irritant inducing inflammation in gastric mucosa, but the effects at the cellular level remain unclear. This study investigates NF-kappaB activation in gastric mucosal cells by ethanol and assesses the effects of heat shock pretreatment in this ulcerogenic situation. Rat gastric mucosal epithelia were exposed to ethanol for different time periods. Heat shock was induced by incubating the cells at 42 degrees C for 1 h prior to the experiments. For evaluation of NF-kappaB activation, the nuclear fraction of the cell lysates was analyzed with an EMSA or an ELISA-based assay. Caspase-3 (a promoter of apoptosis) activity was measured with a time-resolved fluorescence based assay, cell viability with a tetrazolium assay, and cell membrane integrity with a LDH assay. Ethanol (1-5%) induced NF-kappaB activation, reaching a maximum after 3 h, and also led to moderately increased COX-2 expression. Heat shock pretreatment and the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA were able to inhibit ethanol-induced NF-kappaB activation. Heat shock pretreatment decreased ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation, decreased cell membrane damage, and retained cellular viability. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by NEMO-binding peptide, by decreasing RelA expression, or by inhibiting COX-2 activity by CAY-14040 promoted the effects of ethanol, such as increased caspase-3 activity and decreased cell viability. In conclusion, ethanol induces NF-kappaB activation via a calcium-dependent pathway and induces COX-2 expression. Inhibition of the NF-kappaB activation or COX-2 activity potentiates apoptosis and cell damage induced by ethanol, suggesting a protective role for NF-kappaB activation and COX-2 expression. PMID:17347452

  11. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptormediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  12. Antisecretory agents for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: rationale for use and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ronnie Tung-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2003-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Over the past decade, there has been notable research on the use of various prophylactic agents in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis. The most widely investigated drug is the antisecretory agent somatostatin and its analogue octreotide. Both agents are potent inhibitors of exocrine secretion of the pancreas, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis by causing autodigestion of pancreas. In addition, somatostatin and octreotide appear to have anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects, both of which may be protective against post-ERCP pancreatitis. Furthermore, somatostatin has been shown to relax the sphincter of Oddi, whereas octreotide increases the basal pressure of the sphincter. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of somatostatin and octreotide in reducing post-ERCP pancreatitis. The results of these trials vary due to different patient populations and experimental designs. Overall, the available evidence suggests that somatostatin reduces the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis, whereas octreotide does not. Whether the difference in efficacy between the two drugs is related to their differential effects on sphincter of Oddi motility or is due to other reasons remains unclear. Although there is some evidence supporting the use of somatostatin in reducing the frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis, it is widely agreed that generalized treatment of all patients undergoing ERCP with prophylactic somatostatin may not be cost-effective. Further studies should focus on the elucidation of the most cost-effective dosage regimen of somatostatin and it efficacy in patients at high risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis. PMID:12555014

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide represses activation of tumor-associated macrophages in gastric cancer via regulation of TNF?, IL-6, IL-12 and iNOS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Yuan, Weijie; Chen, Zhikang; Wu, Shaobin; Ge, Jie; Chen, Jinxiang; Chen, Zihua

    2015-10-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been regarded as deactivator for macrophages. However, the depressive effect of VIP on tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) has not been recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effect of VIP on gastric cancer via TAM by suppressing expression levels of TNF?, IL-6, IL-12 and iNOS. Real-time PCR was carried out to examine the expression of CD68 to determine the levels of TAM. The effect of VIP on cell activities was assayed by proliferation assay, colony formation and flow cytometry analysis. The co-culture of TAM and human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 were performed to understand whether the VIP affects the gastric cancer cells via TAM. Further, the tumor formation in a nude mouse model and VIP injection were performed to illustrate the effect on tumor progression in vivo. CD68 was high expressed in gastric cancer indicating high level of TAM in gastric cancer. Treatment with VIP significantly depressed TAM activation. Moreover, the expression of TNF?, IL-6, IL-12 and iNOS in TAM were depressed by VIP treatment, and the VIP treated TAM depressed gastric cancer cells. The experiment in the nude mouse model also suggested that by injection with TAM+VIP, the tumor volume and tumor weight were both decreased significantly. These data suggest that treatment with VIP inhibits gastric cancer. PMID:26314485

  14. Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Both the endogenous antisecretory factor (AF) protein and peptide AF-16, which has a sequence that matches that of the active N-terminal region of AF, inhibit the increase in the epithelial transport of fluid and electrolytes induced by bacterial toxins in animal and ex vivo models. We conducted a study to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide AF-16 against the increase of transcellular passage and paracellular permeability promoted by the secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) in a cultured cellular model of the human intestinal epithelial barrier. Peptide AF-16 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the Sat-induced increase in the formation of fluid domes, in the mucosal-to-serosal passage of d-[1-14C]mannitol, and in the rearrangements in the distribution and protein expression of the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins ZO-1 and occludin in cultured human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. In addition, we show that peptide AF-16 also inhibits the cholera toxin-induced increase of transcellular passage and the Clostridium difficile toxin-induced effects on paracellular permeability and TJ protein organization in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. Treatment of cell monolayers by the lipid raft disorganizer methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished the inhibitory activity of peptide AF-16 at the transcellular passage level and did not modify the effect of the peptide at the paracellular level. PMID:25534938

  15. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  16. Clinical impact of the HGF/MET pathway activation in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Graziano, F; Catalano, V; Lorenzini, P; Giacomini, E; Sarti, D; Fiorentini, G; De Nictolis, M; Magnani, M; Ruzzo, A

    2014-10-01

    In gastric cancer, available clinical studies focusing on the activated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway are limited to surgical and often heterogeneous series. MET copy number gain (CNG) and an activating truncation in the HGF promoter (deoxyadenosine tract element, DATE+) were studied in tumors of 95 patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy. Associations with overall survival (OS) and the pattern of metastatic disease were studied. Median OS was 9.7 months in 80 MET CNG <5 copies cases (MET-), and 6.4 months in 15 MET CNG was ⩾5 copies cases (MET+) (P=0.001). MET+ status confirmed the adverse prognostic effect in the multivariate model. A significantly different distribution of MET+/DATE+ and MET-/DATE- cases was observed between patients with and without peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). MET+ status confirms its adverse prognostic role in advanced gastric cancer patients. The activated MET/HGF axis seems to be associated with PC. These findings are relevant to the development of anti-MET/HGF compounds. PMID:24663077

  17. CXCL1 promotes tumor growth through VEGF pathway activation and is associated with inferior survival in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhe-Wei; Xia, Guang-Kai; Wu, Ying; Chen, Wei; Xiang, Zhen; Schwarz, Roderich E; Brekken, Rolf A; Awasthi, Niranjan; He, Yu-Long; Zhang, Chang-Hua

    2015-04-10

    The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) regulates tumor-stromal interactions and tumor invasion. However, the precise role of CXCL1 on gastric tumor growth and patient survival remains unclear. In the current study, protein expressions of CXCL1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in primary tumor tissues from 98 gastric cancer patients were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). CXCL1 overexpressed cell lines were constructed using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent or lentiviral vectors. Effects of CXCL1 on VEGF expression and local tumor growth were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CXCL1 was positively expressed in 41.4% of patients and correlated with VEGF and p-STAT3 expression. Higher CXCL1 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage and poorer prognosis. In vitro studies in AGS and SGC-7901 cells revealed that CXCL1 increased cell migration but had little effect on cell proliferation. CXCL1 activated VEGF signaling in gastric cancer (GC) cells, which was inhibited by STAT3 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) blockade. CXCL1 also increased p-STAT3 expression in GC cells. In vivo, CXCL1 increased xenograft local tumor growth, phospho-Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), p-STAT3 levels, VEGF expression and microvessel density. These results suggested that CXCL1 increased local tumor growth through activation of VEGF signaling which may have mechanistic implications for the observed inferior GC survival. The CXCL1/CXCR2 pathway might be potent to improve anti-angiogenic therapy for gastric cancer. PMID:25641338

  18. Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement

    PubMed Central

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus. PMID:25378912

  19. Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus. PMID:25378912

  20. Effects of cimetidine on adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa stimulated by histamine, sodium fluoride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate.

    PubMed

    Anttila, P; Westermann, E

    1976-08-01

    Cimetidine, a recently developed histamine H2-receptor blocking agent has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rat, cat, dog and man. To study the mode of action of cimetidine the modification of stimulatory effects of histamine, sodium flouride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate by cimetidine on the adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa was studied. The effect of cimetidine was also compared to that of metiamide, an older histamine H2-receptor antagonist. The effect of cimetidine was qualitatively similar to that of metiamide, i.e. a selective blockade of histamine H2-receptors. Quantitatively cimetidine was about 10-fold more potent than metiamide. PMID:13313

  1. Inhibition by prostaglandin E1 of gastric secretion in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Nezamis, James E.; Robert, Andr; Stowe, David F.

    1971-01-01

    1. The effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on gastric secretion was studied in dogs equipped with gastric fundic pouches, either innervated (Pavlov) or denervated (Heidenhain). 2. PGE1 inhibited gastric secretion (volume, acid concentration, acid output, pepsin output) when given either by constant intravenous infusion or by single intravenous injection. The degree of inhibition was dose dependent. 3. The antisecretory effect of PGE1 was demonstrated against gastric stimulants which operate through different mechanisms. Thus, PGE1 counteracted the secretogogue effect of: (a) histamine dihydrochloride; the ED50 was 05-10 ?g/kg. min for a submaximal dose, and 10-15 ?g/kg. min for a maximal dose; (b) pentagastrin; the ED50 was around 025 ?g/kg. min; (c) food; the ED50 was 05 to 075 ?g/kg. min; (d) 2-deoxyglucose; the ED50 was less than 01 ?g/kg. min. 4. Although in some experiments, nausea and vomiting were observed during administration of PGE1, the antisecretory property of the substance is not related to a vomiting reflex, since (a) an antiemetic, such as atropine, prevented vomiting without interfering with the effect of PGE1, and (b) profuse vomiting elicited by apomorphine did not reduce gastric secretion stimulated by either histamine or pentagastrin. 5. The mechanism by which PGE1 inhibits gastric secretion is unknown. Studies by others have shown that the compound reduces gastric mucosal blood flow, inhibits acid formation from gastric mucosa when applied in vitro and may change the rate of formation of gastric cyclic AMP. It is likely that PGE1 interferes with biochemical processes, within parietal and chief cells, which lead to elaboration of gastric juice. 6. Unlike most gastric inhibitors, PGE1 appears to act as a protective shield against most, if not all, gastric stimulants. Since prostaglandins of the E series are naturally occurring substances and are normally present in the stomach, they may play a role in the regulation of gastric secretion. PMID:4399409

  2. Activated Pak4 expression correlates with poor prognosis in human gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Danni; Zhang, Ye; Li, Zhi; Wang, Ximing; Qu, Xiujuan; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Despite considerable advances in gastrectomy and chemotherapy, the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) has not noticeably improved due to lymph node or distant metastases. P21-activated serine/threonine kinase 4 (Pak4) plays an important role in cell morphology and cytoskeletal reorganization-both prerequisite steps for cell migration. However, it is still unclear if activated Pak4 (p-Pak4) is related to prognosis in GC patients. In our study, the level of p-Pak4 in 95 GC tissue specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We observed significant correlation between the level of p-Pak4 and grosstype (advanced stage GC vs. early stage GC, P = 0.04). Moreover, GC patients with higher p-Pak4 levels had a poorer prognosis than those with lower p-Pak4 levels (17 vs. 38 months, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that high phosphorylation level of Pak4, advanced stage GC, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors for GC patients (p-Pak4, P = 0.026; advanced stage GC, P = 0.030; lymph node metastasis, P = 0.016). In addition, in vitro assays indicated that knockdown of Pak4 accompanied with decreased p-Pak4, inhibited cell migration via downregulation of the traditional downstream signaling pathways of Pak4, LIMK1, and cofilin. In conclusion, this report reveals that high level of p-Pak4 correlates with poor prognosis in GC, thereby suggesting that p-Pak4 might be a potential prognostic marker for GC. PMID:26124003

  3. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  4. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the ?-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  5. Protective effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) on gastric mucosal epithelium through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2).

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinfeng; Sun, Zhaorui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hongmei; Shao, Danbing; Ren, Yi; Wen, Yanfang; Cao, Liping; Wolfram, Joy; Yang, Zhizhou; Nie, Shinan

    2015-06-01

    The rapid repair of gastric mucosa is critical upon exposure to injurious agents. Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is a member of the trefoil factor family domain peptides, which play an important role in the cytoprotection of gastric epithelium. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that are responsible for ITF-induced gastric epithelial repair remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that ITF enhances the proliferation and migration of GES-1 gastric endothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Furthermore, the ITF-mediated protection of GES-1 cells from a NS398 (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) was dependent on the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Taken together, the results provide a mechanistic explanation for ITF-mediated protection of gastric epithelial mucosa cells, suggesting that activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway may provide a new therapeutic strategy for repairing gastric injury. PMID:25776570

  6. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-?B in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers. PMID:26694339

  7. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Antnio Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, Jos Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of environmental, host genetic, and bacterial factors associated with risk of gastric cancer, to molecular and cell biology approaches aiming at understanding the interaction between H. pylori and the transforming epithelial cell. In this review an account of the last years research activity on the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer will be given. PMID:18783519

  8. Gastric toxicity and mucosal ulceration induced by oxygen-derived reactive species: protection by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, D; Biswas, K; Bhattacharyya, M; Reiter, R J; Banerjee, R K

    2001-09-01

    Uncontrolled hydrochloric acid secretion and ulceration of the stomach mucosa due to various factors are serious global problems. Although the mechanism of acid secretion from the parietal cell is now well understood, the processes involved in gastric ulceration are still not clear. Among various causes of gastric ulceration, lesions caused by stress, alcohol consumption, Helicobacter pylori infection and due to use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs have been shown to be mediated largely through the generation of reactive oxygen species, especially the hydroxyl radical. A number of excellent drugs have proven useful in controlling hyperacidity and ulceration but their long-term use is associated with disturbing side-effects. Hence, the search is still on to find a compound possessing antisecretory, antiulcer and antioxidant properties which will serve as a therapeutic agent to reduce gastric hyperacidity and ulcers. This article describes the role of reactive oxygen species in gastric ulceration, drugs controlling them with their merits and demerits and, the role of melatonin, a pineal secretory product, in protecting against gastric lesions. In experimental studies, melatonin has been shown to be effective in reducing mucosal breakdown and ulcer formation in a wide variety of situations. Additionally, the low toxicity of melatonin supports further investigation of this molecule as a gastroprotective agent. Finally, we include a commentary on how melatonin research with respect to gastric pathophysiology can move forward with a view of eventually using this indole as a therapeutic agent to control gastric ulceration in humans. PMID:11899094

  9. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in gastric ulceration: protection by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debashis; Biswas, Kaushik; Bhattacharyya, Mrinalini; Reiter, Russel J; Banerjee, Ranajit K

    2002-06-01

    Uncontrolled hydrochloric acid secretion and ulceration in the stomach due to various factors are serious global problems today. Although the mechanism of acid secretion from the parietal cell is now fairly known, the mechanism of gastric ulceration is still not clear today. Among various causes of gastric ulceration, lesions caused by stress, alcohol consumption, Helicobacter pylori infection and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs have been shown to be mediated largely through the generation of reactive oxygen species especially hydroxyl radical (*OH). A number of excellent drugs have been proved useful in controlling hyperacidity and ulceration but their long term uses are not devoid of disturbing side-effects. Hence, the search is still on to find out a compound possessing antisecretory, antiulcer and antioxidant properties which will serve as a powerful therapeutic agent to cure gastric hyperacidity and ulcer. This article describes the role of reactive oxygen species in gastric ulceration, drugs controlling them with their merits and demerits and, the role of melatonin, a pineal hormone in protecting the gastric lesions with a final commentary on how melatonin research with respect to gastric pathophysiology can be taken forward with a view to projecting this indole as a promising therapeutic agent to control gastric ulceration in humans. PMID:12587717

  10. Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dicken, Bryan J.; Bigam, David L.; Cass, Carol; Mackey, John R.; Joy, Anil A.; Hamilton, Stewart M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This update reviews the epidemiology and surgical management, and the controversies of gastric adenocarcinoma. We provide the relevance of outcome data to surgical decision-making and discuss the application of gene-expression analysis to clinical practice. Summary Background Data: Gastric cancer mortality rates have remained relatively unchanged over the past 30 years, and gastric cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Well-conducted studies have stimulated changes to surgical decision-making and technique. Microarray studies linked to predictive outcome models are poised to advance our understanding of the biologic behavior of gastric cancer and improve surgical management and outcome. Methods: We performed a review of the English gastric adenocarcinoma medical literature (19802003). This review included epidemiology, pathology and staging, surgical management, issues and controversies in management, prognostic variables, and the application of outcome models to gastric cancer. The results of DNA microarray analysis in various cancers and its predictive abilities in gastric cancer are considered. Results: Prognostic studies have provided valuable data to better the understanding of gastric cancer. These studies have contributed to improved surgical technique, more accurate pathologic characterization, and the identification of clinically useful prognostic markers. The application of microarray analysis linked to predictive models will provide a molecular understanding of the biology driving gastric cancer. Conclusions: Predictive models generate important information allowing a logical evolution in the surgical and pathologic understanding and therapy for gastric cancer. However, a greater understanding of the molecular changes associated with gastric cancer is needed to guide surgical and medical therapy. PMID:15621988

  11. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi; Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF{beta} enhanced gastric cancer cell growth and ADAM inhibitors suppressed this effect. EGFR phosphorylation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were suppressed in ADAM17 knockdown cells. Conclusion: HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and EGFR transactivation from proHB-EGF shedding mediated by ADAM17 activated by TGF{beta} might be an important pathway of gastric cancer cell proliferation by TGF{beta}.

  12. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mehmet; Demir, Halit; Karakaya, Cengiz; Ozbek, Hanefi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of acute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and the effect of Nigella sativa L oil (NS) and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) in an exper-imental model. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned into 4 groups. Control group was given physiologic saline orally (10 mL/kg body weight) as the vehicle (gavage); ethanol group was administrated 1 mL (per rat) absolute alcohol by gavage; the third and fourth groups were given NS (10 mL/kg body weight) and TQ (10 mg/kg body weight p.o) respectively 1 h prior to alcohol intake. One hour after ethanol administration, stomach tissues were excised for macroscopic examination and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: NS and TQ could protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of absolute alcohol and promote ulcer healing as evidenced from the ulcer index (UI) values. NS prevented alcohol-induced increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation. NS also increased gastric glutathione content (GSH), enzymatic activities of gastric superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Likewise, TQ protected against the ulcerating effect of alcohol and mitigated most of the biochemical adverse effects induced by alcohol in gastric mucosa, but to a lesser extent than NS. Neither NS nor TQ affected catalase activity in gastric tissue. CONCLUSION: Both NS and TQ, particularly NS can partly protect gastric mucosa from acute alcohol-induced mucosal injury, and these gastroprotective effects might be induced, at least partly by their radical scavenging activity. PMID:16425361

  13. Melittin induces human gastric cancer cell apoptosis via activation of mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Gui-Mei; Tao, Wen-Hua; Diao, Ya-Li; Fang, Peng-Hua; Wang, Ji-Jun; Bo, Ping; Qian, Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effects of melittin on SGC-7901 cells via activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS: SGC-7901 cells were stimulated by melittin, and its effect on proliferation and apoptosis of was investigated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, morphologic structure with transmission electron microscopy, annexin-V/propidium iodide double-staining assay, measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels, and analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytochrome C (Cyt C), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (Endo G), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac)/direct IAP binding protein with low isoelectric point (Diablo), and FAS were analyzed by western blot. The expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 was measured using activity assay kits. RESULTS: Melittin was incubated at 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 6.0 μg/mL for 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 h and showed a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of SGC-7901 cell growth. Melittin induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis, which was confirmed by typical morphological changes. Treatment with 4 μg/mL melittin induced early apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, and the early apoptosis rates were 39.97% ± 3.19%, 59.27% ± 3.94%, and 71.50% ± 2.87% vs 32.63% ± 2.75% for 1, 2, and 4 h vs 0 h (n = 3, P < 0.05); the ROS levels were 616.53% ± 79.78%, 974.81% ± 102.40%, and 1330.94% ± 93.09% vs 603.74% ± 71.99% (n = 3, P < 0.05); the MMP values were 2.07 ± 0.05, 1.78 ± 0.29, and 1.16 ± 0.25 vs 2.55 ± 0.42 (n = 3, P < 0.05); caspase-3 activity was significantly higher compared to the control (5492.3 ± 321.1, 6562.0 ± 381.3, and 8695.7 ± 449.1 vs 2330.0 ± 121.9), but the caspase activity of the non-tumor cell line L-O2 was not different from that of the control. With the addition of the caspase-3 inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO), caspase-3 activity was significantly decreased compared to the control group (1067.0 ± 132.5 U/g vs 8695.7 ± 449.1 U/g). The expression of the Cyt C, Endo G, and AIF proteins in SGC-7901 cells was significantly higher than those in the control (P < 0.05), while the expression of the Smac/Diablo protein was significantly lower than the control group after melittin exposure (P < 0.01). Ac-DEVD-CHO did not, however, have any effect on the expression of caspase-8 and FAS in the SGC-7901 cells. CONCLUSION: Melittin can induce apoptosis of human gastric cancer (GC) cells through the mitochondria pathways, and it may be a potent agent in the treatment of human GC. PMID:27003995

  14. A synergistic interaction between transcription factors nuclear factor-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been implicated in gastric cancer metastasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of the interaction between NF-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in controlling metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells. Methods Immunohistochemistry for NF-κB p65 (RelA), phospho-Tyr705-STAT3 (pSTAT3), or matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was performed on tissue array slides containing 255 gastric carcinoma specimens. NF-κB inhibition in SNU-638 and MKN1 gastric cancer cell lines were performed by transduction with a retroviral vector containing NF-κB repressor mutant of IκBα, and STAT3 was silenced by RNA interference. We also did luciferase reporter assay, double immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. Cell migration and invasion were determined by wound-healing assay and invasion assay, respectively. Results NF-κB and STAT3 were constitutively activated and were positively correlated (P = 0.038) in gastric cancer tissue specimens. In cell culture experiments, NF-κB inhibition reduced STAT3 expression and activation, whereas STAT3 silencing did not affect NF-κB activation. Moreover, both NF-κB inhibition and STAT3 silencing decreased gastric cancer cell migration and invasion in a synergistic manner. In addition, both NF-κB activation and STAT3 activation were positively correlated with MMP9 in gastric cancer tissues (P = 0.001 and P = 0.022, respectively), decreased E-cadherin expression and increased Snail and MMP9 expressions in cultured cells. Conclusion NF-κB and STAT3 are positively associated and synergistically contribute to the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells. Thus, dual use of NF-κB and STAT3 inhibitors may enhance the efficacy of the anti-metastatic treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:23402362

  15. Inhibition of gastric H+,K+-ATPase activity by flavonoids, coumarins and xanthones isolated from Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Alavez-Solano, Dagoberto; Estrada-Muiz, Elizabeth; Kauffman, Frederick C; Sanchez, Rosa I; Mesia-Vela, Sonia

    2006-04-21

    Medicinal plants are commonly used in Latin American folk medicine for the treatment of gastric problems. In order to understand the properties of some of their chemical constituents, four natural xanthones, an acetylated derivative, two coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea C/OA) isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess and two flavonoids (minimiflorin and mundulin) isolated from Lonchocarpus oaxacensis Pittier, and the chalcone lonchocarpin isolated from Lonchocarpus guatemalensis Benth were tested for their activities on gastric H+,K+-ATPase isolated from dog stomach. All the compounds tested inhibited H+,K+-ATPase activity with varied potency. The xanthones inhibited the H+,K+-ATPase with IC50 values ranging from 47 microM to 1.6 mM. Coumarins inhibited H+,K+-ATPase with IC50 values of 110 and 638 microM. IC50 values for the flavonoids ranged from 9.6 to 510 microM among which minimiflorin was the most potent. The results suggest that H+,K+-ATPase is sensitive to inhibition by several types of structurally different natural compounds. The potency of the effects on gastric H+,K+-ATPase depends on the presence, position and number of hydroxyls groups in the molecule. Collectively, these results suggest a potential for important pharmacological and toxicological interactions by these types of natural products at the level of H+,K+-ATPase which may explain, at least in part, the gastroprotective properties, indicated by traditional medicine, of the plants from which these compounds were isolated. PMID:16314059

  16. Gastric Cancer Epidemiology in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer has been the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Korea although the age-standardized mortality and incidence has decreased gradually during last two decades. Helicobacter pylori infection and cigarette smoking are well-established risk factors, and the role of dietary factors, such as salted foods, fresh vegetables and fruits, soy foods, and processed or grilled meats on gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested. In this review, we review national and international gastric cancer statistics, studies on environmental risk factors conducted in the Korean population, and gastric cancer screening activities. PMID:22076217

  17. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  18. Role of nitrosation in the mutagenic activity of coal dust: a postulation for gastric carcinogenesis in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Whong, W.Z.; Long, R.; Ames, R.G.; Ong, T.M.

    1983-12-01

    The mutagenicity of coal dust solvent extracts with and without nitrosation was studied using the Salmonella/microsome assay system. Coal dust solvent extracts were either nonmutagenic or very weakly mutagenic with S9 activation. High mutagenic activities, however, were found when extracts of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal dusts were reacted with nitrite under an acidic condition. Formation of mutagens from coal dust extracts by nitrosation was highest at pH 3.2 and decreased with increasing pH in the reation mixture. Mutagenic activity appeared to be independent of metabolic activation. The mutagens formed from nitrosation of coal dust extracts induced frameshift mutations. The results reported here may have possible implications for the explanation of an elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners.

  19. Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 26 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 g/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words: ethyl 4-(3, 5-di-ter-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylamino) benzoate; toxicity; antioxidant; gastric-ulcer; anti-ulcer; histology; immunohistochemistry. PMID:24800807

  20. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Gui-Fen; Chen, Shi-Yao; Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai ; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng; Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing; Song, Dong-Li

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GC cells by regulating apoptotic signaling, which could be a promising therapeutic approach for gastric cancer.

  1. Glutamine Deprivation Causes Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Interleukin-8 Expression via Jak1/Stat3 Activation in Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Youngha; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Janus kinase (Jak)/Signal transducers of activated transcription (Stat) pathway is an upstream signaling pathway for NF-?B activation in Helicobacter pylori-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in gastric epithelial AGS cells. H. pylori activates NADPH oxidase and produces hydrogen peroxide, which activates Jak1/Stat3 in AGS cells. Therefore, hydrogen peroxide may be critical for IL-8 production via Jak/Stat activation in gastric epithelial cells. Glutamine is depleted during severe injury and stress and contributes to the formation of glutathione (GSH), which is involved in conversion of hydrogen peroxide into water as a cofactor for GSH peroxidase. Methods: We investigated whether glutamine deprivation induces hydrogen peroxide-mediated IL-8 production and whether hydrogen peroxide activates Jak1/Stat3 to induce IL-8 in AGS cells. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of glutamine or hydrogen peroxide, with or without GSH or a the Jak/Stat specific inhibitor AG490. Results: Glutamine deprivation decreased GSH levels, but increased levels of hydrogen peroxide and IL-8, an effect that was inhibited by treatment with GSH. Hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of Jak1/Stat3 time-dependently. AG490 suppressed hydrogen peroxide- induced activation of Jak1/Stat3 and IL-8 expression in AGS cells, but did not affect levels of reactive oxygen species in AGS cells. Conclusions: In gastric epithelial AGS cells, glutamine deprivation increases hydrogen peroxide levels and IL-8 expression, which may be mediated by Jak1/Stat3 activation. Glutamine supplementation may be beneficial for preventing gastric inflammation by suppressing hydrogen peroxide-mediated Jak1/Stat3 activation and therefore, reducing IL-8 production. Scavenging hydrogen peroxide or targeting Jak1/Stat3 may also prevent oxidant-mediated gastric inflammation. PMID:26473156

  2. Dramatic increase in SHP2 binding activity of Helicobacter pylori Western CagA by EPIYA-C duplication: its implications in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Lisa; Hayashi, Takeru; Senda, Toshiya; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori is critically associated with the development of gastric cancer. The cagA-encoded CagA is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via type IV secretion, where it interacts with and thereby deregulates the pro-oncogenic phosphatase SHP2. East Asian CagA and Western CagA are two major CagA species produced by H. pylori circulating in East Asian countries and in the rest of the world, respectively. The SHP2 binding site of Western CagA, termed the EPIYA-C segment, variably duplicates and infection with H. pylori carrying Western CagA with multiple EPIYA-C segments is a distinct risk factor of gastric cancer. Here we show that duplication of EPIYA-C from one to two or more increases SHP2 binding of Western CagA by more than one hundredfold. Based on the decisive difference in SHP2 binding, Western CagA can be divided into two types: type I CagA carrying a single EPIYA-C segment and type II CagA carrying multiple EPIYA-C segments. Gastric epithelial cells expressing type II CagA acquire the ability to invade extracellular matrices, a malignant cellular trait associated with deregulated SHP2. A big leap in SHP2 binding activity may therefore provide molecular basis that makes type II Western CagA a distinct gastric cancer risk. PMID:26507409

  3. Gastric culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

  4. Gastroprokinetic activity of nizatidine, a new H2-receptor antagonist, and its possible mechanism of action in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Ueki, S; Seiki, M; Yoneta, T; Aita, H; Chaki, K; Hori, Y; Morita, H; Tagashira, E; Itoh, Z

    1993-01-01

    We studied the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of a new H2-antagonist, nizatidine, in in vitro experiments and its gastroprokinetic action in the dog and rat in comparison with other H2-antagonists, neostigmine and cisapride. The IC50 of nizatidine for AChE was 6.7 x 10(-6) M, and this activity was reversible. The relative anti-AChE potency was in the following order: neostigmine > nizatidine > cimetidine > famotidine. The inhibition of AChE by nizatidine was noncompetitive, with a Ki value of 7.4 x 10(-6) M. Gastrointestinal (GI) motility was examined during the interdigestive state in dogs with chronically implanted force transducers. Nizatidine (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased the motor index in a dose-dependent manner. It was of interest that the contractile response of the GI tract to nizatidine was similar to the interdigestive migrating contractions-like activity. At the doses used in this study, neither cimetidine nor famotidine had a significant effect on the motor index. Neostigmine at a higher dose of 0.06 mg/kg and cisapride at 0.3 mg/kg were found to stimulate GI contractions. Gastric emptying was determined in rats given phenol red as a liquid test meal. Nizatidine (3 mg/kg, i.p., or above) significantly increased gastric emptying, whereas the other H2-antagonists had no such effect. The ED50 and ED90 values of nizatidine for inhibition of gastric acid secretion were 0.18 and 3.22 mg/kg in dogs, and 2.94 and 19.6 mg/kg in rats, respectively. These findings suggest that nizatidine stimulates GI contractions and accelerates gastric emptying at gastric antisecretory doses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8093722

  5. Reversal by NPY, PYY and 3-36 molecular forms of NPY and PYY of intracisternal CRF-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, M.; Junien, J. L.; Reeve, J. R.; Rivier, J.; Grandt, D.; Tach, Y.

    1996-01-01

    1. The Y receptor subtype involved in the antagonism by neuropeptide Y (NPY) of intracisternal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion was studied in urethane-anaesthetized rats by use of peptides with various selectivity for Y1, Y2 and Y3 subtypes: NPY, a Y1, Y2 and Y3 agonist, peptide YY (PYY), a Y1 and Y2 agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, a Y1 and Y3 agonist, NPY(3-36) and PYY(3-36), highly selective Y2 agonists and NPY(13-36) a weak Y2 and Y3 agonist. Peptides were injected intracisternally 10 min before intracisternal injection of CRF (10 micrograms) and gastric acid secretion was measured by the flushed technique for 1 h before and 2 h after pentagastrin-(10 micrograms kg-1 h-1, i.v.) infusion which started 10 min after CRF injection. 2. Intracisternal injection of CRF (10 micrograms) inhibited by 56% gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin. Intracisternal injection of NPY and PYY (0.1-0.5 microgram) did not influence the acid response to pentagastrin but blocked CRF-induced inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion. NPY(3-36) (0.5 microgram) and PYY(3-36) (0.25 and 0.5 microgram) also completely blocked the inhibitory action of CRF on pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion. 3. [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY (0.5-5 micrograms) and NPY(13-36) (0.5-5 micrograms) injected intracisternally did not modify gastric acid secretion induced by pentagastrin or CRF inhibitory action. 4. The sigma antagonist, BMY 14802 (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) did not influence the acid response to pentagastrin but prevented the antagonism by PYY(3-36) (0.5 microgram) of the CRF antisecretory effect. 5. These results show that both PYY and NPY and the 3-36 forms of PYY and NPY are equipotent in blocking central CRF-induced inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. The structure-activity profile suggests a mediation through Y2 receptor subtype and the involvement of sigma binding sites. PMID:8735621

  6. Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Pandian, R Suja; Anuradha, C V; Viswanathan, P

    2002-08-01

    The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) compared to omeprazole was studied on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract and a gel fraction isolated from the seeds showed significant ulcer protective effects. The cytoprotective effect of the seeds seemed to be not only due to the anti-secretory action but also to the effects on mucosal glycoproteins. The fenugreek seeds also prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation induced by ethanol presumably by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa thereby lowering mucosal injury. Histological studies revealed that the soluble gel fraction derived from the seeds was more effective than omeprazole in preventing lesion formation. These observations show that fenugreek seeds possess antiulcer potential. PMID:12127242

  7. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  8. RUNX3 Suppresses Gastric Epithelial Cell Growth by Inducing p21WAF1/Cip1 Expression in Cooperation with Transforming Growth Factor ?-Activated SMAD

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xin-Zi; Yang, Jeung-Ook; Lee, Kwang-Youl; Ito, Kosei; Sakakura, Chohei; Li, Qing-Lin; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cha, Eun-Jeung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Kaneda, Atsushi; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Kim, Wun-Jae; Ito, Yoshiaki; Bae, Suk-Chul

    2005-01-01

    RUNX3 has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor of gastric cancer. The gastric mucosa of the Runx3-null mouse develops hyperplasia due to enhanced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis accompanied by a decreased sensitivity to transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1). It is known that TGF-?1 induces cell growth arrest by activating CDKN1A (p21WAF1/Cip1), which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and this signaling cascade is considered to be a tumor suppressor pathway. However, the lineage-specific transcription factor that cooperates with SMADs to induce p21 expression is not known. Here we show that RUNX3 is required for the TGF-?-dependent induction of p21 expression in stomach epithelial cells. Overexpression of RUNX3 potentiates TGF-?-dependent endogenous p21 induction. In cooperation with SMADs, RUNX3 synergistically activates the p21 promoter. In contrast, RUNX3-R122C, a mutation identified in a gastric cancer patient, abolished the ability to activate the p21 promoter or cooperate with SMADs. Furthermore, areas in mouse and human gastric epithelium where RUNX3 is expressed coincided with those where p21 is expressed. Our results suggest that at least part of the tumor suppressor activity of RUNX3 is associated with its ability to induce p21 expression. PMID:16135801

  9. Primary gastric tuberculosis report of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Patel, Nikhil D; Amarapurkar, Anjali D

    2003-01-01

    Background Gastric tuberculosis is rare, and usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis or an immunodeficient state. Here, we report five cases of gastric tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients without evidence of pulmonary involvement. Case presentation Three patients presented with gastric outlet obstruction that required surgery to relieve the obstruction as well as to confirm the diagnosis. The remaining two had involvement of gastroesophageal junction. All of them responded well to standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusion Though gastric tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered a possibility when patients present with gastric outlet obstruction or with endoscopic evidence of diffuse chronic inflammatory activity, particularly in areas endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:12703983

  10. Anti-tumor Activity of Ferulago angulata Boiss. Extract in Gastric Cancer Cell Line via Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Shafagh; Akrami, Hassan; Gharaei, Roghaye; Jalili, Ali; Mahdiuni, Hamid; Golezar, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. known in Iran as Chavir, has some bioactive compounds having antioxidant activity. Because of its antioxidant activities, it sounded Chavir extract can be a good candidate for finding chemopreventive agents having inductive apoptosis properties on cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxic effects and proapoptotic activities of Chavir’s leaf and flower extracts were investigated on human adenocarcinoma gastric cell line (AGS). The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extract. Cytotoxic effects of the extract were performed by trypan blue and neutral red assays. For apoptosis detection, we used Annexin V staining, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays. The FRAP assay results showed that antioxidant activity of leaf extract was higher than flower extract. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis–inducing activity of flower and leaf extracts changed coordinately, indicating the cytotoxicity of chavir extracts is due probably to induce apoptosis. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic effects of F. angulate Boiss. extracts on AGS cell line is close to some other plant extracts such as Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) and Scutellaria litwinowii. This is the first study on cytotoxic and apoptosis–inducing effects of chavir leaf and flower extracts against AGS cell line. The Further investigation can be identification of the agent(s) by which these effects is observed. PMID:25587323

  11. Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 0.49 vs 12.0 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 0.87 vs 12.0 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models. PMID:21160779

  12. Rapid gastric emptying, rather than delayed gastric emptying, might provoke functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Zai, Hiroaki; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kuribayashi, Shikou; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-04-01

    It has been suggested that there could be three possible mechanisms of gastric dysfunction in patients with FD: (i) delayed gastric emptying, (ii) impaired gastric accommodation of food intake, and (iii) hypersensitivity to gastric distention. Postprandial fullness seems to be the most severe symptom in patients who report aggravation of their symptoms after meals. Therefore, it has been assumed that delayed gastric emptying and consequent prolonged antral distension could reduce hunger, increase satiety, and even cause gastric discomfort, all of which would pose a significant barrier to adequate nutrition. We previously reported that postprandial water intake inhibits gastric antral motility along with an increase of cholecystokinin (CCK) in normal subjects. We assumed that the rapid increase of CCK after water intake was initiated by a feedback mechanism related to the inflow of fatty chyme into the duodenum that inhibits gastric antral activity. This duodeno-gastric interaction is known as the "duodenal break." We also reported that total gastric emptying was more rapid after the intake of a high-viscosity liquid meal than after a low-viscosity meal, because the low-viscosity liquid meal inhibits gastric emptying after rapid initial inflow into the duodenum. Considering these results, we hypothesized that rapid gastric emptying, rather than delayed gastric emptying, could be a cause of FD. In some patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), we have found a significant correspondence between PDS-related dyspepsia and accelerated gastric emptying in the early postprandial period. It is worth emphasizing that the duodenum and the duodeno-gastric interaction (duodenal break) could have an important role in the pathophysiology of FD. We consider that rapid gastric emptying might be a more important factor than delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD. PMID:21443715

  13. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  14. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation. PMID:26168984

  15. Identification of a transforming growth factor beta-1 activator derived from a human gastric cancer cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, M.; Kato, J.; Takimoto, R.; Terui, T.; Mogi, Y.; Niitsu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that some types of tumour cells produce activated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1). However, the mechanism for the activation of TGF-beta 1 derived from tumour cells has not been fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to characterise an activator of latent TGF-beta 1 secreted from a human gastric cancer cell line, KATO-III. Western blot analyses using antibodies for TGF-beta 1, latency associated peptide (LAP) and latent TGF-beta 1-binding protein (LTBP) revealed that, in the cell lysate of KATO-III, TGF-beta 1 protein was expressed as a small latent complex of TGF-beta 1 and LAP. This was also confirmed by a gel chromatographic analysis of the cell lysate obtained from KATO-III. A 2.5 kb transcript of TGF-beta 1 mRNA was detected in KATO-III cells by Northern blot analysis. A gel chromatographic analysis of the conditioned medium from KATO-III cells revealed, in addition to the active form of TGF-beta 1, a factor which activated latent TGF-beta 1 from NRK-49F cells at fractions near a molecular size of 65,000. This factor was inactivated by heat (100 degrees C), acidification, trypsin and serine protease inhibitors. TGF-beta 1 activity in KATO-III cell lysate was not detected in the untreated state, but potent TGF-beta 1 activity was detected after acid treatment. These results suggest that KATO-III releases not only a latent TGF-beta 1 complex but also a type of serine protease, different from plasmin, plasminogen activator, cathepsin D, endoglycosidase F or sialidase, which activates the latent TGF-beta 1 complex as effectively as acid treatment. Images Figure 1 PMID:7669580

  16. Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Contribute to Gastric Immune Regulation by Providing Retinoic Acid to Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Kao, John Y.; Zhang, Min; Cochrun, Steven; Mannon, Peter; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, Charles M.; Mnkemller, Klaus E.; Harris, Paul R.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Smith, Phillip D.; Smythies, Lesley E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule, retinol, and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of retinol synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric DCs. Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation. PMID:25249167

  17. Cytoprotection by prostaglandins in rats. Prevention of gastric necrosis produced by alcohol, HCl, NaOH, hypertonic NaCl, and thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Robert, A; Nezamis, J E; Lancaster, C; Hanchar, A J

    1979-09-01

    Oral administration to fasted rats of either absolute ethanol, 0.6 N hydrochloric acid, 0.2 N sodium hydroxide, 25% sodium chloride, or boiling water produced extensive necrosis of the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with several prostaglandins of the A, E, or F type, either orally or subcutaneously, prevented such necrosis, and the effect was dose-dependent. This property of prostaglandins is called "cytoprotection." The protective effect against oral administration of absolute ethanol was already maximal 1 min after PGE2 given orally, and 15-30 min after PGE2 given subcutaneously. Cytoprotection by prostaglandins is unrelated to the inhibition of gastric acid secretion since, (a) it is maximal at doses that have no effect on gastric secretion, and (b) anti-secretory compounds (cimetidine, methscopolamine bromide) and antacids are not cytoprotective. Although the mechanism of gastric cytoprotection is unknown, prostaglandins appear to increase the resistance of gastric mucosal cells to the necrotizing effect of strong irritants. These results suggest that certain prostaglandins, by a mechanism other than the inhibition of gastric acid secretion, maintain the cellular integrity of the gastric mucosa, and might be beneficial in the treatment of a variety of diseases in which gastric mucosal injury is present. PMID:456839

  18. Helicobacter pylori FKBP-type PPIase promotes gastric epithelial cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth through activation of ERK-mediated mitogenic signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmei; Chen, Moye; Gong, Yuehua; Liu, Ziyang; Li, Aodi; Kang, Dan; Han, Fang; Liu, Jingwei; Liu, Jun; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Though Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been classified as class I carcinogen, key virulence factor(s) generated by H. pylori that causes gastric cancer remains to be fully determined. Here, we show that deletion of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) prevented H. pylori from stimulating human gastric epithelial cell (AGS) proliferation. Consistent with this observation, ectopic expression of H. pylori PPIase promoted AGS cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of PPIase-induced effect, early signal events involved in mitogenic signaling pathways were evaluated. Expression of H. pylori PPIase caused an increase in basal as well as EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK and EGF receptor at Tyr1086. Treatment with MEK inhibitor completely blocked PPIase-induced cell proliferation. Our results suggest that H. pylori PPIase has the potential to activate mitogenic signaling pathway and to promote transformation of gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori PPIase may represent a novel target for therapeutic management of gastric cancer patients. PMID:25687921

  19. Combined Secretomics and Transcriptomics Revealed Cancer-Derived GDF15 is Involved in Diffuse-Type Gastric Cancer Progression and Fibroblast Activation.

