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1

Some Factors in the Assessment of Gastric Antisecretory Drugs by a Sampling Technique *  

PubMed Central

Samples of gastric contents from patients with duodenal ulcer were more often highly acid when they drank 120 ml. of milk-cream mixture every hour than when they ate a bland diet. The volume of the drinks and the timing of the samples determined this apparent difference. Long-acting propantheline bromide reduced gastric acidity a little when the patients ate the diet and more when they took the drinks of milk-cream alone. It is concluded that the clinical usefulness of gastric antisecretory drugs can only be assessed under the actual conditions of use. PMID:18668736

Bingle, J. P.; Lennard-Jones, J. E.

1960-01-01

2

Antisecretory Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Gastric Acid Secretion and the Involvement of Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of H2S on distention-induced gastric acid secretion. Fifty-two rats were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups. The gastric acid secretion was stimulated by gastric distention. Two groups of rats received L-cysteine or saline for 5 days before stimulation of the gastric acid secretion. Two groups of animals also received NaHS or saline just prior to stimulation of the gastric acid secretion. The effect of L-NAME and propargylglycine was also investigated. The mucosal levels of the gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and H+/K+-ATPase ?-subunit were quantified by qPCR and luminal concentrations of NO were determined. NaHS and L-cysteine decreased the gastric acid output in response to distention. The mRNA expression of H+/K+-ATPase ?-subunit decreased by NaHS and L-cysteine as compared with the control group while gene expression of eNOS and COX-2 was upregulated. The inhibitory effect of NaHS on distention-induced gastric acid secretion was mitigated by pretreatment of L-NAME. These findings suggest the involvement of NO in mediating the antisecretory effect of H2S. PMID:24707486

Mard, Seyyed Ali; Askari, Hasan; Neisi, Niloofar; Veisi, Ali

2014-01-01

3

Effects of different antisecretory drugs on gastric potential difference in the rat: comparison with sucralfate.  

PubMed

The proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole and the histamine H2 receptor antagonists ranitidine and nizatidine were investigated for their effects on gastric transmucosal potential difference (PD) in the rat, in comparison with the gastroprotective compound sucralfate. Omeprazole (1-3 mg kg-1, i.v.) and lansoprazole (1-3 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not modify basal PD, but significantly reduced (by approx. 50-60%) the drop in PD caused by intragastric administration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 60 mg kg-1). Ranitidine (3-100 mg kg-1, i.v.) and nizatidine (10-30 mg kg-1, i.v.) behaved similarly to proton pump inhibitors, being ineffective on basal PD, while significantly reducing the effect of ASA. The antisecretory compounds did not change basal pH values. Sucralfate (0.5-1.5 g kg-1 intragastrically) caused a slight increase (approx. 20%) of basal PD and a dose-dependent reduction of ASA-induced fall in PD, with a maximum effect (65% reduction) comparable to that caused by the antisecretory agents. These results showed that ASA-induced disruption of the mucosal barrier can be reduced to the same extent by various antiulcer drugs, irrespective of their effects on gastric acid secretion. PMID:9990656

Coruzzi, G; Coppelli, G; Frati, P; Bertaccini, G

1998-12-01

4

A Mini Review on Biological Activities of Pyridazinone Derivatives as Antiulcer, Antisecretory, antihistamine and Particularly Against Histamine H3R.  

PubMed

Pyridazinone derivatives and their related analoges were introduced for gastric antiulcer and antisecretory activities. Selected compounds were applied to ulcer models and showed their antiulcer and anti secretary activities. Some pyridazinone compounds are recently reported as H3R antagonists. Some amine analogs of pyridazinones, pyridazinone- phenethylamines and 4,5-fused pyridazinones showed histamine H3R antagonist activity with significant affinity for rat and human H3R. These pyridazinone analogs also showed excellent selectivity and metabolic stability, with adequate pharmacokinetics. PMID:25429662

Asif, Mohammad

2015-01-12

5

Evaluation of Anti-Secretory and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activities of Avipattikar Churna on The Peptic Ulcers in Experimental Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Avipattikar churna, a poly-herbal formulation, is one of the popular ayurvedic formulations which is used for peptic ulcer diseases but the scientific documentation with regards to its effect for the indication is lacking. Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-secretory and the anti-ulcerogenic activities of the churna and to compare its activity with that of ranitidine in a pyloric ligated model of rats. Material and methods: Four groups of rats with 6 animals in each served as the ulcer controls, churna low dose (500 mg/kg), churna high dose (750mg/kg) and ranitidine (25mg/kg). The control group rats received only vehicle (2% (v/v) gum acacia), while the rats of the other groups received the respective dose of the churna or ranitidine which was suspended in the vehicle. The treatments were given twice a day, orally, for two days. After 1 hour of the last dose, pyloric ligations were performed and the rats were sacrificed for evaluation after four hours of the ligations. The gastric contents were collected and its volume, pH and acidity were measured. The numbers of ulcers and their lengths were measured which were used to calculate the gastric irritancy index and the curative ratio. The histological examinations of the gastric tissues were also performed. Results: The churna, in both doses, significantly decreased the volumes of the gastric contents, the ulcer score, the length of the ulcer, the gastric irritancy index and pH increased as compared to those in the control group. The effects of the churna were comparable to that of ranitidine. The histopathological evaluation of the gastric tissue also supported the results. Conclusion: Avipattikar churna has anti-secretory and anti-ulcerogenic effects which are comparable to those of ranitidine in peptic ulcer diseases. PMID:23905120

Gyawali, Sudesh; Khan, Gulam Muhammad; Lamichane, Shreekrishna; Gautam, Jaya; Ghimire, Saurav; Adhikari, Rashmi; Lamsal, Reshma

2013-01-01

6

Animal pharmacology of reversible antagonism of the gastric acid pump, compared to standard antisecretory principles.  