    PubMed

    Ishige, Takayuki; Nishimura, Motoi; Satoh, Mamoru; Fujimoto, Mai; Fukuyo, Masaki; Semba, Toshihisa; Kado, Sayaka; Tsuchida, Sachio; Sawai, Setsu; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Togawa, Akira; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kaneda, Atsushi; Nomura, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is classified into two subtypes, diffuse and intestinal. The diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) has poorer prognosis, and the molecular pathology is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify functional secreted molecules involved in DGC progression. We integrated the secretomics of six gastric cancer cell lines and gene expression analysis of gastric cancer tissues with publicly available microarray data. Hierarchical clustering revealed characteristic gene expression differences between diffuse- and intestinal-types. GDF15 was selected as a functional secreted molecule owing to high expression only in fetal tissues. Protein expression of GDF15 was higher in DGC cell lines and tissues. Serum levels of GDF15 were significant higher in DGC patients as compared with healthy individuals and chronic gastritis patients, and positively correlated with wall invasion and lymph node metastasis. In addition, the stimulation of GDF15 on NIH3T3 fibroblast enhanced proliferation and up-regulated expression of extracellular matrix genes, which were similar to TGF-? stimulation. These results indicate that GDF15 contributes to fibroblast activation. In conclusion, this study revealed that GDF15 may be a novel functional secreted molecule for DGC progression, possibly having important roles for cancer progression via the affecting fibroblast function, as well as TGF-?. PMID:26892343

  20. Combined Secretomics and Transcriptomics Revealed Cancer-Derived GDF15 is Involved in Diffuse-Type Gastric Cancer Progression and Fibroblast Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ishige, Takayuki; Nishimura, Motoi; Satoh, Mamoru; Fujimoto, Mai; Fukuyo, Masaki; Semba, Toshihisa; Kado, Sayaka; Tsuchida, Sachio; Sawai, Setsu; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Togawa, Akira; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kaneda, Atsushi; Nomura, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is classified into two subtypes, diffuse and intestinal. The diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) has poorer prognosis, and the molecular pathology is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify functional secreted molecules involved in DGC progression. We integrated the secretomics of six gastric cancer cell lines and gene expression analysis of gastric cancer tissues with publicly available microarray data. Hierarchical clustering revealed characteristic gene expression differences between diffuse- and intestinal-types. GDF15 was selected as a functional secreted molecule owing to high expression only in fetal tissues. Protein expression of GDF15 was higher in DGC cell lines and tissues. Serum levels of GDF15 were significant higher in DGC patients as compared with healthy individuals and chronic gastritis patients, and positively correlated with wall invasion and lymph node metastasis. In addition, the stimulation of GDF15 on NIH3T3 fibroblast enhanced proliferation and up-regulated expression of extracellular matrix genes, which were similar to TGF-β stimulation. These results indicate that GDF15 contributes to fibroblast activation. In conclusion, this study revealed that GDF15 may be a novel functional secreted molecule for DGC progression, possibly having important roles for cancer progression via the affecting fibroblast function, as well as TGF-β. PMID:26892343

  1. Combination of novel HER2-targeting antibody 1E11 with trastuzumab shows synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Bong-Kook; Lee, Sook-Yeon; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Persson, Helena; Rockberg, Johan; Borrebaeck, Carl; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Uhlen, Mathias; Lee, Jong-Seo

    2015-02-01

    The synergistic interaction of two antibodies targeting the same protein could be developed as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and gastric cancer patients, and HER2-targeted antibody therapy using trastuzumab is effective in many of these patients. Nonetheless, improving therapeutic efficacy and patient survival is important, particularly in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here, we describe the development of 1E11, a HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody showing increased efficacy in a highly synergistic manner in combination with trastuzumab in the HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines NCI-N87 and OE-19. The two antibodies bind to sub-domain IV of the receptor, but have non-overlapping epitopes, allowing them to simultaneously bind HER2. Treatment with 1E11 alone induced apoptosis in HER2-positive cancer cells, and this effect was enhanced by combination treatment with trastuzumab. Combination treatment with 1E11 and trastuzumab reduced the levels of total HER2 protein and those of aberrant HER2 signaling molecules including phosphorylated HER3 and EGFR. The synergistic antitumor activity of 1E11 in combination with trastuzumab indicates that it could be a novel potent therapeutic antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers. PMID:25306393

  2. Gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc solid dispersions against absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions is mediated by enhancement of antioxidant activity and endogenous PGE2 production and attenuation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Zinc plays a key role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity, while alcohol dependency can lead to low zinc status. Complexes containing zinc have been reported to have better ability to protect gastric mucosa than the compounds alone. In this study, taurine zinc [Zn(NH3CH2CH2SO3)2] solid dispersions (SDs) were synthesized and investigated in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Gastric ulcer index; gastric mucosa malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production; and serum nitric oxide (NO) were assessed and histological analysis of the gastric mucosa tissue was performed. Taurine zinc (100, 200 mg/kg) SDs protected rat gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury. Moreover, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc SDs was accompanied by a decrease in serum NO and significant increase in gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). When indomethacin, a non-selective COX inhibitor was administered before the last dose of taurine zinc, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was weakened. Furthermore, taurine zinc (200 mg/kg) SDs protected against ulceration more significantly than the same dose of taurine alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between taurine and zinc. These results indicate taurine zinc protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced damage by elevating antioxidants, decreasing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. The gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was also partially mediated by endogenous PGE2 production. PMID:25041839

  3. Targeted therapy for Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma using low-dose gemcitabine-induced lytic activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hyemi; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Pil-Gu; Dong, Seung Myung; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyunki; Chong, Curtis R; Liu, Jun O; Chen, Jianmeng; Ambinder, Richard F; Hayward, S Diane; Park, Jeon Han; Lee, Jae Myun

    2015-10-13

    The constant presence of the viral genome in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancers (EBVaGCs) suggests the applicability of novel EBV-targeted therapies. The antiviral nucleoside drug, ganciclovir (GCV), is effective only in the context of the viral lytic cycle in the presence of EBV-encoded thymidine kinase (TK)/protein kinase (PK) expression. In this study, screening of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library identified gemcitabine as a candidate for combination treatment with GCV. Pharmacological induction of EBV-TK or PK in EBVaGC-originated tumor cells were used to study combination treatment with GCV in vitro and in vivo. Gemcitabine was found to be a lytic inducer via activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/p53 genotoxic stress pathway in EBVaGC. Using an EBVaGC mouse model and a [125I] fialuridine (FIAU)-based lytic activation imaging system, we evaluated gemcitabine-induced lytic activation in an in vivo system and confirmed the efficacy of gemcitabine-GCV combination treatment. This viral enzyme-targeted anti-tumor strategy may provide a new therapeutic approach for EBVaGCs. PMID:26427042

  4. Targeted therapy for Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma using low-dose gemcitabine-induced lytic activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Pil-Gu; Dong, Seung Myung; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyunki; Chong, Curtis R.; Liu, Jun O.; Chen, Jianmeng; Ambinder, Richard F.; Hayward, S. Diane; Park, Jeon Han; Lee, Jae Myun

    2015-01-01

    The constant presence of the viral genome in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancers (EBVaGCs) suggests the applicability of novel EBV-targeted therapies. The antiviral nucleoside drug, ganciclovir (GCV), is effective only in the context of the viral lytic cycle in the presence of EBV-encoded thymidine kinase (TK)/protein kinase (PK) expression. In this study, screening of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library identified gemcitabine as a candidate for combination treatment with GCV. Pharmacological induction of EBV-TK or PK in EBVaGC-originated tumor cells were used to study combination treatment with GCV in vitro and in vivo. Gemcitabine was found to be a lytic inducer via activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/p53 genotoxic stress pathway in EBVaGC. Using an EBVaGC mouse model and a [125I] fialuridine (FIAU)-based lytic activation imaging system, we evaluated gemcitabine-induced lytic activation in an in vivo system and confirmed the efficacy of gemcitabine-GCV combination treatment. This viral enzyme-targeted anti-tumor strategy may provide a new therapeutic approach for EBVaGCs. PMID:26427042

  5. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-?B Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-?B pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-?B driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-?B driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of ?-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-?B driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-?B system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  6. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-?B Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-?B pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-?B driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-?B driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of ?-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-?B driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-?B system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  7. A Novel Proteomics-Based Clinical Diagnostics Technology Identifies Heterogeneity in Activated Signaling Pathways in Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung; Liu, Xinjun; Lee, Tani; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Do, In-Gu; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Se Hoon; Jang, Jiryeon; Hoe, Nicholas; Harvie, Gulia; Kuller, Anne; Jain, Anjali; Meyer, Gary; Leesman, Glen; Park, Young Suk; Choi, Min Gew; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Lim, Ho Yeong; Singh, Sharat; Kang, Won Ki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to utilize the proteomics-based Collaborative Enzyme Enhanced Reactive (CEER) immunoassay to investigate protein tyrosine phosphorylations as diagnostic markers in gastric cancers (GCs). Experimental Design Protein lysates from fresh-frozen 434 advanced stage GCs were analyzed for phosphorylation of HER1, HER2, p95HER2, HER3, cMET, IGF1R and PI3K. The pathway activation patterns were segregated based on the tumor HER2 status. Hierarchical clustering was utilized to determine pathway coactivations in GCs. Prognostic value of pathway activation patterns was determined by correlating disease-free survival times of the various GC subgroups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. CEER was also used to determine the presence of tyrosine phosphorylated signaling cascades in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and ascites tumor cells (ATCs). Results Utilizing a novel diagnostics immunoassay, CEER, we demonstrate the presence of p95HER2 and concomitantly activated signaling pathways in GC tumor tissues, CTCs and ATCs isolated from GC patients for the first time. p95HER2 is expressed in ?77% of HER2(+) GCs. Approximately 54% of GCs have an activated HER1, HER2, HER3, cMET or IGF1R and demonstrate a poorer prognosis than those where these receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are not activated. Hierarchical clustering of RTKs reveals co-clustering of phosphorylated HER1:cMET, HER2:HER3 and IGF1R-PI3K. Coactivation of HER1 with cMET renders GCs with a shorter disease-free survival as compared to only cMET activated GCs. Conclusions Our study highlights the utility of a novel companion diagnostics technology, CEER that has strong implications for drug development and therapeutic monitoring. CEER is used to provide an increased understanding of activated signaling pathways in advanced GCs that can significantly improve their clinical management through accurate patient selection for targeted therapeutics. PMID:23372746

  8. Effect of the prostaglandin precursor, arachidonic acid, on histamine stimulated gastric secretion in the conscious dog, and observations on the effect of inhibiting endogenous prostaglandin synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Conolly, M E; Bieck, P R; Payne, N A; Adkins, B; Oates, J A

    1977-01-01

    The effects of intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and arachidonic acid (AA) on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion have been studied in conscious dogs with either a simple gastric fistula or a denervated Heidenhain pouch. Both compounds produced a dose-related inhibition of acid secretion, though AA was 86-5 to 203-2 times less potent than PGE2. The maximal effect of AA was not achieved until 20 to 40 minutes after the infusion had ceased, suggesting that AA has to undergo some kinetic or metabolic process before it can act. Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYN) 1-0 microgram.kg-1min-1, an inhibitor of PG biosynthesis, almost totally abolished the anti-secretory effect of AA up to 200 microgram.kg-1min-1. At 400 microgram AA.kg-1min-1, the antisecretory effect was reduced by about one half. The effect of PGE2 was not altered by ETYN. Furthermore, ETYN did not increase the response to histamine stimulation in control studies, which suggests that, in this model at least, prostaglandins are not involved in regulating gastric secretion. PMID:873324

  9. 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide Induces Apoptosis on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells Through Mitochondria-Related Apoptotic Pathways: p38/JNK Activation and PI3K/AKT Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ching-Chyuan; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Din, Zhong-Hao; Su, Jui-Hsin; Yang, Zih-Yan; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Robert Y.L.; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (13-AC), an active compound isolated from cultured Formosa soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule, was found to possess anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma cells) gastric carcinoma cells. The anti-tumor effects of 13-AC were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assessment, cell wound-healing assay, TUNEL/4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 13-AC inhibited the growth and migration of gastric carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced both early and late apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometer analysis. 13-AC-induced apoptosis was confirmed through observation of a change in ΔΨm, up-regulated expression levels of Bax and Bad proteins, down-regulated expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 proteins, and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, p38 and JNK. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 and JNK activity by pretreatment with SB03580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK-specific inhibitor) led to rescue of the cell cytotoxicity of 13-AC-treated AGS cells, indicating that the p38 and the JNK pathways are also involved in the 13-AC-induced cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that 13-AC induces cell apoptosis against gastric cancer cells through triggering of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway as well as activation of the p38 and JNK pathways. PMID:25342459

  10. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Alters Brain Activity in Regions that Underlie Reward and Taste Perception

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Michaelides, Mike; Subrize, Mike; Miller, Mike L.; Bellezza, Robert; Cooney, Robert N.; Leggio, Lorenzo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Rogers, Ann M.; Volkow, Nora D.; Hajnal, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a very effective bariatric procedure to achieve significant and sustained weight loss, yet little is known about the procedure’s impact on the brain. This study examined the effects of RYGB on the brain’s response to the anticipation of highly palatable versus regular food. Methods High fat diet-induced obese rats underwent RYGB or sham operation and were then tested for conditioned place preference (CPP) for the bacon-paired chamber, relative to the chow-paired chamber. After CPP, animals were placed in either chamber without the food stimulus, and brain-glucose metabolism (BGluM) was measured using positron emission tomography (μPET). Results Bacon CPP was only observed in RYGB rats that had stable weight loss following surgery. BGluM assessment revealed that RYGB selectively activated regions of the right and midline cerebellum (Lob 8) involved in subjective processes related to reward or expectation. Also, bacon anticipation led to significant activation in the medial parabrachial nuclei (important in gustatory processing) and dorsomedial tegmental area (key to reward, motivation, cognition and addiction) in RYGB rats; and activation in the retrosplenial cortex (default mode network), and the primary visual cortex in control rats. Conclusions RYGB alters brain activity in areas involved in reward expectation and sensory (taste) processing when anticipating a palatable fatty food. Thus, RYGB may lead to changes in brain activity in regions that process reward and taste-related behaviors. Specific cerebellar regions with altered metabolism following RYGB may help identify novel therapeutic targets for treatment of obesity. PMID:26039080

  11. Rat proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2): cDNA sequence and activity of receptor-derived peptides in gastric and vascular tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Saifeddine, M.; al-Ani, B.; Cheng, C. H.; Wang, L.; Hollenberg, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    1. The biological activities of the proteinase-activated receptor number 2 (PAR-2)-derived peptides, SLIGRL (PP6) SLIGRL-NH2 (PP6-NH2) and SLIGR-NH2 (PP5-NH2) were measured in mouse and rat gastric longitudinal muscle (LM) tissue and in a rat aortic ring preparation and the actions of the PAR-2-derived peptides were compared with trypsin and with the actions of the thrombin receptor activating peptide, SFLLR-NH2 (TP5-NH2). 2. From a neonatal rat intestinal cDNA library, and from intestinal and kidney-derived cDNA, the coding region of the rat PAR-2 receptor was cloned and sequenced, thereby establishing its close sequence identity with the previously described mouse PAR-2 receptor; and this information, along with a reverse-transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of cDNA derived from gastric and aortic tissue was used to establish the concurrent presence of PAR-2 and thrombin receptor mRNA in both tissues. 3. In the mouse and rat gastric preparations, the PAR-2-derived polypeptides, PP6, PP6-HN2 and PP5-NH2 caused contractile responses that mimicked the contractile actions of low concentrations of trypsin (5 u/ml-1; 10 nM) and that were equivalent to contractions caused by TP5-NH2. 4. The cumulative exposure of the rat LM tissue to PP6-NH2 led to a desensitization of the contractile response to this polypeptide, but not to TP5-NH2 and vice versa, so as to indicate a lack of cross-desensitization between the receptors responsive to the PAR-2 and thrombin receptor-derived peptides. 5. In the rat gastric preparation, the potencies of the PAR-2-activating peptides were lower than the potency of TP5-NH2 (potency order: TP5-NH2 > > PP6-NH2 > or = PP6 > PP5-NH2); PP6 was a partial agonist in this preparation. 6. The contractile actions of PP6 and PP6-NH2 in the rat gastric preparation required the presence of extracellular calcium, were inhibited by nifedipine and were blocked by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin and by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, but not by the kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X. The contractile responses were not blocked by atropine, chlorpheniramine, phenoxybenzamine, propranolol, ritanserin or tetrodotoxin. 7. In a precontracted rat aortic ring preparation, with an intact endothelium, all of the PAR-2-derived peptides caused a prompt relaxation response that was blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) but not by D-NAME; in an endothelium-free preparation, which possessed mRNA for both the PAR-2 and thrombin receptors, the PAR-2-activating peptides caused neither a relaxation nor a contraction, in contrast with the contractile action of TP5-NH2. The relaxation response to PP6-NH2 was not blocked by atropine, chlorpheniramine, genistein, indomethacin, propranolol or ritanserin. 8. In the rat aortic preparation, the potencies of PP6, PP6-NH2 and PP5-NH2 were greater than those of the thrombin receptor activating peptide, TP5-NH2 (potency order: PP6-NH2 > or = PP6 > PP5-NH2 > TP5-NH2). 9. In the rat aortic preparation, the relaxant actions of the PAR-2-derived peptides were mimicked by trypsin, at concentrations (0.5-1 u ml-1; 1-2 nM) lower than those that can activate the thrombin receptor. 10. The bioassay data obtained with the PAR-2 peptides and with trypsin, along with the molecular cloning/RT-PCR analysis, point to the presence of functional PAR-2 receptors that can activate distinct responses in the gastric and vascular smooth muscle preparations. These responses were comparable to those resulting from thrombin receptor activation in the same tissues, so as to suggest that the receptor for the PAR-2-activating peptides may play a physiological role as far reaching as the one proposed for the thrombin receptor. Images Figure 7 PMID:8762073

  12. Role of amplification in phospholipase C?2 activation in modulation of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori: effect of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes are crucial elements of signal transduction pathways that provide a common link of communication integrating specific receptor responses to a variety of hormones, growth factors, and bacterial endotoxins with the intended intracellular targets. Here, we examined the involvement of PLC in modulation of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori LPS by peptide hormone, ghrelin. We show that stimulation of gastric mucosal cells with the LPS leads to the activation and membrane translocation of the ?2 isoform of PLC, phosphorylated on Tyr as well as Ser, while the effect of ghrelin is reflected in the translocation and phosphorylation of membrane-associated PLC?2 on Tyr mainly. Moreover, we demonstrate that PLC?2 phosphorylation on Tyr remains under the control of the Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFK-PTKs), and is intimately linked to PLC?2 membrane localization, while the LPS-induced phosphorylation of membrane-recruited PLC?2 on Ser displays dependence on protein kinase C? (PKC?) and leads to the amplification in PLC?2 activation. Thus, our findings link the extent of H. pylori-elicited gastric mucosal inflammatory involvement to the PKC?-mediated amplification in PLC?2 activation through phosphorylation on Ser. PMID:25362585

  13. Gastric Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Borch, Kurt; Ahrn, Bo; Ahlman, Hkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granrus, Gran; Grimelius, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

  14. Gastric Electrical Stimulation for Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for gastroparesis has been in use for more than a decade. Multiple publications, consisting almost entirely of open label single center studies, reported a beneficial effect on symptoms, quality of life and nutritional status. Some predictors of better response to GES have been lately identified, primarily diabetic etiology and nausea and vomiting as the predominant symptoms. However, individual response to GES remains difficult to predict. The mechanism of action of GES remains poorly understood. Stimulation parameters approved in clinical practice do not regulate gastric slow wave activity and have inconsistent effect on gastric emptying. Despite such limitations, gastric electrical stimulation remains a helpful intervention in some patients with severe gastroparesis who fail to respond to medical therapy. PMID:22523722

  15. Endoscopic therapy for gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Sarin, S K; Mishra, S R

    2010-05-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices (GVs) is generally more severe than bleeding from esophageal varices (EVs), but is thought to occur less frequently. Although several recent developments in the agents and the techniques have improved the outcome of GV bleeds no consensus has been reached on the optimum treatment. Because the blood flow in the GVs is relatively large and the bleeding is rapid and often profuse endoscopic means of treating bleeding GVs are the treatments of choice. Endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate glue is the treatment of choice for the control of active bleeding of gastric avarices and to prevent rebleeding. This article reviews the current endoscopic treatment modalities used in gastric variceal bleeding, and the primary and secondary prophylaxis of gastric variceal bleeding. PMID:20682234

  16. Bactericidal activities of the cationic steroid CSA-13 and the cathelicidin peptide LL-37 against Helicobacter pylori in simulated gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains of H. pylori motivates a search for new agents with therapeutic potential against this family of bacteria that colonizes the stomach, and is associated with adenocarcinoma development. This study was designed to assess in vitro the anti-H. pylori potential of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide, which is naturally present in gastric juice, its optimized synthetic analog WLBU2, and the non-peptide antibacterial agent ceragenin CSA-13. Results In agreement with previous studies, increased expression of hCAP-18/LL-37 was observed in gastric mucosa obtained from H. pylori infected subjects. MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values determined in nutrient-containing media range from 100-800 μg/ml for LL-37, 17.8-142 μg/ml for WLBU2 and 0.275-8.9 μg/ml for ceragenin CSA-13. These data indicate substantial, but widely differing antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of H. pylori. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (low pH with presence of pepsin) CSA-13, but not LL-37 or WLBU2, retained antibacterial activity. Compared to LL-37 and WLBU2 peptides, CSA-13 activity was also more resistant to inhibition by isolated host gastric mucins. Conclusion These data indicate that cholic acid-based antimicrobial agents such as CSA-13 resist proteolytic degradation and inhibition by mucin and have potential for treatment of H. pylori infections, including those caused by the clarithromycin and/or metronidazole-resistant strains. PMID:19728885

  17. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  18. CXCL12/CXCR4 activation by cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes integrin ?1 clustering and invasiveness in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Daisuke; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Miyake, Keisuke; Sugihara, Hidetaka; Eto, Kojiro; Sawayama, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadahito; Kiyozumi, Yuki; Kaida, Takayoshi; Kurashige, Junji; Imamura, Yu; Hiyoshi, Yukiharu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Iwagami, Shiro; Baba, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Takamori, Hiroshi; Araki, Norie; Tan, Patrick; Baba, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are reportedly involved in invasion and metastasis in several types of cancer, including gastric cancer (GC), through the stimulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling. However, the mechanisms underlying these tumor-promoting effects are not well understood, which limits the potential to develop therapeutic targets against CAF-mediated CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling. CXCL12 expression was analyzed in resected GC tissues from 110 patients by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We established primary cultures of normal fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs from the GC tissues and examined the functional differences between these primary fibroblasts using co-culture assays with GC cell lines. We evaluated the efficacy of a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) and a FAK inhibitor (PF-573,228) on the invasive ability of GC cells. High CXCL12 expression levels were significantly associated with larger tumor size, increased tumor depth, lymphatic invasion and poor prognosis in GC. CXCL12/CXCR4 activation by CAFs mediated integrin ?1 clustering at the cell surface and promoted the invasive ability of GC cells. Notably, AMD3100 was more efficient than PF-573,228 at inhibiting GC cell invasion through the suppression of integrin ?1/FAK signaling. These results suggest that CXCL12 derived from CAFs promotes GC cell invasion by enhancing the clustering of integrin ?1 in GC cells, resulting in GC progression. Taken together, the inhibition of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in GC cells may be a promising therapeutic strategy against GC cell invasion. PMID:26414794

  19. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis. PMID:23433384

  20. Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase directly inhibits HER2 activation of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Miaolin; Yao, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Min; Qian, Hai; Wu, Yan; Chen, Yongchang

    2016-02-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphorylation/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Since human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has a similar molecular structure to EGFR, the present study was designed to investigate whether PKG II also inhibits HER2 activation. The human gastric cancer cell line HGC‑27 was infected with an adenoviral construct encoding cDNA of PKG II (Ad‑PKG II) to increase the expression of PKG II and treated with 8‑(4‑chlorophenylthio)guanosine‑3',5'‑cyclic monophosphate (8‑pCPT‑cGMP) to activate the kinase. Western blotting was performed to detect the tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation of HER2. Co‑immunoprecipitation was performed in order to determine the binding between PKG II and HER2. In addition, a QuikChange Lightning Site‑Directed Mutagenesis kit was used to mutate threonine 686 of HER2 to glutamic acid or alanine. The results demonstrated that EGF treatment increased the tyrosine phosphorylation (activation) of HER2. Increasing the PKG II activity of HGC‑27 cells through infection with Ad‑PKG II and stimulation with 8‑pCPT‑cGMP inhibited the EGF‑induced tyrosine phosphorylation/activation of HER2. PKG II bound directly with HER2 and caused phosphorylation of threonine 686. When threonine 686 of HER2 was mutated to alanine, which could not be phosphorylated by PKG II, the inhibitory effect of PKG II on the activation of HER2 was eradicated. When threonine 686 of HER2 was mutated to glutamic acid, which mimicked the phosphorylation of this site, treatment with EGF had no stimulating effect on tyrosine phosphorylation/activation of the mutant HER2. The results suggested that PKG II inhibits EGF‑induced activation of HER2 through binding with and causing threonine 686 phosphorylation of this oncogenic protein. PMID:26676300

  1. Detection of ouabain-insensitive H(+)-transporting, K(+)-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity in rat gastric glands by cerium-based cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Seguchi, H

    1990-12-01

    We employed a modification of our previously reported cerium-based cytochemical method for ouabain-sensitive, K-dependent p-nitrophenylphosphatase (Na-K ATPase) activity to detect ouabain-insensitive, K-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K-pNPPase) activity in rat gastric glands. Biochemically, the enzyme activity of gastric glands incubated in a medium containing 50 mM Tricine buffer (pH 7.5), 50 mM KCl, 10 mM MgCl2, 2 mM CeCl3, 2 mM p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP), 2.5 mM levamisole, 10 mM ouabain, and 0.00015% Triton X-100, was optimal at pH 7.5-8.0 and decreased above pH 8.5. The amount of p-nitrophenol after incubation increased linearly in proportion to the amount of tissue in the medium. The enzyme activity was inhibited by omeprazole, sodium flouride (NaF), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Heat-treated specimens had no enzyme activity. The enzyme activity increased with addition of K ions up to the concentration of 50 mM, and became constant above 50 mM. Cytochemically, the parietal cells of the gastric glands reacted positively for ouabain-insensitive K-pNPPase activity. Intense reaction was observed at the microvilli of the luminal surface and the intracellular canaliculi. The tubulovesicular system showed weak enzyme activity. The reaction products were found as fine, granular, electron-dense deposits in the cytoplasm just beneath the plasma membrane. The ouabain-insensitive K-pNPPase activity detected in this study appears, therefore, to be associated with that of H-transporting, K-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (H-K ATPase). PMID:2174937

  2. Surrounding Gastric Mucosa Findings Facilitate Diagnosis of Gastric Neoplasm as Gastric Adenoma or Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miike, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Miyata, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Tomoya; Noda, Yuko; Noda, Takaho; Suzuki, Sho; Takeda, Sachiko; Natsuda, Shuichiro; Sakaguchi, Mai; Maemura, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Kanna; Yamaji, Takumi; Abe, Hiroo; Iwakiri, Hisayoshi; Tahara, Yoshihiro; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Kitanaka, Akira; Shimoda, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. It is difficult to master the skill of discriminating gastric adenoma from early gastric cancer by conventional endoscopy or magnifying endoscopy combined with narrow-band imaging, because the colors and morphologies of these neoplasms are occasionally similar. We focused on the surrounding gastric mucosa findings in order to determine how to discriminate between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma by analyzing the characteristics of the gastric background mucosa. Methods. We retrospectively examined 146 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasm between October 2009 and January 2015. The boundary of atrophic gastritis was classified endoscopically according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification system. Of 146 lesions, 63 early gastric cancers and 21 gastric adenomas were ultimately evaluated and assessed. Results. Almost all gastric adenomas were accompanied by open-type gastritis, whereas 47 and 16 early gastric cancers were accompanied by open-type and closed-type gastritis, respectively (p = 0.037). Conclusions. The evaluation of the boundary of atrophic gastritis associated with gastric neoplasms appears to be useful for discrimination between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma. When gastric neoplasm is present in the context of surrounding localized gastric atrophy, gastric cancer is probable but not certain.