PubMed

To define the basic antisecretory profile of a potassium-competitive antagonism of the gastric acid pump relative to other classes of acid-inhibitory drugs, they were compared to each other against all three major stimuli of acid secretion. Pumaprazole is an imidazo-pyridine derivative that was used in this investigation as an example of reversibly binding acid pump antagonists (APAs). It differs from covalently binding proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as omeprazole, both with respect to chemical structure and mode of interaction with the gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (i.e., the acid or proton pump). The present data show that a single dose of pumaprazole is able to elevate intragastric pH in the dog with gastric fistula under pentagastrin or carbachol stimulation from pH 1 to about pH 7 while still displaying a dose-dependent, well-controlable duration of action of a few hours. Ranitidine at the same oral dose also shows a short duration of action, but combined with a far lower efficacy. By contrast, a single oral dose of the PPI omeprazole elevates intragastric pH for a longer time period, but this pH elevation is far lower compared to that of the APA. Regarding the less stringent parameter of inhibition of total acid output in the Heidenhain pouch dog, the modified Shay rat or the Ghosh-Schild rat, pumaprazole is, overall, slightly more efficacious than ranitidine. The M(1)-muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine is ineffective (against histamine stimulation) or far less effective than pumaprazole (against pentagastrin-stimulation), but as effective as pumaprazole against carbachol stimulation in the Ghosh-Schild rat. Basal acid output in the same model is more effectively inhibited by pumaprazole than by ranitidine. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the exceptional ability of a reversibly binding APA to elevate intragastric pH up to neutrality even upon a first administration while still displaying a limited, dose-dependent duration of action. PMID:10828742

Kromer, W; Postius, S; Riedel, R

2000-05-01

7

Antisecretory and antimotility activity of Aconitum heterophyllum and its significance in treatment of diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Aim: The roots of the plant Aconitum heterophyllum (EAH) are traditionally used for curing hysteria, throat infection, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diabetes, and diarrhea. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism involved in the anti-diarrheal activity of roots of A. heterophyllum. Materials and Methods: Ant-diarrheal activity of ethanol extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg p.o. was evaluated using fecal excretion and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, while optimized dose, that is, 100 mg/kg p.o. was further subjected to small intestinal transit, intestinal fluids accumulation, PGE2-induced enteropooling and gastric emptying test. To elucidate the probable mechanism, various biochemical parameters and Na+, K+ concentration in intestinal fluids were also determined. Further, antibacterial activity of extract along with its standardization using aconitine as a marker with the help of HPLC was carried out. Results: The results depicted a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in normal fecal output at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. of extract after 5th and 7th h of treatment. Castor oil-induced diarrhea model demonstrated a ceiling effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. with a protection of 60.185% from diarrhea. EAH at 100 mg/kg p.o. also showed significant activity in small intestinal transit, fluid accumulation, and PGE2-induced enteropooling models, which also restored the altered biochemical parameters and prevented Na+ and K+ loss. The extract with 0.0833% w/w of aconitine depicted a potential antibacterial activity of extract against microbes implicated in diarrhea. Conclusion: The study concluded antisecretory and antimotility effect of A. heterophyllum, which mediates through nitric oxide path way. PMID:24550590

Prasad, Satyendra K.; Jain, Divya; Patel, Dinesh K.; Sahu, Alakh N.; Hemalatha, Siva

2014-01-01

8

Antibacterial, antisecretory and antihemorrhagic activity of Azadirachta indica used to treat cholera and diarrhea in India.  

PubMed

Indigenous uses of Azadirachta indica A. juss (Maliaceae) (locally known as neem) leaves in different parts of India for curing gastrointestinal disorder such as diarrhea and cholera is wide spread. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antisecretory activity of neem extract against Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of watery diarrhea such as cholera. The methanol extract of neem leaf was tested for its antibacterial, antisecretory and antihemorrhagic activity against Vibrio cholerae. Azadirachta indica extract had significant antibacterial activity against the multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae of serotypes O1, O139 and non-O1, non-O139. The minimum inhibitory concentration reached by 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90), and minimum bactericidal concentration for the extract were 2.5, > 5, and 10 mg/ml, respectively. Neem extract showed antisecretory activity on Vibrio cholerae induced fluid secretion in mouse intestine with inhibition values of 27.7%, 41.1%, 43.3%, 57.0%, and 77.9% at doses of 100, 200, 300, 450 and 1800 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration of the extract inhibited hemorrhage induced by Vibrio cholerae in mouse intestine at a dose > or = 300 mg/kg. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the uses of neem employed by the indigenous people in India employed for the treatment of diarrhea and dreadful disease cholera. PMID:17314018

Thakurta, Prarthana; Bhowmik, Poulami; Mukherjee, Souryadeep; Hajra, Tapas K; Patra, Amarendra; Bag, Prasanta K

2007-05-22

9

Evaluation of the gastric antiulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Holy Basil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae) was found to possess significant antiulcer activity against aspirin-, indomethacin-, alcohol-, histamine-, reserpine-, serotonin- and stress-induced ulceration in experimental animal models. Significant inhibition was also observed in gastric secretion and aspirin-induced gastric ulceration in pylorus ligated rats. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory effects of the oil could probably have contributed

Surender Singh; D. K Majumdar

1999-01-01

10

Gastric anti-secretory, mucosal protective, anti-pepsin and anti-Helicobacter properties of ranitidine bismuth citrate.  

PubMed

Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel compound formed from ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. In conscious dogs, ranitidine bismuth citrate had similar activity to ranitidine hydrochloride as an inhibitor of histamine-induced gastric acid secretion when oral doses containing equivalent amounts of ranitidine base (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) were compared. In the rat, ranitidine bismuth citrate (3-30 mg/kg p.o.) prevented gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol (fundic damage) and indomethacin (antral damage). Ranitidine hydrochloride and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate were also effective against indomethacin-induced damage, but were both significantly less potent than ranitidine bismuth citrate in this model. Ranitidine hydrochloride was inactive against ethanol-induced damage. In vitro, ranitidine bismuth citrate (1 mmol/L) inhibited human pepsin isoenzymes 1, 2, 3 and 5. Pepsin 1 was inhibited to a similar extent by ranitidine bismuth citrate, bismuth citrate and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate at concentrations equivalent to 1 mmol/L bismuth, but ranitidine (1 mmol/L) was inactive. Ranitidine bismuth citrate was more potent than tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate as an inhibitor of pepsins 2, 3 and 5. Ranitidine bismuth citrate inhibited both Helicobacter pylori (effective concentration 4-32 micrograms bismuth/ml) and H. mustelae (1-4 micrograms bismuth/ml); similar results were obtained with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate. Bismuth citrate was slightly less effective, and ranitidine hydrochloride was inactive (> 125 micrograms/ml). In ferrets naturally colonized with H. mustelae, oral treatment with ranitidine bismuth citrate, 12 or 24 mg/kg twice daily for 4 weeks, caused a dose related clearance of H. mustelae. Qualitatively similar results were obtained in a small study with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate and bismuth citrate. PMID:8364129