  3. Effects of cisapride on ulcer formation and gastric secretion in rats: comparison with ranitidine and omeprazol.

    PubMed

    Alarcn de la Lastra, C; Martin, M J; La Casa, M; Lpez, A; Motilva, V

    1996-12-01

    1. The antiulcerogenic effects of cisapride, a potent benzamide-stimulating gastrointestinal motility agent, were studied on cold-resistant and pylorus-ligated gastric ulcers. Acidity, composition of gastric secretion, and quantitative and qualitative changes on mucus glycoprotein content were also determined. These effects were compared with those of ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and omeprazol (10 mg/kg). 2. Oral cisapride (10-100 mg/kg) dose-relatedly and significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) decreased the severity of the lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. In stressed rats, cisapride increased the amount of mucus secretion and markedly enhanced the glycoprotein content. Morphometric evaluation of mucus secretion revealed a significant increase in both the PAS area (neutral glycoproteins) and Alcian blue area (sulfated glycoproteins). 3. In 4 h pyloric-ligated animals, cisapride (10-100 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the number and severity of ulcers (P < 0.01) and histamine concentration (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). In addition, at the highest doses (50-100 mg/kg), cisapride produced a significant decreases in acidity; however, it did not alter the gastric volume secretion or pepsin concentrations. 4. These results suggest that cisapride shows antiulcerogenic effects which could possibly be explained through antisecretory and cytoprotective mechanisms involving an enhancement of cuality and production of gastric mucus. PMID:9304418

  4. Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  5. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal TGF-? ectodomain shedding and EGFR transactivation involves Rac1/p38 MAPK-dependent TACE activation.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2016-02-01

    Infection of gastric mucosa by H. pylori triggers a pattern of inflammatory responses characterized by the rise in proinflammatory cytokine production, up-regulation in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and the induction in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. In this study, we report on the role of MAPK/p38 and Rac1 in the regulation of H. pylori LPS-induced TGF-? ectodomain shedding and EGFR transactivation. We show that stimulation of gastric mucosal cells with the LPS, reflected in p38 phosphorylation, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dock180 activation and the rise in Rac1-GTP level, is accompanied by the activation of membrane-associated metalloprotease, (TACE) also known as ADAM17, responsible for soluble TGF-? release. Further, we reveal that the LPS-induced TGF-? shedding and EGFR transactivation involves the TACE activation through phosphorylation by p38 that requires Rac1 participation. Moreover, we demonstrate that up-regulation in H. pylori LPS-elicited Rac1-GTP membrane translocation plays a pivotal role in recruitment of the activated p38 to the membrane for TACE activation through phosphorylation on Thr(735). Taken together, our findings provide strong evidence as to the essential function of Rac1 in TACE activation, TGF-? ectodomain shedding, and the EGFR transactivation. PMID:26658844

  6. Gastric leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Candy, J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of gastric leiomyoblastoma (bizarre smooth muscle tumour), one of them having evidence of metastases. Both patients remain well after seven years and three and a half years respectively. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. The histological appearances are described in detail and an attempt is made to assess the criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5485837

  7. miR-544a induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the activation of WNT signaling pathway in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yanaka, Yoshimitsu; Muramatsu, Tomoki; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Kozaki, Ken-ichi; Inazawa, Johji

    2015-11-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to cancer progression, as well as the development of normal organs, wound healing and organ fibrosis. We established a cell-based reporter system for identifying EMT-inducing microRNAs (miRNAs) with a gastric cancer (GC) cell line, MKN1, transfected with a reporter construct containing a promoter sequence of VIM in the 5' upstream region of the TurboRFP reporter gene. Function-based screening using this reporter system was performed with a 328-miRNA library, and resulted in the identification miR-544a as an EMT-inducing miRNA. Although miR-544a is already known to be involved in the regulation of CDH1, the mechanism by which EMT occurs remains poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-544a induces VIM, SNAI1 and ZEB1 expression, and reduces CDH1 expression, resulting in an EMT phenotype. In addition, we found that CDH1 and AXIN2, which are related to the degradation and the translocation of β-catenin, are direct targets of miR-544a. Subsequently, the reduction of CDH1 and AXIN2 by miR-544a induced the nuclear import of β-catenin, suggesting that miR-544a may activate the WNT signaling pathway through the stabilization of β-catenin in nucleus. Our findings raise the possibility that inhibition of miR-544a may be a therapeutic target of metastatic GC. PMID:26264654

  8. 1,8-Naphthyridine Derivatives: A Review of Multiple Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Madaan, Alka; Verma, Ritu; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Anu T; Jain, Swatantra K; Jaggi, Manu

    2015-12-01

    The 1,8-naphthyridine group of compounds have gained special attention of researchers on account of their demonstrating a variety of interesting biological activities. A wide range of biological properties establishes them as potent scaffolds in therapeutic and medicinal research. The broad spectrum of activities primarily includes antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. 1,8-Naphthyridine derivatives have also exhibited potential applications in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and depression. In addition, these synthetic derivatives have been found to possess activities such as anti-osteoporotic (?(v)?(3) antagonists), anti-allergic, antimalarial, gastric antisecretory, bronchodilator, anticonvulsant, anti-hypertensive, platelet aggregation inhibition, anti-oxidant, EGFR inhibition, protein kinase inhibition, ionotropic agent, ?-3 antagonist, MDR modulator, adenosine receptor agonist, adrenoceptor antagonist, and pesticide activities. In spite of the widespread application of the 1,8-naphythyridine scaffolds, only a limited number of review articles are available till date. In this review, we attempt to compile and discuss the key data available in the literature for the multiple biological activities of 1,8-naphthyridine derivatives, in a chronological manner. This review compilation (with 199 references) may be helpful in understanding the diverse biological properties of 1,8-naphthyridines and provide insights into their mechanism of action. This may direct future research in the synthesis of new derivatives and exploring this scaffold for other possible biological activities. PMID:26548568

  9. microRNA-146a inhibits G protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of NF-κB by targeting CARD10 and COPS8 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Inflammatory signals originating from gastric cancer cells are important for recruiting inflammatory cells and regulation of metastasis of gastric cancer. Several microRNAs (miRNA) have been shown to be involved in development and progression of gastric cancer. miRNA-146a (miR-146a) is a modulator of inflammatory signals, but little is known about its importance in gastric cancer. We therefore wanted to identify targets of miR-146a in gastric cancer and examine its biological roles. Results The expression of miR-146a was evaluated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and found up-regulated in the gastrin knockout mice, a mouse model of gastric cancer, and in 73% of investigated human gastric adenocarcinomas. Expression of miR-146a by gastric cancer cells was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Global analysis of changes in mRNA levels after miR-146a transfection identified two transcripts, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 10 (CARD10) and COP9 signalosome complex subunit 8 (COPS8), as new miR-146a targets. qPCR, Western blotting and luciferase assays confirmed these transcripts as direct miR-146a targets. CARD10 and COPS8 were shown to be part of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces NF-kappaB activation via this pathway and over-expression of miR-146a inhibited LPA-induced NF-kappaB activation, reduced LPA-induced expression of tumor-promoting cytokines and growth factors and inhibited monocyte attraction. Conclusions miR-146a expression is up-regulated in a majority of gastric cancers where it targets CARD10 and COPS8, inhibiting GPCR-mediated activation of NF-kappaB, thus reducing expression of NF-kappaB-regulated tumor-promoting cytokines and growth factors. By targeting components of several NF-kappaB-activating pathways, miR-146a is a key component in the regulation of NF-kappaB activity. PMID:22992343

  10. ?-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Helicobacter pylori-Induced Oncogene Expression and Hyperproliferation by Suppressing the Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Eunyoung; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as ?-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. ?-Lipoic acid (?-LA), a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ?-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits), activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-?B, AP-1), expression of oncogenes (?-catenin, c-myc), and nuclear localization of ?-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, ?-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-?B and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by ?-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:25210229

  11. ?-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Expression of IL-8 by Suppressing Activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-?B in H. pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Hyun; Cho, Soon Ok; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cytokine response, associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced inflammation. H. pylori induces the production of ROS, which may be involved in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/Stat), and oxidant-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), and thus, expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in gastric epithelial cells. ?-lipoic acid, a naturally occurring thiol compound, is a potential antioxidant. It shows beneficial effects in treatment of oxidant-associated diseases including diabetes. The present study is purposed to investigate whether ?-lipoic acid inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by suppressing activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-?B in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were pretreated with or without ?-lipoic acid for 2 h and infected with H. pylori in a Korean isolate (HP99) at a ratio of 300:1. IL-8 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. IL-8 levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-?B-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Phospho-specific and total forms of MAPK and Jak/Stat were assessed by Western blot analysis. ROS levels were determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. As a result, H. pylori induced increases in ROS levels, mRNA, and protein levels of IL-8, as well as the activation of MAPK [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38], Jak/Stat (Jak1/2, Stat3), and NF-?B in AGS cells, which was inhibited by ?-lipoic acid. In conclusion, ?-lipoic acid may be beneficial for prevention and/or treatment of H. pylori infection-associated gastric inflammation. PMID:26632410

  12. Influence of orexin A on the mechanical activity of mouse gastric strips.

    PubMed

    Baccari, Maria Caterina; Calamai, Franco

    2008-02-01

    The presence of orexins and orexin receptors has been revealed not only in the central nervous system but also in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study was aimed to investigate the influence of orexin A (OXA) on the mechanical activity of fundal and antral strips of the mouse stomach. In the fundus, electrical field stimulation (EFS) elicited tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive, frequency-dependent contractile responses whose amplitude was markedly reduced by OXA and enhanced by the orexin-1 type receptor antagonist SB-334867. In the presence of the NO synthesis inhibitor L-N(G)-nitro arginine (L-NNA), OXA was no longer effective. Methacholine caused a sustained contracture whose amplitude was not influenced by OXA, TTX or L-NNA. In carbachol-precontracted strips, the neurally-induced relaxant responses elicited during EFS were increased in amplitude by OXA. Antral strips showed a spontaneous contractile activity that was unaffected by TTX or L-NNA and transiently depressed by EFS. OXA did not influence either the spontaneous motility or the EFS-induced effects. The results indicate that OXA exerts region-specific effects and that, in the fundus, depresses EFS-induced contractile responses by acting at the nervous level. It is likely that NO is involved in the effects of the peptide. PMID:17881068

  13. Anticancer Effect of Lycopene in Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks as the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Risk factors of gastric carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, DNA damage, Helicobacter pylori infection, bad eating habits, and smoking. Since oxidative stress is related to DNA damage, smoking, and H. pylori infection, scavenging of reactive oxygen species may be beneficial for prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. Lycopene, one of the naturally occurring carotenoids, has unique structural and chemical features that contributes to a potent antioxidant activity. It shows a potential anticancer activity and reduces gastric cancer incidence. This review will summarize anticancer effect and mechanism of lycopene on gastric carcinogenesis based on the recent experimental and clinical studies. PMID:26151041

  14. Gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in a patient on long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Dipti; Misra, Asha; Pandey, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with gastroesophageal reflux disease who developed gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) while on 20-year treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This is perhaps the first report in human beings. A 74-year-old man, who presented with heartburn, showed abnormally high gastric pH (average 6.57) on 24-hour dual channel pH-metry even after discontinuing acid suppressive drugs for one month. No significant esophageal acid exposure was noted, which may be related to an impairment of the acid secreting capacity of the stomach (percentage time esophageal pH<4 during 24-h period 0.3%). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was normal except for the prominent submucosal vessels in the body and fundus suggesting gastric atrophy. Histopathological examination of multiple biopsies from the body and antrum of stomach showed signs of gastric atrophy and IM. Rapid urease test and histopathology of gastric biopsies were negative for Helicobacter pylori. Anti-H.pylori IgG ELISA however, was positive. Patient was asked to stop all anti-secretory drugs and only prokinetics were prescribed following which his symptoms markedly improved. On follow-up, in April 2007, he developed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy; serum vitamin 812 level was low. He responded to parenteral vitamin 812 therapy. 24-h dual channel pH-metry repeated after one and a half years showed persistently high gastric pH (average pH 6.76). The patient remained well after discontinuing proton pump inhibitors and continuing prokinetics and vitamin B12 injections. PMID:19115612

  15. A marked increase in gastric fluid volume during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kushikata, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Major physiological stress occurs during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. This is related to hypothermia and artificial organ perfusion. Thus, serious gastrointestinal complications, particularly upper gastrointestinal bleeding, sometimes follow cardiac surgery. We have compared the antisecretory effects of a preanesthetic H2 antagonist (roxatidine, cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group, n=15) and a proton pump inhibitor (rabeprazole, cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI group, n=15) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and also compared in patients undergoing a off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group, n=15). Gastric pH (5.140.61) and gastric fluid volume (13.22.4mL) at the end of surgery in off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 groups was significantly lower and higher than those in both cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 (6.250.54, 51.38.0mL) and cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI (7.290.13, 63.514.8mL) groups, respectively although those variables did not differ between groups after the induction of anesthesia. Plasma gastrin (1427pg/mL) at the end of surgery and maximal blood lactate levels (1.50 0.61mM) in off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group were also significantly lower than those in both cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 (45596pg/mL, 3.970.80mM) and cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI (52527pg/mL, 3.150.44mM) groups, respectively. In addition, there was a significant correlation between gastric fluid volume and maximal blood lactate (r=0.596). In conclusion, cardiopulmonary bypass may cause an increase in gastric fluid volume which neither H2 antagonist nor PPI suppresses. A significant correlation between gastric fluid volume and maximal blood lactate suggests that gastric fluid volume may predict degree of gastrointestinal tract hypoperfusion. PMID:21765601

  16. Acquisition of resistance to trastuzumab in gastric cancer cells is associated with activation of IL-6/STAT3/Jagged-1/Notch positive feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Sun, Limin; Chen, Hongyu; Deng, Que; Liu, Yanjun; Yu, Ming; Ma, Yuanfang; Guo, Ning; Shi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that prolonged treatment by trastuzumab induced resistance of NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab. The resistant cells possessed typical characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/cancer stem cells and acquired more invasive and metastatic potentials both in vitro and in vivo. Long term treatment with trastuzumab dramatically inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, but triggered the activation of STAT3. The level of IL-6 was remarkably increased, implicating that the release of IL-6 that drives the STAT3 activation initiates the survival signaling transition. Furthermore, the Notch activities were significantly enhanced in the resistant cells, companied by upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 and the Notch responsive genes Hey1 and Hey2. Inhibiting the endogenous Notch pathway reduced the IL-6 expression and restored the sensitivities of the resistant cells to trastuzumab. Blocking of the STAT3 signaling abrogated IL-6-induced Jagged-1 expression, effectively inhibited the growth of the trastuzumab resistant cells, and enhanced the anti-tumor activities of trastuzumab in the resistant cells. These findings implicate that the IL-6/STAT3/Jagged-1/Notch axis may be a useful target and that combination of the Notch or STAT3 inhibitors with trastuzumab may prevent or delay clinical resistance and improve the efficacy of trastuzumab in gastric cancer. PMID:25669984

  17. Isorhamnetin Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion and Induces Apoptosis through the Modulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Activation Pathway in Gastric Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Lalitha; Manu, Kanjoormana Aryan; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Li, Feng; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Vali, Shireen; Kapoor, Shweta; Abbasi, Taher; Surana, Rohit; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Tan, Patrick; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Yap, Chun Wei; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a lethal malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Although treatment options such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rate due to GC, chemoresistance remains as one of the major causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of isorhamnetin (IH), a 3?-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) signaling cascade using proteomics technology platform, GC cell lines, and xenograft mice model. We observed that IH exerted a strong antiproliferative effect and increased cytotoxicity in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. IH also inhibited the migratory/invasive properties of GC cells, which could be reversed in the presence of PPAR-? inhibitor. We found that IH increased PPAR-? activity and modulated the expression of PPAR-? regulated genes in GC cells. Also, the increase in PPAR-? activity was reversed in the presence of PPAR-?-specific inhibitor and a mutated PPAR-? dominant negative plasmid, supporting our hypothesis that IH can act as a ligand of PPAR-?. Using molecular docking analysis, we demonstrate that IH formed interactions with seven polar residues and six nonpolar residues within the ligand-binding pocket of PPAR-? that are reported to be critical for its activity and could competitively bind to PPAR-?. IH significantly increased the expression of PPAR-? in tumor tissues obtained from xenograft model of GC. Overall, our findings clearly indicate that antitumor effects of IH may be mediated through modulation of the PPAR-? activation pathway in GC. PMID:22992727

  18. Inhibitory effect of withaferin A on Helicobacter pylori‑induced IL‑8 production and NF‑κB activation in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Green; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Kang, Min-Jung; Choi, Jin-A; Pack, Da-Young; Lee, Ik-Rae; Kim, Min-Gyu; Han, Sang-Seop; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Oh, Sang-Muk; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a withanolide purified from Withania somnifera, has been known to exert anti-inflammatory effects. The present study sought to determine the effects of WA on Helicobacter (H.) pylori-mediated inflammation in the AGS gastric epithelial cell line. Cellular production of interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α stabilization. Bacterial growth was also examined by measuring the optical density. Pre-treatment or co-treatment with WA efficiently reduced IL-8 production by AGS cells in response to H. pylori infection. H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB, but not MAPKs, was also inhibited by pre-treatment of WA in the cells. However, WA did not affect VEGF production and HIF-1α stabilization induced by H. pylori in AGS cells. In addition, WA did not influence the growth of H. pylori, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of WA was not due to any bactericidal effect. These findings indicate that WA is a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation. PMID:26647855

  19. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich.) Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.)Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants. Methods A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants. Results The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. Both the individual plant extracts and the mixed extracts of 5 plants exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against four G-ve bacteria. Despite Ozoroa insignis being toxic to mice at doses above 1000 mg/kg body wt, the other plant extracts and the combined extract of the 5 plants were tolerated by mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt. The brine shrimp test results showed the same pattern of toxicity with Ozoroa insignis being the most toxic (LC50?=?10.63 ?g/ml). Phytochemical tests showed that the combined extract of the five plants contained tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant activity. Conclusion The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s. PMID:23031266

  20. GNAS mutation as an alternative mechanism of activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryosuke; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Yasuhiro; Lee, Se-yong; Watanabe, Sumio; Yao, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type (GAFG) is a rare variant of gastric tumor. We have recently reported the frequent accumulation of ?-catenin in GAFGs and showed that approximately half of the cases studied harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC, leading to the constitutive activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. However, the mechanisms of Wnt signaling activation in the remaining cases are unknown. Accumulating evidence showed that the activating mutation in GNAS promotes tumorigenesis via the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway or the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Therefore, we analyzed the mutations in GNAS (exons 8 and 9) and in KRAS (exon 2) in 26 GAFGs. Immunohistochemistry revealed nuclear ?-catenin expression in 22 of 26 GAFGs, and 10 (38.5%) of 26 cases harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC. Activating mutations in GNAS were found in 5 (19.2%) of 26 GAFGs, all of which harbored R201C mutations. Activating mutations in KRAS were found in 2 (7.7%) of 26 GAFGs, and both of these also contained GNAS activating mutations. Four of 5 cases with GNAS mutation showed nuclear ?-catenin expression, and presence of GNAS mutation was associated with ?-catenin nuclear expression (P = .01). Furthermore, 3 of these 4 cases did not harbor mutations in CTNNB1, APC, or AXINs, suggesting that mutations in the Wnt component genes and those in GNAS occur almost exclusively. These results suggest that GNAS mutation might occur in a small subset of GAFG as an alternative mechanism of activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:25288233

  1. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening–Patient Version (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald H. Buchwald's Atlas of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgical Techniques and Procedures . ... en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald H. Buchwald's Atlas of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgical Techniques and Procedures . ...

  3. Helicobacter pylori-Induced Signaling Pathways Contribute to Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sue, Soichiro; Shibata, Wataru; Maeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces chronic gastric inflammation, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and cancer. Although the risk of gastric cancer increases exponentially with the extent of atrophic gastritis, the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. H. pylori induces genetic and epigenetic changes in gastric epithelial cells through activating intracellular signaling pathways in a cagPAI-dependent manner. H. pylori eventually induces gastric cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN) or microsatellite instability (MSI), which are classified as two major subtypes of gastric cancer. Elucidation of the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis will also be important for cancer therapy. PMID:26064948

  4. Pectic polysaccharides of the fresh plum Prunus domestica L. isolated with a simulated gastric fluid and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Popov, Sergey V; Ovodova, Raisa G; Golovchenko, Victoria V; Khramova, Daria S; Markov, Pavel A; Smirnov, Vasily V; Shashkov, Alexandre S; Ovodov, Yury S

    2014-01-15

    A pectic polysaccharide, designated as PD, was extracted from fresh plums (Prunus domestica L.) with a simulated gastric fluid. Galacturonan, which was partially substituted with methyl and O-acetyl ester groups, and rhamnogalacturonan were the main constituents of the linear regions of the sugar chains of PD. The ramified region contained mainly 1,4-linked β-d-galactopyranose residues and, to a lesser extent, 1,5-linked α-l-arabinofuranose residues. The separation of PD, by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, yielded two pectic fractions: PD-1 and PD-2, eluted with 0.1 and 0.2 M NaCl, respectively. Enzymatic digestion of PD with 1,4-α-d-polygalacturonase yielded the fraction PD-E. The parent pectin PD and the PD-1 fraction were found to diminish the adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes at the concentrations of 0.05-1.0mg/ml. However, the PD-E fraction failed to have an effect on cell adhesion at the concentrations of 0.05-0.1mg/ml. PD, PD-1 and PD-E were found to inhibit the production of superoxide anion radicals by reducing xanthine oxidase activity by 38%, 97% and 47%, respectively. Therefore, the PD-1 fraction appeared to be an active fragment of pectic macromolecule isolated from fresh plum with a simulated gastric fluid. PMID:24054219

  5. Gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P.

    1996-01-01

    We are gaining a clearer insight into the causes and mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, and may be able to reduce the incidence in the future by Helicobacter pylori eradication, perhaps in conjunction with nutritional supplements. The work required to establish this kind of prevention programme still has a long way to go. Surveillance and early detection are a key area, and current hopes rest with an increasingly low threshold for gastroscopy together with improved awareness in both patients and general practitioners. Identification of a high-risk group for surveillance would be a major advance, and may become possible due to advances in molecular biology. In terms of treatment, surgery remains the mainstay, but for useful analysis of its' efficacy, uniform and detailed pathological staging is vital. Pre-operative assessment has improved greatly in recent years, resulting in fewer nontherapeutic laparotomies, thanks to a combination of improved imaging techniques and laparoscopy. Limited endoscopic surgery is now feasible for very early disease. The extent of radical surgery remains controversial: a strong argument can be made for concentrating this kind of surgery in the hands of a limited number of specialist units who will have the numbers and the expertise to answer the outstanding questions. Chemotherapy has yet to prove its value, but there are hopes that the newest regimes may do this. Treatment results in the West remain unsatisfactory, but they have improved in the last two decades, and should be capable of considerable further improvement. Images Figure PMID:8796206

  6. Development and evaluation of gastroretentive raft forming systems incorporating curcumin-Eudragit EPO solid dispersions for gastric ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kerdsakundee, Nattha; Mahattanadul, Sirima; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2015-08-01

    Novel raft forming systems incorporating curcumin-Eudragit EPO solid dispersions were developed to prolong the gastric residence time and provide for a controlled release therapy of curcumin to treat gastric ulcers. The solid dispersions of curcumin with Eudragit EPO were prepared by the solvent evaporation method at various ratios to improve the solubility and the dissolution of curcumin. The optimum weight ratio of 1:5 for curcumin to Eudragit EPO was used to incorporate into the raft forming systems. The raft forming formulations were composed of curcumin-Eudragit EPO solid dispersions, sodium alginate as a gelling polymer and calcium carbonate for generating divalent Ca(2+) ions and carbon dioxide to form a floating raft. All formulations formed a gelled raft in 1min and sustained buoyancy on the 0.1N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) surface with a 60-85% release of curcumin within 8h. The curative effect on the acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats was determined. The curcumin raft forming formulations at 40mg/kg once daily showed a superior curative effect on the gastric ulcer in terms of the ulcer index and healing index than the standard antisecretory agent: lansoprazole (1mg/kg, twice daily) and a curcumin suspension (40mg/kg, twice daily). These studies demonstrated that the new raft forming systems containing curcumin solid dispersions are promising carriers for a stomach-specific delivery of poorly soluble lipophilic compounds. PMID:26143367

  7. Animal models of gastric bleeding induced by dual antiplatelet therapy using aspirin and clopidogrel--prophylactic effect of antiulcer drugs.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Izuhara, Chitose; Takayama, Shinichi; Momode, Takumi; Kojo, Masahiro; Hara, Daisuke; Amagase, Kikuko

    2014-01-01

    We set up two models of gastric bleeding in rats using low-dose aspirin (ASA) and the antiplatelet drug clopidogrel, a P2Y₁₂ receptor antagonist, and examined the effect of antiulcer drugs on gastric bleeding and ulcerogenic responses under such conditions. Under urethane anesthesia, two catheters were inserted into the rat stomach, one from the esophagus and another through the pylorus via an incision in the duodenum. In the first model, the stomach was perfused with 25 mM ASA dissolved in 50 mM HCl using an infusion pump, and gastric bleeding was measured as the hemoglobin concentration in perfusate collected every 15 min. In the second model, the stomach was perfused with ASA under stimulation of acid secretion by a continuous i.v. infusion of histamine (8 mg/kg/hr). Clopidogrel (30 mg/kg) was given p.o. 24 h before the ASA perfusion, while antiulcer drugs were given i.d. or i.v. 30 min before. Perfusion of the stomach with acidified ASA or ASA under histamine-stimulated acid secretion caused minimal bleeding in the stomach with few lesions. The ulcerogenic and bleeding responses to ASA under these conditions were markedly aggravated by pretreatment with clopidogrel, which by itself provoked neither bleeding nor damage. Antiulcer drugs, such as prostaglandin E₂, irsogladine, rebamipide and teprenone, reduced the severity of gastric bleeding and damage in response to ASA plus clopidogrel in the presence of both exogenous and endogenous acid. In contrast, antisecretory drugs such as a proton pump inhibitor and histamine H₂ receptor antagonists markedly suppressed the gastric bleeding and lesion responses to ASA plus clopidogrel under histamine-stimulated acid secretion, but had no effect on the responses to acidified ASA plus clopidogrel. These results suggest that clopidogrel increases gastric bleeding induced by ASA and that antiulcer drugs are useful for preventing gastric bleeding caused by the dual antiplatelet therapy. PMID:23782140

  8. Superior antitumor activity of trastuzumab combined with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin in a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive human gastric cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, SUGURU; YANAGISAWA, MIEKO; KANEKO, SAORI; YOROZU, KEIGO; YAMAMOTO, KANAME; MORIYA, YOICHIRO; HARADA, NAOKI

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer, it has been reported that the combination of trastuzumab with capecitabine plus cisplatin, or with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus cisplatin, significantly increased overall survival compared with chemotherapy alone (ToGA trial). In addition, adjuvant therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) improved the survival of patients who received curative D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC trial). However, the efficacy of the combination of trastuzumab with XELOX for patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study, was to investigate the efficacy of the combination of trastuzumab with XELOX in a HER2-positive human gastric cancer xenograft model. Combination treatment with these three agents (trastuzumab 20 mg/kg, capecitabine 359 mg/kg and oxaliplatin 10 mg/kg), was found to exhibit a significantly stronger antitumor activity in NCI-N87 xenografts compared with either trastuzumab or XELOX alone. In this model, treatment with trastuzumab alone or trastuzumab plus oxaliplatin enhanced the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the generation of 5-FU from capecitabine in tumor tissues. In in vitro experiments, trastuzumab induced TP mRNA expression in NCI-N87 cells. In addition, NCI-N87 cells co-cultured with the natural killer (NK) cell line CD16(158V)/NK-92 exhibited increased expression of TP mRNA. When NCI-N87 cells were cultured with CD16(158V)/NK-92 cells in the presence of trastuzumab, the mRNA expression of cytokines reported to have the ability to induce TP was upregulated in tumor cells. Furthermore, a medium conditioned by CD16(158V)/NK-92 cells also upregulated the expression of TP mRNA in NCI-N87 cells. These results suggest that trastuzumab promotes TP expression, either by acting directly on NCI-N87 cells, or indirectly via a mechanism that includes trastuzumab-mediated interactions between NK and NCI-N87 cells. Therefore, the combination of trastuzumab with XELOX may be a potent therapy for HER2-positive gastric cancer. PMID:26623038

  9. Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

  10. Prostaglandin Analogous and Antioxidant Activity Mediated Gastroprotective Action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. Flower Methanolic Extract against Chemically Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mat Jais, Abdul Manan; Afreen, Adiba

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect and recognize the basic mechanism of action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. flowers. T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME) was screened for antiulcer activity versus aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses—125, 250, and 500 mg/kg—orally using misoprostol as a standard. Besides histopathological examination, seven parameters, that is, ulcer index, total protein, nonprotein sulphhydryls, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, were estimated. In addition to HPLC profiling, GC-MS analysis and electrospray ionization—high resolution mass spectral (ESI-HRMS) analysis of crude TDFME were carried out in an attempt to identify known phytochemicals present in the extract on the basis of m/z value. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, mucin, and nonprotein sulphhydryls, while they revealed a reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also demonstrated the protective effect. Though all the doses of TDFME exhibited gastroprotective function, higher doses were found to be more effective. Mass spectral analysis gave a few characteristic m/z values suggesting the presence of a few known indole alkaloids, while HPLC profiling highlighted the complexity of the extract. TDFME was found to exhibit its gastroprotective effect through antioxidant mechanism and by enhancing the production of gastric mucous. PMID:24350249

  11. Antitumor activity of polysaccharide extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia against gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Jian-Li; Yang, Wei; Hou, Xiao; Li, Qi-Jiu

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine the antitumor effects of polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium on gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo. Polysaccharides were extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium and an antitumor component, known as Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium polysaccharides 2 (POMP2), with a relative molecular weight of 29 kDa, was then sequentially purified using Sephadex G200 size-exclusion chromatography and diethylaminoethyl-52 cellulose ion-exchange chromatography. The MTT method was used to determine the proliferation of BGC-823 cells treated with POMP2; cell migration assay, colony formation assay and in vivo antitumor tests were used to assess the effect of POMP2 on migration, cell survival and the in vivo tumor formation of BGH-823 cells. Results of the MTT assay indicated that POMP2 had a marked inhibitory effect on the BGC-823 human gastric cancer cell line; when administered at a concentration of 400 mg/l for 72 h, the rate of inhibition was 35.6%. In addition, the colony forming capacity of the BGC-823 cells was significantly reduced following treatment with POMP2. A migration assay indicated that the invasive capabilities of the BGC-823 cells were also significantly inhibited by POMP2. Furthermore, in vivo tests of mice engrafted with BGC-823 cancer cells demonstrated that both tumor weight and volume were markedly reduced following two weeks of treatment with POMP2. The results of the present study suggested that the polysaccharide POMP2 may have a potential application as a natural antitumor treatment for gastric cancer. PMID:25892617

  12. Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

  13. Role of sarcoplasmic reticulum in the myorelaxant activity of nitric oxide donors in guinea pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Petkov, G V; Spassov, G D; Boev, K K

    1998-07-31

    The relaxant effect of two nitric oxide (NO) donors: sodium nitroprusside and 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) on circular smooth muscle strips isolated from guinea pig gastric fundus was studied with the view to elucidating the mechanism, which underlies the NO-induced relaxation of this tissue. Both sodium nitroprusside (10(-9)-10(-5) M) and SIN-1 (10(-9)-10(-4) M) suppressed the spontaneous fundus tone and hyperpolarized the muscle cells by about 5 mV. They antagonized the acetylcholine (10(-6) M)-induced tone and exerted their relaxant effects even when Ca2+ influx into the cells was triggered through the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Sodium nitroprusside and SIN-1 antagonized the contraction induced by cyclopiazonic acid (10(-5) M), a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. In the presence of high concentrations of sodium nitroprusside or SIN-1, cyclopiazonic acid (10(-5) M) exerted only a slight if any contractile effect. After the complete relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside or SIN-1, the K+-channel blockers, tetraethylammonium, apamin and charybdotoxin, as well as the Ca2+ ionophore, A 23187, induced high-amplitude contractions, suggesting that the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile myofilaments was not affected. The results suggest that NO, released from NO donors increases the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake thereby enhancing the vectorial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release toward the plasmalemma to elicit membrane hyperpolarization and relaxation in guinea pig gastric fundus. PMID:9726631

  14. Structure-activity relationships of ?-, ?(1)-, ?-, and ?-tomatine and tomatidine against human breast (MDA-MB-231), gastric (KATO-III), and prostate (PC3) cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suk Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Nishitani, Yosuke; Zhang, Ling; Mizuno, Masashi; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-04-18

    Partial acid hydrolysis of the tetrasaccharide (lycotetraose) side chain of the tomato glycoalkaloid ?-tomatine resulted in the formation of four products with three, two, one, and zero carbohydrate side chains, which were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and liquid chromatography ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF). The inhibitory activities in terms of IC(50) values (concentration that inhibits 50% of the cells under the test conditions) of the parent compound and the hydrolysates, isolated by preparative HPLC, against normal human liver and lung cells and human breast, gastric, and prostate cancer cells indicate that (a) the removal of sugars significantly reduced the concentration-dependent cell-inhibiting effects of the test compounds, (b) PC3 prostate cancer cells were about 10 times more susceptible to inhibition by ?-tomatine than the breast and gastric cancer cells or the normal cells, (c) the activity of ?-tomatine against the prostate cancer cells was 200 times greater than that of the aglycone tomatidine, and (d) the activity increased as the number of sugars on the aglycone increased, but this was only statistically significant at p < 0.05 for the normal lung Hel299 cell line. The effect of the alkaloids on tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) was measured in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the dosage of ?- and ?-tomatine and the level of TNF-?. ?-Tomatine was the most effective compound at reducing TNF-?. The dietary significance of the results and future research needs are discussed. PMID:22482398

  15. DNA-Ploidy in Advanced Gastric Carcinoma is Less Heterogeneous than in Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Osterheld, Maria?Chiara; Caron, Liette; Demierre, Mireille; Laurini, Ricardo; Bosman, F. T.

    2004-01-01

    This analysis of DNA?ploidy heterogeneity in advanced gastric carcinomas is consistent with the hypothesis of the emergence of a single aneuploid cell clone as a crucial mechanism in the progression from early gastric carcinoma to advanced gastric cancer. The prognostic value of DNA?ploidy in gastric cancers has been a matter of controversy. Tumour DNA?ploidy heterogeneity, the presence within the same tumour of multiple stemlines differing in DNA content, has been described in various tumours including gastric cancers. The occurrence of such heterogeneity has been accepted as an explanation for the divergent DNA?ploidy results in this type of tumours. A previous study of early gastric cancers suggested that in pure diploid superficial carcinomas, genetic instability might lead to a cell clone which has undergone a ploidy shift and is more aggressive. If so, this would initially result in DNA?ploidy heterogeneity. Proliferative dominance of the aneuploid clone could eventually evolve to a homogeneous aneuploid tumour. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied DNA?aneuploidy and DNA?ploidy heterogeneity in advanced gastric carcinomas. We performed DNA cytophotometry on multiple samples collected from 16 advanced gastric carcinomas and found 15 DNA?aneuploid tumours (94%) and one diploid tumour. Multiple DNA?stemlines were found in 4 cases (26%). Analysis of proliferative activity performed on the same samples revealed higher proliferation rate in DNA?ploidy homogeneous tumours than in aneuploid heterogeneous tumours. Heterogeneous tumours did not overexpress p53. These results confirm that DNA?aneuploidy is frequent in advanced gastric cancer and demonstrate that a majority of these aneuploid tumours are not DNA?ploidy heterogeneous. Furthermore, the higher proliferative activity in homogeneous?aneuploid carcinomas and their more frequent overexpression of p53 support the hypothesis that in gastric cancer tumour progression implies the development of a dominant and more aggressive (higher proliferative activity, p53 overexpression) aneuploid cell clone. PMID:15371654

  16. Gastric function measurements in drug development

    PubMed Central

    Pohle, Thorsten; Domschke, Wolfram

    2003-01-01

    The function of the stomach includes initiation of digestion by exocrine secretions such as acid and pepsin, which are under the control of the endocrine secretion of hormones that also coordinate intestinal motility. The stomach also stores and mechanically disrupts ingested food. Various techniques have been developed to assess gastric physiology, the most important of which is assessment of acid secretion, as well as gastric motility and gastric emptying. The influence of drugs on gastric function and the effect of gastric secretion and mechanical actions on the bioavailability of novel compounds are of critical importance in drug development and hence to clinical pharmacologists. The control of acid secretion is essential in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease as well as gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD); pH-metry can be used to determine the necessary dose of an acid suppressant to heal mucosal damage. Disturbed gastric myoelectric activity leading to gastroparesis can cause delayed gastric emptying, often found in patients with diabetes mellitus. Electrogastrography (EGG) may be used to evaluate the influence of prokinetics and other drugs on this condition and aid in determining effective therapy. PMID:12895188

  17. Gastric sensitivity and reflexes: basic mechanisms underlying clinical problems.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Grundy, David; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Both reflex and sensory mechanisms control the function of the stomach, and disturbances in these mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of disorders of gastric function. The objective of this report is to perform a literature-based critical analysis of new, relevant or conflicting information on gastric sensitivity and reflexes, with particular emphasis on the comprehensive integration of basic and clinical research data. The stomach exerts both phasic and tonic muscular (contractile and relaxatory) activity. Gastric tone determines the capacity of the stomach and mediates both gastric accommodation to a meal as well as gastric emptying, by partial relaxation or progressive recontraction, respectively. Perception and reflex afferent pathways from the stomach are activated independently by specific stimuli, suggesting that the terminal nerve endings operate as specialized receptors. Particularly, perception appears to be related to stimulation of tension receptors, while the existence of volume receptors in the stomach is uncertain. Reliable techniques have been developed to measure gastric perception and reflexes both in experimental and clinical conditions, and have facilitated the identification of abnormal responses in patients with gastric disorders. Gastroparesis is characterised by impaired gastric tone and contractility, whereas patients with functional dyspepsia have impaired accommodation, associated with antral distention and increased gastric sensitivity. An integrated view of fragmented knowledge allows the design of pathophysiological models in an attempt to explain disorders of gastric function, and may facilitate the development of mechanistically orientated treatments. PMID:24306100

  18. Rapid Glucocorticoid-Induced Activation of TRP and CB1 Receptors Causes Biphasic Modulation of Glutamate Release in Gastric-Related Hypothalamic Preautonomic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Boychuk, Carie R.; Zsombok, Andrea; Tasker, Jeffrey G.; Smith, Bret N.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids rapidly regulate synaptic input to neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) by inducing the retrograde release of endogenous messengers. Here we investigated the rapid effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on excitatory synaptic input to feeding-related, preautonomic PVN neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In ∼50% of identified gastric-related preautonomic PVN neurons, DEX elicited a biphasic synaptic response characterized by an initial rapid and transient increase in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), followed by a decrease in mEPSC frequency within 9 min; remaining cells displayed only a decrease in mEPSC frequency. The late-phase decrease in mEPSC frequency was mimicked by the cannabinoid receptor agonists anandamide (AEA) and WIN 55,212-2, and it was blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. The biphasic DEX effect was mimicked by AEA. The early increase in mEPSCs was mimicked by activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors with capsaicin and by activation of TRPV4 receptors with 4-α-PDD. The increase was reduced, but not blocked, by selective TRPV1 antagonists and in TRPV1 knockout mice; it was blocked completely by the broad-spectrum TRPV antagonist ruthenium red and by combined application of selective TRPV1 and TRPV4 antagonists. The DEX effects were prevented entirely by intracellular infusion of the G-protein inhibitor, GDPβS. Thus, DEX biphasically modulates synaptic glutamate onto a subset of gastric-related PVN neurons, which is likely mediated by induction of a retrograde messenger. The effect includes a TRPV1/4 receptor-mediated transient increase and subsequent CB1 receptor-mediated suppression of glutamate release. Multiphasic modulation of glutamate input to PVN neurons represents a previously unappreciated complexity of control of autonomic output by glucocorticoids and endogenous cannabinoids. PMID:23386808

  19. Primary gastric tuberculosis mimicking gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eray, ?smail Cem; Renczo?ullar?, Ahmet; Yalav, Orun; Dalc?, Kubilay; Kakil, Erdem; Ba??r, Emine; Parsak, Cem Kaan

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old female patient with no previous known diseases who had complaints of postprandial epigastric pain and weight loss and who could not be diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy, although gastric cancer was suspected radiologically and endoscopically, was diagnosed with primary gastric tuberculosis by laparotomy and frozen section. Following anti-tuberculosis treatment, a complete clinical, radiological, and endoscopic response was achieved. PMID:26504425

  20. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  1. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer: A pharmacological assessment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaccob, Ausama Ayoob

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Since there is an increasing need for gastric ulcer therapies with optimum benefit-risk profile. This study was conducted to investigate gastro-protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models in mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 41 mice were allocated into six groups consisted of 7 mice each. Groups 1 (normal control) and 2 (ulcer control) received distilled water at a dose of 10 ml/kg, groups 3, 4 and 5 were given NAC at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and the 6th group received ranitidine (50 mg/kg). All drugs administered orally once daily for 7 days, on the 8th day absolute ethanol (7 ml/kg) was administrated orally to all mice to induce the acute ulcer except normal control group. Then 3 h after, all animals were sacrificed then consequently the stomachs were excised for examination. Results: NAC administration at the tested doses showed a dose-related potent gastro-protective effect with significant increase in curative ratio, PH of gastric juice and mucus content viscosity seen with the highest dose of NAC and it is comparable with that observed in ranitidine group. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that, oral NAC shows significant gastro-protective effects comparable to ranitidine confirmed by anti-secretory, cytoprotective, histological and biochemical data, but the molecular mechanisms behind such protection are complex. PMID:26401392

  2. Extracirculatory effects of noise of various frequency spectra in humans--effect of pink and blue noise on gastric myoelectrical activity and gastrointestinal passage of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Dolinski, Kamil; Dolinski, Miroslaw; Kaminska, Magdalena; Szymszal, Malgorzata; Dzielicki, Marek; Blonska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Recent investigations in humans point out to a disturbing effect of auditory stimuli on the functional integrity of the brain-gut axis. The study was devoted to a systematic comparative evaluation of the effect of noises of different frequency spectra on the postprandial electrical and transport functions of the digestive tract in humans. Twenty six healthy subjects attended a cross-over study, which aimed at comparison of the effect of pink contrasted to blue noise within a given category (band or tonal) and a meal stimulus type (semi-liquid or solid test meal). A panel of noninvasive measurement methods was applied: heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, surface electrogastrography, (13)CO(2) breath tests for gastric emptying (GE), lactulose hydrogen breath test for orocecal transit time (OCTT). The blue tonal noise was rated the most annoying one, whereas solely the pink noises exerted discernible cardiovascular effects. No one of the four noises was capable of overriding the meal-induced preponderance of the sympathetic tone. The postprandial gastric myoelectrical activity and the GE of either the semiliquid or the solid test meal appeared to be ;resistant' to the noise exposure, irrespective of the noise type. Similar was the finding in the case of the OCTT, with the exception of a statistically significant retardation of the OCTT with the blue band noise. Ingestion of mixed caloric meals seems to elicit a protective influence against noise-elicited derangements of the functional integrity of the digestive tract proven formerly to occur during the fasting period. PMID:17446663

  3. Ibuprofen delivered by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to human gastric cancer cells exerts antiproliferative activity at very low concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Bonelli, Patrizia; Tuccillo, Franca M; Federico, Antonella; Napolitano, Maria; Borrelli, Antonella; Melisi, Daniela; Rimoli, Maria G; Palaia, Raffaele; Arra, Claudio; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have suggested that ibuprofen, a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits the promotion and proliferation of certain tumors. Recently, we demonstrated the antiproliferative effects of ibuprofen on the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. However, high doses of ibuprofen were required to elicit these antiproliferative effects in vitro. The present research compared the antiproliferative effects of ibuprofen delivered freely and released by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) in MKN-45 cells. Methods MKN-45 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells were treated with ibuprofen-loaded PLGA NPs. The proliferation of MKN-45 cells was then assessed by cell counting. The uptake of NPs was imaged by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The release of ibuprofen from ibuprofen-loaded PLGA NPs in the cells was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Dramatic inhibition of cellular proliferation was observed in cells treated with ibuprofen-loaded PLGA NPs versus those treated with free ibuprofen at the same concentration. The localization of NPs was cytoplasmic. The initiation of ibuprofen release was rapid, commencing within 2 hours, and then increased slowly over time, reaching a maximum concentration at 24 hours. The inhibition of proliferation was confirmed to be due to the intracellular release of ibuprofen from the NPs. Using PLGA NPs as carriers, ibuprofen exerted an antiproliferative activity at concentrations > 100 times less than free ibuprofen, suggesting greater efficiency and less cellular toxicity. In addition, when carried by PLGA NPs, ibuprofen more quickly induced the expression of transcripts involved in proliferation and invasiveness processes. Conclusion Ibuprofen exerted an antiproliferative effect on MKN-45 cells at low concentrations. This effect was achieved using PLGA NPs as carriers of low doses of ibuprofen. PMID:23180963