Stables, R; Campbell, C J; Clayton, N M; Clitherow, J W; Grinham, C J; McColm, A A; McLaren, A; Trevethick, M A

1993-06-01

11

Rocket “Eruca sativa”: A salad herb with potential gastric anti-ulcer activity  

PubMed Central

AIM: To validate gastric anti-ulcer properties of Rocket “Eruca sativa” on experimentally-induced gastric secretion and ulceration in albino rats. METHODS: Gastric acid secretion studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric lesions in the rats were induced by noxious chemicals including ethanol, strong alkalis, indomethacin and hypothermic restraint stress. The levels of gastric wall mucus (GWM), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured in the glandular stomach of rats following ethanol administration. The gastric tissue was also examined histologically. The extract was used in two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in all experiments. RESULTS: In pylorus-ligated Shay rats, the ethanolic extract of Rocket “Eruca sativa L.” (EER) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the basal gastric acid secretion, titratable acidity and ruminal ulceration. Rocket extract significantly attenuated gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 mol/L NaOH, 25% NaCl), indomethacin and hypothermic restraint stress. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. On the other hand, the extract significantly replenished GWM and NP-SH levels, as well as the MDA level significantly reduced by extract pretreatment. CONCLUSION: Rocket extract possesses anti-secretory, cytoprotective, and anti-ulcer activities against experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcer effect is possibly through prostaglandin-mediated activity and/or through its anti-secretory and antioxidant properties. PMID:19399927

Alqasoumi, Saleh; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

2009-01-01

12

Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

2014-01-01

13

Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities in rats.  

PubMed

Purified oleuropein from olive leaf extract has been shown to have antioxidant effects in our recent studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant abilities of oleuropein in comparison with ranitidine in ethanol-induced gastric damages via evaluation of ulcer index inhibition, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation level. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven equal groups as follows: control group, ethanol group (absolute ethanol 1 ml/rat), oleuropein group (12 mg/kg), and oleuropein (6, 12, and 18 mg/kg) plus ethanol groups, as well as ranitidine (50 mg/kg) plus ethanol group. Pretreatment with oleuropein (12 and 18 mg/kg) significantly increased the ulcer index inhibition (percent), in comparison with oleuropein (6 mg/kg). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in the ethanol group when compared with the other groups whereas, treatment of rats with oleuropein (12 mg/kg) significantly increased glutathione content in gastric tissue when compared with the other groups, and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the oleuropein- (12 and 18 mg/kg) and ranitidine-treated animals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were both much higher in oleuropein-treated rats than the ethanol group, and although there was a moderate increase in SOD and CAT activities in ranitidine-treated rats, the differences were not significant. These findings suggest that oleuropein has beneficial antioxidant properties against ethanol-induced gastric damages in the rat. Therefore, it seems that a combination regimen including both antioxidant and antisecretory drugs may be beneficial in prevention of ethanol-mediated gastric mucosal damages. PMID:22581435

Alirezaei, Masoud; Dezfoulian, Omid; Neamati, Shima; Rashidipour, Marzyeh; Tanideh, Nader; Kheradmand, Arash

2012-12-01

14

Aqueous suspension of anise “Pimpinella anisum” protects rats against chemically induced gastric ulcers  

PubMed Central

AIM: To substantiate the claims of Unani and Arabian traditional medicine practitioners on the gastroprotective potential effect of a popular spice anise, “Pimpinella anisum L.” on experimentally-induced gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. METHODS: Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by various noxious chemicals including 80% ethanol, 0.2 mol/L NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated Shay rat technique. Levels of gastric non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and wall mucus were estimated and gastric tissue was also examined histologically. Anise aqueous suspension was used in two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in all experiments. RESULTS: Anise significantly inhibited gastric mu-cosal damage induced by necrotizing agents and indomethacin. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. In pylorus-ligated Shay rats, anise suspension significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion, acidity and completely inhibited the rumenal ulceration. On the other hand, the suspension significantly replenished ethanol-induced depleted levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH and gastric wall mucus concentration. CONCLUSION: Anise aqueous suspension possesses significant cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activities against experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcer effect of anise is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its anti-secretory and antioxidative properties. PMID:17373749

Al Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; Mossa, Jaber S; Al-Soohaibani, Mohammed O; Rafatullah, Syed

2007-01-01

15

Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the gastric acid antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from Cinnamomum burmannii. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase) activity and its gene expression were observed, and the antioxidant activity of DLBS2411 was also investigated. Treatment of DLBS2411 decreased the level of H+/K+ ATPase messenger RNA expression on human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat gastric parietal cells in a dose-dependent manner, in vitro and ex vivo. DLBS2411 also acted as a competitive inhibitor by showing inhibition in gastric H+/K+ ATPase activity at various pHs. In gastric ulcer animal models induced with indomethacin and ethanol, DLBS2411showed a reduction in the number of petechiae, suggesting that the fraction also confers gastroprotective activity. Moreover, DLBS2411 was also found to have potent antioxidant activity. Taken together, DLBS2411 is a promising novel agent for the management of dyspepsia, a condition of hyperacidity and diseases in the stomach requiring gastroprotection. PMID:24101879

Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Nailufar, Florensia; Arifin, Poppy F

2013-01-01

16

Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats  

SciTech Connect

Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

1987-05-01

17

Urocortin in Human Gastric Mucosa: Relationship to Inflammatory Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of CRH and urocortin (Ucn), members of the CRH family of neuropeptides, was examined in human gastric biopsies from normal controls and in patients with active gastritis from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and after eradi- cation treatment. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of the Ucn transcript in biopsies (obtained by gastroscopy) from nor- mal and inflamed gastric mucosa,