  4. Antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of Crassocephalum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decoction of Crassocephallum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore (Asteraceae) is used in Kagera Region to treat peptic ulcers. This study seeks to evaluate an aqueous ethanol extract of aerial parts of the plant for safety and efficacy. Methods An 80% ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt was evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from acidified ethanol gastric ulceration in comparison with 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract and its dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions were also evaluated for acute toxicity in mice, brine shrimp toxicity, and antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholera (clinical isolate), and Streptococcus faecalis (clinical isolate). The groups of phytochemicals present in the extract were also determined. Results The ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against ethanol/HCl insult to a maximum of 88.3% at 800 mg/kg body wt, affording the same level of protection as by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against S. typhi and E. coli, while its ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions showed weak activity against K. pneumonia, S.typhi, E. coli and V. cholera. The extract was non-toxic to mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt, and the total extract (LC50 = 37.49 μg/ml) and the aqueous (LC50 = 87.92 μg/ml), ethyl acetate (LC50 = 119.45 μg/ml) and dichloromethane fractions (88.79 μg/ml) showed low toxicity against brine shrimps. Phytochemical screening showed that the extract contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Conclusion The results support the claims by traditional healers that a decoction of C.vitellinum has antiulcer activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection is yet to be determined but the phenolic compounds present in the extract may contribute to its protective actions. However, the dose conferring gastro-protection in the rat is too big to be translated to clinical application; thus bioassay guided fractionation to identify active compound/s or fractions is needed, and use of more peptic ulcer models to determine the mechanism for the protective action. PMID:24552147

  5. KDM5B is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is required for gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenran; Tang, Fang; Qi, Guangying; Yuan, Shengguang; Zhang, Guangyu; Tang, Bo; He, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. KDM5B (also known as JARID1B) is a newly identified histone demethylase that regulates chromatin structure or gene expression by removing methyl residues from trimethylated lysine 4 on histone H3. Recent observations have shown oncogenic activity of KDM5B. However, the role of KDM5B in gastric cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of KDM5B in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting, and qRT-PCR were used to measure the levels of KDM5B in gastric cancer cell lines, 45 pairs of gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. KDM5B and shKDM5B were transfected into gastric cancer cells to investigate its role on regulating cell proliferation which was measured by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell’s migration and invasion were measured by Transwell and Matrigel analysis in vitro. PCNA expression was measured by immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemical analysis. The in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis assays were performed in SCID mice. In clinical gastric cancer samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly up-regulated in cancer lesions compared with paired normal gastric tissues. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in gastric cancer cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth and metastasis in vitro. An in vivo assay showed that KDM5B not only dramatically promoted gastric cancer cell xenograft formation and growth but also promoted gastric cancer cell metastasis in a liver metastasis model. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted gastric cancer metastasis via regulation of the Akt pathway. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in gastric cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer management. PMID:25628922

  6. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  7. Long noncoding RNA linc-UBC1 is negative prognostic factor and exhibits tumor pro-oncogenic activity in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiren; Pan, Jianghua; Wang, Yi; Li, Linjing; Huang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in the management of gastric cancer, the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer remains relatively poor. Thus, it is of urgent need to identify novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets of gastric cancer. A growing volume of literature has indicated that lncRNAs are differentially expressed in a diverse array of cancer and play an important role in the development of cancer. Linc-UBC1, a recently identified long noncoding RNA, was initially found to be upregulated in bladder cancer. However, the role of linc-UBC1 in gastric cancer remains to be elusive. In this study, we found that linc-UBC1 was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, high linc-UBC1 expression was associated with lymph-node metastasis, tumor size, TNM stage and poorer prognosis. Inhibition of linc-UBC1 suppressed the proliferation, motility and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Our study suggests that linc-UBC1 may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target of gastric cancer. PMID:25755750

  8. Gastric inhibitory peptide controls adipose insulin sensitivity via activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein and p110β isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sameer; Ramos, Lavoisier S; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Rubino, Francesco; McGraw, Timothy E

    2011-12-16

    Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone secreted in response to food intake. The best known function of GIP is to enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Extra-pancreatic effects of GIP primarily occur in adipose tissues. Here, we demonstrate that GIP increases insulin-dependent translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and exclusion of FoxO1 transcription factor from the nucleus in adipocytes, establishing that GIP has a general effect on insulin action in adipocytes. Stimulation of adipocytes with GIP alone has no effect on these processes. Using pharmacologic and molecular genetic approaches, we show that the effect of GIP on adipocyte insulin sensitivity requires activation of both the cAMP/protein kinase A/CREB signaling module and p110β phosphoinositol-3' kinase, establishing a novel signal transduction pathway modulating insulin action in adipocytes. This insulin-sensitizing effect is specific for GIP because isoproterenol, which elevates adipocyte cAMP and activates PKA/CREB signaling, does not affect adipocyte insulin sensitivity. The insulin-sensitizing activity points to a more central role for GIP in intestinal regulation of peripheral tissue metabolism, an emerging feature of inter-organ communication in the control of metabolism. PMID:22027830

  9. Malignant transformation of human gastric epithelium cells via reactive oxygen species production and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation following 40-week exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Cui, Jinfeng; Meng, Xinxing; Xing, Lingxiao; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Lian, Weiguang; Zhang, Xianghong

    2016-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, is a possible carcinogenic to humans. We previously demonstrated that OTA treatment induced oxidative damage in human gastric epithelium cells (GES-1) in vitro. In this study, we found that long-term OTA treatment could result in increased proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of GES-1 cells and induce anchorage-independent growth of cells in soft agar. Inoculation of OTA-treated GES-1 cells resulted in the formation of tumor xenografts in Balb/c nude mice in vivo, confirming that long-term OTA treatment can induce the malignant transformation of GES-1 cells. In addition, we found that long-term OTA treatment induced oxidative stress and activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including the nuclear transition of β-catenin and the upregulation of the downstream molecules of the pathway. Finally, pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) inhibited ROS formation and activation of the Wnt pathway in OTA-transformed GES-1 cells, which decreased the tumor formation abilities of these cells after inoculation in nude mice. These findings suggest that long-term OTA exposure induces the malignant transformation of GES-1 cells via intracellular ROS production and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26721203

  10. Vection-induced gastric dysrhythmias and motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric electrical and mechanical activity during vection-induced motion sickness was investigated. The contractile events of the antrum and gastric myoelectric activity in healthy subjects exposed to vection were measured simultaneously. Symptomatic and myoelectric responses of subjects with vagotomy and gastric resections during vection stimuli were determined. And laboratory based computer systems for analysis of the myoelectric signal were developed. Gastric myoelectric activity was recorded from cutaneous electrodes, i.e., electrogastrograms (EGGs), and antral contractions were measured with intraluminal pressure transducers. Vection was induced by a rotating drum. gastric electromechanical activity was recorded during three periods: 15 min baseline, 15 min drum rotation (vection), and 15 to 30 min recovery. Preliminary results showed that catecholamine responses in nauseated versus symptom-free subjects were divergent and pretreatment with metoclopramide HC1 (Reglan) prevented vection-induced nausea and reduced tachygastrias in two previously symptomatic subjects.

  11. Gastric mucosal mast cells in atopic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, G F; Di Cesare, E; Caruso, R A; Gulli, S; Cugliari, A; Morabito Lo Prete, A; Previti, M; Muscar, M; Bottari, M

    1995-04-01

    Intragastral allergen provocation under endoscopic control (IPEC) allows direct observation of gastric mucosa reactions after contact with inhalant allergens that reach the stomach. We selected patients with proved atopy to Parietaria but without clinical and endoscopic signs of gastric disease, and we tested them with the specific inhalant allergen during IPEC, recording gastric macroscopic reaction and mucosal mast-cell changes in biopsy specimens. All atopic patients showed visible changes in gastric mucosa quantified as IPEC score. Mast-cell numbers detected in atopic patients (135.4 +/- 102.6/mm2 of stromal area) were significantly higher than in nonatopic subjects (59.8 +/- 25.4/mm2; P < 0.03) and were positively correlated to atopic IPEC score (P < 0.01). In addition, 6/12 atopics who had both higher mast-cell counts and IPEC score showed an intraepithelial distribution of gastric mast cells which displayed ultrastructural features of partial degranulation. It is likely that changes observed in our patients with allergy to Parietaria reflect a subclinical activation of mast cells in the gastric mucosa. PMID:7573815

  12. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  13. Sanguinarine sensitizes human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via down-regulation of AKT and activation of caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Young; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Nam Deuk; Lee, Won Ho; Kim, Se-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2009-11-01

    Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid, derived from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis and other poppy Fumaria species, which is known to have antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is known to induce apoptosis in cancer cells but spare most normal cells. However, its effects are limited in some types of cancer cells, including AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, we showed that treatment with TRAIL in combination with subtoxic concentrations of sanguinarine sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in AGS cells. Combined treatment with sanguinarine and TRAIL effectively induced Bid cleavage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to the activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and beta-catenin. The cytotoxic effects of the combined treatment were significantly inhibited by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, which demonstrates the important role of caspase-3 in the observed cytotoxic effect. In addition, the levels of Akt protein were markedly reduced in cells co-treated with sanguinarine and TRAIL. Apoptosis induced by the combined treatment was markedly increased by the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (Akt-upstream inhibitor), through the mitochondrial amplification step and caspase activation, suggesting that interactions of the synergistic effect were at least partially mediated through the Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:20032392

  14. Interleukin-15-transferred cytokine-induced killer cells elevated anti-tumor activity in a gastric tumor-bearing nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zheng; Liang, Wentao; Li, Zexue; Xu, Yingxin; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for gastric cancer is a novel therapy modality. However, the therapeutic effectiveness in vivo is still limited. The objective of this study was to assess the value of interleukin-15 (IL-15)-transferred cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in ACT for gastric cancer. IL-15-IRES-TK retroviral vector was constructed and transferred into the CIK cells. A gastric tumor-bearing nude mice model was constructed by subcutaneously injecting gastric cancer cells, BGC-823. Gastric tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly divided into three groups (five mice each group) and injected with physiological saline, CIK cells, and IL-15-IRES-TK-transfected CIK cells for 2 weeks, respectively. IL-15-IRES-TK-transferred CIK cells were prepared successfully and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis indicated that the transfection rate reached 85.7% after 5 days culture. In vivo experiment, we found that CIK cells retarded tumor growth by reducing tumor volume and tumor weight, as well as increasing tumor inhibition rate. Furthermore, IL-15-IRES-TK-transferred CIK cells showed a much stronger inhibition on tumor growth than CIK cells alone. Tumor morphology observation and growth indexes also showed that IL-15-transfected CIK cells had stronger cytotoxicity to tumor tissue than CIK cells. IL-15-IRES-TK transfection could elevate the effects of CIK cells to gastric carcinoma. The engineered CIK cells carrying IL-15-IRES-TK may be used in the ACT for gastric carcinoma, but prudent clinical trial is still indispensable. PMID:26503216

  15. Gastric remnant carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bushkin, F L

    1976-01-01

    Over 1200 cases of carcinoma of the gastric remnant have been reported in the literature. There is an increase of this type of carcinoma in postoperative stomachs with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The cause and effect relationships remain to be fully elucidated. In patients with late postgastrectomy symptoms, carcinoma of the gastric remnant should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In a study of 350 asymptomatic patients who were more than 20 years from Billroth II gastric resection, 14 carcinomas were discovered in the region of the stoma. Preoperatively, gross endoscopic appearance and multiple biopsies will usually provide the diagnosis. At the time of revisional surgery, frozen section of gastric biopsies or the resected specimen may be necessary to exclude the diagnosis. At present there is widespread interest in several procedures in the treatment of benign ulcer disease. In selected patients, proximal gastric vagotomy is receiving particular interest. It remains to be determined what, if any, gastric mucosal alterations occur. Since the pyloric mechanism is intact, no stoma is created and no portion of the stomach resected; long-term followup of these patients will be of interest. Information as to the cause of gastric remnant carcinoma can be forthcoming only by evaluation of all groups of patients requiring gastric surgery for benign disease. At the same time, further investigation of patients with gastric carcinoma without prior resection who have atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia is also necessary. The histologic type of carcinoma that develops in the gastric remnant is usually more favorable for surgical cure than those seen in the intact stomach. This means that early diagnosis by radiologic and endoscopic study of postgastrectomy patients developing symptoms is highly desirable. Because of the long interval between gastrectomy and gastric remnant carcinoma these patients are often in the older age group. The location of the lesion in the remaining proximal stomach will nearly always require total gastrectomy. This plus the age factor means that the operative mortality will be rather high. We are unable to explain why in 22 years of observing postgastrectomy patients we have seen only one case of gastric remnant carcinoma. This patient was successfully treated by left transpleural transdiaphragmatic total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. This method is particulary easy in the patient who has has an antecolic Billroth II gastrectomy. If the jejunum cannot be adequately mobilized through a radial incision extending laterally from the esophageal hiatus, we use a peripheral diaphragmatic incision in circumferential fashion. This gives excellent exposure of the upper abdominal contents and also preserves the phrenic nerve. As a result, ventilatory function of the left leaf of the diaphragm is preserved postoperatively. PMID:957774

  16. [Elevated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    de Careaga, B; Villagmez, G; Pabn, J; Caldern, O; Elo, D; Prez, J; Martnez, M; Patio, F; Ponce, R; Lora, J

    1986-01-01

    Elevated gastric lesions, represent an important group among gastric pathology. To establish its incidence in our experience, we studied the endoscopic reports of two important hospitals in La Paz city: Instituto de Gastroenterologa Boliviano Japons and Hospital Obrero No. 1. In order to make a good endoscopic diagnosis among different elevated lesions we use some parameters like: location, shape, size, diameter, surface of the lesion and surrounding mucosa and characteristics of the falls. 10.472 endoscopic reports were reviewed, 497 elevated gastric lesions were found, 475 corresponded to mucosal lesions (352 benign lesions and 123 malignant lesions), 11 to submucosal and 11 extragastric lesions. PMID:3661077

  17. Finding of a KCl-independent, electrogenic, and ATP-driven H+-pumping activity in rat light gastric membranes and its effect on the membrane K+ transport activity.

    PubMed

    Im, W B; Blakeman, D P; Davis, J P

    1986-09-01

    Resting rat light gastric membranes prepared through 2H2O and Percoll gradient centrifugations were enriched not only with (H+-K+)-ATPase and K+ transport activity (Im, W. B., Blakeman, D. P., and Davis, J. P. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 9452-9460), but also with a K+-independent, ATP-dependent H+-pumping activity. This intravesicular acidification has been ascribed to an oligomycin-insensitive H+-ATPase which differed from (H+-K+)-ATPase in several respects. The H+-ATPase is electrogenic, apparently of lower capacity, required a lower optimal ATP concentration (4 microM for the H+-ATPase and 500 microM for (H+-K+)-ATPase), of lower sensitivity to vanadate and sulfhydryl agents such as p-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide, and insensitive to SCH 28,080, a known competitive inhibitor of (H+-K+)-ATPase with respect to K+. Operation of the H+-ATPase, however, appeared to interfere with the K+ transport activity in the light gastric membranes, probably through development of intravesicular positive membrane potential; for example, micromolar levels of Mg2+-ATP fully inhibited K+ uptake and stimulated K+ efflux as measured with 86Rb+. Involvement of (H+-K+)-ATPase in the K+ transport is not likely, since the inhibitory effect of Mg2+-ATP continued even after removal of the nucleotide with an ATP-scavenging system. Moreover, nigericin, an electroneutral H+/K+ exchanger, could bypass the inhibitory effect of Mg2+-ATP and equilibrate the membrane vesicles with 86Rb+ while valinomycin, an electrogenic K+ ionophore, could not. Finally, the H+-ATPase could possibly be involved in the acid secretory process, since its H+-pumping activity was removed from the light gastric membrane fraction upon carbachol treatment, along with the K+ transport and (H+-K+)-ATPase activities. We have speculated that the H+-ATPase is responsible for maintaining the K+-permeable intracellular membrane vesicles acidic and K+ free during the resting state of acid secretion and may contribute to basal acid secretion. PMID:2875068

  18. Rioprostil and ranitidine in the treatment of prepyloric gastric ulcer. A double-blind comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Lauritsen, K; Laursen, L S; Havelund, T; Brnnum-Schou, J; Rask-Madsen, J

    1989-04-01

    Rioprostil, a synthetic 16-methylprostaglandin E1, combines antisecretory with cytoprotective properties, the latter being active even at doses below those required for acid inhibition. To test whether rioprostil given in antisecretory doses would heal prepyloric ulcers rapidly, we assigned patients with endoscopically proved ulcers randomly to double-blind treatment with 100 micrograms rioprostil twice daily or 150 mg ranitidine twice daily for up to 8 weeks. Recruitment was terminated at the time point of planned interim analysis because the total healing rate was markedly lower than expected. Thirty patients were allocated to each treatment group. The cumulative healing rates at 4 and 8 weeks were 40% and 60%, respectively, in the rioprostil group versus 70% and 90%, respectively, in the ranitidine group (p less than 0.01). Pain relief occurred simultaneously in the two groups. No major adverse effects were noted. These findings question the clinical relevance of using 'cytoprotection' by prostaglandin analogues as treatment for prepyloric ulcer disease in the short term. PMID:2499922

  19. CpG Island Hypermethylation in Gastric Carcinoma and Its Premalignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancers arise through a multistep process characterized by the progressive accumulation of molecular alterations in which genetic and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated. Gastric cancer is one of the human malignancies in which aberrant promoter CpG island hypermethylation is frequently found. Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus, which are known carcinogens for gastric cancer, are closely associated with enhanced hypermethylation of CpG island loci in gastric non-neoplastic epithelial cells and cancer cells, respectively. Aberrant CpG island hypermethylation occurs early in the multistep cascade of gastric carcinogenesis and tends to increase with the step-wise progression of the lesion. Approximately 400 genes that are actively expressed in normal gastric epithelial cells are estimated to be inactivated in gastric cancers as a result of promoter CpG island hypermethylation. In this review, a variety of information is summarized regarding CpG island hypermethylation in gastric cancer. PMID:23109971

  20. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Ho Soon; Yang, Sun Young; Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

  1. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.; Yu Jun; Leung, W.K.; Cho, C.H.; Sung, J.J.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7 nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX, {alpha}7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol ({beta}-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE{sub 2} and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} induction can only be suppressed by propranolol, but not {alpha}-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis.

  2. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  3. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  4. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Because patients often depend on parents or other family members for meals, a dietitian will teach you and your family healthy eating basics like good nutrition, how to get regular meals, and the right portion sizes . Gastric sleeve surgery ...

  5. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  6. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupationsfor example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  7. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of a complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data have indicated that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect the risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness show the sophisticated relationship between H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  8. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. ()RSNA, 2015. PMID:26562229

  9. Gastric Carcinogenesis and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms: Helicobacter pylori and Novel Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen-derived free radicals that are released from activated neutrophils are one of the cytotoxic factors of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury. Increased cytidine deaminase activity in H. pylori-infected gastric tissues promotes the accumulation of various mutations and might promote gastric carcinogenesis. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion system, and it causes inflammation and activation of oncogenic pathways. H. pylori infection induces epigenetic transformations, such as aberrant promoter methylation in tumor-suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of microRNAs is also reportedly linked to gastric tumorogenesis. Moreover, recent advances in molecular targeting therapies provided a new interesting weapon to treat advanced gastric cancer through anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) therapies. This updated review article highlights possible mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis including H. pylori-associated factors. PMID:25945346

  10. Gastric Carcinogenesis and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms: Helicobacter pylori and Novel Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen-derived free radicals that are released from activated neutrophils are one of the cytotoxic factors of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury. Increased cytidine deaminase activity in H. pylori-infected gastric tissues promotes the accumulation of various mutations and might promote gastric carcinogenesis. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion system, and it causes inflammation and activation of oncogenic pathways. H. pylori infection induces epigenetic transformations, such as aberrant promoter methylation in tumor-suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of microRNAs is also reportedly linked to gastric tumorogenesis. Moreover, recent advances in molecular targeting therapies provided a new interesting weapon to treat advanced gastric cancer through anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) therapies. This updated review article highlights possible mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis including H. pylori-associated factors. PMID:25945346

  11. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5?cm 2?cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  12. Effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway on multidrug resistance induced by vincristine in gastric cancer cell line MGC803

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Jin, Feng; Lu, Ping; Lu, Xiang-Lan; Wang, Ping-Ping; Liu, Yun-Peng; Yao, Fan; Wang, Shu-Bao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway and multidrug resistance (MDR) in MGC803 cells. METHODS: Western blot was used to analyze the expression of MDR associated gene in transient vincristine (VCR) induced MGC803 cells, which were treated with or without the specific inhibitor of MAPK, PD098059. Morphologic analysis of the cells treated by VCR with or without PD098059 was determined by Wright-Giemsa staining. The cell cycle analysis was performed by using flow cytometric assay and the drug sensitivity of MGC803 cells which were exposed to VCR with or without PD098059 was tested by using MTT assay. RESULTS: Transient exposure to VCR induced P-gp but not MRP1 or GST-? expression in MGC803 cells and the expression of P-gp was inhibited by PD098059. Apoptotic bodies were found in the cells treated with VCR or VCR+PD098059. FCM results indicated that more MGC803 cells showed apoptotic phenotype when treated by VCR and PD098059 (rate: 31.23%) than treated by VCR only (rate: 18.42%) (P < 0.05). The IC50 (284 13.2 ?g/L) of MGC803 cells pretreated with VCR was 2.24-fold as that of negative control group (127 17.6 ?g/L) and 1.48-fold as that of the group treated with PD098059 (191 27.9 ?g/L). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the expression of P-gp can be induced by transient exposure to VCR and this induction can be prevented by PD098059, which can block the activity of MAPK. MAPK signal transduction pathway may play some roles in modulating MDR1 expression in gastric cancer. PMID:15040019

  13. Improvement of Physical Decline Through Combined Effects of Muscle Enhancement and Mitochondrial Activation by a Gastric Hormone Ghrelin in Male 5/6Nx CKD Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Masanori; Hagiwara, Aika; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Wakino, Shu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kentaro; Fujii, Chikako; Sato, Masaaki; Mitsuishi, Masanori; Muraki, Ayako; Hayashi, Koichi; Doi, Toshio; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Because a physical decline correlates with an increased risk of a wide range of disease and morbidity, an improvement of physical performance is expected to bring significant clinical benefits. The primary cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) chronic kidney disease model mice has been regarded as a decrease in muscle mass; however, our recent study showed that a decrease in muscle mitochondria plays a critical role. In the present study, we examined the effects of a gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to promote muscle mitochondrial oxidation, on the physical decline in the chronic kidney disease model mice, focusing on the epigenetic modulations of a mitochondrial activator gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). Ghrelin treatment improved a decline in exercise endurance of 5/6Nx mice, associated with an increase in both of the muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. The expression level of PGC-1? was decreased in the skeletal muscle of 5/6Nx mice, which was associated with an increase in the methylation ratio of the cytosine residue at 260 base pairs upstream of the initiation point. Conversely, ghrelin treatment de-methylated the cytosine residue and increased the expression of PGC-1?. A representative muscle anabolic factor, IGF-1, did not affect the expression of PGC-1? and muscle mitochondrial amount, although it increased muscle mass. As a result, IGF-1 treatment in 5/6Nx mice did not increase the decreased exercise endurance as effectively as ghrelin treatment did. These findings indicate an advantage of ghrelin treatment for a recovery of physical decline. PMID:26241123

  14. Parenteral Adjuvant Activities of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin and Its B Subunit for Immunization of Mice against Gastric Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Richard; Guy, Bruno; Thomas, William D.; Giannasca, Paul J.; Monath, Thomas P.

    2000-01-01

    The heat-labile toxin (LT) of Escherichia coli is a potent mucosal adjuvant that has been used to induce protective immunity against Helicobacter felis and Helicobacter pylori infection in mice. We studied whether recombinant LT or its B subunit (LTB) has adjuvant activity in mice when delivered with H. pylori urease antigen via the parenteral route. Mice were immunized subcutaneously or intradermally with urease plus LT, recombinant LTB, or a combination of LT and LTB prior to intragastric challenge with H. pylori. Control mice were immunized orally with urease plus LT, a regimen shown previously to protect against H. pylori gastric infection. Parenteral immunization using either LT or LTB as adjuvant protected mice against H. pylori challenge as effectively as oral immunization and enhanced urease-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses in serum as effectively as aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. LT and LTB had adjuvant activity at subtoxic doses and induced more consistent antibody responses than those observed with oral immunization. A mixture of a low dose of LT and a high dose of LTB stimulated the highest levels of protection and specific IgG in serum. Urease-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibody subclass responses were stimulated by all immunization regimens tested, but relative levels were dependent on the adjuvant used. Compared to parenteral immunization with urease alone, LT preferentially enhanced IgG1, while LTB or the LT-LTB mixture preferentially enhanced IgG2a. Parenteral immunization using LT or LTB as adjuvant also induced IgA to urease in the saliva of some mice. These results show that LT and LTB stimulate qualitatively different humoral immune responses to urease but are both effective parenteral adjuvants for immunization of mice against H. pylori infection. PMID:10768972

  15. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.83310-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

  16. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  17. Helicobacter pylori and interleukin-8 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko Eun; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Xia, Yong; Park, Jung Sun; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Choi, Seok Yong; Jung, Young Do

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major etiological factor in the development of gastric cancer. Large-scale epidemiological studies have confirmed the strong association between H. pylori infection and both cancer development and progression. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is overexpressed in gastric mucosa exposed to H. pylori. The expression of IL-8 directly correlates with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer. IL-8 is multifunctional. In addition to its potent chemotactic activity, it can induce proliferation and migration of cancer cells. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms of IL-8 signaling associated with gastric cancer. The relationship between IL-8 and H. pylori is discussed. We also summarize the current therapeutics against IL-8 in gastric cancer. PMID:24363509

  18. Role of Notch signaling pathway in gastric cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Miela?czyk, ?ukasz; Michalski, Marek; Malinowski, ?ukasz; Kowalczyk-Ziomek, Gra?yna; Helewski, Krzysztof; Harabin-S?owi?ska, Marzena; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling pathway is activated dynamically during evolution playing significant role in cell fate determination and differentiation. It has been known that alterations of this pathway may lead to human malignancies, including gastric cancer. Despite a decline in the overall incidence, this disease still remains an important global health problem. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular alterations underlying gastric cancer may contribute to the development of rationally designed molecular targeted therapies. It has been reported that Notch1 receptor could become a prognostic marker of gastric cancer and novel target for gastric cancer therapy. Among the novel and targeted approaches for the treatment of gastric cancer is also the process of Notch receptors regulation by specific microRNA. ?-secretase inhibitors are also taken into consideration. PMID:23788953

  19. Helicobacter pylori and interleukin-8 in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko Eun; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Xia, Yong; Park, Jung Sun; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Choi, Seok Yong; Jung, Young Do

    2013-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major etiological factor in the development of gastric cancer. Large-scale epidemiological studies have confirmed the strong association between H. pylori infection and both cancer development and progression. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is overexpressed in gastric mucosa exposed to H. pylori. The expression of IL-8 directly correlates with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer. IL-8 is multifunctional. In addition to its potent chemotactic activity, it can induce proliferation and migration of cancer cells. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms of IL-8 signaling associated with gastric cancer. The relationship between IL-8 and H. pylori is discussed. We also summarize the current therapeutics against IL-8 in gastric cancer. PMID:24363509

  20. Endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae J.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. However the proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) at diagnosis is increasing. Endoscopic treatment for EGC is actively performed worldwide in cases meeting specific criteria. Endoscopic mucosal resection can treat EGC with comparable results to surgery for selected cases. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) increases the en bloc and complete resection rates and reduces the local recurrence rate. ESD has been performed with expanded indication and is expected to be more widely used in the treatment of EGC through the technological advances in the near future. This review will describe the techniques, indications and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for EGC. PMID:24782609

  1. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. Methods A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. Results The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×108 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26657453

  2. The Role of Gastrokine 1 in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Hwan; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Homeostatic imbalance between cell proliferation and death in gastric mucosal epithelia may lead to gastritis and gastric cancer. Despite abundant gastrokine 1 (GKN1) expression in the normal stomach, the loss of GKN1 expression is frequently detected in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori, as well as in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer tissues, suggesting that GKN1 plays an important role in gastric mucosal defense, and the gene functions as a gastric tumor suppressor. In the stomach, GKN1 is involved in gastric mucosal inflammation by regulating cytokine production, the nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. GKN1 also inhibits the carcinogenic potential of H. pylori protein CagA by binding to it, and up-regulates antioxidant enzymes. In addition, GKN1 reduces cell viability, proliferation, and colony formation by inhibiting cell cycle progression and epigenetic modification by down-regulating the expression levels of DNMT1 and EZH2, and DNMT1 activity, and inducing apoptosis through the death receptor-dependent pathway. Furthermore, GKN1 also inhibits gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis via coordinated regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related protein expression, reactive oxygen species production, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Although the modes of action of GKN1 have not been clearly described, recent limited evidence suggests that GKN1 acts as a gastric-specific tumor suppressor. This review aims to discuss, comment, and summarize the recent progress in the understanding of the role of GKN1 in gastric cancer development and progression. PMID:25328759

  3. Gastric pyloric gland adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Park, Jason Y

    2015-06-01

    Pyloric gland adenomas are rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric pyloric gland adenomas have been shown to arise in chronically damaged mucosa. The neoplastic glands have gastric pyloric gland differentiation and have a tightly packed organization with occasional cystic dilatation. The individual cells are cuboidal to columnar, with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and either no apical mucin cap or a poorly formed apical mucin cap. The nuclei are round to oval, with occasional prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells label with markers of gastric pyloric gland differentiation, including MUC6 and MUC5AC. There is limited information regarding the natural history of pyloric gland adenomas, but clinical series have described adenocarcinomas in association with gastric pyloric gland adenomas. The ideal clinical management is adequate sampling of the lesion to investigate for high-grade dysplasia and/or invasive cancer and recommendation to clinical colleagues to investigate the background mucosa for the etiology of chronic gastritis as well as potential additional neoplastic lesions. This review will focus on gastric pyloric gland adenomas. PMID:26030253

  4. Primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Akwaa, Ahmad M; Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this review is to describe the various aspects of primary gastric lymphoma and the treatment options currently available. METHODS: After a systematic search of Pubmed, Medscape and MDconsult, we reviewed and retrieved literature regarding gastric lymphoma. RESULTS: Primary gastric lymphoma is rare however, the incidence of this malignancy is increasing. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Immune histochemical marker studies and molecular biology utilizing polymerase chain reaction have facilitated appropriate diagnosis and abolished the need for diagnostic surgical resection. Advances in imaging techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) have helped evaluation of tumor extension and invasion. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease is dependent on histopathological sub-type and stage at the time of diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for early stages of this disease. Chemotherapy, surgery and combination have been studied and shared almost comparable results with survival rate of 70%-90%. However, chemotherapy possesses the advantage of preserving gastric anatomy. Radiotherapy alone has been tried and showed good results. Stage IIIE, IVE disease treatment is solely by chemotherapy and surgical resection has been a remote consideration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methods of diagnosis and staging of the primary gastric lymphoma have dramatically improved. The modalities of treatment are many and probably chemotherapy is superior because of high success rate, preservation of stomach and tolerable complications. PMID:14695759

  5. α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Expression of IL-8 by Suppressing Activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Hyun; Cho, Soon Ok

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cytokine response, associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced inflammation. H. pylori induces the production of ROS, which may be involved in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/Stat), and oxidant-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and thus, expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in gastric epithelial cells. α-lipoic acid, a naturally occurring thiol compound, is a potential antioxidant. It shows beneficial effects in treatment of oxidant-associated diseases including diabetes. The present study is purposed to investigate whether α-lipoic acid inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by suppressing activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were pretreated with or without α-lipoic acid for 2 h and infected with H. pylori in a Korean isolate (HP99) at a ratio of 300:1. IL-8 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. IL-8 levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-κB-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Phospho-specific and total forms of MAPK and Jak/Stat were assessed by Western blot analysis. ROS levels were determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. As a result, H. pylori induced increases in ROS levels, mRNA, and protein levels of IL-8, as well as the activation of MAPK [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38], Jak/Stat (Jak1/2, Stat3), and NF-κB in AGS cells, which was inhibited by α-lipoic acid. In conclusion, α-lipoic acid may be beneficial for prevention and/or treatment of H. pylori infection-associated gastric inflammation. PMID:26632410

  6. Chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Baek; Park, Won Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Gastric anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the gastric mucosal penetration of the Anisakis larvae ingested with raw fish. Acute gastric anisakiasis is diagnosed by the endoscopic visualization of Anisakis larvae along with mucosal edema, erythema, hemorrhage, and/or an ulcer, whereas chronic anisakiasis is often observed as a localized tumor commonly occurring in the submucosal layer, and is characterized by eosinophilic granuloma with edema and embedded Anisakis larvae on pathological examination of surgical specimens. We report here a case of chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer, which is a rare clinical manifestation of this condition. PMID:24851229

  7. Acrylonitrile-induced gastric mucosal necrosis: role of gastric glutathione.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, B I; Boor, P J; Ahmed, A E

    1985-02-01

    Acrylonitrile [vinyl cyanide (VCN)] induces acute hemorrhagic focal superficial gastric mucosal necrosis or gastric erosions. In this report the authors have studied the mechanism of the VCN-induced gastric erosions. VCN-induced gastric lesions are coupled with a marked decrease of gastric reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration. Pretreatment of rats with various metabolic modulators (cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and GSH) before VCN demonstrated that there is an inverse and highly significant correlation between gastric GSH concentration and the VCN-induced gastric erosions. Pretreatment of rats with sulfhydryl-containing compounds protected against the VCN-induced gastric necrosis and blocked the VCN-induced gastric GSH depletion. Furthermore, pretreatment of rats with atropine, which blocks muscarinic receptors, protected rats against the VCN-induced gastric erosions. The working hypothesis is that depletion and/or inactivation of critical endogenous sulfhydryl groups causes configurational changes of cholinergic receptors and increases agonist binding affinity, which, among other actions, leads to the causation of gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:3968646

  8. Eradication of gastric cancer is now both possible and practical.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Cen, Putao; Graham, David Y

    2013-12-01

    In 1994, Helicobacter pylori was declared a human carcinogen. Evidence has now accumulated to show that at least 95% of gastric cancers are etiologically related to H. pylori. An extensive literature regarding atrophic gastritis and its effects on acid secretion, gastric microflora, and its tight association with gastric cancer has been rediscovered, confirmed, and expanded. Methods to stratify cancer risk based on endoscopic and histologic findings or serologic testing of pepsinogen levels and H. pylori testing have been developed producing practical primary and secondary gastric cancer prevention strategies. H. pylori eradication halts progressive mucosal damage. Cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will essentially prevent subsequent development of gastric cancer. For all, the age-related progression in cancer risk is halted and likely reduced as eradication reduces or eliminates mucosal inflammation and reverses or reduces H. pylori-associated molecular events such aberrant activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, double strand DNA breaks, impaired DNA mismatch repair and aberrant DNA methylation. Those who have developed atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy however retain some residual risk for gastric cancer which is proportional to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Primary and secondary cancer prevention starts with H. pylori eradication and cancer risk stratification to identify those at higher risk who should also be considered for secondary cancer prevention programs. Japan has embarked on population-wide H. pylori eradication coupled with surveillance targeted to those with significant remaining risk. We anticipate that countries with high gastric cancer burdens will follow their lead. We provide specific recommendations on instituting practical primary and secondary gastric cancer prevention programs as well identifying research needed to make elimination of gastric cancer both efficient and cost effective. PMID:23876852

  9. Estrogen receptors in gastric cancer: Advances and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Cao, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies with high mortality. Various aspects of the development and progression of gastric cancer continue to be extensively investigated in order to further our understanding and provide more effective means for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are steroid hormone receptors that regulate cellular activities in many physiological and pathological processes in different tissues. There are two distinct forms of ERs, namely ERα and ERβ, with several alternative-splicing isoforms for each. They show distinct tissue distribution patterns and exert different biological functions. Dysregulation of ERs has been found to be associated closely with many diseases, including cancer. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the role of ERs in gastric cancer, the possible mechanisms underlying these roles, and the clinical relevance of deregulated ERs in gastric cancer patients. To date, inconsistent associations of different ERs with gastric cancer have been reported. These inconsistencies may be caused by variations in in vitro cell models and clinical samples, including assay conditions and protocols with regard to different forms of ERs. Given the potential of the deregulated ERs as diagnostic/prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for gastric cancer, it will be important to identify/confirm the association of each ER isoform with gastric cancer, to determine the specific roles and interactions that these individual ER isoforms play under specific conditions in the development and/or progression of gastric cancer, and to elucidate precisely these mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the achievements from early ER studies in gastric cancer to the most up-to-date discoveries, with an effort to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ERs roles in gastric cancer and its possible mechanisms. Furthermore, we propose directions for future investigations. PMID:26937135

  10. Estrogen receptors in gastric cancer: Advances and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Cao, Jiang

    2016-02-28

    Worldwide, gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies with high mortality. Various aspects of the development and progression of gastric cancer continue to be extensively investigated in order to further our understanding and provide more effective means for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are steroid hormone receptors that regulate cellular activities in many physiological and pathological processes in different tissues. There are two distinct forms of ERs, namely ERα and ERβ, with several alternative-splicing isoforms for each. They show distinct tissue distribution patterns and exert different biological functions. Dysregulation of ERs has been found to be associated closely with many diseases, including cancer. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the role of ERs in gastric cancer, the possible mechanisms underlying these roles, and the clinical relevance of deregulated ERs in gastric cancer patients. To date, inconsistent associations of different ERs with gastric cancer have been reported. These inconsistencies may be caused by variations in in vitro cell models and clinical samples, including assay conditions and protocols with regard to different forms of ERs. Given the potential of the deregulated ERs as diagnostic/prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for gastric cancer, it will be important to identify/confirm the association of each ER isoform with gastric cancer, to determine the specific roles and interactions that these individual ER isoforms play under specific conditions in the development and/or progression of gastric cancer, and to elucidate precisely these mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the achievements from early ER studies in gastric cancer to the most up-to-date discoveries, with an effort to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ERs roles in gastric cancer and its possible mechanisms. Furthermore, we propose directions for future investigations. PMID:26937135

  11. Mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong; Nam, Ki Taek

    2014-06-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  12. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  13. Neural mechanisms of reflex facilitation and inhibition of gastric motility to stimulation of various skin areas in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kametani, H; Sato, A; Sato, Y; Simpson, A

    1979-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed on chloralose-urethane anaesthetized rats to determine the involvement of extrinsic gastric autonomic nerves in reflex facilitation and inhibition of gastric motility when mechanical nociceptive stimulation was delivered to either hind paw or abdominal skin, respectively. 2. After bilaterally sectioning the splanchnic nerves in vagal intact animals, the reflex facilitation of gastric motility produced by hind paw stimulation persisted, but the reflex inhibition previously produced by abdominal skin stimulation disappeared. 3. Hind paw stimulation increased efferent activity of the gastric branch of the vagus nerve, but stimulation of abdominal skin had little influence. 4. Bilateral vagotomy in splanchnic nerve intact animals did not influence the gastric reflex inhibition by abdominal skin stimulation, but either abolished gastric reflex facilitation produced by hind paw stimulation or reversed the reflex facilitation response to slight reflex inhibition. 5. Efferent activity of the gastric sympathetic nerve was greatly increased by abdominal skin stimulation, and was either slightly increased or not influenced by hind paw stimulation. 6. It was concluded that reflex increase of efferent activity of the gastric vagi was responsible for the gastric motility facilitation produced by hind paw stimulation, and also that reflexly increased efferent activity of the gastric sympathetic nerves resulted in gastric motility inhibition produced by abdominal skin stimulation. It is suggested efferents are inhibitory. 7. After spinal transection at the cervical level, the reflex facilitation of gastric motility previously produced by stimulation of a hind paw was completely abolished, or reversed to slight reflex inhibition, while reflex inhibition of gastric motility produced by stimulation of abdominal skin remained. It was concluded that the gastric reflex inhibition was a spinal reflex. 8. Interaction between reflex facilitation and inhibition of gastric motility during simultaneous stimulation of both hind paws and abdominal skin was observed as partial cancellation of each effect by the other. However, sympathetic reflex inhibition of gastric motility seemed to be much stronger than the vagal reflex facilitatory effect. PMID:512950

  14. The distinctive gastric fluid proteome in gastric cancer reveals a multi-biomarker diagnostic profile

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Oi Lian; Yip, Tai-Tung; Ho, Meng Fatt; Chan, Weng Hoong; Wong, Wai Keong; Tan, Soo Yong; Ng, Wai Har; Kam, Siok Yuen; Eng, Alvin KH; Ho, Patrick; Viner, Rosa; Ong, Hock Soo; Kumarasinghe, M Priyanthi

    2008-01-01

    Background Overall gastric cancer survival remains poor mainly because there are no reliable methods for identifying highly curable early stage disease. Multi-protein profiling of gastric fluids, obtained from the anatomic site of pathology, could reveal diagnostic proteomic fingerprints. Methods Protein profiles were generated from gastric fluid samples of 19 gastric cancer and 36 benign gastritides patients undergoing elective, clinically-indicated gastroscopy using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on multiple ProteinChip arrays. Proteomic features were compared by significance analysis of microarray algorithm and two-way hierarchical clustering. A second blinded sample set (24 gastric cancers and 29 clinically benign gastritides) was used for validation. Results By significance analysyis of microarray, 60 proteomic features were up-regulated and 46 were down-regulated in gastric cancer samples (p < 0.01). Multimarker clustering showed two distinctive proteomic profiles independent of age and ethnicity. Eighteen of 19 cancer samples clustered together (sensitivity 95%) while 27/36 of non-cancer samples clustered in a second group. Nine non-cancer samples that clustered with cancer samples included 5 pre-malignant lesions (1 adenomatous polyp and 4 intestinal metaplasia). Validation using a second sample set showed the sensitivity and specificity to be 88% and 93%, respectively. Positive predictive value of the combined data was 0.80. Selected peptide sequencing identified pepsinogen C and pepsin A activation peptide as significantly down-regulated and alpha-defensin as significantly up-regulated. Conclusion This simple and reproducible multimarker proteomic assay could supplement clinical gastroscopic evaluation of symptomatic patients to enhance diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions. PMID:18950519

  15. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Fang, Dian-Chun; Li, Qian-Wei; Sun, Nian-Xu; Long, Qing-Lin; Sui, Jian-Feng; Gan, Lu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level. METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into: experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope 99mTc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs. RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35 2.99 min to 79.42 1.91 min (P < 0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64.94 1.75 min (P < 0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCIII (interdigestive myoelectrical complex, IMCIII) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29 9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09 17.22 pg/ml; P < 0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55 11.20 pg/ml; P < 0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing. Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r = 0.867, P < 0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r = -0.733, P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve gastric emptying parameters and significantly accelerate gastric emptying and can resume or alter motor function in a canine model of motility disorders. Gastric emptying is correlated well with plasma motilin level before and after pacing, which suggests that motilin can modulate the mechanism of gastric pacing by altering gastric motility. PMID:14760770

  16. Involvement of membrane-type bile acid receptor M-BAR/TGR5 in bile acid-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinases in gastric carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Hiroshi . E-mail: hiroshi-yasuda@showa-university-fujigaoka.gr.jp; Hirata, Shuko; Inoue, Kazuaki; Mashima, Hirosato; Ohnishi, Hirohide; Yoshiba, Makoto

    2007-03-02

    Bile acids, which have been implicated in gastrointestinal-tract cell carcinogenesis, share properties with tumor promoters in that both affect signal transduction pathways responsible for cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that EGFR-ERK1/2 is activated following treatment of AGS human gastric carcinoma cells with bile acids. EGFR phosphoactivation is ligand-dependent, since treatment of cells with HB-EGF antisera or CM197 (a selective inhibitor of HB-EGF) markedly inhibits deoxycholate (DC)-promoted activation. Membrane-type bile acid receptor (M-BAR)/TGR5 is a recently identified G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In AGS cells, siRNAs that target M-BAR suppress DC-induced phosphorylation of EGFR. Furthermore, introduction of siRNAs targeting ADAM17 transcripts resulted in suppression of DC-induced activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. These results suggest that in AGS cells, DC transactivates EGFR through M-BAR- and ADAM/HB-EGF-dependent mechanisms.

  17. TSPAN8 promotes gastric cancer growth and metastasis via ERK MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lunshou; Li, Yan; Suo, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8) overexpression and TSPAN8 suppression on gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, whether extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was involved in TSPAN8s function on gastric cancer cells was examined. Methods: The expression of TSPAN8 in human gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines was detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis. TSPAN8-pcDNA3.1 plasmid or TSPAN8 siRNA was transfected into the gastric cancer cell lines to overexpress or suppress TSPAN8. Cells were treated with U0126 to inhibit ERK MAPK pathway. Cell proliferation and invasion were assessed by MTT and transwell-matrigel assay. Results: TSPAN8 was overexpressed in human gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines compared with the normal. TSPAN8 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and invasion, while TSPAN8 suppression inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. TSPAN8 could activate the ERK MAPK pathway in gastric cancer cells, and MEK-ERK inhibition reversed the effects of TSPAN8 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasion. Conclusion: This study firstly demonstrated that TSPAN8 promotes gastric cancer cell growth and metastasis at least partially through the activation of ERK MAPK pathway. These findings provided a novel molecular basis for the understanding and treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26309511

  18. Gallic acid inhibits gastric cancer cells metastasis and invasive growth via increased expression of RhoB, downregulation of AKT/small GTPase signals and inhibition of NF-κB activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Chang, Chi-Sen; Division of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan ; Ho, Wei-Chi; Liao, Sheng-You; Lin, Wea-Lung; Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan ; Wang, Chau-Jong; Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of gallic acid (GA) for controlling tumor metastasis through its inhibitory effect on the motility of AGS cells. A noteworthy finding in our previous experiment was increased RhoB expression in GA-treated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of RhoB expression on the inhibitory effects of GA on AGS cells. By applying the transfection of RhoB siRNA into AGS cells and an animal model, we tested the effect of GA on inhibition of tumor growth and RhoB expression. The results confirmed that RhoB-siRNA transfection induced GA to inhibit AGS cells’ invasive growth involving blocking the AKT/small GTPase signals pathway and inhibition of NF-κB activity. Finally, we evaluated the effect of GA on AGS cell metastasis by colonization of tumor cells in nude mice. It showed GA inhibited tumor cells growth via the expression of RhoB. These data support the inhibitory effect of GA which was shown to inhibit gastric cancer cell metastasis and invasive growth via increased expression of RhoB, downregulation of AKT/small GTPase signals and inhibition of NF-κB activity. Thus, GA might be a potential agent in treating gastric cancer. Highlights: ► GA could downregulate AKT signal via increased expression of RhoB. ► GA inhibits metastasis in vitro in gastric carcinoma. ► GA inhibits tumor growth in nude mice model.

  19. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Baicalein Potently Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiasheng; Liu, Tianrun; Jiang, Lin; Wu, Xiangsong; Cao, Yang; Li, Maolan; Dong, Qian; Liu, Yingbin; Xu, Haineng

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein, a traditional Chinese medicine, is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids. It has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human gastric cancer and the mechanisms of action of baicalein have not been extensively studied. In the present study, we utilized a cell viability assay and an in vivo tumor growth assay to test the inhibitory effects of baicalein on gastric cancer. Analyses of the cell cycle, apoptosis and alterations in protein levels were performed to elucidate how baicalein functions in gastric cancer. We found that baicalein could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and colony formation. Baicalein robustly induced arrest at the S phase in the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. It induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of protein expression levels in SGC-7901 cells showed downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in response to baicalein treatment. These results indicate that baicalein induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. In an in vivo subcutaneous xenograft model, baicalein exhibited excellent tumor inhibitory effects. These results indicate that baicalein may be a potential drug for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26918059

  20. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Method Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrells C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope. Results During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4%) and 5,579 (0.7%) newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women). Conclusions In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance. PMID:26186332

  1. Serum activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with gastric cancer: Can they be used as biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Erturk, Kayhan; Tastekin, Didem; Bilgin, Elif; Serilmez, Murat; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Sakar, Burak

    2016-02-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules might be used as markers in diagnosis and prognosis in some types of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule-1 (ALCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localizations of the majority of the patients were antrum (n=42, 72.4%) and tumor histopathologies of the majority of the patients were diffuse (n=43, 74.1%). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n=41, 70.7%). Thirty six (62.1%) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1-97.2 months). At the end of the observation period, 26 patients (44.8%) were dead. The median survival for all patients was 21.45 months (%95 CI, 11.5-31.3). The 1-year survival rates were 66.2%. The baseline serum ALCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ICAM-1 between the patients and controls (p=0.232). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p>0.05). Tumor localization (p=0.03), histopathology (p=0.05), and response to chemotherapy (p=0.003) had prognostic factors on survival. Neither serum ALCAM levels nor serum ICAM-1 levels were identified to have a prognostic role on overall survival (ICAM-1 p=0.6, ALCAM p=0.25). In conclusion, serum levels of ALCAM were found to have diagnostic value in GC patients. PMID:26796270

  2. Performance of microbial phytases for gastric inositol phosphate degradation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-01-28

    Microbial phytases catalyze dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thereby potentially releasing chelated iron and improving human iron absorption from cereal-based diets. For this catalysis to take place in vivo, the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. This study compares the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability, activity retention, and extent of dephosphorylation of phytic acid in a simulated low-pH/pepsin gastric environment and examines secondary protein structural changes at low pH via circular dichroism. The Peniophora lycii phytase was found to be the most thermostable, but the least robust enzyme in gastric conditions, whereas the Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytases proved to be most resistant to gastric conditions. The phytase from Citrobacter braakii showed intermediate robustness. The extent of loss of secondary structure at low pH correlated positively with the extent of activity loss at low pH. PMID:25562369

  3. Companion diagnostics for the targeted therapy of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Changhoon; Park, Young Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and represents a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. With recent biomedical advances in our understanding of the molecular characteristics of gastric cancer, many genetic alterations have been identified as potential targets for its treatment. Multiple novel agents are currently under development as the demand for active agents that improve the survival of gastric cancer patients constantly increases. Based on lessons from previous trials of targeted agents, it is now widely accepted that the establishment of an optimal diagnostic test to select molecularly defined patients is of equal importance to the development of active agents against targetable genetic alterations. Herein, we highlight the current status and future perspectives of companion diagnostics in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26494953

  4. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Stancikova, Jitka; Sakitani, Kosuke; Asfaha, Samuel; Renz, Bernhard W; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Shibata, Wataru; Wang, Hongshan; Westphalen, Christoph B; Chen, Xiaowei; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Woosook; Khurana, Shradha S; Tailor, Yagnesh; Nagar, Karan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D; Saha, Subhrajit; Ding, Lei; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G; Friedman, Richard A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Worthley, Daniel L; Korinek, Vladimir; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-12-14

    The regulation and stem cell origin of normal and neoplastic gastric glands are uncertain. Here, we show that Mist1 expression marks quiescent stem cells in the gastric corpus isthmus. Mist1(+) stem cells serve as a cell-of-origin for intestinal-type cancer with the combination of Kras and Apc mutation and for diffuse-type cancer with the loss of E-cadherin. Diffuse-type cancer development is dependent on inflammation mediated by Cxcl12(+) endothelial cells and Cxcr4(+) gastric innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These cells form the perivascular gastric stem cell niche, and Wnt5a produced from ILCs activates RhoA to inhibit anoikis in the E-cadherin-depleted cells. Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche. PMID:26585400

  5. Allicin induces apoptosis of the MGC-803 human gastric carcinoma cell line through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/caspase-3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhu, Yong; Duan, Wei; Feng, Chen; He, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common forms of malignant tumor, and the development of anti?gastric cancer drugs with minimal toxicity is of clinical importance. Allicin is extracted from Allium sativum (garlic). Recent research, including clinical experiments, has shown that garlic has anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of allicin on the MGC?803 human gastric carcinoma cell line, and to further explore the possible mechanisms of its tumor suppressor effects. The effects of allicin on the MGC?803 cells were initially examined using an 3?(4,5?dimethylthiazol?2?yl)?2,5?diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hoechst staining was also used, in order to demonstrate the impact of allicin on MGC?803 cell apoptosis. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to determine the abnormal expression levels of apoptosis?associated proteins, following the treatment of MGC?803 cells with allicin. Western blotting was also used to investigate the specific mechanisms underlying allicin?induced apoptosis of MGC?803 cells. The rate of MGC?803 apoptosis was significantly increased, when the concentration and treatment time of allicin were increased. Hoechst staining detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis, and enhanced expression levels of cleaved caspase 3 were determined by western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of p38 were increased when the MGC?803 cells were treated with allicin. The results of the present study suggest that allicin may inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of MGC?803 human gastric carcinoma cells, and this may partially be achieved through the enhanced expression of p38 and cleaved caspase 3. PMID:25523417

  6. Involvement of glutamate and ?-amino-butyric acid receptor systems on gastric acid secretion induced by activation of ?-opioid receptors in the central nervous system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minowa, Sachie; Ishihara, Satomi; Tsuchiya, Shizuko; Horie, Syunji; Watanabe, Kazuo; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2003-01-01

    Various neurotransmitters in the brain regulate gastric acid secretion. Previously, we reported that the central injection of ?-opioid receptor agonists stimulated this secretion in rats. Although the existence of ?1?3-opioid receptor subtypes has been proposed, the character is not defined. We investigated the interactions between ?-opioid receptor subtypes and glutamate, ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA) or 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the rat brain. Gastric acid secretion induced by the injection of U69593 (8.41 nmol, a putative ?1-opioid receptor agonist) into the lateral cerebroventricle was completely inhibited by the central injection of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10.9 nmol, an antagonist for non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) receptors) and by bicuculline infusion (222 ?g kg?1 per 10 min, i.v., GABAA receptor antagonist). The secretion induced by bremazocine (8.52 nmol, a putative ?2-opioid receptor agonist) was inhibited by bicuculline infusion, but not by CNQX. The secretion induced by naloxone benzoylhydrazone (224 nmol, a putative ?3-opioid receptor agonist) was slightly and partially inhibited by CNQX and bicuculline. Treatment with CNQX and bicuculline inhibited gastric acid secretion induced by the injection of dynorphin A-(1-17) into the lateral, but not the fourth, cerebroventricle. Antagonists for NMDA, GABAB and 5-HT2/1C receptors did not inhibit the secretions by ?-opioid receptor agonists. In rat brain regions close to the lateral cerebroventricle, ?-opioid receptor systems (?1>?3??2) are regulated by the non-NMDA type of glutamate receptor system, and ?1- and ?2-opioid receptor systems are regulated by the GABAA receptor system. The present findings show pharmacological evidence for ?-opioid receptor subtypes that regulate gastric acid secretion in the rat brain. PMID:12684260

  7. Gastroprotective Activity of Violacein Isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats: Investigation of Potential Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Kannan, Ponnusamy; Aravinthan, Adithan; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, Gram-negative bacteria species found in tropical regions of the world, produces a distinct deep violet-colored pigment called violacein. In the present study, we investigated whether violacein can promote a gastroprotective effect and verified the possible mechanisms involved in this action. For this study, an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer rat model was used. The roles of biomolecules such as MPO, PGE2, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, caspase-3, NO, K+ATP channels, and ?2-receptors were investigated. Violacein exhibited significant gastroprotective effect against indomethacin-induced lesions, while pretreatment with L-NAME and glibenclamide (but not with NEM or yohimbine) was able to reverse this action. Pretreatment with violacein also restored cNOS level to normal and led to attenuation of enhanced apoptosis and gastric microvascular permeability. Our results suggest that violacein provides a significant gastroprotective effect in an indomethacin-induced ulcer model through the maintenance of some vital protein molecules, and this effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous prostaglandins, NOS, K+ATP channel opening, and inhibition of apoptosis and gastric microvascular permeability. PMID:25162059

  8. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jan C. . E-mail: beckeja@uni-muenster.de; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian; Schulz, Stephanie; Erdmann, Kati; Domschke, Wolfram; Schroeder, Henning; Pohle, Thorsten

    2006-07-07

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection.

  9. Study of Mimusops elengi bark in experimental gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Payal J; Gandhi, Mitesh S; Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, Sunita S; Santani, Devdas

    2003-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Mimusops elengi (Sapotaceae) against experimental gastric ulcers. The 50% alcoholic extract of Mimusops elengi (Ext E) and its different fractions namely ethyl acetate (Ext E1), n-butanol (Ext E2), methanol (Ext E3) and aqueous (Ext E4) were studied (p.o.) against ethanol-induced gastric damage. Ext E1 was also studied in ethanol-induced, pylorus-ligated and water-immersion plus stress-induced gastric ulcer models. Ranitidine HCl (80 mg kg(-1)) was used as a reference standard. In ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model, pantoprazole (20 mg kg(-1)) was also used as a reference standard. Ext E1 tested in mice up to the dose of 5000 mg kg(-1) (p.o.) did not produce any sign of toxicity. Ext E at the doses of 50, 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) and its different fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) showed reduction in gastric ulceration (P < 0.05). Ext E1 at the doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) showed dose-dependent inhibition of gastric lesions against ethanol-induced gastric damage. In 19 h pylorus-ligated animals, Ext E1 at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) doses showed significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.05). Significant reduction was also observed in total acidity, volume of gastric acid secretion, total acid output and pepsin activity (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. Besides, Ext E1 showed increase in the mucosal glycoproteins that was evident from significant rise in total carbohydrates to protein ratio (TC:PR ratio) (P < 0.05), which is an indication of mucin activity. Ext E1 also showed protection against water-immersion plus stress-induced gastric lesions that was evident from dose-dependent decrease in ulcer index (P < 0.05), score for intensity (P < 0.05) and total lesion area (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. It can be concluded from our study that Ext E1 possesses anti-ulcer activity against experimental gastric ulcers. The mechanism of anti-ulcer activity can be attributed to decrease in gastric acid secretory activity along with strengthening of mucosal defensive mechanisms. PMID:14611897

  10. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal metaplasia score of specimen from the greater curvature of the upper body. The type of gastritis changed from antrum-predominant gastritis to corpus-predominant gastritis with age in both populations. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer was located in the upper part of the stomach in half of the Mongolian patients; Mongolian patients were infected with non-East-Asian-type H. pylori. PMID:26217093

  11. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  12. Specific food structures supress appetite through reduced gastric emptying rate

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Hameed; Malcolm, Paul; Salt, Louise; van Aken, George

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which gastric layering and retention of a meal could be used to reduce appetite using the same caloric load. Liquid (control) and semi-solid (active) meals were produced with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to 10 volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) were assessed over a period of 3 h. The active meal showed food boluses in the stomach persisting for ∼45 min, slower emptying rates, and lower plasma CCK levels over the first hour. After the first hour, both gastric emptying rates and plasma CCK levels were similar for both systems and slightly increased compared with the unfed situation. Despite the lower plasma CCK levels for the active meal over the first hour, this meal reduced appetite more than the control meal over the 3 h of the study. For a moderately increased plasma CCK level in the fed state, appetite was correlated with the volume of gastric contents rather than gastric emptying rates or plasma CCK. This suggests that enhanced gastric retention was the key factor in decreasing appetite and was probably mediated by a combination of intestinal nutrient sensing and increased viscosity in the stomach. PMID:23578786

  13. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  14. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  15. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  16. Nutrient sensing receptors in gastric endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Haid, Dsire; Widmayer, Patricia; Breer, Heinz

    2011-08-01

    Sensing protein breakdown products in the luminal content is of particular importance for the regulation of digestive activities in the stomach which are mainly governed by gastric hormones. The molecular basis for tuning the release of hormones according to the protein content is still elusive. In this study we have analysed the murine stomach for candidate nutrient receptors. As a promising candidate we have concentrated on the broadly tuned amino acid receptor GPRC6A. Expression of GPRC6A could be demonstrated in different regions of the murine stomach; especially in the gastric antrum. Using immunohistochemical approaches, a large cell population of GPRC6A-positive cells was visualized in the basal half of the antral gastric mucosa. Molecular phenotyping of GPRC6A-immunoreactive cells revealed that most of them contained the peptide hormone gastrin. A small population turned out to be immunoreactive for somatostatin. In search for additional amino acid receptors in antral gastric mucosa, we obtained evidence for expression of the gustatory amino acid receptor subunit T1R3 and the calcium-sensing receptor CaSR. Many CaSR-cells were found in the gastric antrum and most of them also contained gastrin; very similar to GPRC6A-cells. In contrast, T1R3 was found only in a small population of gastrin-negative cells. The finding that GPRC6A-and CaSR-receptors are both expressed in many if not all gastrin cells strongly suggests that both receptor types are co-expressed in the same cells, where they could form heterodimers providing a unique response spectrum of these cells. PMID:21750971

  17. [Indications for surgical treatment of hard scarring gastric ulcers].

    PubMed

    Durleshter, V M; Korochanskaia, N V; Serikova, S N

    2014-01-01

    It was done the comparative analysis of the morphofunctional state of the upper gastrointestinal tract between 350 patients with effective conservative treatment and 104 patients with hard scarring gastric ulcers. The analysis identified the predictors of ineffective medical treatment and led to deliver the indications for timely surgical treatment. It was identified the next indications for planned organ-preserving surgical treatment of patients with hard scarring gastric ulcers: penetrating and non-healing ulcers with large or gigantic size in case of the adequate medical therapy, high-grade dysplasia and colonic metaplasia of the gastric epithelium in the borders or fundus of the ulcer,ulcers combination with fixed cardio-fundal or fundo-corporal hiatal hernias; hypotonic-hypokinetic type of the gastric and duodenal activity with the development of gastrostasis and pronounced duodenogastric reflux. PMID:24781063

  18. Notch signaling regulates gastric antral LGR5 stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Carulli, Alexis J; VanDussen, Kelli L; Thomas, Dafydd; Giordano, Thomas J; Liu, Zhenyi; Kopan, Raphael; Samuelson, Linda C

    2015-10-14

    The major signaling pathways regulating gastric stem cells are unknown. Here we report that Notch signaling is essential for homeostasis of LGR5(+) antral stem cells. Pathway inhibition reduced proliferation of gastric stem and progenitor cells, while activation increased proliferation. Notch dysregulation also altered differentiation, with inhibition inducing mucous and endocrine cell differentiation while activation reduced differentiation. Analysis of gastric organoids demonstrated that Notch signaling was intrinsic to the epithelium and regulated growth. Furthermore, in vivo Notch manipulation affected the efficiency of organoid initiation from glands and single Lgr5-GFP stem cells, suggesting regulation of stem cell function. Strikingly, constitutive Notch activation in LGR5(+) stem cells induced tissue expansion via antral gland fission. Lineage tracing using a multi-colored reporter demonstrated that Notch-activated stem cells rapidly generate monoclonal glands, suggesting a competitive advantage over unmanipulated stem cells. Notch activation was associated with increased mTOR signaling, and mTORC1 inhibition normalized NICD-induced increases in proliferation and gland fission. Chronic Notch activation induced undifferentiated, hyper-proliferative polyps, suggesting that aberrant activation of Notch in gastric stem cells may contribute to gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:26271103

  19. Laparoscopic gastric bypass or gastric banding: which operation is best?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Sloan, Johnathan; Nguyen, Xuan-Mai T

    2010-01-01

    Data from the available published literature support that laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding are safe and effective bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Compared with gastric bypass, gastric banding is commonly associated with a shorteroperative time and length of hospital stay, and lower perioperative morbidity. However, the medium- and long-term weight losses were consistently and dramatically better after gastric bypass. The 2 preoperative factors predictive of poor weight loss in patients with gastric banding were male gender and patients with a BMI greater than or equal to 50 kg/m2. With this knowledge, the final decision regarding gastric bypass versus gastric banding will rely on an in-depth discussion between patients and surgeons with regard to perioperative and late complication data, long-term weight loss and variability of weight loss between the 2 operations, as well as the data regarding the rate for remission of comorbidities between the 2 operations. At the current time, there is ample evidence for surgeons and patients to make a well-informed decision with regard to which operation is best for the individual patient. PMID:20919513

  20. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Hong, Ji Hyung; Park, Eun Su; Byun, Jae Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma are rare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resembles advanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastric metastasis especially when the histology of the primary lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case of gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking Borrmann type IV primary gastric cancer. A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinoma with multiple bone metastases had been experiencing progressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plastica-like lesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologic examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positive immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed that the metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patient had been treated with palliative chemotherapy for the lung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months after the diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additional immunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1 may help in differentiating its origin. PMID:25780510

  1. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland. PMID:25448256

  2. Effect of Helicobacter pylori and its eradication on gastric juice ascorbic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, S; Hawksby, C; Miller, S; Dahill, S; Beattie, A D; McColl, K E

    1994-01-01

    The presence of ascorbic acid in gastric juice may protect against gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. This study examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) on the secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice by measuring fasting plasma and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with and without the infection and also before and after its eradication. Gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in 19 H pylori positive patients were significantly lower (median 2.8, range 0-28.8 micrograms/ml) than those in 10 H pylori negative controls (median 17.8, range 5.6-155.4 micrograms/ml) (p < 0.0005) despite similar plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in both groups. The median gastric juice:plasma ascorbic acid ratio in the H pylori positive patients was only 1.16 (range 0.02-6.67), compared with a median ratio of 4.87 (range 0.76-21.33) in H pylori negative controls (p < 0.01). In the patients with H pylori infection there was a significant negative correlation between the severity of the antral polymorphonuclear infiltrate and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations (correlation coefficient -0.52, p = 0.02). After eradication of H pylori in 11 patients, gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations rose from 2.4 (0-12.8 micrograms/ml) to 11.2 (0-50 micrograms/ml) (p = 0.01). The median gastric juice: plasma ascorbic acid ratio also increased from 1.33 (0.05-6.67) to 2.89 (0.01-166) (p = 0.01). In conclusion, the high gastric juice:plasma ascorbic acid ratio in H pylori negative subjects shows active secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice. Secondly, H pylori infection causes a reversible lowering of gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations, which may predispose to gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. PMID:8150339

  3. Central nervous system action of TRH to stimulate gastric function and ulceration.

    PubMed

    Taché, Y; Maeda-Hagiwara, M; Goto, Y; Garrick, T

    1988-01-01

    Intracisternal or intracerebroventricular injection of TRH (0.1-10 micrograms) in rats stimulated the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, increased gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric contractility and emptying, induced gastric hemorrhagic lesions and aggravated experimental ulcers elicited by aspirin, serotonin or indomethacin. TRH action was dose-dependent, rapid in onset and central nervous system-mediated by activation of the parasympathetic outflow to the stomach and cholinergic receptors. The stable TRH analog, RX 77368, was more potent and longer lasting than TRH. TRH and its stable analog appear as new chemical probes to produce centrally-mediated vagal-dependent stimulation of gastric function and experimental ulcers. The physiologic role of endogenous TRH in the central regulation of gastric function and ulceration remains to be established. PMID:2856654

  4. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  5. NME2 Reduces Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells to Limit Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-fei; Yang, Aijun; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chenyu; Wang, Min; Zhang, Lihan; Wang, Dongcang; Dong, Jing-fei; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and has a high rate of metastasis. We hypothesize that NME2 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2), which has previously been considered as an anti-metastatic gene, plays a role in the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Using a tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that NME2 expression was associated with levels of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and their metastasis into the lymph nodes. When the NME2 gene product was over-expressed by ;in vitro stable transfection, cells from BGC823 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines had reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion through the collagen matrix, suggesting an inhibitory activity of NME2 in the propagation and invasion of gastric cancer. NME2 could, therefore, severe as a risk marker for gastric cancer invasiveness and a potential new target for gene therapy to enhance or induce NME2 expression. PMID:25700270

  6. Pharmacological evidence for the participation of NO-cGMP-KATP pathway in the gastric protective effect of curcumin against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Daz-Triste, Nadia Estela; Gonzlez-Garca, Martha Patricia; Jimnez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Castaeda-Hernndez, Gilberto; Chvez-Pia, Aracely Evangelina

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, main compound obtained from rizhoma of Curcuma longa, shows antitumoral, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and gastric protective properties. Recently, it has been demonstrated that curcumin exerts its gastric protective action due to an increase in gastric nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, it is unknown whether these increased NO levels are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of NO-cGMP-KATP pathway in the gastric protective effect of curcumin during indomethacin-induced gastric injury in the rat. Adult female Wistar rats were gavaged with curcumin (3-300mg/kg, p.o.) or omeprazole (30mg/kg, p.o.) 30min before indomethacin insult (30mg/kg, p.o.). Other groups of rats were administered L-NAME (70mg/kg, i.p.; inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), ODQ (10mg/kg, i.p.; inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase) or glibenclamide (1mg/kg, i.p.; blocker of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels) 30min before curcumin (30mg/kg, p.o.). 3h after indomethacin administration, rats were sacrificed and gastric injury was evaluated by determining total damaged area. A sample of gastric tissue was harvested and processed to quantify organic nitrite levels. Curcumin significantly protected against indomethacin-induced gastric injury and this effect was comparable to gastroprotective effect by omeprazole. L-NAME, ODQ and glibenclamide significantly prevented the curcumin-mediated gastric protective effect in the indomethacin-induced gastric injury model. Furthermore, curcumin administration induced a significant increase in gastric nitric oxide levels as compared to vehicle administration. Our results show for the first time that curcumin activates NO/cGMP/KATP pathway during its gastro protective action. PMID:24607410

  7. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  8. Epigastric impedance: a non-invasive method for the assessment of gastric emptying and motility.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, G R; Sutton, J A

    1985-01-01

    The impedance of the epigastrium to a 4 mA, 100 KHz AC current increases while liquids of low electrical conductivity are being drunk. Logically, the decline which follows occurs as the liquid leaves the stomach. This impedance measurement of gastric emptying proved comparable with the dye dilution method. In a placebo controlled trial the impedance method recorded significantly faster gastric emptying rates after metoclopramide. The impedance trace contains regular activity in the 2-4 cycle/min range consistent with gastric contractions. This non-invasive and technically simple method may thus provide a measure of simultaneous gastric emptying rates and motility. PMID:3891533

  9. Activation of protective cell-mediated immune response in gastric mucosa during Cryptosporidium muris infection and re-infection in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Jaloveck, Marie; Sak, Bohumil; Kvc, Martin; Kvetonov, Dana; Kucerov, Zuzana; Salt, Jir

    2010-04-01

    Gastric cryptosporidia only inhabit the glandular part of the stomach of all age categories of their hosts and can cause chronic life-long infections independent of a host's immune status. The immune response in the stomach mucosa during the primary infection and re-infection with Cryptosporidium muris (TS03 and CB03) in immunocompetent BALB/c mice was characterized using flow cytometry analysis and measurement of IFN-gamma and IL10 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Significantly, elevated migration of T lymphocytes (more than 1,000-fold), especially CD8+ T lymphocytes, to the stomach mucosa occurred during primary infection and persisted for more than 2 months after its resolution. The ex vivo cultures of splenocytes revealed very low levels of IFN-gamma production during the course of the primary infection (0.5 ng/ml), whereas in the following re-exposure to the parasites, the concentration of IFN-gamma rapidly increased 22-fold. Although the two parasite strains that were tested were genetically distinct, they yielded similar results in the induction of cellular immune responses, suggesting that these patterns are not unique to a single parasite strain. These results imply that the CD8+ T lymphocytes are involved in the immune response to gastric cryptosporidiosis and could play an important role in the elimination of C. muris infection in mice. PMID:20155366

  10. HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Zhang, Lingxia; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Yutian; Wang, Kan; Li, Chao; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Ni, Jian; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-05-01

    The successful development of safe and highly effective nanoprobes for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer is a great challenge. Herein we reported for the first time that anti-α-subunit of ATP synthase antibody, HAI-178 monoclonal antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles, was successfully used for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer. A total of 172 specimens of gastric cancer tissues were collected, and the expression of α-subunit of ATP synthase in gastric cancer tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry method. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and conjugated with HAI-178 monoclonal antibody, and the resultant HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (HAI-178-FMNPs) were co-incubated with gastric cancer MGC803 cells and gastric mucous GES-1 cells. Gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models were established, were injected with prepared HAI-178-FMNPs via tail vein, and were imaged by magnetic resonance imaging and small animal fluorescent imaging system. The results showed that the α-subunit of ATP synthase exhibited high expression in 94.7% of the gastric cancer tissues. The prepared HAI-178-FMNPs could target actively MGC803 cells, realized fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of in vivo gastric cancer, and actively inhibited growth of gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles have a great potential in applications such as targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo early gastric cancer cells in the near future.

  11. Effect of Feeding and Suction on Gastric Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Nohra E; Snchez-Miranda, Gustavo; Sacristan, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    A specific device and system has been developed and tested for clinical monitoring of gastric mucosal reactance in the critically ill as an early warning of splanchnic hypoperfusion associated with shock and sepsis. This device has been proven effective in clinical trials and is expected to become commercially available next year. The system uses a combination nasogastric tube and impedance spectroscopy probe as a single catheter. Because this device has a double function, the question is: Does enteral feeding or suction affect the gastric reactance measurements? This study was designed to evaluate the effect of feeding and suction on the measurement of gastric impedance spectroscopy in healthy volunteers. Impedance spectra were obtained from the gastric wall epithelia of 18 subjects. The spectra were measured for each of the following conditions: postinsertion of gastric probe, during active suction, postactive suction, and during enteral feeding (236 ml of nutritional supplement). Impedance spectra were reproducible in all volunteers under all conditions tested. There was a slight increase in impedance parameters after suction, and a decrease in impedance after feeding; however, these observed differences were insignificant compared to patient-to-patient variability, and truly negligible compared with previously observed changes associated with splanchnic ischemia in critically ill patients. Our results demonstrate that suction or feeding when using the impedance spectro-metry probe/nasogastric tube does not significantly interfere with gastric impedance spectrometer measurements. PMID:26226020

  12. Automated Classification of Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Gastric Slow Wave Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Gao, Jerry; Du, Peng; O'Grady, Gregory; Cheng, Leo K.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric contractions are underpinned by an electrical event called slow wave activity. High-resolution electrical mapping has recently been adapted to study gastric slow waves at a high spatiotemporal detail. As more slow wave data becomes available, it is becoming evident that the spatial organization of slow wave plays a key role in the initiation and maintenance of gastric dsyrhythmias in major gastric motility disorders. All of the existing slow wave signal processing techniques deal with the identification and partitioning of recorded wave events, but not the analysis of the slow wave spatial organization, which is currently performed visually. This manual analysis is time consuming and is prone to observer bias and error. We present an automated approach to classify spatial slow wave propagation patterns via the use of Pearson cross correlations. Slow wave propagations were grouped into classes based on their similarity to each other. The method was applied to high-resolution gastric slow wave recordings from four pigs. There were significant changes in the velocity of the gastric slow wave wavefront and the amplitude of the slow wave event when there was a change in direction to the slow wave wavefront during dsyrhythmias, which could be detected with the automated approach. PMID:24111441

  13. Isoprenaline induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Jie; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yu-Hong; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Zhao, Xiang-Yang; Wei, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The emerging role of stress-related signaling in regulating cancer development and progression has been recognized. However, whether stress serves as a mechanism to promote gastric cancer metastasis is not clear. Here, we show that the β2-AR agonist, isoprenaline, upregulates expression levels of CD44 and CD44v8-10 in gastric cancer cells. CD44, a cancer stem cell-related marker, is expressed at high levels in gastric cancer tissues, which strongly correlates with the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated phenotypes both in vivo and in vitro. Combined with experimental observations in two human gastric cancer cell lines, we found that β2-AR signaling can initiate EMT. It led to an increased expression of mesenchymal markers, such as α-SMA, vimentin, and snail at mRNA and protein levels, and conversely a decrease in epithelial markers, E-cadherin and β-catenin. Isoprenaline stimulation of β2-AR receptors activates the downstream target STAT3, which functions as a positive regulator and mediated the phenotypic switch toward a mesenchymal cell type in gastric cancer cells. Our data provide a mechanistic understanding of the complex signaling cascades involving stress-related hormones and their effects on EMT. In light of our observations, pharmacological interventions targeting β2-AR-STAT3 signaling can potentially be used to ameliorate stress-associated influences on gastric cancer development and progression. PMID:26253173

  14. A critical role of gastric mucosal ascorbic acid in the progression of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Yoshio; Ohta, Yoshiji; Imai, Yoichiro; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of gastric mucosal ascorbic acid (AA) in the progression of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80), a mast cell degranulator, in rats. METHODS: C48/80 (0.75 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to fasted Wistar rats. Oral administration of AA (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg) was performed 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment. Determinations for gastric mucosal lesion severity and blood flow, and assays for gastric mucosal total AA, reduced AA, oxidized AA, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), adherent mucus, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), non-protein SH (NPSH), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and serum total AA, reduced AA, oxidized AA, and NOx were conducted 0.5 and 3 h after C48/80 treatment. RESULTS: Gastric mucosal lesions occurred 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and progressed at 3 h. Gastric mucosal blood flow decreased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment but the decrease was recovered at 3 h. Gastric mucosal total AA, reduced AA, vitamin E, and adherent mucus concentrations decreased 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Gastric mucosal oxidized AA concentration remained unchanged after C48/80 treatment. Gastric mucosal NPSH concentration decreased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment, but the decrease was recovered at 3 h. Gastric mucosal TBARS concentration and MPO activity increased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and further increased at 3 h. Serum total AA and reduced AA concentrations increased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and further increased at 3 h, while serum oxidized AA concentration increased at 0.5 h. Serum and gastric mucosal NOx concentrations increased 3 h after C48/80 treatment. AA administration to C48/80-treated rats at 0.5 h after the treatment prevented the gastric mucosal lesion progression and the changes in gastric mucosal total AA, reduced AA, vitamin E, adherent mucus, NOx, and TBARS concentrations and MPO activity and serum NOx concentration found at 3 h after the treatment dose-dependently. The AA administration to C48/80-treated rats caused further increases in serum total AA and reduced AA concentrations at 3 h after the treatment dose-dependently. CONCLUSION: Gastric mucosal AA plays a critical role in the progression of C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats. PMID:15761970

  15. AKT plays a crucial role in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, TAKAMITSU; YAMASHITA, YUICHI; KUNIYASU, HIROKI

    2015-01-01

    The AKT protein is involved in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway and is a vital regulator of survival, proliferation and differentiation in various types of cells. Helicobacter pylori infection induces epithelial cell proliferation and oxidative stress in chronic gastritis. These alterations lead to telomere shortening, resulting in the activation of telomerase. AKT, in particular, is activated by H. pylori-induced inflammation. AKT then promotes the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, which encodes a catalytic subunit of telomerase, and induces telomerase activity, an essential component of the process of carcinogenesis. AKT activation is increased in gastric mucosa with carcinogenic properties and is associated with the low survival of patients with gastric cancer. The findings of the present study suggest that AKT is pivotal in gastric carcinogenesis and progression. PMID:26622541

  16. [Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].