E. Chatzaki; I. CHARALAMPOPOULOS; C. LEONTIDIS; I. A. MOUZAS; M. TZARDI; C. TSATSANIS; A. N. MARGIORIS; A. GRAVANIS

2003-01-01

18

The effect of drugs and stimulants on gastric myoelectrical activity  

PubMed Central

Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive diagnostic method useful for the registration and analysis of gastric myoelectrical activity. Abnormalities within an electrogastrogram were found to correlate with a number of disorders and symptoms, like functional dyspepsia, diabetic gastroparesis and terminal hepatic or renal failure. The EGG is also a valuable diagnostic method enabling the evaluation of the effect of drugs on gastric myoelectrical activity, which can be intentional, as in the case of prokinetics, or can have an adverse character. Our review focuses on drugs with a proven impact on gastric myoelectrical activity and hence on the electrogastrogram. The paper assembles and discusses the results of investigations dealing with changes in the electrogastrograms evoked by various drugs. Moreover, the mechanisms of the influence on the gastric myoelectrical activity of drugs, curative substances and stimulants are presented. PMID:25097708

Kwiecie?, Jaros?aw; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Buschhaus, Magdalena

2014-01-01

19

Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

2002-01-01

20

Antisecretory and antilesional effect of a new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, IT-066, in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of a new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, IT-066 (3-amino-4-[4-[4-(1-piperidinomethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]-cis-2-++ +butenylamino]- 3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione hydrochloride), were investigated on the secretagogue-induced acid secretion in vivo and in vitro, and on experimental gastric and duodenal lesion in rats. IT-066 (10-60 micrograms/kg) given i.v. inhibited histamine-stimulated acid secretion dose-dependently in gastric lumen-perfused rats, and the inhibitory effect was observed for about 12 hr. Famotidine (FMD) (10-60 micrograms/kg i.v.) also had an antisecretory effect, but the acid secretion recovered to the control level 4 hr after the administration. Cold stress plus indomethacin-induced lesion was significantly inhibited by IT-066 and FMD given i.v. 30 min before the cold stress plus indomethacin treatment. IT-066 given 7 hr before the cold stress plus indomethacin treatment also inhibited lesion formation significantly, but such antilesional effect was not observed with FMD. In the rat isolated gastric mucosal sheet, IT-066 inhibited histamine-stimulated acid secretion dose-dependently and noncompetitively; its action was produced via a unique mechanism. The inhibitory effect of IT-066 remained after washing of the mucosa, and became more potent time-dependently. The inhibitory effects of FMD and cimetidine were not observed after washing the mucosa. These data suggest that IT-066 has a potent and long lasting antisecretory effect in vivo and in vitro, and that these properties are responsible for the long lasting antilesional action. PMID:1979811

Isobe, Y; Nagai, H; Muramatsu, M; Aihara, H; Otomo, S

1990-12-01

21

Antisecretory Action of the Extract of the Aerial Parts of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) Occurs through Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic Pathways  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of this study was to find out the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of Eremomastax speciosa. Method. Carbachol- and histamine-induced hypersecretion, associated with the pylorus ligation technique, were used in rats. Gastric mucosal ulceration, mucus production, pH, gastric volume, and acidity were measured. Results. Histamine and carbachol raised gastric acidity to 86.50 and 84.80?mEq/L, respectively, in the control rats, and the extracts (200?mg/kg) reduced gastric acidity to 34.60 and 39.00?mEq/L, respectively. Intraduodenal aqueous extract (400?mg/kg) in histamine- and carbachol-treated rats produced significant (P < 0.001) decreases in acid secretion to 28.50 and 28.80?mEq/L, respectively, and 100 percent inhibition of gastric ulceration. Augmented histamine-induced gastric acid secretion (90.20?mEq/L) was significantly reduced to 52.60 and 27.50?mEq/L by the 200 and 400?mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the volume of gastric secretion and significantly increased mucus production. The ulcer inhibition potential of the extract significantly dropped to 25–44% (oral extract) and to 29–37% (duodenal extract) in carbachol/indomethacin-treated rats. Conclusion. The aqueous extract of E. speciosa has both cytoprotective and antisecretory effects. The antisecretory effect may involve a mechanism common to both cholinergic and histaminergic pathways. PMID:24695819

André Perfusion, Amang; Tan, Paul V.; Ernestine, Nkwengoua; Barthélemy, Nyasse

2014-01-01

22

Antisecretory Action of the Extract of the Aerial Parts of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) Occurs through Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic Pathways.  

PubMed

Objective. The objective of this study was to find out the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of Eremomastax speciosa. Method. Carbachol- and histamine-induced hypersecretion, associated with the pylorus ligation technique, were used in rats. Gastric mucosal ulceration, mucus production, pH, gastric volume, and acidity were measured. Results. Histamine and carbachol raised gastric acidity to 86.50 and 84.80?mEq/L, respectively, in the control rats, and the extracts (200?mg/kg) reduced gastric acidity to 34.60 and 39.00?mEq/L, respectively. Intraduodenal aqueous extract (400?mg/kg) in histamine- and carbachol-treated rats produced significant (P < 0.001) decreases in acid secretion to 28.50 and 28.80?mEq/L, respectively, and 100 percent inhibition of gastric ulceration. Augmented histamine-induced gastric acid secretion (90.20?mEq/L) was significantly reduced to 52.60 and 27.50?mEq/L by the 200 and 400?mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the volume of gastric secretion and significantly increased mucus production. The ulcer inhibition potential of the extract significantly dropped to 25-44% (oral extract) and to 29-37% (duodenal extract) in carbachol/indomethacin-treated rats. Conclusion. The aqueous extract of E. speciosa has both cytoprotective and antisecretory effects. The antisecretory effect may involve a mechanism common to both cholinergic and histaminergic pathways. PMID:24695819