    PubMed

    Trefilov, A B

    2002-04-01

    Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

  17. Management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pagn, Juan Carlos; Barrufet, Marta; Cardenas, Andres; Escorsell, Angels

    2014-06-01

    According to their location, gastric varices (GV) are classified as gastroesophageal varices and isolated gastric varices. This review will mainly focus on those GV located in the fundus of the stomach (isolated gastric varices 1 and gastroesophageal varices 2). The 1-year risk of GV bleeding has been reported to be around 10%-16%. Size of GV, presence of red signs, and the degree of liver dysfunction are independent predictors of bleeding. Limited data suggest that tissue adhesives, mainly cyanoacrylate (CA), may be effective and better than propranolol in preventing bleeding from GV. General management of acute GV bleeding must be similar to that of esophageal variceal bleeding, including prophylactic antibiotics, a careful replacement of volemia, and early administration of vasoactive drugs. Small sample-sized randomized controlled trials have shown that tissue adhesives are the therapy of choice for acute GV bleeding. In treatment failures, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is considered the treatment of choice. After initial hemostasis, repeated sessions with CA injections along with nonselective beta-blockers are recommended as secondary prophylaxis; whether CA is superior to TIPS in this scenario is not completely clear. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has been introduced as a new method to treat GV. BRTO is also effective and has the potential benefit of increasing portal hepatic blood flow and therefore may be an alternative for patients who may not tolerate TIPS. However, BRTO obliterates spontaneous portosystemic shunts, potentially aggravating portal hypertension and its related complications. The role of BRTO in the management of acute GV bleeding is promising but merits further evaluation. PMID:23899955

  18. Resveratrol: A potential challenger against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zulueta, Aida; Caretti, Anna; Signorelli, Paola; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis and classical therapeutic approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy make this disease a still threatening tumor. Genetic asset, environmental stress, dietary habit and infections caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are the major causes concurring to GC initiation. A common mechanism is induction of radicals resulting in gastric mucosal injury. A regular food intake of antioxidant and radical scavenging agents has been proposed to exert protection against tumorigenesis. Resveratrol belongs to the polyphenol flavonoids class of antioxidants produced by a restricted number of plants. Resveratrol exerts bactericidal activity against H. pylori and is a powerful antioxidant, thus acting as a tumor preventive agent. Resveratrol intracellular signaling results in growth arrest and apoptosis, so that it can be directed against tumor progression. Resveratrol therapeutic potential against GC initiation and progression are reviewed here. PMID:26457023

  19. Resveratrol: A potential challenger against gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zulueta, Aida; Caretti, Anna; Signorelli, Paola; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis and classical therapeutic approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy make this disease a still threatening tumor. Genetic asset, environmental stress, dietary habit and infections caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are the major causes concurring to GC initiation. A common mechanism is induction of radicals resulting in gastric mucosal injury. A regular food intake of antioxidant and radical scavenging agents has been proposed to exert protection against tumorigenesis. Resveratrol belongs to the polyphenol flavonoids class of antioxidants produced by a restricted number of plants. Resveratrol exerts bactericidal activity against H. pylori and is a powerful antioxidant, thus acting as a tumor preventive agent. Resveratrol intracellular signaling results in growth arrest and apoptosis, so that it can be directed against tumor progression. Resveratrol therapeutic potential against GC initiation and progression are reviewed here. PMID:26457023

  20. Hindbrain Glucoprivation Effects on Gastric Vagal Reflex Circuits and Gastric Motility in the Rat Are Suppressed by the Astrocyte Inhibitor Fluorocitrate

    PubMed Central

    Viard, Edouard; Rogers, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Fasting and hypoglycemia elicit powerful gastrointestinal contractions. Whereas the relationship between utilizable nutrient and gastric motility is well recognized, the explanation of this phenomenon has remained incomplete. A relatively recent controversial report suggested that astrocytes in the dorsal hindbrain may be the principal detectors of glucoprivic stimuli. Our own studies also show that a subset of astrocytes in the solitary nucleus (NST) is activated by low glucose. It is very likely that information about glucopenia may directly impact gastric control because the hindbrain is also the location of the vago-vagal reflex circuitry regulating gastric motility. Our in vivo single unit neurophysiological recordings in intact rats show fourth ventricular application of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) inhibits NST neurons and activates dorsal motor nucleus (DMN) neurons involved in the gastric accommodation reflex. Additionally, as shown in earlier studies, either systemic insulin or central 2-DG causes an increase in gastric motility. These effects on motility were blocked by fourth ventricle pretreatment with the astrocyte inactivator fluorocitrate. Fluorocitrate administered alone has no effect on gastric-NST or -DMN neuron responsiveness, or on gastric motility. These results suggest that glucoprivation-induced increases in gastric motility are dependent on intact hindbrain astrocytes. PMID:25100584

  1. Antitumor Activity of Di-n-Butyl-(2,6-Difluorobenzohydroxamato)Tin(IV) against Human Gastric Carcinoma SGC-7901 Cells via G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yunlan, Li; Juan, Zheng; Qingshan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-butyl-(2,6-difluorobenzohydroxamato)Tin(IV) (DBDFT), a potential antitumor agent against malignancies, exhibited high activities both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment with DBDFT against Human Gastric Carcinoma (SGC-7901) cells induced a concentration and time-dependent cell accumulation in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle with a parallel depletion of the percentage of cells in G0/G1, the cell apoptosis was observed by characteristic morphological changes and AnnexinV/PI dual-immunofluorescence staining. Fluorescence quantitative FQ- PCR and western blot results showed that G2/M-phase arrest was correlated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21, Chk2 and CyclinB1, whereas the expressions of other G2/M regulatory check-point protein, Cdc2, and feedback loop protein Cdc25C were obviously down-regulated in a p53-independent manner after the SGC-7901 cells were treated with DBDFT (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 molL?1) compared with the control. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 as well as the activation of caspase-3 were observed, which indicated that DBDFT treatment triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway with an increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, resulting in mitochondrial membrane potential loss and caspase-9 activation in DBDFT treated SGC-7901 cells. In summary, the results illustrated the involvement of multiple signaling pathways targeted by DBDFT in mediating G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells, which suggested that DBDFT might have therapeutic potential against gastric carcinoma as an effective compound. PMID:24643073

  2. Gastric and ectopic varices.

    PubMed

    Henry, Zachary; Uppal, Dushant; Saad, Wael; Caldwell, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Although often considered together, gastric and ectopic varices represent complications of a heterogeneous group of underlying diseases. Commonly, these are known to arise in patients with cirrhosis secondary to portal hypertension; however, they also arise in patients with noncirrhotic portal hypertension, most often secondary to venous thrombosis of the portal venous system. One of the key initial assessments is to define the underlying condition leading to the formation of these portal-collateral pathways to guide management. In the authors' experience, these patients can be grouped into distinct although sometimes overlapping conditions, which can provide a helpful conceptual basis of management. PMID:24679501

  3. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18?mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8?mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6?h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-?, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-?, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25137224

  4. Diosmin Protects against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats: Novel Anti-Ulcer Actions

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Hany H.; Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Diosmin (DIO) is a natural citrus flavone with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features that underlay its protection against cardiac, hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of DIO against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with DIO (100 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by lowering of ulcer index (UI) scores, area of gastric lesions, histopathologic aberrations and leukocyte invasion. These actions were analogous to those exerted by the reference antiulcer sucralfate. DIO suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels along with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expression. It also augmented the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Meanwhile, DIO halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). With respect to gastric mucosal apoptosis, DIO suppressed caspase-3 activity and cytochrome C (Cyt C) with enhancement of the anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in favor of cell survival. These favorable actions were associated with upregulation of the gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Together, these findings accentuate the gastroprotective actions of DIO in ethanol gastric injury which were mediated via concerted multi-pronged actions, including suppression of gastric inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis besides boosting of the antioxidant and the cytoprotective defenses. PMID:25821971

  5. Diosmin protects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats: novel anti-ulcer actions.

    PubMed

    Arab, Hany H; Salama, Samir A; Omar, Hany A; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Diosmin (DIO) is a natural citrus flavone with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features that underlay its protection against cardiac, hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of DIO against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with DIO (100 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by lowering of ulcer index (UI) scores, area of gastric lesions, histopathologic aberrations and leukocyte invasion. These actions were analogous to those exerted by the reference antiulcer sucralfate. DIO suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels along with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65 expression. It also augmented the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Meanwhile, DIO halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). With respect to gastric mucosal apoptosis, DIO suppressed caspase-3 activity and cytochrome C (Cyt C) with enhancement of the anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in favor of cell survival. These favorable actions were associated with upregulation of the gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Together, these findings accentuate the gastroprotective actions of DIO in ethanol gastric injury which were mediated via concerted multi-pronged actions, including suppression of gastric inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis besides boosting of the antioxidant and the cytoprotective defenses. PMID:25821971

  6. Anticancer Effect of Thymol on AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seo-Hee; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Dong, Xin; Lee, Jae-Woong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2016-01-28

    Numerous plants have been documented to contain phenolic compounds. Thymol is one among these phenolic compounds that possess a repertoire of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antimicrobial effects. Despite of the plethora of affects elicited by thymol, its activity profile on gastric cancer cells is not explored. In this study, we discovered that thymol exerts anticancer effects by suppressing cell growth, inducing apoptosis, producing intracellular reactive oxygen species, depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential, and activating the proapoptotic mitochondrial proteins Bax, cysteine aspartases (caspases), and poly ADP ribose polymerase in human gastric AGS cells. The outcomes of this study displayed that thymol, via an intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, was responsible for inducing apoptosis in gastric AGS cells. Hence, thymol might serve as a tentative agent in the future to treat cancer. PMID:26437948

  7. The direct effect of estrogen on cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian; Liu, Min; Ding, Qianshan; Ji, Xiang; Hao, Yarong; Wu, Xiaomin; Xiong, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiology researches indicated that gastric cancer is a male-predominant disease; both expression level of estrogen and expression pattern of estrogen receptors (ERs) influence its carcinogenesis. But the direct effect of estrogen on gastric cancer cells is still unclear. This study aimed to explore the direct effect of ?-estradiol (E2) on gastric cancer cells. SGC7901 and BGC823 were treated with a serial of concentrations of E2. The survival rates of both the cell lines were significantly reduced, and the reduction of viability was due to apoptosis triggered by E2 treatment. Caspase 3 was activated in response to the increasing E2 concentration in both SGC7901 and BGC823. Cleaved Caspase 3 fragments were detected, and the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were reduced. Apoptosis was further confirmed by flow cytometry. The expression level of PEG10, an androgen receptor target gene, was reduced during E2 treatment. Both ER? and ER? were expressed in these cell lines, and the result of bioinformatics analysis of gastric cancer from GEO datasets indicated that the expression levels of both ER? and ER? were significantly higher in noncancerous gastric tissues than in gastric cancer tissues. Our research indicated that estrogen can reduce cell viability and promote apoptosis in gastric cancer cells directly; ERs expression level is associated with gastric cancer. Our research will help to understand the mechanism of gender disparity in gastric cancer. PMID:24934239

  8. STAT-3 correlates with lymph node metastasis and cell survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Sun, Dan; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Pan, Yi; Liang, Han

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between gastric cancer growth and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) expression. METHODS: We assessed the expressions of STAT3, phosphor-STAT3 (pSTAT3), suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), survivin and Bcl-2 in gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy by immunohistochemical method. In addition, in situ hybridization was used to further demonstrate the mRNA expression of STAT3 in gastric cancer. RESULTS: With the univariate analysis, expressions of STAT3, pSTAT3, SOCS-1, survivin and Bcl-2, the size of primary tumor and the lymph node metastasis were found to be associated with the overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer patients. However, only pSTAT3 expression and the lymph node metastasis were identified as the independent factors of OS of gastric cancer with multivariate analysis. STAT3 expression was correlated with the lymph node metastasis. There were positive correlations between expressions of STAT3, survivin, Bcl-2 and pSTAT3 in gastric cancer, whereas there was negative correlation between STAT3 expression and SOCS-1 expression in gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: STAT3 can transform into pSTAT3 to promote the survival and inhibit the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. SOCS-1 might be the valid molecular antagonist to inhibit the STAT3 expression in gastric cancer. PMID:21072904

  9. Electrical bioimpedance and other techniques for gastric emptying and motility evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, Mara Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Flores-Hernndez, Corina; Morales-Mata, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify non-invasive, inexpensive, highly sensitive and accurate techniques for evaluating and diagnosing gastric diseases. In the case of the stomach, there are highly sensitive and specific methods for assessing gastric motility and emptying (GME). However, these methods are invasive, expensive and/or not technically feasible for all clinicians and patients. We present a summary of the most relevant international information on non-invasive methods and techniques for clinically evaluating GME. We particularly emphasize the potential of gastric electrical bioimpedance (EBI). EBI was initially used mainly in gastric emptying studies and was essentially abandoned in favor of techniques such as electrogastrography and the gold standard, scintigraphy. The current research evaluating the utility of gastric EBI either combines this technique with other frequently used techniques or uses new methods for gastric EBI signal analysis. In this context, we discuss our results and those of other researchers who have worked with gastric EBI. In this review article, we present the following topics: (1) a description of the oldest methods and procedures for evaluating GME; (2) an explanation of the methods currently used to evaluate gastric activity; and (3) a perspective on the newest trends and techniques in clinical and research GME methods. We conclude that gastric EBI is a highly effective non-invasive, easy to use and inexpensive technique for assessing GME. PMID:22368782

  10. The Use of Lentinan for Treating Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ina, Kenji; Kataoka, Takae; Ando, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Natural compounds containing fungal ?-glucans have been used to improve general health for thousands of years in China and Japan. Lentinan, the backbone of ?-(1, 3)-glucan with ?-(1, 6) branches, is one of the active ingredients purified from Shiitake mushrooms and has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer in Japan. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains an incurable disease, with survival rates being far from satisfactory. Recent clinical studies have shown that chemo-immunotherapy using lentinan prolongs the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer, as compared to chemotherapy alone. In addition, trastuzumab, an antibody against HER2/neu growth factor receptor, has been used for the treatment of gastric cancer in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Lentinan may exert a synergistic action with anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies to activate complement systems through the mechanism of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement dependent cytotoxicity. Because a better understanding of its biological activities should enable us to use lentinan more efficiently in the treatment of gastric cancer, immunological effects provided by ?-glucans, a possible mode of action of lentinan, and its clinical application including future potential uses are discussed in the present review. PMID:23092289

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Ruo-Lin; Xu, A-Man

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis for lack of early detection and effective treatment modalities. The significant influence of tumor microenvironment on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this targeted-therapy era. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved and fundamental process that is critical for embryogenesis and some other pathophysiological processes, especially tumor genesis and progression. Aberrant gastric EMT activation could endow gastric epithelial cells with increased mesenchymal characteristics and less epithelial features, and promote cancer cell stemness, initiation, invasion, metastasis, and chemo-resistance with cellular adhesion molecules especially E-cadherin concomitantly repressed, which allows tumor cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body. Some pathogens, stress, and hypoxia could induce and aggravate GC via EMT, which is significantly correlated with prognosis. GC EMT is modulated by diverse micro-environmental, membrane, and intracellular cues, and could be triggered by various overexpressed transcription factors, which are downstream of several vital cross-talking signaling pathways including TGF-?, Wnt/?-catenin, Notch, etc. microRNAs also contribute significantly to GC EMT modulation. There are currently some agents which could suppress GC EMT, shedding light on novel anti-malignancy strategies. Investigating potential mechanisms modulating GC cell EMT and discovering novel EMT regulators will further elucidate GC biology, and may provide new biomarkers for early GC detection and potentially efficient targets for preventative and curative anti-GC intervention approaches to prevent local and distant invasions. PMID:26807164

  12. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-09-11

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein-Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also known as PD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  13. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vsteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ?aniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spycha?a, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for EpsteinBarr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  14. Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Soo; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Carroll, Jaqueline D.; Moss, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic gastric infection by the gram-negative bacterium H. pylori is strongly associated with the development of distal gastric carcinoma and gastric mucosal lymphoma in humans. Eradication of H. pylori with combination antibiotic therapy cures most cases of gastric lymphoma and slows progression to gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori promotes gastric neoplasia, principally via the induction of an intense gastric inflammatory response that lasts over decades. This persistent inflammatory state produces chronic oxidative stress and adaptive changes in gastric epithelial and immune cell pathobiology that in a minority of infected subjects eventually proceeds to frank neoplastic transformation. PMID:20692762

  15. Sonic hedgehog pathway contributes to gastric cancer cell growth and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jianhua; Zhou, Ji; Zhao, Hailong; Wang, Mei; Wei, Zhuanqin; Gao, Hongyan; Wang, Yongzhong; Cui, Hongjuan

    2014-04-01

    The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is commonly activated in gastrointestinal cancer. However, our understanding of the Shh pathway in gastric cancer remains limited. Here we examined the effects of cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of the Shh signaling pathway, on cell growth and proliferation in gastric primary cancer cells GAM-016 and the MKN-45 cell line. The results showed that the Shh signaling molecules SHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, and GLI2 were intact and activated in both types of cells. Furthermore, we observed that cyclopamine inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. An in vivo study using NOD/SCID mouse xenografts demonstrated that cyclopamine significantly prevented tumor growth and development. Our study indicated that Shh signaling pathway could promote gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumor development, and blocking this pathway may be a potential strategy in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24804165

  16. Characterization of gastric antral motility disturbances in diabetes using a scintigraphic technique.

    PubMed

    Urbain, J L; Vekemans, M C; Bouillon, R; Van Cauteren, J; Bex, M; Mayeur, S M; Van den Maegdenbergh, V; Bataille, G; Charkes, N D; Malmud, L S

    1993-04-01

    In this study, food distribution in the stomach and gastric antral motor activity in patients with longstanding diabetes have been evaluated. With use of a standard gastric emptying test with an acquisition protocol and a refined Fourier algorithm to analyze the data, antral contractions have been characterized and gastric motility parameters were correlated to gastric retention in 20 diabetic patients with or without gastroparesis and in 10 healthy subjects. The results of this study show that, in longstanding diabetes, gastric emptying retardation is accounted for by a retention of food in the proximal stomach, which is reflected by a prolonged lag phase as well as by a reduction in antral motor activity that is determined by a decrease in the amplitude of the antral contractions. This study demonstrates that scintigraphy can noninvasively characterize abnormalities of food distribution in the stomach and provides information similar to that obtained from manometry. PMID:8455073

  17. RNA interference targeting raptor inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Lee, Chung Wa; Cho, Chi Hin; School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong ; Chan, Francis Ka Leung; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2011-06-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in gastric cancer. The biologic function of mTORC1 in gastric carcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of mTORC1 function by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of raptor substantially inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by concomitant downregulation of activator protein-1 and upregulation of Smad2/3 transcriptional activities. In addition, the expression of cyclin D{sub 3} and p21{sup Waf1}, which stabilizes cyclin D/cdk4 complex for G{sub 1}-S transition, was reduced by raptor knockdown. In conclusion, disruption of mTORC1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through multiple pathways. This discovery may have an implication in the application of mTORC1-directed therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  18. Canine Gastric Pathology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amorim, I; Taulescu, M A; Day, M J; Catoi, C; Reis, C A; Carneiro, F; Grtner, F

    2016-01-01

    Gastric disorders are common in dogs and are a major reason for veterinary consultation. In human medicine, the classification of gastric diseases based on histological features, genotypes and molecular phenotypes helps to better understand the characteristics of each subtype, and to improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Canine gastric lesions often show strong histological similarities to their human counterparts. However, such conditions in the canine stomach are poorly studied and their cellular and molecular features are largely unknown. This article reviews the histopathological classification of inflammatory and neoplastic lesions of the canine stomach and provides an update on the application of molecular techniques within the field of canine gastric pathology. The canine disorders are compared with current knowledge of the equivalent human diseases. PMID:26774560

  19. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier ...

  20. Absence of ras gene mutations in early gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Craanen, M E; Blok, P; Top, B; Boerrigter, L; Dekker, W; Offerhaus, G J; Tytgat, G N; Rodenhuis, S

    1995-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and type of activating point mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of the Ki-, Ha-, and N-ras genes in a series of early gastric carcinomas in white patients and to correlate these ras gene mutations, if any, with the histological type (Lauren classification), the type of growth pattern, and with the Helicobacter pylori status. Haematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa stained sections from 45 formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded early gastric carcinomas were used to assess the Lauren type, the type of growth pattern, and the antral H pylori status. DNA was extracted according to standard procedures. Mutations at codon 12 of the Ki-ras gene were examined with a polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and dot blot hybridisation with allele-specific 32P-labelled oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO) probes. All other ras genes were analysed with specific PCR amplification and dot blot hybridisation with ASO probes. Mutations were detected by overnight autoradiography at -70 degrees C. Some 20 intestinal-type and 25 diffuse-type early gastric carcinomas were seen. According to growth pattern, there were 24 small mucosal type early gastric carcinomas, five superficial spreading type early gastric carcinomas, and 16 penetrating type early gastric carcinomas (four penetrating A type, 12 penetrating B type). H pylori was found in the antral mucosa of 28 early gastric carcinomas (62%). Activating ras gene mutations were not found. It was discovered that activating point mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of the Ki-, Ha-, and N-ras genes do not play a part in the development of early gastric carcinomas in white subjects, irrespective of Lauren type. Moreover, differences in biological behaviour between early carcinomas with different types of growth pattern are not related to these ras gene mutations. Finally, H pylori positive and H pylori negative gastric carcinomas cannot be discriminated on the basis of ras gene mutational analysis. Images Figure 2 PMID:8537044

  1. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Yun, Nari; Han, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101) on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-?B, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-?B translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25610477

  2. Gastric resection Billroth or Rydygier?

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Andrzej L; Wysocki, Wojciech M; Roviello, Franco; Marrelli, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    The Authors present the history of the first gastric resections and of the two men who first made this bold step in surgery. Although the famous Viennese surgeon Theodor Billroth is credited with the first gastric resection, known as the Billroth I procedure, the less well known Ludwik Rydygier from Chelmno, Poland, performed and described the procedure several months earlier. The Authors present the lives and major achievements of these two pioneering surgeons. PMID:16734173

  3. Activation of natriuretic peptides and the sympathetic nervous system following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with gonadal adipose tissues browning

    PubMed Central

    Neinast, Michael D.; Frank, Aaron P.; Zechner, Juliet F.; Li, Quanlin; Vishvanath, Lavanya; Palmer, Biff F.; Aguirre, Vincent; Gupta, Rana K.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method of weight loss and remediation of type-2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms leading to these improvements are unclear. Additionally, adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT) depots can manifest characteristics of brown adipocytes. These BRITE/beige adipocytes express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are associated with improvements in glucose homeostasis and protection from obesity. Interestingly, atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote BRITE/beige adipocyte enrichment of WAT depots, an effect known as browning. Here, we investigate the effect of RYGB surgery on NP, NP receptors, and browning in the gonadal adipose tissues of female mice. We propose that such changes may lead to improvements in metabolic homeostasis commonly observed following RYGB. Methods Wild type, female, C57/Bl6 mice were fed a 60% fat diet ad libitum for six months. Mice were divided into three groups: Sham operated (SO), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and Weight matched, sham operated (WM-SO). Mice were sacrificed six weeks following surgery and evaluated for differences in body weight, glucose homeostasis, adipocyte morphology, and adipose tissue gene expression. Results RYGB and calorie restriction induced similar weight loss and improved glucose metabolism without decreasing food intake. ?3-adrenergic receptor expression increased in gonadal adipose tissue, in addition to Nppb (BNP), and NP receptors, Npr1, and Npr2. The ratio of Npr1:Npr3 and Npr2:Npr3 increased in RYGB, but not WM-SO groups. Ucp1 protein and mRNA, as well as additional markers of BRITE/beige adipose tissue and lipolytic genes increased in RYGB mice to a greater extent than calorie-restricted mice. Conclusions Upregulation of Nppb, Npr1, Npr2, and ?3-adrenergic receptors in gonadal adipose tissue following RYGB was associated with increased markers of browning. This browning of gonadal adipose tissue may underpin the positive effect of RYGB on metabolic parameters and may in part be mediated through upregulation of natriuretic peptides. PMID:25973390

  4. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 μM. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 μM). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

  5. Increased programmed death-ligand-1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y-Y; Lin, C-W; Cheng, K-S; Lin, C; Wang, Y-M; Lin, I-T; Chou, Y-H; Hsu, P-N

    2010-01-01

    B7-H1 [programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)] is a B7-family member that binds to programmed death-1 (PD-1). Recently, deficiency of PD-L1 has been demonstrated to result in accelerated gastric epithelial cell damage in gastritis, and PD-L1 is suggested to play a critical role in regulating T cell homeostasis. Here, we aimed to gain more insight into gastric PD-L1 expression, regulation and function during Helicobacter pylori infection. PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells was analysed using Western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis. Furthermore, co-culture experiments of human gastric epithelial cells with primary human T cells or Jurkat T cells were conducted. PD-L1 expression in primary human gastric epithelial cells was strongly enhanced by H. pylori infection and activated T cells, and augmented markedly by further stimulation with interferon-? or tumour necrosis factor-?. Moreover, PD-L1 expression in gastric epithelial cells significantly induced apoptosis of T cells. Our results indicate that a novel bidirectional interaction between human gastric epithelial cells and lymphocytes modulates PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells, contributing to the unique immunological properties of the stomach. PMID:20646001

  6. SIRT3 Enhances Glycolysis and Proliferation in SIRT3-Expressing Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Qin, Lili; Wu, Jing; Qu, Xuan; Hou, Chen; Sun, Wenyan; Li, Shiyong; Vaughan, Andrew T. M.; Li, Jian Jian; Liu, Jiankang

    2015-01-01

    SIRT3 is a key NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase in the mitochondria of mammalian cells, functioning to prevent cell aging and transformation via regulation of mitochondrial metabolic homeostasis. However, SIRT3 is also found to express in some human tumors; its role in these SIRT3-expressing tumor cells needs to be elucidated. This study demonstrated that the expression of SIRT3 was elevated in a group of gastric cancer cells compared to normal gastric epithelial cells. Although SIRT3 expression levels were increased in the gastric tumor tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissues, SIRT3 positive cancer cells were more frequently detected in the intestinal type gastric cancers than the diffuse type gastric cancers, indicating that SIRT3 is linked with subtypes of gastric cancer. Overexpression of SIRT3 promoted cell proliferation and enhanced ATP generation, glucose uptake, glycogen formation, MnSOD activity and lactate production, which were inhibited by SIRT3 knockdown, indicating that SIRT3 plays a role in reprogramming the bioenergetics in gastric tumor cells. Further analysis revealed that SIRT3 interacted with and deacetylated the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key protein in regulating anaerobic glycolysis, enhancing LDHA activity. In consistence, a cluster of glycolysis-associated genes was upregulated in the SIRT3-overexpressing gastric tumor cells. Thus, in addition to the well-documented SIRT3-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis in normal cells, SIRT3 may enhance glycolysis and cell proliferation in SIRT3-expressing cancer cells. PMID:26121691

  7. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 μM. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H+/K+-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 μM). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

  8. Targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexandra; Ristimki, Ari

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life, the survival of gastric cancer patients with advanced disease is short. Thanks to recent insights into the molecular pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis, new targeted treatment options have become available for gastric cancer patients. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeted to HER-2, was shown to improve survival of advanced gastric cancer patients harboring HER-2 overexpression due to gene amplification in their tumor cells, and is currently also explored in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Another agent with promising results in clinical trials is ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2. No clear survival benefit, however, were experienced with agents targeting EGFR (cetuximab, panitumumab), VEGF-A (bevacizumab), or mTOR (everolimus). Drugs targeting c-MET/HGF are currently under investigation in biomarker-selected cohorts, with promising results in early clinical trials. This review will summarize the current status of targeted treatment options in gastric cancer. PMID:25706252

  9. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individuals offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  10. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  11. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Identified stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type gastric cancer. •In silico pathway scanning identified estrogen-α signaling is a putative regulator of SLSGS in gastric cancer. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. -- Abstract: Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

  12. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat evaluation of the same X-ray films. Enhanced diagnostic sensitivity would be most rewarding since management consisting of cessation of oral feedings combined with administration of intravenous fluids and gastric lavage is easy and resolves over 85% of gastric lactobezoars. In conclusion, gastric lactobezoar is a disorder of unknown prevalence and is nowadays very rarely published, possibly because of inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and/or not yet identified but beneficial modifications of patient management. PMID:22216886

  13. PAK1-mediated MORC2 phosphorylation promotes gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiling; Song, Yanyan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Chunyu; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Furong; Cai, Xinze; Miao, Zhifeng; Xu, Hongde; Xu, Huimian; Cao, Liu; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To date, microrchidia (MORC) family CW-type zinc-finger 2 (MORC2), has been found to be involved in p21-activated kinase1 (PAK1) pathway to maintain genomic integrity. Here, we explore its novel role in cancer. We demonstrate that PAK1-mediated MORC2 phosphorylation promotes cell cycle progression, defective phosphorylation of MORC2-S677A results in attenuated cell proliferation and tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells, which is significantly enhanced in overexpression of phospho-mimic MORC2-S677E form, suggesting the importance of MORC2 phosphorylation in tumorigenesis. More importantly, phosphorylation of MORC2 correlates positively with PAK1 expression in clinical gastric cancer. Furthermore, high expression of PAK1 and phosphorylation of MORC2 appear to be associated with poor prognosis of clinical gastric cancer. Collectively, these findings revealed a novel function of MORC2 phosphorylation in promoting gastric cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, suggesting that blocking PAK1-mediated MORC2 phosphorylation might be a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:25888627

  14. MED30 Regulates the Proliferation and Motility of Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Joo; Han, Myoung-Eun; Baek, Su-Jin; Kim, Seon-Young; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2015-01-01

    MED30 is an essential member of the mediator complex that forms a hub between transcriptional activators and RNA polymerase II. However, the expressions and roles of MED30 have been poorly characterized in cancer. In this study, we examined the functional roles of MED30 during gastric cancer progression. It was found that MED30 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Moreover, MED30 overexpression increased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells, whereas MED30 knockdown inhibited these effects. Furthermore the knockdown significantly inhibited tumorigenicity in SCID mice. MED30 also promoted the expressions of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and induced a fibroblast-like morphology. This study shows MED30 has pathophysiological roles in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells and suggests that MED30 should be viewed as a potent therapeutic target for malignant gastric carcinoma PMID:26110885

  15. Bisdemethoxycurcumin attenuates gastric adenocarcinoma growth by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    LUO, CHANGJIANG; DU, ZHIXING; WEI, XING; CHEN, GANG; FU, ZHONGXUE

    2015-01-01

    Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is a demethoxy derivative of curcumin. In this study, a human gastric adenocarcinoma xenograft model was generated in vivo using nude mice and BDMC was observed to suppress the growth and activity of tumors, in addition to improving the physical and mental capacity of the mice. An increased number of apoptotic cells, decreased ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein and increased caspase-3 expression was also observed following treatment with BDMC, indicating that BDMC may promote apoptosis in tumors via mitochondrial modulation. The growth of SGC 7901 gastric cancer cells was inhibited and arrested at G1 phase. Specific indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction, a reduction in adenosine triphosphate generation, the inner mitochondrial membrane potential, augmentation of reactive oxygen species production and cytochrome c were also detected in the mitochondria following treatment with BDMC. These results indicate that BDMC attenuates gastric adenocarcinoma growth by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25435973

  16. Spiral bacteria in the human stomach: the gastric helicobacters.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, Helicobacter pylori has become recognized as one of the most common human pathogens, colonizing the gastric mucosa of almost all persons exposed to poor hygienic conditions from childhood. It also is often found, albeit with a lower frequency, in groups of high socioeconomic status. H. pylori causes chronic active gastritis and is a major factor in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers and, to a lesser extent, gastric ulcers. In addition, the presence of this bacterium is now recognized as a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. Nevertheless, most infections appear without clinical consequences. In this second decade of intensive research, it is important to understand why H. pylori is sometimes a dangerous pathogen, and to determine how it can be eradicated in those at highest risk for severe disease. PMID:8903168

  17. [Gastric lipolysis in the young rabbit: origin and physiological importance of the lipase].

    PubMed

    Perret, J P

    1982-08-01

    1. Lipolytic activity of pregastric and gastric secretions and extracts of the gastric wall of weaned and non weaned rabbit was measured in vitro on several substrates: lipids from rabbit and cow milk or from several lipid emulsions (triglycerides containing 3 identical chains, medium or long; coconut or sunflower oil; fats extracted from rabbit or cow milk). Only extracts and gastric secretions possess a lipolytic activity. This persists without attenuation if the pancreatic duct is ligatured. It is reduced after weaning. 2. This lipolytic activity evolves in the presence of high concentration of serum albumin (3%). In this case its optimal pH is 7. Its action preferentially liberates medium chain fatty acids, and, amongst long chain fatty acids, the unsaturated one. Sodium taurocholate (6 mM) slightly increases its effect, which remain unchanged after preincubation of gastric extracts or secretions at pH greater than 2.6. These results show that a gastric lipase exists in the young rabbit. 3. The differences observed between the conditions of activity of young rabbit gastric lipase, pregastric esterase or lipase of man, calf and rat and pancreatic lipase are discussed. We suggest the probable importance of gastric lipase in the particular way and means of digestion and absorption of the lipids of maternal milk in the young rabbit. PMID:7131335

  18. PRR11 Is a Prognostic Marker and Potential Oncogene in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zongchang; Liu, Wenying; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Minghui; Luo, Yan; Yuan, Weiwei; Xu, Yu; Yu, Guanzhen; Hu, Yide

    2015-01-01

    PRR11 is a potential candidate oncogene that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, however the role of PRR11 in gastric cancer is currently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of PRR11 in gastric cancer by evaluating its expression status in samples from a cohort of 216 patients with gastric cancer. PRR11 was found to be overexpressed in 107 (49.5%) patients by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays generated using the patient samples. Furthermore, PRR11 overexpression was found to correlate significantly with clinicopathologic features such as tumor invasion, tumor differentiation, and disease stage. Survival analysis of the cohort revealed that PRR11 is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. PRR11 was stably silenced in a gastric carcinoma cell line using an shRNA-based approach, and treated cells showed decreased cellular proliferation and colony formation in vitro and cell growth in vivo, companied by decreased expression of CTHRC1 and increased expression of LXN, proteins involved in tumor progression. Evaluation of human gastric cancer samples demonstrated that PRR11 expression was also associated with increased CTHRC1 and decreased LXN expression. These data indicate that PRR11 may be widely activated in human gastric cancer and are consistent with the hypothesis that PRR11 functions as an oncogene in the development and progression of gastric cancer. PMID:26252227

  19. Sodium bicarbonate treatment prevents gastric emptying delay caused by acute exercise in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Moisés T B; Palheta-Junior, Raimundo C; Sousa, Daniel F; Fonseca-Magalhães, Patrícia A; Okoba, Willy; Campos, Caio P S; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Magalhães, Pedro J C; Santos, Armenio A

    2014-05-01

    Physical exercise, mainly after vigorous activity, may induce gastrointestinal dysmotility whose mechanisms are still unknown. We hypothesized that physical exercise and ensuing lactate-related acidemia alter gastrointestinal motor behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of short-term exercise on gastric emptying rate in awake rats subjected to 15-min swimming sessions against a load equivalent to 5% of their body weight. After 0, 10, or 20 min of exercise testing, the rats were gavage fed with 1.5 ml of a liquid test meal (0.5 mg/ml of phenol red in 5% glucose solution) and euthanized 10 min postprandially to measure fractional gastric dye recovery. In addition to inducing acidemia and increasing blood lactate levels, acute exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric retention. Such a phenomenon presented a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between blood lactate levels and fractional gastric dye recovery. Gastric retention and other acidbase-related changes were all prevented by NaHCO3 pretreatment. Additionally, exercise enhanced (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. Compared with sedentary control rats, acute exercise also inhibited (P < 0.05) the contractility of gastric fundus strips in vitro. In conclusion, acute exercise delayed the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal by interfering with the acid-base balance. PMID:24557800

  20. Apatinib: A novel receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Roviello, Giandomenico; Ravelli, Andrea; Polom, Karol; Petrioli, Roberto; Marano, Luigi; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco; Generali, Daniele

    2016-03-28

    Metastatic gastric cancer is a lethal disease characterized by a very short overall survival, underlining a critical need of new therapeutic options. Unfortunately, although several molecular targets have been investigated, only very few recently approved agents, such as trastuzumab in the HER2-positive setting and ramucirumab, led to a clinical improvement in the outcome of metastatic gastric cancer patients. VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is one of the most potent angiogenic factors and is a signalling molecule secreted by many solid tumours. Since high VEGF expression is one of the characteristic features of gastric carcinomas, targeting VEGF is therefore considered as a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. In the scenario of possible new target therapies with particular regard to angiogenesis, apatinib is a novel receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor selectively targeting VEGFR-2. It is an orally-bioavailable agent currently being studied in several solid tumour types showing a promising activity in gastric cancer. Due to the recent positive results as a third line of treatment for metastatic gastric cancer patients, apatinib may be an interesting and novel type of targeted treatment for metastatic gastric cancer in several lines of therapy. In this review, we summarize the available data of apatinib, mainly focused on the clinical aspect, in advanced/metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:26797419

  1. Human gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori and bracken carcinogens: A connecting hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Calcagno-Pissarelli, María Pía; Naya, Marlene; Ávila-Núñez, Jorge Luis; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E

    2016-03-01

    Long term infection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) virulent strains is a key factor in the genesis of human gastric cancer, and so are certain dietary proinflammatory and genotoxic compounds. Carcinogenic bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) is one of these. Toxins from this plant are consumed as bracken culinary preparations, through milk and meat of bracken-exposed livestock, and drain waters from bracken swards. Bracken toxin ptaquiloside (PtQ), a suspected human carcinogen, elicits complex responses in animals leading to death. PtQ and Hp might cooperate in gastric pathologies. This paper presents an hypothesis on PtQ-Hp association leading to the enhancement of carcinogenesis in the human gastric environment that might explain the high gastric cancer incidence and death rates among Hp-infected people living in bracken zones at two levels: (1) The macroscopic scale comprising the flow of PtQ in the human diet. (2) the microscopic scale encompassing (A) gastric luminal medium; (B) gastric mucus structure and mucin degradation elicited by Hp; (C) bacterial pH gradient modification of the gastric mucosa that favors PtQ survival and its penetration into epithelial tissue; (D) combined PtQ/Hp effects on gastric immune and inflammatory responses; (E) PtQ-Hp complementary activity at selected cell signaling cascades and genome disturbance. PMID:26632203

  2. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening–Patient Version (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds. PMID:488012

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DFT structural characterization of two novel ruthenium(III) oxicam complexes. In vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric damaging activities.