André Perfusion, Amang; Tan, Paul V; Ernestine, Nkwengoua; Barthélemy, Nyasse

2014-01-01

23

Aripiprazole an atypical antipsychotic protects against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was undertaken, to study the gastro-protective potential of aripiprazole (ARI) an atypical antipsychotic drug in ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. ARI (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) was tested for gastric secretion and antiulcer activity in different groups of male Sprague Dawley rats. Gastric secretion and acidity studies were performed in pylorus ligated rats while indices of gastric ulcers were measured in ethanol (1 ml-100%) induced gastric ulcers. Histological changes and the levels of gastric wall mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and serotonin were used to assess ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries. Exposure of rats to ethanol resulted in gastric mucosal injury and a high index of ulcer. Pretreatment with ARI significantly (P < 0.001), reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol and also resulted in a significant decrease in the gastric secretion, and total acidity in pylorus ligated rats. ARI also significantly attenuated the ethanol induced reduction in the levels of gastric wall mucus, and NP-SH (P < 0.001). The histological changes and the increased MDA and MPO activity were also significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited by ARI. Ethanol induced depletion in the levels of serotonin in the gastric tissue were also significantly restored by pretreatment with ARI (p < 0.001). ARI showed significant antiulcer and gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers. The gastroprotective effects of ARI may be due to its anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and also due to the restoration of the depleted gastric serotonin levels. PMID:25232384

Asmari, Abdulrahman Al; Arshaduddin, Mohammed; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Kadasah, Saeed; Robayan, Abdulrahman Al; Asmary, Saeed Al

2014-01-01

24

Discovery and Development of Antisecretory Drugs for Treating Diarrheal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Diarrheal diseases constitute a significant global health burden and are a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Treatment of diarrheal disease has centered on the replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses using oral rehydration solutions (ORS). Although ORS has been highly successful, significant mortality and morbidity due to diarrheal disease remains. Secretory diarrheas, such as those caused by bacterial and viral enterotoxins, result from activation of cyclic nucleotide and/or Ca2+ signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells, enterocytes, which increase the permeability of Cl? channels at the lumen-facing membrane. Additionally, there is often a parallel reduction in intestinal Na+ absorption. Inhibition of enterocyte Cl? channels, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Ca2+-activated Cl? channels, represents an attractive strategy for antisecretory drug therapy. High-throughput screening of synthetic small molecule collections has identified several classes of Cl? channel inhibitors that show efficacy in animal models of diarrhea but remain to be tested clinically. In addition, several natural-product extracts with Cl? channel inhibition activity have shown efficacy in diarrhea models. However, a number of challenges remain to translate the promising bench science into clinically useful therapeutics, including efficiently targeting orally administered drugs to enterocytes during diarrhea, funding development costs, and carrying out informative clinical trials. Nonetheless, Cl? channel inhibitors may prove to be effective adjunctive therapy in a broad spectrum of clinical diarrheas, including acute infectious and drug-related diarrheas, short-bowel syndrome, and congenital enteropathies. PMID:24316107

Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Ko, Eun-A; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Donowitz, Mark; Verkman, A.S.

2014-01-01

25

Chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes and total calpain activity in gastric and colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes and total calpain activity were studied in patients with stage T2-4N0-3M0 gastric cancer and stage T2-4N0-2M0-1 colorectal cancer. Activities of proteasomes and calpains in gastric and colorectal cancer tissues were higher than in the corresponding normal tissues. Changes in activities of proteasomes and calpains were mutually related. The appearance of lymphogenic metastases in gastric cancer was associated with the increase in calpain activity. The progress of colorectal cancer and development of lymphogenic and hematogenic metastases were associated with elevated chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes. PMID:25342484

Ivanova, E V; Kondakova, I V; Spirina, L V; Afanas'ev, S G; Avgustinovich, A V; Cheremisina, O V

2014-10-01

26

Crofelemer, an Antisecretory Antidiarrheal Proanthocyanidin Oligomer Extracted from Croton lechleri, Targets Two Distinct Intestinal Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Crofelemer, a purified proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from the bark latex of Croton lechleri, is in clinical trials for secretory diarrheas of various etiologies. We investigated the antisecretory mechanism of crofelemer by determining its effect on the major apical membrane transport and signaling processes involved in intestinal fluid transport. Using cell lines and measurement procedures to isolate the effects on individual membrane transport proteins, crofelemer at 50 ?M had little or no effect on the activity of epithelial Na+ or K+ channels or on cAMP or calcium signaling. Crofelemer inhibited the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl? channel with maximum inhibition of ?60% and an IC50 ?7 ?M. Crofelemer action at an extracellular site on CFTR produced voltage-independent block with stabilization of the channel closed state. Crofelemer did not affect the potency of glycine hydrazide or thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitors. Crofelemer action resisted washout, with <50% reversal of CFTR inhibition after 4 h. Crofelemer was also found to strongly inhibit the intestinal calcium-activated Cl? channel TMEM16A by a voltage-independent inhibition mechanism with maximum inhibition >90% and IC50 ?6.5 ?M. The dual inhibitory action of crofelemer on two structurally unrelated prosecretory intestinal Cl? channels may account for its intestinal antisecretory activity. PMID:19808995

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Namkung, Wan

2010-01-01

27

Crofelemer, an antisecretory antidiarrheal proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from Croton lechleri, targets two distinct intestinal chloride channels.  

PubMed

Crofelemer, a purified proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from the bark latex of Croton lechleri, is in clinical trials for secretory diarrheas of various etiologies. We investigated the antisecretory mechanism of crofelemer by determining its effect on the major apical membrane transport and signaling processes involved in intestinal fluid transport. Using cell lines and measurement procedures to isolate the effects on individual membrane transport proteins, crofelemer at 50 microM had little or no effect on the activity of epithelial Na(+) or K(+) channels or on cAMP or calcium signaling. Crofelemer inhibited the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel with maximum inhibition of approximately 60% and an IC(50) approximately 7 microM. Crofelemer action at an extracellular site on CFTR produced voltage-independent block with stabilization of the channel closed state. Crofelemer did not affect the potency of glycine hydrazide or thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitors. Crofelemer action resisted washout, with <50% reversal of CFTR inhibition after 4 h. Crofelemer was also found to strongly inhibit the intestinal calcium-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A by a voltage-independent inhibition mechanism with maximum inhibition >90% and IC(50) approximately 6.5 microM. The dual inhibitory action of crofelemer on two structurally unrelated prosecretory intestinal Cl(-) channels may account for its intestinal antisecretory activity. PMID:19808995

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Namkung, Wan; Verkman, A S

2010-01-01

28

Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses inhibition of gastric emptying by cholecystokinin (CCK) in mice?  

PubMed Central

The intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) delays gastric emptying and inhibits food intake by actions on vagal afferent neurons. Recent studies suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses the effect of CCK on food intake. In this study we asked whether PAI-1 also modulated CCK effects on gastric emptying. Five minute gastric emptying of liquid test meals was studied in conscious wild type mice (C57BL/6) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAI-1 in gastric parietal cells (PAI-1H/K? mice), or null for PAI-1. The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were studied after ip administration. Intragastric peptone delayed gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice by a mechanism sensitive to the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. Peptone did not delay gastric emptying in PAI-1-H/K? mice. Exogenous CCK delayed gastric emptying of a control test meal in C57BL/6 mice and this was attenuated by administration of PAI-1; exogenous CCK had no effect on emptying in PAI-1-H/K? mice. Prior administration of gastrin to increase gastric PAI-1 inhibited CCK-dependent effects on gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice but not in PAI-1 null mice. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous PAI-1 inhibit the effects of CCK (whether exogenous or endogenous) on gastric emptying. The data are compatible with emerging evidence that gastric PAI-1 modulates vagal effects of CCK. PMID:23816469

Gamble, Joanne; Kenny, Susan; Dockray, Graham J.

2013-01-01

29

Antisecretory effect of prescribed appetite stimulator drug cyproheptadine in rat intestine.  

PubMed

Cyproheptadine (Cph) is an antiserotoninergic and antihistaminergic agent with alpha-blocking activity and central sedative effect. Cph has been found to be effective in stimulating appetite, but to our knowledge, its direct effects on the intestine have not been documented. We aimed to assess the antisecretory effects of Cph in rat proximal colon using Ussing chambers' technique. In basal and serotonin (5-HT)-stimulated conditions, Cph induced a dose-dependent reduction in short-circuit current (Isc). This effect was different in fed vs. fasted rats (EC50 = 1.9 × 10(-5 ) m and 4.9 × 10(-5 ) m, respectively). As expected, Cph induced a marked dose-dependent rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to 5-HT (pA2 = 5.4). The effect of Cph was found to be close to that of antisecretory agents in the following sequence: peptide YY > somatostatin > clonidine > Cph > C7-sorbin. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that Cph has a direct effect on the inhibition of electrogenic ionic secretion in intestinal epithelium in vitro. Our results indicate that Cph can modulate the intestinal transport of electrolytes and provide a new insight into the peripheral effects of this drug, which is frequently prescribed as appetite stimulator in developing countries. PMID:23565811

Meddah, Bouchra; Limas-Nzouzi, Nicolas; Mamadou, Godefroy; Miantezila, Joe; Soudy, Imar Djibrine; Eto, Bruno

2014-06-01

30

CORRELATION OF THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE GASTRIC PARIETAL CELL (DOG) WITH FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE STOMACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the parietal (oxyntic) cell in the gastric glands (corpus of the stomach) of the dog was examined under conditions of active gastric acid secretion and compared with cellular structure in the non-acid-secretory (basal) state. Animals, in both acute and chronic experiments, were equipped with gastric fistulae so that gastric juice could be col- lected for analysis

A. W. Sedar; M. H. F. FRIEDMAN

1961-01-01

31

Frequent epigenetic inactivation of SFRP genes and constitutive activation of Wnt signaling in gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in gastric tumorigenesis, although mutations in APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), CTNNB1 (?-catenin) and AXIN are seen much less frequently in gastric cancer (GC) than in colorectal cancer. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between activation of Wnt signaling and changes in the expression of secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family genes in

M Nojima; H Suzuki; M Toyota; Y Watanabe; R Maruyama; S Sasaki; Y Sasaki; H Mita; N Nishikawa; K Yamaguchi; K Hirata; F Itoh; T Tokino; M Mori; K Imai; Y Shinomura

2007-01-01

32

Effects of gastrokine?2 expression on gastric cancer cell apoptosis by activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathways.  

PubMed

Gastrokine?2 is a putative gastric cancer?specific tumor suppressor gene, the loss of which is known to be involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer, and restoration of gastrokine?2 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism of these effects requires elucidation. In the present study, expression patterns of gastrokine?2 protein were examined in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Expression of gastrokine?2 was restored in gastric cancer cells in order to assess its effect on cell viability, apoptosis and gene expression. A total of 76 gastric cancer tissues with corresponding normal mucosae samples, and two gastric cancer cell lines (SGC?7901 and AGS) were subjected to western blot analysis of gastrokine?2 expression. SGC?7901 cells were transiently transfected with gastrokine?2 cDNA and then treated with anti?CD95 and/or anti?Fas antibodies prior to analysis of cell viability, apoptosis and gene expression levels. Expression of gastrokine?2 protein was reduced or absent in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. Following restoration of gastrokine?2 expression, the protein expression level of Fas was significantly increased, but no marked change was observed in the levels of bcl?2 and Bax proteins. Expression of gastrokine?2 protein reduced gastric cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis. Activity of caspase?3 and caspase?8 was increased, but caspase?9 activity remained unchanged in the SGC?7901 cells. Reduction or knockout of gastrokine?2 protein expression may contribute to gastric cancer development or progression, as the current study demonstrated that restoration of gastrokine?2 expression induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:25270871

Shi, Lin-Sen; Wang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Feng, Min; Wang, Meng; Guan, Wen-Xian

2014-12-01

33

Anti-ulcer activity of Lucer against experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study is designed to explore the mechanism of action of herbal formulation Lucer against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The aqueous extract (120 and 180 mg/kg) of Lucer was tested against aspirin and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The drug has been found to be very effective in inhibiting gastric ulceration. This is evident from reduction in ulcer index parameters. Besides, significant reduction in acid secretory parameters such as total acidity, total acid output and volume of gastric secretion were also observed. It is concluded from this study that the drug possesses anti-ulcer activity in both the models. The anti-ulcer activity of the drug can be attributed to inhibition of acid secretary parameters and strengthening of gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:23559812

Shah, Jigna S.; Patel, Jetun R.