    PubMed

    Tamasi, Gabriella; Bernini, Caterina; Corbini, Gianfranco; Owens, Natalie F; Messori, Luigi; Scaletti, Federica; Massai, Lara; Giudice, Pietro Lo; Cini, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    The reactions of ruthenium(III) chloride trihydrate with piroxicam (H2PIR) and tenoxicam (H2TEN), two widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, afforded [Ru(III)Cl2(H2PIR)(HPIR)],1, and [Ru(III)Cl2(H2TEN)(HTEN)],2. Both compounds were obtained as pure green solids through purification via flash column chromatography. Characterizations were accomplished through UV-vis and IR spectroscopy, potentiometry and HPLC. Quantum mechanics and density functional computational methods were applied to investigate their respective molecular structures. The experimental and computational results are in agreement with a pseudo-octahedral coordination where the two chlorido ligands are in trans positions (apical) and the two trans-N,O chelating oxicam ligands occupy the equatorial sites. Both compounds revealed an acceptable solubility and stability profile upon dissolution in a standard buffer at physiological pH. Nonetheless, the addition of biologically occurring reducing agents caused spectral changes. The two complexes manifested a poor reactivity with the model proteins cytochrome c and lysozyme: no evidence for adduct formation was indeed obtained based on a standard ESI MS analysis; in contrast, some significant reactivity with serum albumin was proved spectrophotometrically. Remarkably, both study compounds revealed pronounced anti-edema effects in vivo suggesting that the pharmacological actions of the ligands are mostly retained; in addition, they were less irritating than piroxicam on the gastric mucosa when the coordination compounds and free oxicam were administered at the same overall molar concentration of the ligand. Overall, the present results point out that ruthenium coordination may represent an effective strategy to improve the pharmacological properties of oxicam drugs reducing their undesired side effects. PMID:24518539

  5. Osteopetrorickets due to Snx10 Deficiency in Mice Results from Both Failed Osteoclast Activity and Loss of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liang; Morse, Leslie R.; Zhang, Li; Sasaki, Hajime; Mills, Jason C.; Odgren, Paul R.; Sibbel, Greg; Stanley, James R. L.; Wong, Gee; Zamarioli, Ariane; Battaglino, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficent osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis (due to osteoclast defect) and rickets (due to high stomach pH and low calcium availability, resulting in impaired bone mineralization). Osteopetrorickets, the paradoxical association of insufficient mineralization in the context of a positive total body calcium balance, is thought to occur due to the inability of the osteoclasts to maintain normal calciumphosphorus homeostasis. However, osteoclast-specific Snx10 knockout had no effect on calcium balance, and therefore led to severe osteopetrosis without rickets. Moreover, supplementation with calcium gluconate rescued mice from the rachitic phenotype and dramatically extended life span in global Snx10-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a life-saving component of the clinical approach to Snx10-dependent human osteopetrosis that has previously gone unrecognized. We conclude that tissue-specific effects of Snx10 mutation need to be considered in clinical approaches to this disease entity. Reliance solely on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can leave hypocalcemia uncorrected with sometimes fatal consequences. These studies established an essential role for Snx10 in bone homeostasis and underscore the importance of gastric acidification in calcium uptake. PMID:25811986

  6. Spontaneaous linear gastric tears in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, M; Olivero, D; Costa Devoti, C

    2015-09-01

    An 11-year-old female cat presented for chronic vomiting. Endoscopy revealed an altered gastric mucosa and spontaneous formation of linear gastric tears during normal organ insufflations. The histopathological diagnosis was atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection. Medical treatment permitted a complete resolution of clinical signs. The linear tears observed resembled gastric lesions rarely reported in humans, called "Mallory-Weiss syndrome". To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of spontaneous linear gastric tears in animals. PMID:25703995

  7. [OPISTHORCHIASIS AS A PROMOTER OF GASTRIC CARCINOGENESIS].

    PubMed

    Zuevsky, V P; Bychkov, V G; Tselishcheva, P V; Khadieva, E D

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental model of gastric cancer in the presence of chronic opisthorchiasis, which has been created to study its possible role in gastric carcinogenesis. The performed investigation has supported the hypothesis that opisthorchiasis plays a promoting role in the development of experimental gastric cancer. A larger number of experimental hamsters receiving the carcinogen methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG) developed earlier gastric tumors in. the presence of chronic opisthorchiasis than the control animals in the experiment. PMID:26827578

  8. Resistance of rumen bacteria murein to bovine gastric lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Domnguez-Bello, Mara G; Pacheco, M Andrena; Ruiz, Marie C; Michelangeli, Fabin; Leippe, Matthias; de Pedro, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Background Lysozymes, enzymes mostly associated with defence against bacterial infections, are mureinolytic. Ruminants have evolved a gastric c type lysozyme as a digestive enzyme, and profit from digestion of foregut bacteria, after most dietary components, including protein, have been fermented in the rumen. In this work we characterized the biological activities of bovine gastric secretions against membranes, purified murein and bacteria. Results Bovine gastric extract (BGE) was active against both G+ and G- bacteria, but the effect against Gram- bacteria was not due to the lysozyme, since purified BGL had only activity against Gram+ bacteria. We were unable to find small pore forming peptides in the BGE, and found that the inhibition of Gram negative bacteria by BGE was due to an artefact caused by acetate. We report for first time the activity of bovine gastric lysozyme (BG lysozyme) against pure bacterial cultures, and the specific resistance of some rumen Gram positive strains to BGL. Conclusions Some Gram+ rumen bacteria showed resistance to abomasum lysozyme. We discuss the implications of this finding in the light of possible practical applications of such a stable antimicrobial peptide. PMID:15137912

  9. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and disease-tailored surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

  10. [Gastric cancer in Lima].

    PubMed

    Pilco, Paul; Payet, Eduardo; Cceres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be one of the most common malignant neoplasias in the world. Despite the decreasing incidence of this disease in developed countries, Eastern Europe and Latin America show the highest incidences. It accounted for 8.6% of all new cases of cancer in 2002. In Peru it has increased between 1990 and 1997 amounting to 24.3/100000 in men and 17.6/100000 in women, during the last period studied, thus it is considered a high risk area. Mortality: it is still the leading cause of death for both sexes, in men it is 19.3/100000 and in women 14.2/100000. Incidence is directly proportional to the place of origin in Metropolitan Lima, a city of almost 8 million inhabitants, and the districts with the highest incidences are Puente Piedra and Lince followed by Villa El Salvador, El Augustino, Brea and Rimac among others. These are districts with medium-low socioeconomic levels, whereas the lowest incidences are found in districts with high socioeconomic levels, such as San Isidro and Miraflores, among others. PMID:17211488

  11. [Gastric volvulus: diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Bedioui, Heykal; Bensafta, Zoubeir

    2008-03-01

    Gastric volvulus is defined as an abnormal rotation of all or part of the stomach around one of its axes. It is a diagnostic emergency and therapeutic challenge because in acute forms it may lead to gastric strangulation with a high risk of ischemia and necrosis. Organoaxial and mesentericoaxial volvulus are distinguished according to the direction of rotation. The most common cause of gastric volvulus is hiatal hernia, but the principal predisposing factor is ligamentous laxity. The diagnosis is suspected when erect chest radiograph images show a high air-fluid level in the chest. Moreover a barium swallow is essential to confirm the diagnosis. Nonetheless, a computed tomography (CT) scan now provides a comprehensive description of the thoracic lesion, including stomach vitality. Gastric volvulus requires surgical treatment, specifically volvulus reduction, reintegration of the stomach into the abdominal cavity in cases of intrathoracic migration, and correction of causal factors. Resection of the hernial sac and the role of gastropexy for preventing recurrence remain controversial. Advances in laparoscopic surgery have made possible a laparoscopic approach to most cases of chronic gastric volvulus. PMID:17587536

  12. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  13. Megaduodenum associated with gastric strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Amanda Pinter Carvalheiro; Boteon, Yuri Longatto; Tercioti, Valdir; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Coelho Neto, Joo; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2015-01-01

    Gastric strongyloidiasis and megaduodenum are rare diseases. Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyloidiasis has many clinical features. One of them is megaduodenum. We describe a case of a 32-years-old man who has come to us from an endemic area for Strongyloides stercoralis. He had had megaduodenum diagnosed in his childhood. We submitted him to two surgeries. He has recovered just after the second surgery, a Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy. After that, his follow-up was uneventful and the patient has gained 10kg in weight. Histopathology confirmed gastric strongyloidiasis. In conclusion, if patients arrive from an endemic area of S. stercoralis and if they present GI symptoms or a previous diagnosis of megaduodenum, they must be considered for a histological evaluation for gastric strongyloidiasis. PMID:25951613

  14. Megaduodenum associated with gastric strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Amanda Pinter Carvalheiro; Boteon, Yuri Longatto; Tercioti, Valdir; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Coelho Neto, Joo; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2014-01-01

    Gastric strongyloidiasis and megaduodenum are rare diseases. Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyloidiasis has many clinical features. One of them is megaduodenum. We describe a case of a 32-years-old man who has come to us from an endemic area for Strongyloides stercoralis. He had had megaduodenum diagnosed in his childhood. We submitted him to two surgeries. He has recovered just after the second surgery, a Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy. After that, his follow-up was uneventful and the patient has gained 10kg in weight. Histopathology confirmed gastric strongyloidiasis. In conclusion, if patients arrive from an endemic area of S. stercoralis and if they present GI symptoms or a previous diagnosis of megaduodenum, they must be considered for a histological evaluation for gastric strongyloidiasis. PMID:25951613

  15. Gastric lesion in dermatitis herpetiformis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, D P; Lancaster-Smith, M; Johnson, G D; Kumar, P J

    1976-01-01

    Five of 33 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) were found to have gastric parietal cell antibody in their sera, whereas it was not found in 30 healthy controls of comparable age distribution. Fifteen of the patients with DH underwent further studies to investigate the histological and functional state of their gastric mucosa. Atrophic gastritis was found in all five patients whose sera contained gastric parietal cell antibody and in three of 11 patients with no antibody in their sera. In addition, there was marked impairment of acid secretion in the DH group as a whole, but, apart from one patient with overt pernicious anaemia (PA), there was no evidence of malabsorption of B12. PMID:773783

  16. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer. PMID:21779520

  17. Relevant pH and lipase for in vitro models of gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Sams, Laura; Paume, Julie; Giallo, Jacqueline; Carrière, Frédéric

    2016-01-20

    The development of in vitro digestion models relies on the availability of in vivo data such as digestive enzyme levels and pH values recorded in the course of meal digestion. The variations of these parameters along the GI tract are important for designing dynamic digestion models but also static models for which the choice of representative conditions of the gastric and intestinal conditions is critical. Simulating gastric digestion with a static model and a single set of parameters is particularly challenging because the variations in pH and enzyme concentration occurring in the stomach are much broader than those occurring in the small intestine. A review of the literature on this topic reveals that most models of gastric digestion use very low pH values that are not representative of the fed conditions. This is illustrated here by showing the variations in gastric pH as a function of meal gastric emptying instead of time. This representation highlights those pH values that are the most relevant for testing meal digestion in the stomach. Gastric lipolysis is still largely ignored or is performed with microbial lipases. In vivo data on gastric lipase and lipolysis have however been collected in humans and dogs during test meals. The biochemical characterization of gastric lipase has shown that this enzyme is rather unique among lipases: (i) stability and activity in the pH range 2 to 7 with an optimum at pH 4-5.4; (ii) high tensioactivity that allows resistance to bile salts and penetration into phospholipid layers covering TAG droplets; (iii) sn-3 stereospecificity for TAG hydrolysis; and (iv) resistance to pepsin. Most of these properties have been known for more than two decades and should provide a rational basis for the replacement of gastric lipase by other lipases when gastric lipase is not available. PMID:26527368

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric injury.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Pea, Elizabeth Arlen; Jimnez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Castaeda-Hernndez, Gilberto; Chvez-Pia, Aracely Evangelina

    2012-12-15

    Previous studies have shown gastroprotective effect of fish oil in several experimental models. However, the mechanisms and active compounds underlying this effect are not fully understood. Fish oil has several components; among them, one of the most studied is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. The aim of this study was to examine the gastroprotective effect of DHA as a pure compound in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric injury as well as elucidate some of the mechanism(s) behind DHA's gastroprotective effect. Indomethacin was orally administered to induce an acute gastric injury (3, 10 and 30mg/kg). Omeprazol (a proton pump inhibitor, 30mg/kg, p.o.) and DHA (3, 10, 30mg/kg, p.o.) were gavaged 30 and 120min, respectively, before indomethacin insult (30mg/kg p.o.). Three hours after indomethacin administration, rats were sacrificed, gastric injury was evaluated by determining the total damaged area. A sample of gastric tissue was harvested and processed to quantify prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Indomethacin produced gastric injury in dose-dependent manner. DHA protected against indomethacin-induced gastric damage, and this effect was comparable with omeprazol's gastroprotective effect. DHA did not reverse the indomethacin-induced reduction of PGE(2) gastric levels. In contrast, DHA partially prevented the indomethacin-induced increase in LTB(4) gastric levels. This is the first report demonstrating DHA's gastroprotective effect as a pure compound. Furthermore, the results reveal that the gastroprotective effect is mediated by a decrease in gastric LTB(4) levels in indomethacin-induced gastric damage. PMID:23063544

  19. Pediatric gastric cancer presenting with massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lai, I-Hsiu; Wu, Shu-Fen; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Chen, An-Chyi

    2015-03-21

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is quite rare in children and as a result very little experience has been reported on with regards to clinical presentation, treatment and outcome. We describe the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with abdominal fullness and poor appetite for 7 d. Sonography showed massive ascites and computed tomography imaging revealed the presence of gastric mucosa thickness with omentum caking. The diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was biopsy-proven endoscopically. Despite gastric adenocarcinoma being quite rare in the pediatric patient population, we should not overlook the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma when a child presents with distended abdomen and massive ascites. PMID:25805952

  20. Gastric cancer stem cells: therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Stojnev, Slavica; Krstic, Miljan; Ristic-Petrovic, Ana; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Hattori, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a growing body of evidence has implied that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in the development of gastric cancer (GC). The notion that CSCs give rise to GC and may be responsible for invasion, metastasis, and resistance to treatment has profound implications for anti-cancer therapy. Recent major advances in the rapidly evolving field of CSCs have opened novel exciting opportunities for developing CSC-targeted therapies. Discovery of specific markers and signaling pathways in gastric CSCs (GCSCs), with the perfecting of technologies for identification, isolation, and validation of CSCs, may provide the basis for a revolutionary cancer treatment approach based on the eradication of GCSCs. Emerging therapeutic tools based on specific properties and functions of CSCs, including activation of self-renewal signaling pathways, differences in gene expression profiles, and increased activity of telomerase or chemoresistance mechanisms, are developing in parallel with advances in nanotechnology and bioengineering. The addition of GCSC-targeted therapies to current oncological protocols and their complementary application may be the key to successfully fighting GC. PMID:23563919

  1. [Noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying rates and gastric motility].

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Jiang, D Z

    2001-07-01

    A non-invasive measuring system is developed for the assessment of gastric evacuation and motility by means of epigastric impedance measurement. FIR digital filters realized on personal computer were used for signal filtering and cancellation of respiratory interference. Electrodes of concentric type placed anterior and posterior were proved to be more effective for epigastric impedance measurement. PMID:12583219

  2. Roles of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the gastric cancer stem cells proliferation and salinomycin treatment.

    PubMed

    Mao, J; Fan, S; Ma, W; Fan, P; Wang, B; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Tang, B; Zhang, Q; Yu, X; Wang, L; Song, B; Li, L

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt1 protein, a secreted ligand that activates Wnt signaling pathways, contributes to the self-renewal of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and thus may be a major determinant of tumor progression and chemoresistance. In a series of gastric cancer specimens, we found strong correlations among Wnt1 expression, CD44 expression, and the grade of gastric cancer. Stable overexpression of Wnt1 increased AGS gastric cancer cells' proliferation rate and spheroids formation, which expressed CSC surface markers Oct4 and CD44. Subcutaneous injection of nude mice with Wnt1-overexpressing AGS cells resulted in larger tumors than injection of control AGS cells. Salinomycin, an antitumor agent, significantly reduced the volume of tumor caused by Wnt1-overexpressing AGS cells in vivo. This is achieved by inhibiting the proliferation of CD44+Oct4+ CSC subpopulation, at least partly through the suppression of Wnt1 and ?-catenin expression. Taken together, activation of Wnt1 signaling accelerates the proliferation of gastric CSCs, whereas salinomycin acts to inhibit gastric tumor growth by suppressing Wnt signaling in CSCs. These results suggest that Wnt signaling might have a critical role in the self-renewal of gastric CSCs, and salinomycin targeting Wnt signaling may have important clinical applications in gastric cancer therapy. PMID:24481453

  3. Role of nitric oxide in the gastric accommodation reflex and in meal induced satiety in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Demedts, I; Meulemans, A; Schuurkes, J; Janssens, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: In humans, impaired gastric accommodation is associated with early satiety and weight loss. In animals, accommodation involves activation of gastric nitrergic neurones. Our aim was to study involvement of nitric oxide in gastric accommodation and in meal induced satiety in humans. Methods: The effect of NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) 4 mg/kg/h and 8 mg/kg/h on gastric compliance, on sensitivity to distension, and on gastric accommodation was studied with a barostat in double blind, randomised, placebo controlled studies. The effect of l-NMMA 8 mg/kg/h on meal induced satiety was studied using a drinking test. Results: l-NMMA had no significant effect on fasting compliance and sensitivity. Ingestion of a meal induced a relaxation of 274 (15) ml which was significantly smaller after l-NMMA 4 mg/kg/h (132 (45) ml; p=0.03) or l-NMMA 8 mg/kg/h (82 (72) ml; p=0.03). l-NMMA 8 mg/kg/h significantly decreased the amount of food ingested at maximum satiety from 1058 (67) to 892 (73) kcal (p<0.01). Conclusion: In humans, fasting gastric tone and sensitivity to distension are not influenced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition, but the gastric accommodation reflex involves activation of nitrergic neurones. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase impairs accommodation and enhances meal induced satiety. PMID:12117883

  4. Role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhao; Wang, Chen-Xiao; Fang, Er-Hu; Wang, Guo-Bin; Tong, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Due to its intricate initiation and progression mechanisms, early detection and effective treatment of gastric cancer are difficult to achieve. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterized as a fundamental process that is critical for embryonic development, wound healing and fibrotic disease. Recent evidence has established that aberrant EMT activation in the human stomach is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis and tumor progression. EMT activation endows gastric epithelial cells with increased characteristics of mesenchymal cells and reduces their epithelial features. Moreover, mesenchymal cells tend to dedifferentiate and acquire stem cell or tumorigenic phenotypes such as invasion, metastasis and apoptosis resistance as well as drug resistance during EMT progression. There are a number of molecules that indicate the stage of EMT (e.g., E-cadherin, an epithelial cell biomarker); therefore, certain transcriptional proteins, especially E-cadherin transcriptional repressors, may participate in the regulation of EMT. In addition, EMT regulation may be associated with certain epigenetic mechanisms. The aforementioned molecules can be used as early diagnostic markers for gastric cancer, and EMT regulation can provide potential targets for gastric cancer therapy. Here, we review the role of these aspects of EMT in gastric cancer initiation and development. PMID:24833870

  5. Effects of nitric oxide on gastric ulceration induced by nicotine and cold-restraint stress

    PubMed Central

    Qui, Bo-Sheng; Mei, Qi-Bing; Liu, Li; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Stress induces gastric ulceration in human and experimental animals. People tend to smoke more cigarettes when under stress. Nitric oxide (NO) and nicotine have opposing effects on gastric integrity. The present study examined the possible therapeutic benefit of NO in nicotine-treated rats with stress-induced gastric ulceration. METHODS: Rats drank a nicotine solution while control rats drank tap water for 20 days. The alkoloid was then replaced by water with or without supplementation of isosorbide dinitrate (NO donor) for an additional 10 days. Isosorbide dinitrate was given twice shortly before experiments (acute) or three times daily by oral gavages for 10 days after the rats stopped drinking nicotine solution. At the end of experiments, ulcer index, gastric adhesion mucus content and MPO activity were measured and analysed. RESULTS: Nicotine treatment decreased gastric mucus content and intensified stress-induced gastric ulcer. A higher ulcer index persisted even after the rats stopped drinking nicotine solution for 10 days. Acute NO donor showed no benefit on both mucus and ulcer index in nicotine treatment or/and stress condition. Chronic NO donor treatment reversed the worsening action of nicotine in stomach. Stress increased gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, which was antagonized by chronic NO treatment. However, nicotine was unlikely to change mucosal MPO activity. CONCLUSION: The intensifying action of nicotine on stress-induced gastric ulceration persists for 10 days after cessation. Nicotine treatment significantly decreases gastric mucus content that can be restored by chronic NO donor treatment. The present study suggests that NO antagonizes the ulcerogenic action of nicotine through a cytoprotective way. PMID:14966924

  6. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: current status of the Austrain-Czech-German gastric cancer prevention trial (PRISMA-Study)

    PubMed Central

    Miehlke, S.; Kirsch, C.; Dragosics, B.; Gschwantler, M.; Oberhuber, G.; Antos, D.; Dite, P.; Luter, J.; Labenz, J.; Leodolter, A.; Malfertheiner, P.; Neubauer, A.; Ehninger, G.; Stolte, M.; rffer, E. Bayerd

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori eradication alone can reduce the incidence of gastric cancer in a subgroup of individuals with an increased risk for this fatal disease. METHODS: It is a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled multinational multicenter trial. Men between 55 and 65 years of age with a gastric cancer phenotype of Helicobacter pylori gastritis are randomized to receive a 7 day course of omeprazole 2 20 mg, clarithromycin 2 500 mg, and amoxicillin 2 1 g for 7 days, or omeprazole 2 20 mg plus placebo. Follow-up endoscopy is scheduled 3 months after therapy, and thereafter in one-year intervals. Predefined study endpoints are gastric cancer, precancerous lesions (dysplasia, adenoma), other cancers, and death. RESULTS: Since March 1998, 1524 target patients have been screened, 279 patients (18.3%) had a corpus dominant type of H. pylori gastritis, and 167 of those were randomized (58.8%). In the active treatment group (n = 86), H. pylori infection infection was cured in 88.9% of patients. Currently, the cumulative follow-up time is 3046 months (253. 38 patient years, median follow up 16 months). So far, none of the patients developed gastric cancer or any precancerous lesion. Three (1.8%) patients reached study endpoints other than gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Among men between 55 and 65 years of age, the gastric cancer phenotype of H. pylori gastritis appears to be more common than expected. Further follow up and continuing recruitment are necessary to fulfil the main aim of the study. PMID:11819768

  7. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6?h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600?mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-? and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  8. Differential effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic gastric bypass on appetite, circulating acyl-ghrelin, peptide YY3-36 and active GLP-1 levels in non-diabetic humans.

    PubMed

    Yousseif, Ahmed; Emmanuel, Julian; Karra, Efthimia; Millet, Queensta; Elkalaawy, Mohamed; Jenkinson, Andrew D; Hashemi, Majid; Adamo, Marco; Finer, Nicholas; Fiennes, Alberic G; Withers, Dominic J; Batterham, Rachel L

    2014-02-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) reduces appetite and induces significant and sustainable weight loss. Circulating gut hormones changes engendered by LRYGBP are implicated in mediating these beneficial effects. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is advocated as an alternative to LRYGBP, with comparable short-term weight loss and metabolic outcomes. LRYGBP and LSG are anatomically distinct procedures causing differential entero-endocrine cell nutrient exposure and thus potentially different gut hormone changes. Studies reporting the comparative effects of LRYGBP and LSG on appetite and circulating gut hormones are controversial, with no data to date on the effects of LSG on circulating peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) levels, the specific PYY anorectic isoform. In this study, we prospectively investigated appetite and gut hormone changes in response to LRYGBP and LSG in adiposity-matched non-diabetic patients. Anthropometric indices, leptin, fasted and nutrient-stimulated acyl-ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), PYY3-36 levels and appetite were determined pre-operatively and at 6 and 12 weeks post-operatively in obese, non-diabetic females, with ten undergoing LRYGBP and eight adiposity-matched females undergoing LSG. LRYGBP and LSG comparably reduced adiposity. LSG decreased fasting and post-prandial plasma acyl-ghrelin compared to pre-surgery and to LRYGBP. Nutrient-stimulated PYY3-36 and active GLP-1 concentrations increased post-operatively in both groups. However, LRYGBP induced greater, more sustained PYY3-36 and active GLP-1 increments compared to LSG. LRYGBP suppressed fasting hunger compared to LSG. A similar increase in post-prandial fullness was observed post-surgery following both procedures. LRYGBP and LSG produced comparable enhanced satiety and weight loss. However, LSG and LRYGBP differentially altered gut hormone profiles. PMID:23996294

  9. Evolution of Gastric Cancer Treatment: From the Golden Age of Surgery to an Era of Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Young; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer imposes a global health burden. Although multimodal therapies have proven to benefit patients with advanced diseases after curative surgery, the prognosis of most advanced cancer patients still needs to be improved. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of gastric cancer treatment. Indeed, without curative surgery, variations and combinations of chemotherapy and/or radiation cannot bring clinically meaningful success. Centered around D2 surgery, adjuvant and peri-operative multimodal therapies have improved survival in a certain group of gastric cancer patients. Moving toward a personalized cancer therapy era, molecular targeted strategies have been tested in clinical trials for gastric cancer. With some success and failures, we have learned valuable lessons regarding the biology of gastric cancer and the clinical relevance of biological therapies in addition to conventional treatments. Future treatment of gastric cancer will be shifted to molecularly tailored and genome information-based personalized therapy. Collaboration across disciplines and actively adopting emerging anti-cancer strategies, along with in-depth understanding of molecular and genetic underpinnings of tumor development and progression, are imperative to realizing personalized therapy for gastric cancer. Although many challenges remain to be overcome, we envision that the era of precision cancer medicine for gastric cancer has already arrived and anticipate that current knowledge and discoveries will be transformed into near-future clinical practice for managing gastric cancer patients. PMID:26256958

  10. Stem cells in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were first identified in acute myeloid leukemia and subsequently in a large array of solid tumors, play important roles in cancer initiation, dissemination and recurrence. CSCs are often transformed tissue-specific stem cells or de-differentiated transit amplifying progenitor cells. Several populations of multipotent gastric stem cells (GSCs) that reside in the stomach have been determined to regulate physiological tissue renewal and injury repair. These populations include the Villin+ and Lgr5+ GSCs in the antrum, the Troy+ chief cells in the corpus, and the Sox2+ GSCs that are found in both the antrum and the corpus. The disruption of tumor suppressors in Villin+ or Lgr5+ GSCs leads to GC in mouse models. In addition to residing GSCs, bone marrow-derived cells can initiate GC in a mouse model of chronic Helicobacter infection. Furthermore, expression of the cell surface markers CD133 or CD44 defines gastric CSCs in mouse models and in human primary GC tissues and cell lines. Targeted elimination of CSCs effectively reduces tumor size and grade in mouse models. In summary, the recent identification of normal GSCs and gastric CSCs has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular etiology of GC and will aid in the development of effective therapies to treat patients. PMID:25574084

  11. Gastric partitioning for morbid obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, D. L.; Lee, J. R.; Baddeley, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    A consecutive series of 33 grossly obese individuals treated by gastric partitioning is described. There was no operative mortality. Weight loss at one year was 19% of original body weight and little loss occurred thereafter. Radiological assessment of the proximal compartment demonstrated progressive postoperative enlargement. PMID:6830124

  12. [Gastric consequences of toxicoseptic agression].

    PubMed

    Alexiu, O; Mircea, N; Balaban, M; Furtunescu, B; Sburlea, C; Jianu, E

    1975-01-01

    This study is concerned with gastro-secretory and motor answers. It was carried out in two groups of patients and the results obtained were compared. The following aspects were noted: a. the control group was represented by 10 patients that had been exposed to anesthesic-surgical aggression; b. the second group was formed by 20 patients with toxico-septic syndrome of various etiologies and in different stages of evolution; - secretory and motor gastric disturbances take on an evolutive dynamic character, according to the clinico-biological phase of the syndrome; in the acute stage absolute hypersection is noted, as well as from the viewpoint of the rate, of hydrochloric acid, and gastric hypomotility; in the chronic stage there is acid hyposecretion both insulin- and histamine-resistant and in 30% of the cases there is anachlorhydria; to the general-metabolic phase of inversion corresponds, at the gastric level; a return to normal of the motility and of the acid gastric secretion. PMID:129799

  13. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862....1320 Gastric acidity test system. (a) Identification. A gastric acidity test system is a device intended to measure the acidity of gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862....1320 Gastric acidity test system. (a) Identification. A gastric acidity test system is a device intended to measure the acidity of gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862....1320 Gastric acidity test system. (a) Identification. A gastric acidity test system is a device intended to measure the acidity of gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862....1320 Gastric acidity test system. (a) Identification. A gastric acidity test system is a device intended to measure the acidity of gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the...

  17. Helicobacter pylori Protein JHP0290 Exhibits Proliferative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Raquel; Pathak, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric epithelial cell proliferation, apoptosis and signaling pathways contributes to the development of infection-associated diseases. Here we report that JHP0290, which is a poorly functionally characterized protein from H. pylori, regulates multiple responses in human gastric epithelial cells. The differential expression and release of JHP0290 homologues was observed among H. pylori strains. JHP0290 existed in monomeric and dimeric forms in H. pylori cell extracts and culture broth. Recombinant purified JHP0290 (rJHP0290) also showed monomeric and dimeric forms, whereas the rJHP0290 C162A mutant exhibited only a monomeric form. The dimeric form of the protein was found to bind more efficiently to gastric epithelial cells than the monomeric form. The exposure of gastric epithelial cells to rJHP0290 induced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Faster progression into the cell cycle was observed in rJHP0290-challenged gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, we detected an anti-apoptotic effect of rJHP0290 in gastric epithelial cells when the cells were treated with rJHP0290 in combination with Camptothecin (CPT), which is an inducer of apoptosis. CPT-induced caspase 3 activation was significantly reduced in the presence of rJHP0290. In addition, the activation of ERK MAPK and the transcription factor NF?B was observed in rJHP0290-challenged gastric epithelial cells lines. Our results suggest that JHP0290 may affect H. pylori-induced gastric diseases via the regulation of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. PMID:25879227

  18. Gastric Motility Following Ingestion of a Solid Meal in a Cohort of Adult Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; de Silva, Arjuna Priyadharshin; Dassanayake, Anuradha Supun; Ranasinha, Channa Dhammika; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Asthmatics have abnormal esophageal motility and increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The contribution of gastric motility is less studied. We studied gastric myoelectrical activity, gastric emptying (GE) and their association with GERD symptoms and vagal function in adult asthmatics. Methods Thirty mild, stable asthmatics and 30 healthy controls underwent real-time ultrasonography and 1 hour pre- and post-prandial cutaneous electrogastrography, following a test meal (480 kcal, 60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 20% fat and 200 mL water). The percentage of normal slow waves and arrhythmias, dominant frequency and power, frequency of antral contractions, gastric emptying rate (GER) and antral motility index (MI) was calculated. Twenty-seven asthmatics underwent gastroscopy and in all subjects GERD symptoms were assessed by a validated questionnaire. Vagal function parameters were correlated with gastric motility parameters. Results The asthmatics (37% male; 34.8 8.4 years) and controls (50% male; 30.9 7.7 years) were comparable. None had endoscopic gastric pathological changes. Twenty asthmatics described GERD symptoms. Twenty-two (73.3%) asthmatics showed a hypervagal response. Compared to controls, asthmatics had delayed GER and lower MI, lower percentage of normal gastric slow waves, more gastric dysrythmias and failed to increase the post-prandial dominant power. There was no correlation of GE and cutaneous electrogastrography parameters with presence of GERD symptoms or with vagal function. Conclusions Asthmatics showed abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity, delayed GE and antral hypomotility in response to a solid meal compared to controls. There was no association with vagal function or GERD symptom status. PMID:23875103

  19. Advances in gastric cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  20. Novel therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Wu, Shenhong

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a common lethal malignancy. Gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia tumors are the fastest rising malignancies due to increasing prevalence of obesity and acid reflex in the United States. Traditional chemotherapy remains the main treatment with trastuzumab targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive disease. The median overall survival (OS) is less than one year for advanced GC patients; thus, there is an urgent unmet need to develop novel therapy for GC. Although multiple targeted agents were studied, only the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor ramucirumab was approved recently by the United States Food and Drug Administration because of its 1.4 mo OS benefit (5.2 mo vs 3.8 mo, P = 0.047) as a single agent; 2.2 mo improvement of survival (9.6 mo vs 7.4 mo, P = 0.017) when combined with paclitaxel in previously treated advanced GC patients. It is the first single agent approved for previously treated GC and the second biologic agent after trastuzumab. Even with limited success, targeted therapy may be improved by developing new biomarkers. Immune therapy is changing the paradigm of cancer treatment and is presently under active investigation for GC in clinical trials. More evidence supports GC stem cells existence and early stage studies are looking for its potential therapeutic possibilities. PMID:26600926

  1. The G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cong; Su, Jia; Li, Zhijun; Xiao, Rui; Wen, Jianxun; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xueting; Yu, Donna; Huang, Wendong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2015-10-27

    Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we show that TGR5 is a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway. We firstly show that TGR5 activation greatly inhibited proliferation and migration of human gastric cancer cells and strongly induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. We then found that TGR5 activation antagonized STAT3 signaling pathway through suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcription activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-6. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression mediated by STAT3. It suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric cancer proliferation and migration at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric cancer. PMID:26417930

  2. The G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong; Su, Jia; Li, Zhijun; Xiao, Rui; Wen, Jianxun; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xueting; Yu, Donna; Huang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we show that TGR5 is a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway. We firstly show that TGR5 activation greatly inhibited proliferation and migration of human gastric cancer cells and strongly induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. We then found that TGR5 activation antagonized STAT3 signaling pathway through suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcription activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-6. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression mediated by STAT3. It suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric cancer proliferation and migration at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric cancer. PMID:26417930

  3. The stem cell factor SOX2 regulates the tumorigenic potential in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Htz, Katharina; Mejas-Luque, Raquel; Farsakova, Katarina; Ogris, Manfred; Krebs, Stefan; Anton, Martina; Vieth, Michael; Schller, Ulrich; Schneider, Marlon R; Blum, Helmut; Wagner, Ernst; Jung, Andreas; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is still one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide, which is mainly attributable to late diagnosis and poor treatment options. Infection with Helicobacter pylori, different environmental factors and genetic alterations are known to influence the risk of developing gastric tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gastric carcinogenesis are still not fully understood, making it difficult to design targeted therapeutic approaches. Aberrant expression of the specific gastric differentiation marker SOX2 has been observed in stomach cancer. However, the role of SOX2 in gastric tumors has not been well established to date. To elucidate the role of SOX2 in gastric tumorigenesis, SOX2 transcriptional activity was blocked in AZ-521 cells. Interestingly, inhibition of SOX2 reduced cell proliferation and migration, increased apoptosis and induced changes in cell cycle. Blocking of SOX2 also reduced the tumorigenic potential of AZ-521 cells in vivo. In addition, correlation of SOX2 expression and proliferation was observed in a subset of human gastric tumors. Finally, target genes of SOX2 were for the first time identified by RNA microarray in GC cells. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that SOX2 controls several aspects related to GC development and progression by regulating the expression of members of important signaling pathways. These findings could provide new therapeutic options for a subset of GCs exhibiting SOX2 deregulation. PMID:24325912

  4. Ghrelin inhibits sodium metabisulfite induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sevim; Basaranlar, Goksun; Gungor, Nazl? Ece; Kencebay, Ceren; Sahin, P?nar; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Derin, Narin

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of ghrelin administration on sulfite induced oxidative and apoptotic changes in rat gastric mucosa. Forty male albino Wistar rats were randomized into control (C), sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) treated (S), ghrelin treated (G) and, Na2S2O5+ghrelin treated (SG) groups. Sodium metabisulfite (100 mg/kg/day) was given by gastric gavage and, ghrelin (20 ?g/kg/day) was given intraperitoneally for 5 weeks. Plasma-S-sulfonate level was increased in S and SG groups. Na2S2O5 administration significantly elevated total oxidant status (TOS) levels while depleting total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in gastric mucosa. Ghrelin significantly decreased gastric TOS levels in the SG group compared with the S group. Additionally, TAS levels were found to be higher in SG group in reference to S group. Na2S2O5 administration also markedly increased the number of apoptotic cells, cleaved caspase-3 and PAR expression (PARP activity indicator) and, decreased Ki67 expression (cell proliferation index) in gastric mucosal cells. Ghrelin treatment decreased the number apoptotic cells, cytochrome C release, PAR and, caspase-3 expressions while increasing Ki67 expression in gastric mucosa exposed to Na2S2O5. In conclusion, we suggest that ghrelin treatment might ameliorate ingested-Na2S2O5 induced gastric mucosal injury stemming from apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats. PMID:23439480

  5. PBX3 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and regulates cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanke; Sun, Zhe; Zhu, Zhi; Zhang, Junyan; Sun, Xu; Xu, Huimian

    2014-05-01

    The pre-leukemia transcription factor 3 (PBX3) is a member of the PBX family of transcription factors, which is known to increase DNA-binding/transcriptional activity of HOX proteins and regulate genes involved in development. Recently, PBX3 was reported to be involved in a variety of cancers, while its implication in gastric cancer is unclear. This study aimed to investigate its clinical significance and biological function in gastric cancer. PBX3 expression was analyzed in 90 gastric cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry. PBX3 was overexpressed in 30 cases (33.33%). Importantly, PBX3 overexpression positively correlated with advanced invasion depth (p?=?0.0017), Clinical stage (p?=?0.0127) and grade of tumor differentiation (p?=?0.0158). PBX3 was also overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines. Plasmid transfection was performed in AGS and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cell line with low endogenous PBX3 expression. MTT and colony formation assay were carried out to assess the role of PBX3 in proliferation. PBX3 overexpression in gastric cancer cell lines accelerated cell proliferation rate and colony formation ability, with upregulation of PCNA expression. In addition, matrigel invasion assay showed that PBX3 transfection also increased cell-invading ability. These results validate the role of PBX3 as a clinically relevant oncoprotein and establish PBX3 as a promising therapeutic target of gastric cancer. PMID:24375258

  6. Helicobacter pylori chronic infection and mucosal inflammation switches the human gastric glycosylation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Magalhes, Ana; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Nairn, Alison V.; Rosa, Mitche dela; Ferreira, Rui M.; Junqueira-Neto, Susana; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Joana; Oliveira, Patrcia; Santos, Marta R.; Marcos, Nuno T.; Xiaogang, Wen; Figueiredo, Cu; Oliveira, Carla; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mrio; Carneiro, Ftima; Moremen, Kelley W.; David, Leonor; Reis, Celso A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exploits host glycoconjugates to colonize the gastric niche. Infection can persist for decades promoting chronic inflammation, and in a subset of individuals lesions can silently progress to cancer. This study shows that H. pylori chronic infection and gastric tissue inflammation result in a remodeling of the gastric glycophenotype with increased expression of sialyl-Lewis a/x antigens due to transcriptional up-regulation of the B3GNT5, B3GALT5, and FUT3 genes. We observed that H. pylori infected individuals present a marked gastric local proinflammatory signature with significantly higher TNF-? levels and demonstrated that TNF-induced activation of the NF-kappaB pathway results in B3GNT5 transcriptional up-regulation. Furthermore, we show that this gastric glycosylation shift, characterized by increased sialylation patterns, favors SabA-mediated H. pylori attachment to human inflamed gastric mucosa. This study provides novel clinically relevant insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying H. pylori modulation of host glycosylation machinery, and phenotypic alterations crucial for life-long infection. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways here identified as responsible for gastric mucosa increased sialylation, in response to H. pylori infection, can be exploited as drug targets for hindering bacteria adhesion and counteract the infection chronicity. PMID:26144047

  7. Gastric dysrhythmias and the current status of electrogastrography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Myoelectrical activity recorded simultaneously from mucosal, serosal, and cutaneous electrodes has confirmed that the 3-cpm signal from such electrodes reflects gastric slow-wave activity. Now, the observation that patients with unexplained nausea and vomiting may have very rapid slow-wave frequencies (tachygastrias) and very slow, slow-wave frequencies (bradygastrias) suggests that electrogastrography, a reliable and noninvasive technique, may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with upper abdominal symptoms and gastroparesis.