2012-01-01

34

Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.  

PubMed

Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats. PMID:19630213

Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

2008-12-01

35

AMP-activated protein kinase activation protects gastric epithelial cells from Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), infecting half of the world's population, causes gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved regulator of cellular energy and metabolism. Recent studies indicated an important role for AMPK in promoting cell survival. In this study, we discovered that H Pylori induced AMPK activation in transformed (GEC-1 line) and primary human gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Inhibition of H Pylori-stimulated AMPK kinase activity by AMPK inhibitor compound C exacerbated apoptosis in transformed and primary GECs. Meanwhile, downregulation of AMPK expression by targeted shRNAs promoted apoptosis in H pylori-infected GECs. In contrast, A-769662 and resveratrol, two known AMPK activators, or AMPK?1 over-expression, enhanced H Pylori-induced AMPK activation, and inhibited GEC apoptosis. Our data suggested that transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) could be the upstream kinase for AMPK activation by H pylori. Partial depletion of TAK1 by shRNAs not only inhibited AMPK activation, but also suppressed survival of H pylori-infected GECs. Taken together, these results suggest that TAK1-dependent AMPK activation protects GECs from H pylori-Induced apoptosis. PMID:25229685

Lv, Guoqiang; Zhu, Huanhuan; Zhou, Feng; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Li, Chenwan

2014-10-10

36

Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.  

PubMed

We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:23036453

da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

2013-01-01

37

Antiulcerogenic activity of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, Lorentz ex Griseb.  

PubMed

Tabebuia avellanedae is commonly used for the treatment of peptic ulcers. We carried out this study with the ethanolic extract of bark from Tabebuia avellanedae (EET) (30-1000 mg/kg) to determine its gastroprotective activity and to clarify the pathways involved in this effect. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol and ibuprofen. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken using Shay rat pylorus ligature technique and measurement of enzymatic activity of H+, K+-ATPase in vitro. Administration of EET p.o. or i.p. significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol and ibuprofen. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed by enhanced gastric mucus production. In pylorus ligature rats, EET significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by histamine. In addition, EET reduced the activity of H+, K+, ATPase. The results obtained in the present pharmacological assay indicate that this plant has a protective action against gastric lesions, involving the maintenance of protective factors, such as mucus and prostaglandin, besides the reduction of gastric total acidity. PMID:18579323

Twardowschy, André; Freitas, Cristina Setim; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Mayer, Bárbara; dos Santos, Ana Cristina; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zacarias, Aline Alvarez; dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade

2008-08-13

38

Increased Muscle Proteasome Activity Correlates With Disease Severity in Gastric Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the state of activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in the skeletal muscle of gastric cancer patients. Summary Background Data Muscle wasting in experimental cancer cachexia is frequently associated with hyperactivation of the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system. Increased muscle ubiquitin mRNA levels have been previously shown in gastric cancer patients, suggesting that this proteolytic system might be modulated also in human cancer. Methods Biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained intraoperatively from 23 gastric cancer patients and 14 subjects undergoing surgery for benign abdominal diseases, and muscle ubiquitin mRNA expression and proteasome proteolytic activities were assessed. Results Muscle ubiquitin mRNA was hyperexpressed in gastric cancer patients compared to controls. In parallel, three proteasome proteolytic activities (CTL, chymotrypsin-like; TL, trypsin-like; PGP, peptidyl-glutamyl-peptidase) significantly increased in gastric cancer patients with respect to controls. Advanced tumor stage, poor nutritional status, and age more than 50 years were associated with significantly higher CTL activity but had no influence on TL and PGP activity. Conclusions These results confirm the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system in the pathogenesis of muscle protein hypercatabolism in cancer cachexia. The observation that perturbations of this pathway in gastric cancer patients occur even before clinical evidence of body wasting supports the thinking that specific pharmacologic and metabolic approaches aimed at counteracting the upregulation of this pathway should be undertaken as early as cancer is diagnosed. PMID:12616123

Bossola, Maurizio; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Costelli, Paola; Grieco, Gabriella; Bonelli, Gabriella; Pacelli, Fabio; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Baccino, Francesco Maria

2003-01-01

39

Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.  

PubMed

For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ?50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9. PMID:21286662

Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

2011-04-01

40

ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the gastric muscle injury caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rats with diabetic gastroparesis. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a diabetic group. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Gastric emptying was determined at the 4th and 12th week. The ultrastructural changes in gastric smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to assess apoptosis of SMCs. Expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and the ER-specific apoptosis mediator, caspase-12 protein, was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was significantly lower in the diabetic rats than in the control rats at the 12th wk (40.71% ± 2.50%, control rats vs 54.65% ± 5.22%, diabetic rats; P < 0.05). Swollen and distended ER with an irregular shape was observed in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats. Apoptosis of gastric SMCs increased in the diabetic rats in addition to increased expression of GRP78 and caspase-12 proteins. CONCLUSION: ER stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats with gastroparesis. PMID:25009401

Chen, Xia; Fu, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhao, Hong-Xian

2014-01-01

41

Genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor ? are associated with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Peroxisome proliferator-activating receptors (PPAR) are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cancers of the digestive system. Aim We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activating receptors ? and ? with gastric cancer and explored interactions with risk factors of gastric cancer. Methods We conducted our analysis in a case-control study of 196 gastric cancer patients and 397 controls residing in Taixing region of Jiangsu, China. Six SNPs in the PPAR? (rs2076167, rs3734254) and PPAR? genes (rs10865710, rs1801282, rs3856806, rs13306747) were genotyped. We employed logistic regression to evaluate the association between each genotype and gastric cancer and tested for gene-environment interaction with Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking status, and meat and salt intake. Results We found that the G/G variant rs2076167, in tight linkage disequilibrium with rs3734254 (R2=0.97), was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a recessive model (OR = 2.20, 95%1.12, 4.32). The association between G/G variant of rs2016167 and gastric cancer was particularly strong among those with higher salt intake (OR = 5.11, 95% 1.11, 23.5), but did not vary by Helicobacter pylori infection, or smoking status. Conclusion We found that genetic variants of PPAR? were associated with gastric cancer. If the association is confirmed in larger studies, it may implicate a role for PPAR? activators, such as insulin-sensitizing agents, in prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:23907334