  8. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-02

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  9. Molecular classification and prediction in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongzhong; Song, Won-min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a highly heterogeneous disease, is the second leading cause of cancer death and the fourth most common cancer globally, with East Asia accounting for more than half of cases annually. Alongside TNM staging, gastric cancer clinic has two well-recognized classification systems, the Lauren classification that subdivides gastric adenocarcinoma into intestinal and diffuse types and the alternative World Health Organization system that divides gastric cancer into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid), and poorly cohesive carcinomas. Both classification systems enable a better understanding of the histogenesis and the biology of gastric cancer yet have a limited clinical utility in guiding patient therapy due to the molecular heterogeneity of gastric cancer. Unprecedented whole-genome-scale data have been catalyzing and advancing the molecular subtyping approach. Here we cataloged and compared those published gene expression profiling signatures in gastric cancer. We summarized recent integrated genomic characterization of gastric cancer based on additional data of somatic mutation, chromosomal instability, EBV virus infection, and DNA methylation. We identified the consensus patterns across these signatures and identified the underlying molecular pathways and biological functions. The identification of molecular subtyping of gastric adenocarcinoma and the development of integrated genomics approaches for clinical applications such as prediction of clinical intervening emerge as an essential phase toward personalized medicine in treating gastric cancer. PMID:26380657

  10. Overexpression of neuritin in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, MING; LI, YONGJUN; ZHONG, CHEN; LI, YONGKANG; NIU, JIANHUA; GONG, JIANPING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues, in order to explore the association between the expression of neuritin and the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Tissue specimens were collected from 58 patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the expression of neuritin in the gastric cancer and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues. The expression rate of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was 96.55% (56/58), demonstrating no statistically significant difference from the expression rate in the adjacent normal tissues (94.83%) (P>0.05). However, the rate of strong neuritin expression in gastric cancer tissues (82.76%) was significantly increased compared with the rate in the adjacent normal tissues (15.52%) (P<0.05). Neuritin expression exhibited no correlation with the gender or age of patients, tumor-node-metastasis staging, tumor depth, presence of lymph node metastasis, histological or pathological type of the tumor or presence of distant metastasis (P>0.05). As determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the mRNA expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was markedly increased compared with the expression in the adjacent normal tissues. In conclusion, neuritin is highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues, suggesting that neuritin may act as a novel potential target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  11. Antibiotic drug tigecycline inhibited cell proliferation and induced autophagy in gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chunling; Yang, Liqun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Xu, Chuan; Wang, Mei; Wang, Qinrui; Zhou, Zhansong; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cui, Hongjuan

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Tigecycline inhibited cell growth and proliferation in human gastric cancer cells. • Tigecycline induced autophagy not apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. • AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was activated after tigecycline treatment. • Tigecycline inhibited tumor growth in xenograft model of human gastric cancer cells. - Abstract: Tigecycline acts as a glycylcycline class bacteriostatic agent, and actively resists a series of bacteria, specifically drug fast bacteria. However, accumulating evidence showed that tetracycline and their derivatives such as doxycycline and minocycline have anti-cancer properties, which are out of their broader antimicrobial activity. We found that tigecycline dramatically inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and provided an evidence that tigecycline induced autophagy but not apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. Further experiments demonstrated that AMPK pathway was activated accompanied with the suppression of its downstream targets including mTOR and p70S6K, and ultimately induced cell autophagy and inhibited cell growth. So our data suggested that tigecycline might act as a candidate agent for pre-clinical evaluation in treatment of patients suffering from gastric cancer.

  12. Effects of curcumin on the gastric emptying of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups. PMID:23387246

  13. Effect of diallyl disulfide on acute gastric mucosal damage induced by alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Baek, H-S; Kim, S-H; Moon, C; Park, S-H; Kim, S-H; Shin, I-S; Park, S-C; Kim, J-C

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the gastroprotective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS), a secondary organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.) on experimental model of ethanol (EtOH)-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The antiulcerogenic activity of DADS was evaluated by gross/histopathological inspection, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and lipid peroxidation with antioxidant enzyme activities in the stomach. DADS (100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 2 h prior to EtOH treatment (5 ml/kg). The animals were killed 1 h after receiving EtOH treatment. Pretreatment with DADS attenuated EtOH-induced gastric mucosal injury, as evidenced by decreased severity of hemorrhagic lesions and gastric ulcer index upon visual inspection. DADS also prevented histopathological alterations and gastric apoptotic changes caused by EtOH. An increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase was observed in the gastric tissues of EtOH-treated rats that coincided with increased serum TNF-α and interleukin 6 levels. In contrast, DADS effectively suppressed production of pro-inflammatory mediators induced by EtOH. Furthermore, DADS prevented the formation of gastric malondialdehyde and the depletion of reduced glutathione content and restored antioxidant enzyme activities, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the gastric tissues of EtOH-treated rats. These results indicate that DADS prevents gastric mucosal damage induced by acute EtOH administration in rats and that the protective effects of DADS may be due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24972622

  14. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  15. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  16. Cancer Gastric Chemoprevention: Isolation of Gastric Tumor-Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Federica; Canu, Valeria; Lorenzon, Laura; Garofalo, Alfredo; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an important healthcare problem and represents the second leading cause of death for malignant disease worldwide. In the Western world, the diagnosis is done at late stage when treatments can be only palliative. Searches for new therapeutic regimens as well as for new biomarkers are in progress.To reduce cancer mortality is crucial the prevention of the lesion at earlier stages. Therefore, new bullets to prevention are needed.Nowadays, studies relating to different kinds of tumor are unanimous in considering cancer stem cells (CSCs) as "the core" of the tumor and the responsible of tumor chemoresistance and relapse.This chapter aims to provide the instructions to (1) isolate, (2) grow, and (3) validate, both in vivo and in vitro, the gastric CSC subpopulation. PMID:26608296

  17. Risk Factors for Metachronous Gastric Neoplasms in Patients Who Underwent Endoscopic Resection of a Gastric Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Bo Kyoung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To identify the risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasms in patients who underwent an endoscopic resection of a gastric neoplasm. Methods We prospectively collected clinicopathologic data and measured the methylation levels of HAND1, THBD, APC, and MOS in the gastric mucosa by methylation-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction in patients who underwent endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasms. Results A total of 257 patients with gastric neoplasms (113 low-grade dysplasias, 25 high-grade dysplasias, and 119 early gastric cancers) were enrolled. Metachronous gastric neoplasm developed in 7.4% of patients during a mean follow-up of 52 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of metachronous gastric neoplasm was 4.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that moderate/severe corpus intestinal metaplasia and family history of gastric cancer were independent risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasm development; the hazard ratios were 4.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 13.87; p=0.022) and 3.52 (95% CI, 1.09 to 11.40; p=0.036), respectively. The methylation level of MOS was significantly elevated in patients with metachronous gastric neoplasms compared age- and sex-matched patients without metachronous gastric neoplasms (p=0.020). Conclusions In patients who underwent endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasms, moderate/severe corpus intestinal metaplasia and a family history of gastric cancer were independent risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasm, and MOS was significantly hypermethylated in patients with metachronous gastric neoplasms. PMID:26087797

  18. Gastric Pseudotumoral Lesion Caused by a Fish Bone Mimicking a Gastric Submucosal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

    2014-01-01

    Gastric complications following unintentional foreign body ingestion are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old healthy woman who presented with nonspecific abdominal pain and an apparent gastric submucosal tumor that was incidentally detected by gastrofiberscopy. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, which revealed an intact gastric wall with no tumor invasion, deformity, or evidence of a gastric submucosal lesion. However, an impacted fish bone was found. PMID:25328766

  19. [Effects of aloe extracts, aloctin A, on gastric secretion and on experimental gastric lesions in rats].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Imanishi, K; Okabe, S

    1989-05-01

    Effect of aloctin A, glycoprotein isolated from leaves of Aloe arborescens MILL, on gastric secretion and on acute gastric lesions in rats were examined. Aloctin A given intravenously dose-dependently inhibited the volume of gastric juice, acid and pepsin output in pylorus-ligated rats. Aloctin A given intravenously significantly inhibited the development of Shay ulcers and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. It also inhibited water-immersion stress lesions induced in pylorus-ligated rats. PMID:2625663

  20. Gastric pseudotumoral lesion caused by a fish bone mimicking a gastric submucosal tumor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Won; Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

    2014-09-01

    Gastric complications following unintentional foreign body ingestion are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old healthy woman who presented with nonspecific abdominal pain and an apparent gastric submucosal tumor that was incidentally detected by gastrofiberscopy. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, which revealed an intact gastric wall with no tumor invasion, deformity, or evidence of a gastric submucosal lesion. However, an impacted fish bone was found. PMID:25328766

  1. Regulation of gastric motility and blood flow during acute nociceptive stimulation of the paraspinal muscles in urethane-anaesthetised rats.

    PubMed

    Pich, Mathieu; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Hotta, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine gastric motility and blood flow during nociceptive hypertonic saline injections (HS) in paraspinal muscles of urethane-anaesthetised rats. Gastric pressure was not affected by HS in intact or vagotomised conditions. After cervical spinalisation, it was decreased by injections at T13 or L6 but not T2. Moreover, HS injections at T13 produced greater gastric pressure decreases compared with L6 and T2 and increased gastric sympathetic nerve activity. Blood pressure and gastric blood flow were decreased by T13 injections in spinal cord intact but not spinalised rats. Besides, isotonic saline injections (non-nociceptive) produced non-significant or marginal effects. These results indicate that gastric motility is decreased by nociceptive input from paraspinal muscles in spinalised rats through activation of the gastric sympathetic nerve. Although gastric blood flow was also decreased by nociceptive stimulation at T13 in spinal cord intact rats, these changes seem to depend on blood pressure. PMID:24037728

  2. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered to rats 2 h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

  3. The association analysis of lncRNA HOTAIR genetic variants and gastric cancer risk in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiaoyan; Ge, Yuqiu; Lu, Jiafei; Ma, Gaoxiang; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Zhu, Haixia; Wang, Meilin; Qiang, Fulin; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2015-01-01

    The HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a well-known long noncoding RNA, is involved in pathogenesis and progress of multiple tumors. Its ectopic expression and biological functions have been observed in gastric cancer. In this study, we conducted a two-stage case-control study to evaluate whether genetic variations of HOTAIR were associated with gastric cancer risk. We identified that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4759314 was significantly associated with the increased gastric cancer risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–1.71, P = 0.002] in the combined sets. Further functional experiments revealed the allele-specific effects on HOTAIR and HOXC11 expressions in gastric cancer tissues, of which HOTAIR and HOXC11 expressions of individuals carrying with AG genotype were much higher than those with AA genotype; similarly, the effects occurred in intronic promoter activities, of which the promoter activity of G allele was more pronounced than that of A allele. Interestingly, we identified a novel potential oncogene HOXC11 in gastric cancer pathogenesis with differential expression in gastric cancer tissues by association analysis with candidate gene strategy. These results suggest that SNP rs4759314 of HOTAIR acts as a potential biomarker for predicting gastric cancer, and the role of HOXC11 in gastric cancer etiology is warranted to further investigation. PMID:26384301

  4. [Intra-gastric penetration of an adjustable gastric band].

    PubMed

    Ablassmaier, B; Opitz, I; Jacobi, C A; Mller, J M

    2001-07-01

    Between November 1995 and August 2000 we performed adjustable silicone gastric banding laparoscopically in 252 patients. The body mass index varied from 37 to 86 kg/m2. We report on a 38-year-old woman who was operated on in 1997 with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 (167 cm, 132 kg). The postoperative follow-up was uneventful until January 2000. The patient lost weight until she weighed 78 kg. Then she complained of diffuse epigastric pain. Gastroscopy revealed gastritis. Omeprazol was prescribed. No amelioration occurred. Endoscopic control showed partial intragastric migration of the band. After laparoscopic removal of the band, the patient was free of symptoms. Band erosion is a possible complication of adjustable gastric banding. As is known from intragastric penetration of the Angelchik prosthesis, the clinical symptoms of this complication may be mild. Since the follow-up of most patients with gastric banding is less than 5 years, more complications similar to that one described may be diagnosed in the future. PMID:11490764

  5. Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-10-14

    Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

  6. Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

  7. Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

  8. KIAA1324 Suppresses Gastric Cancer Progression by Inhibiting the Oncoprotein GRP78.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Muk; Park, Sujin; Kim, Staci Jakyong; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Bona; Kim, Junil; Park, Jinah; Kim, Shin Tae; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Woo Ho; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in genome and transcriptome analysis have contributed to the identification of many potential cancer-related genes. Furthermore, biological and clinical investigations of the candidate genes provide us with a better understanding of carcinogenesis and development of cancer treatment. Here, we report a novel role of KIAA1324 as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. We observed that KIAA1324 was downregulated in most gastric cancers from transcriptome sequencing data and found that histone deacetylase was involved in the suppression of KIAA1324. Low KIAA1324 levels were associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. In the xenograft model, KIAA1324 significantly reduced tumor formation of gastric cancer cells and decreased development of preformed tumors. KIAA1324 also suppressed proliferation, invasion, and drug resistance and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Through protein interaction analysis, we identified GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa) as a KIAA1324-binding partner. KIAA1324 blocked oncogenic activities of GRP78 by inhibiting GRP78-caspase-7 interaction and suppressing GRP78-mediated AKT activation, thereby inducing apoptosis. In conclusion, our study reveals a tumor suppressive role of KIAA1324 via inhibition of GRP78 oncoprotein activities and provides new insight into the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26045166

  9. Gastric emptying of solid meals in diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Scarpello, J H; Barber, D C; Hague, R V; Cullen, D R; Sladen, G E

    1976-01-01

    The gastric emptying rate of an isotopically labelled solid meal was compared in 29 insulin-dependent well-controlled diabetics and 18 normal controls. The diabetics were assessed for evidence of autonomic neuropathy. No significant difference in gastric emptying rate was found between controls and diabetics with or without autonomic neuropathy. Only three diabetics had greatly delayed gastric emptying, but in one of these the test had given a normal result on an earlier occasion. PMID:974530

  10. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrs J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step. PMID:21459337

  11. Gastric Syphilis and Membranous Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Min; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Sung Jong; Kim, Ji Soong; Chung, Sung Jun; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Gastric involvement and nephrotic syndrome are uncommon but well documented complications of syphilis, but the co-occurrence of these two complications in the same patient is extremely rare. Thus, because of their nonspecific presentation, suspicion of gastric syphilis (GS) and nephrotic syndrome is essential for diagnosis. Patients should be investigated thoroughly and a diagnosis made based on clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings, in order to initiate appropriate therapy. We report of a 34-year-old male patient with a history of epigastric pain and a diagnosis of GS and syphilis-associated membranous glomerulonephritis confirmed by gastroscopy and kidney biopsy, who was treated successfully with penicillin G benzathine. This case report provides information on the typical features of GS that should help raise awareness of this rare disease entity among clinicians, resulting in earlier diagnosis and administration of appropriate therapy. PMID:26064828

  12. Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review. PMID:25320518

  13. Linoleic Acid-Induced Growth Inhibition of Human Gastric Epithelial Adenocarcinoma AGS Cells is Associated with Down-Regulation of Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis and Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human nutrition and found in most vegetable oils and certain food products. In the present study, we investigated the effects of linoleic acid on the growth of human epithelial adenocarcinoma AGS cells. Methods: MTT assay, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses were used to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of linoleic acid on AGS cells. The effects of this compound were also tested on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and telomerase activity. Results: Our data indicated that growth inhibition of AGS cells by linoleic acid treatment was associated with induction of apoptosis. Linoleic acid treatment decreased the expression levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein without causing significant changes in the COX-1 levels, which was correlated with the inhibition of PGE2 synthesis. Linoleic acid treatment also decreased the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a main determinant of the telomerase enzymatic activity, and activity of telomerase, with inhibiting the expression of c-myc in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that linoleic acid inhibits the production of PGE2 and activity of telomerase by suppressing COX-2 and hTERT expression. PMID:25337570

  14. [Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G; Brsch, G; Wegener, M

    1985-10-01

    Islets of heterotopic gastric mucosa can occur in the whole alimentary tract as well as in the gallbladder, the extrahepatic bile ducts and the pancreatic tissue. In most cases they have incidentally been discovered in autopsies and surgical specimens. Ectopic gastric mucosa is known to cause gastrointestinal bleeding in Meckel's diverticulum and duplications of the intestine, and, in exceptional cases may show a malignant transformation. In endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract ectopic gastric epithelium can often be conjectured from certain morphological phenomena. In this paper we review pathogenesis, localization, clinical significance as well as diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of heterotopic gastric mucosa. PMID:4082686

  15. [Rare causes of acute gastric hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Petrova, N N

    1975-06-01

    According to the author's findings rare causes of acute gastric hemorrhages (the Mallory-Weiss syndrome, cancerous lesions of the gastrointestinal organs, excluding the stomach, esophageal and duodenal diverticulum, prolapse of gastric mucosa into the duodenum, necrosis of the gastric wall, its traumatic rupture, the Rendu-Osler disease, rupture of the renal artery aneurysm) made 3.2% of other causes. Profuse hemorrhage was noted in 12 of 32 patients under consideration. In 8 of 32 patients (25%) the diagnosis was established only at autopsy. In other more frequent causes of acute gastric hemorrhage the diagnosis proved to be feasible in 90-95% of cases. PMID:1080309

  16. Gastric pseudolymphoma. A challenging clinical problem.

    PubMed Central

    Orr, R K; Lininger, J R; Lawrence, W

    1984-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is a benign inflammatory condition that is usually associated with chronic gastric ulcer and often mimics gastric carcinoma or malignant lymphoma. Our experience with 12 histologically documented gastric pseudolymphomas at the Medical College of Virginia is presented with an emphasis on the approach to both diagnosis and surgical management. Preoperative diagnoses in this series ranged from benign gastric ulcer to gastric cancer. Treatment was by gastric resection in all cases and it included, as a minimum, antrectomy and excision of the lesion with an adequate gross margin. Of 11 cases with adequate follow-up, there are eight asymptomatic patients without recurrence and one patient who died of other causes without recurrence 5 years after gastrectomy. One patient developed recurrent pseudolymphoma in the proximal gastric remnant 39 months after a distal subtotal gastrectomy for pseudolymphoma. Another patient subsequently developed Hodgkin's disease of the gastric remnant, with regional lymph node and liver involvement, and died 35 months after the earlier subtotal gastrectomy for pseudolymphoma. Our clinical experience with this confusing and uncommon entity is compared with that previously reported in the medical literature. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. PMID:6465973

  17. Recent advances in gastric emptying scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Urbain, J L; Charkes, N D

    1995-10-01

    Gastric emptying scintigraphy was introduced more than 25 years ago by Griffith and still remains the gold standard to assess gastric emptying. Test meals, radiopharmaceutical and acquisition procedures have been refined and optimized over the years and the test procedure is now well standardized. However, in its most common use, gastric emptying scintigraphy provides little information on gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Over the last decade, modeling of the liquid- and solid-emptying curves has provided some insight into the complex gastric physiology. Compartmental analysis of the stomach has also provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying. Over the past 5 years, the most dramatic development in gastric emptying scintigraphy has been the introduction of digital antral scintigraphy. Digital antral scintigraphy consists primarily of dynamic imaging of the stomach and a refined Fourier transform processing method. This new procedure allows for the visualization of antral contractions and, like manometry, permits quantitative characterization of the frequency and amplitude of these contractions. Overall, this new procedure provides a unique, noninvasive tool to characterize gastric motility, to define the pathophysiological mechanisms of gastric motor disorders, and to evaluate the effect of new gastrokinetic compounds. PMID:8545636

  18. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  19. [Effect of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y F; Hongo, M; Satake, K; Ujiie, H; Toyota, T; Goto, Y; Okuyama, S

    1988-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is supposed to affect glycemic control in diabetic patients by relative over dosing of insulin to blood glucose level due to delayed absorption of nutrients. Therefore, treatment of delayed gastric emptying is important in diabetic patients. Cisapride, a potent gastrokinetic agents, has been reported to activate the motility from stomach to colon. We evaluated the effect of acute oral administration of cisapride in seven diabetic patients (aged 46-62) with delayed gastric emptying. All patients complicated with autonomic neuropathy. Ten mg of cisapride was administered orally 30 minutes before breakfast and lunch on the day of study. Gastric emptying study was done using 99mTc-tin colloid labeled omelet meal served with 2 slices of toast and 200 ml of milk. With cisapride, the retention rate at time of 150 minutes decreased from 76 +/- 10% to 47 +/- 13% (mean +/- SD) (p less than 0.001) and starting index shortened from 86 +/- 28 minutes to 38 +/- 27 minutes (p less than 0.05). Gastric emptying speed became faster from 0.31 +/- 0.16%/min to 0.43 +/- 0.12%/min (0.2 greater than p greater than 0.1). Blood glucose level before meal decreased from 117 +/- 27 mg/dl (mean +/- SE) to 74 +/- 7 mg/dl (n.s.), and difference between basal and maximal blood glucose level became larger from 46 +/- 27 mg/dl to 84 +/- 30 mg/dl (n.s.). We conclude that acute oral administration of cisapride has significant effect in improving delayed emptying of solid meal in diabetic patients. PMID:3386086

  20. Gastric partitioning for morbid obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, W G; Martin, E W; Tetirick, T; Fabri, P J; Carey, L C

    1979-01-01

    The complication rate in jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity is unacceptably high. Gastric bypass is technically difficult. In our series, 115 patients have undergone gastric partitioning for morbid obesity. The operation consists of stapling across the stomach below the gastroesophageal junction, leaving a gastric food reservoir of 50--60 cc. A 1 cm opening is left in the central portion of the staple line, allowing slow emptying into the distal stomach. The result is a reduced eating capacity and frequency which produce loss in weight. Three-quarters of the patients are women, and the age range is 17--62 years. Preoperative weights averaged 147 kg. Mean operative time was 48 minutes, and postoperative stay was 6.2 days. All patients were extensively evaluated preoperatively with upper GI series, cholecystogram, a number of blood chemistry tests, and endocrinologic and psychiatric consultations. All patients underwent a preoperative Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test. Cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis was performed on 18% of the patients at the time of operation. Of the seven patients operated on more than one year ago, five have lost an average of 31.6% of their preoperative weight. Of the 12 operated on less than one year but more than six months ago, eight have lost an average of 21% of their initial weight. The early failure rate of 33% has been reduced to 15% at present. One death occurred from pulmonary embolus 10 days following discharge, giving a mortality rate of .08%. The complication rate is 10%, comprising two pulmonary emboli, two psychoses, one wound dehiscence, one wound hernia, and ten wound infections, six of which were minor. There have been no complications of ulcer disease, reflux esophagitis, liver disease, renal disease, or metabolic disorders. Gastric partitioning is a safe, fast effective alternative for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity. PMID:485614

  1. Effect of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard against experimentally-induced gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, S S; Santani, D D

    2004-10-01

    Effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of the stem bark of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, have been studied on ethanol, ethanol-indomethacin and pylorus ligated gastric ulcers in experimental animals. Oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract (extract A3) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of extract A3 against ethanol induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)). Further, extract A3 inhibited increase in vascular permeability due to ethanol administration. Extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in animals treated with extract. Extract A3 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation, when administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Moreover, pretreatment with extract A3 increased mucus production and glycoprotein content, which was evident from the rise in mucin activity and TC: PR ratio. PMID:15551386

  2. Gastric cancer with liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Marek, V; Zahorec, R; Palaj, J; Durdik, S

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM) is currently a frequent topic of discussion at professional surgical symposia. There is a low number of patients and a lack of large clinical multi-center studies describing the benefits of this treatment approach.The article describes a patient with GCLM, growing through stomach wall serosa, invading the spleen hilum, distal part of pancreas with metastasis to S7 of the right liver lobe. The patient had total gastrectomy performed with D2 lymphadenectomy, distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, resection of diaphragm and RFA of the metastatic lesion in S7 of the liver. Post-surgery course was free of complications, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. 2 years after the surgery, the patient is in full remission, free of any relapse.Liver resection or RFA is not commonly used in the gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM). At present, there is no direct marker available to define the degree of biological aggressiveness of the tumor (indicating or contra-indicating the surgical treatment), therefore we are left to rely on indirect prognostic factors: cancer invasion in the gastric wall serosa, presence of 3 and more liver metastases, size of metastasis exceeding 50 mm (Fig. 2, Ref. 13). PMID:26810172

  3. Transcription Factor CUTL1 Is a Negative Regulator of Drug Resistance in Gastric Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Wang, Honghong; Sun, Yimin; Zhao, Lina; Gang, Yi; Guo, Xuegang; Huang, Rei; Yang, Zhiping; Pan, Yanglin; Wu, Kaichun; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo; Fan, Daiming

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of malignancy-related mortality worldwide, and drug resistance hampered the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy. To better understand the molecular mechanism causing drug resistance, we previously established an isogenic pair of doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant gastric cancer cell lines, SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells. Here, we investigated how modulation of CUTL1 activity affects the response of gastric cancer to frequently used chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we demonstrated that CUTL1 transcription activity was significantly reduced in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Furthermore, decreased CUTL1 expression was strongly associated with intrinsic drug resistance in human gastric cancer tissues and could be used as a poor prognosis biomarker. Both gain-of-function (by overexpression of active CUTL1) and loss-of-function (by CUTL1-specific shRNA knockdown) studies showed that increased CUTL1 activity significantly enhanced cell sensitivity to drugs and led to increased apoptosis, whereas decreased CUTL1 expression dramatically reduced cell sensitivity to drugs and thus fewer apoptoses. Importantly, modulation of CUTL1 activity resulted in altered sensitivity to multiple drugs. In vivo mouse studies indicated that overexpression of active CUTL1 significantly resulted in increased cancer tissue response to chemotherapy and therefore inhibited growth, whereas knockdown of CUTL1 conferred resistance to chemotherapy. Taken together, our results strongly indicate that CUTL1 activity is inversely associated with drug resistance and thus is an attractive therapeutic target to modulate multidrug resistance in gastric cancer. PMID:23255599

  4. Antitumor activity of polyoxomolybdate, [NH3Pri]6[Mo7O24].3H2O, against, human gastric cancer model.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, S; Ogata, A; Yanagie, H; Kasano, H; Hisa, T; Yamase, T; Eriguchi, M

    2006-08-01

    Polyoxometalates are negatively charged inorganic compounds which contain metal ions such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium etc. and which make clusters with the surrounding oxygen atoms. [NH3Pri]6[Mo7O24].3H2O (PM-8) was found to be a significant antitumor polyoxomolybdates. It had already been reported that the PM-8 suppressed the growth of Co-4 human colon cancer, MX-1 human breast cancer and OAT human lung cancer xenografted in nude mice. However, the mechanism of the antitumor activity has not been clarified. In this study, the antitumor activity of one of the metal oxide clusters (polyoxometalates), hexabis(isopropylammonium) heptamolybdate trihydrate, [NH3Pri]6[Mo7O24].3H2O (PM-8) were shown in an MTS assay. DNA ladder formation and detection of apoptotic bodies in nuclei were revealed that antitumor activity of PM-8 in MKN45 cells was due to apoptosis. It is concluded that the observation of significant tumor growth suppression of PM-8 in MKN45-bearing mice results from the induction of apoptosis. PM-8 shows promise as a novel anti-cancer agent. PMID:16860528

  5. Asporin participates in gastric cancer cell growth and migration by influencing EGF receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qian; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Can

    2015-04-01

    Asporin (ASPN), a novel member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, serves as a key component of the tumor stroma and has been reported to be abnormally expressed in certain types of tumors. Specifically, the proteoglycan was proven to activate the coordinated invasion of scirrhous gastric cancer and cancer-associated fibroblasts. However, the role of ASPN in cancer cell growth and metastasis has not yet been addressed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the tumoricidal benefits of ASPN on tumorigenesis and progression of gastric cancer. Firstly, it was demonstrated that ASPN was overexpressed in gastric carcinoma tissues when compared to the corresponding non?cancerous tissues, and it had varied levels of expression in gastric cancer epithelial cell lines. Additionally, we assessed the effects of transient siRNA?mediated ASPN knockdown on gastric cancer cells. ASPN silencing inhibited proliferation and suppressed the migration of immortalized neoplastic epithelial cells. Furthermore, at the molecular level, we found that downregulation of ASPN blocked the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2, increased the expression of pro-apoptotic molecule Bad, reduced the expression of migration-related proteins CD44 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and abrogated the activation of the phosphorylation status of ERK and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR). Collectively, our findings indicate that ASPN is upregulated and plays an oncogenic role in gastric cancer progression and metastasis by influencing the EGFR signaling pathway. PMID:25673058

  6. Gastric cytoprotection beyond prostaglandins: cellular and molecular mechanisms of gastroprotective and ulcer healing actions of antacids.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Andrzej; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This article updates current views on gastric mucosal defense, injury, protection and ulcer healing with a focus on mucosal protective and ulcer healing actions of antacids. The gastric mucosa is continuously exposed to a variety of noxious factors, both endogenous such as: 0.1N hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bile acids, lysolecithin, H. pylori toxins and exogenous such as NSAIDs, ethanol and others. Gastric mucosal integrity is maintained by pre-epithelial, epithelial and post-epithelial defense mechanisms permitting the mucosa to withstand exposure to the above damaging factors. When mucosal defense is weakened or overwhelmed by injurious factors, injury develops in the form of erosions or ulcers. In the late 1970s Andre Robert and coworkers discovered that microgram amounts of a prostaglandin E2 analog protects the gastric mucosa against a variety of ulcerogenic and necrotizing agents - even such strong inducers of injury as 100% ethanol and boiling water. They proposed a new concept of cytoprotection. Subsequently, other compounds, such as sulfhydryls, sucralfate and epidermal growth factor were shown to exert protective action on gastric mucosa. Additionally, some antacids have been shown to exert a potent mucosal protective action against a variety of injurious factors and accelerate healing of erosions and gastric ulcers. These actions of antacids, especially hydrotalcite - the newest and the most extensively studied antacid - are due to activation of prostaglandin synthesis; binding to and inactivation of pepsin, bile acids and H. pylori toxins; induction of heat shock proteins; and, activation of genes encoding growth factors and their receptors. PMID:22950493

  7. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weifeng Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  8. High expression of RELM-? correlates with poor prognosis and promotes angiogenesis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhao, Deshou; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yongping; Yuan, Yaozong; Wang, Lifu; Wu, Yunlin

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that resistin-like molecule-? (RELM-?) is involved in angiogenesis, while the clinical significance and the exact role of RELM-? in gastric cancer remain obscure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of RELM-? in gastric cancer, and to investigate its effective mechanisms in order to identify a potential therapeutic target. The expression levels of RELM-? in 92 gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues were investigated and the relationship between RELM-? expression and the clinicopathological characteristics was explored. To investigate the potential role of RELM-? in gastric cancer cell biological behavior, the cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays were conducted using two gastric cancer cell lines (SGC7901 and MKN45). We also assessed whether RELM-? gene silencing modulates angiogenesis using small interference RNA in cancer cell lines, and investigated its effect on nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-9 expression. Contrasting sharply with the strong RELM-?-positive tumors, adjacent normal tissues and cell lines exhibited negative or weakly positive expression (P<0.01). High expression level of RELM-? was associated with advanced stage and tumor size (P<0.01). The silencing of RELM-? expression by Ad5/F35-siRNA treatment significantly inhibited cell migratory and invasive ability in SGC7901 and MKN45 gastric cancer cells compared with the control and Ad5/F35 vector-transfected cell lines (P<0.01). However, the silencing of RELM-? expression also significantly blocked NF-?B activation and attenuated VEGF and MMP-9 expression. The data demonstrated that RELM-? is a promising novel biomarker of angiogenesis in patients with gastric cancer. The study identified that the silencing of RELM-? expression may regulate the proliferation, invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells by targeting VEGF/MMP-9, and the mechanism involved tissue angiogenesis via the NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:25937206

  9. Gastric lesions in patients with Crohn's disease in Korea: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    So, Hoonsub; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Joo Sung; Moon, Won; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, You Sun; Keum, Bora; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Chang Kyun; Hong, Sung Pil; Im, Jong Pil; Koo, Ja Seol; Choi, Chang Hwan; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Bo In; Huh, Kyu Chan; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Young Sook; Han, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gastric pathology and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among Asian patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are still unclear. We evaluated gastric histologic features and frequency of H. pylori infection in Korean patients with CD. Methods Among 492 patients with CD receiving upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic evaluation in 19 Korean hospitals, we evaluated the endoscopic findings and gastric histopathologic features of 47 patients for our study. Histopathologic classification was performed using gastric biopsy tissues, and H. pylori infection was determined using the rapid urease test and histology. Results There were 36 men (76.6%), and the median age of patients at the time of upper GI endoscopy was 23.8 years (range, 14.2–60.5). For CD phenotype, ileocolonic disease was observed in 38 patients (80.9%), and non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease in 31 patients (66.0%). Twenty-eight patients (59.6%) complained of upper GI symptoms. Erosive gastritis was the most common gross gastric feature (66.0%). Histopathologically, H. pylori-negative chronic active gastritis (38.3%) was the most frequent finding. H. pylori testing was positive in 11 patients (23.4%), and gastric noncaseating granulomata were detected in 4 patients (8.5%). Gastric noncaseating granuloma showed a statistically significant association with perianal abscess/fistula (P=0.0496). Conclusions H. pylori-negative chronic active gastritis appears to be frequent among Korean patients with CD. The frequency of H. pylori infection was comparable with previous studies. An association with perianal complications suggests a prognostic value for gastric noncaseating granuloma in patients with CD. PMID:26884736

  10. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A review.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naoki; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-07-14

    Since Isaacson and Wright first reported on the extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the stomach in 1983, following studies have clarified many aspects of this disease. We now know that the stomach is the most affected organ by this disease, and approximately 90% of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This implies that approximately 10% of gastric MALT lymphomas occur independent of H. pylori infection. The pathogenesis of these H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains unclear. To date, there have been several speculations. One possibility is that genetic alterations result in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. Among these alterations, t(11;18)(q21;q21) is more frequently observed in H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas, and such translocation results in the synthesis of fusion protein API2-MALT1, which causes canonical and noncanonical NF-?B activation. Another possibility is infection with bacteria other than H. pylori. This could explain why H. pylori eradication therapy can cure some proportions of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients, although the bacteria responsible for MALT lymphomagenesis are yet to be defined. Recent advances in endoscopy suggest magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging as a useful tool for both detecting gastric MALT lymphoma lesions and judging the response to treatment. A certain proportion of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients respond to eradication therapy; hence, H. pylori eradication therapy could be considered as a first-line treatment for gastric MALT lymphomas regardless of their H. pylori infection status. PMID:26185372

  11. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. PMID:25945055

  12. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin Vfluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and