Jeon, Christie; Chang, Shen-Chih; Mu, Lina; Zhao, Jinkou; Rao, Jian-Yu; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

2013-01-01

42

Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds ( Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) compared to omeprazole was studied on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract and a gel fraction isolated from the seeds showed significant ulcer protective effects. The cytoprotective effect of the seeds seemed to be not only due to the anti-secretory action but also to the effects on mucosal glycoproteins. The fenugreek seeds

R Suja Pandian; C. V Anuradha; P Viswanathan

2002-01-01

43

Helicobacter pylori-induced STAT3 activation and signalling network in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important gastric carcinogen. However, the mechanisms of H. pylori induced gastric carcinogenesis through STAT3 activation are largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of H. pylori infection on STAT3 activation and dissected the signalling network of STAT3 in H. pylori- infected gastric carcinogenesis. Methods The expression of phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Gene expression array and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to dissect the STAT3 signalling network on H. pylori co-cultured AGS. Results pSTAT3 was significantly higher in H. pylori -positive gastritis than in H. pylori -negative gastritis ( P = 0.003). In addition, 98% of H. pylori positive intestinal metaplasia specimens showed STAT3 activation, whereas pSTAT3 was significantly decreased in all 43 specimens one year after H. pylori eradication ( P < 0.001). Moreover, pSTAT3 was only detected in the H. pylori -infected gastric tissues of mice but not in control mice. We further identified 6 candidates ( BRUNOL4, FGFR1, SHOX2, JAK3, MAPK8, and PDPN ) were directly up-regulated by H. pylori induced STAT3 activation. Conclusion H. pylori infection triggers the activation of STAT3 and de-regulates multitude of tumorigenic genes which may contribute to the initiation and progression of gastric cancer.

Kang, Wei; Go, Minnie Y.; Tong, Joanna HM.; Ng, Enders KW.; Chiu, Philip WY.; Cheng, Alfred SL.; To, Ka Fai; Sung, Joseph JY.; Yu, Jun

2014-01-01

44

Underexpressed CNDP2 Participates in Gastric Cancer Growth Inhibition through Activating the MAPK Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that cytosolic non-specific dipeptidase 2 (CNDP2) appears to do more than just perform an enzymatic activity; it is functionally important in cancers as well. Here, we show that the expression of CNDP2 is commonly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. The ectopic expression of CNDP2 resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and suppressed gastric tumor growth in nude mice. We further revealed that the reintroduction of CNDP2 transcriptionally upregulated p38 and activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), whereas the loss of CNDP2 increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK). These results suggest that CNDP2 acts as a functional tumor suppressor in gastric cancer via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. PMID:24395568

Zhang, Zhenwei; Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jianpeng; Yang, Shengsheng; Miao, Mingyong; Kong, Xiangping; Jiao, Binghua

2014-01-01

45

Oesophageal and gastric motor activity in patients with bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies showed that symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders can be misinterpreted as indicating anorexia nervosa and that in primary anorexia nervosa gastric motility is frequently impaired. We investigated in 32 women with bulimia nervosa whether symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders could be obscured by or be mistaken as forming part of bulimic behaviour, and whether impaired gastric motility was frequent as well. Oesophageal motility was normal in 18 of 26 patients studied, another four had incomplete lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation. Two patients had vigorous achalasia and each one achalasia and diffuse oesophageal spasm, all of whom experienced two types of vomiting: one self-induced and one involuntary, in which the vomit was non-acidic and tasted as the preceding meal. Gastric emptying of a semisolid meal was studied in all patients except of the eight with oesophageal motor abnormalities. Emptying was significantly slower than in healthy controls and grossly delayed in nine of 24 patients. Antral contraction amplitudes were lower and increased less postcibally than in controls. In conclusion (i) bulimic behaviour can obscure symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders and (ii) gastric emptying is frequently delayed in bulimia nervosa. PMID:2323585

Kiss, A; Bergmann, H; Abatzi, T A; Schneider, C; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Höbart, J; Steiner-Mittelbach, G; Gaupmann, G; Kugi, A; Stacher-Janotta, G

1990-01-01

46

Presence of antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antisecretory, calcium antagonist and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory steroidal alkaloids in Sarcococca saligna.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to see if the crude extract of Sarcococca saligna (Ss.Cr) contains chemicals with gut function inhibitory activity by using in vitro and in vivo assays. Ss.Cr caused a dose-dependent (0.03 - 3 mg/mL) inhibitory effect on K+-induced contractions in rat stomach fundus, guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum preparations. The calcium channel blocking(CCB) activity was confirmed when Ss.Cr caused a rightward shift in the Ca++ dose-response curves. It also potentiated, at lower do-ses (0.001 - 0.03 mg/mL), the contractile effect of a fixed dose of acetylcholine (ACh), similar to physostigmine, and suppressed the effect of ACh at higher doses (0.3 - 1.0 mg/mL). Both Ss.Cr and physostigmine inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in the in vitro assay, confirming the AChE inhibitory activity. In the in vivo studies, Ss.Cr exhibited antidiarrheal and antisecretory activities against castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal fluid accumulation in mice. Characteristic steroidal compounds of the plant (saracocine, saracodine, saracorine and alkaloid-C), exhibited a similar combination of AChE inhibitory and CCB activities. Thus this study provides a sound mechanistic base for some of the traditional uses of the plant in hyperactive gut states, in addition to providing the first evidence for verapamil to possess additional AChE inhibitory activity. Furthermore, these characteristic compounds with dual activity may be good candidates for further studies on their usefulness in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15789498

Giliani, Anwar-ul Hassan; Ghayur, Mohammad Nabeel; Khalid, Asaad; Zaheer-ul-Haq; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

2005-02-01

47

Diamine oxidase activity in gastric and duodenal mucosa of man and other mammals with special reference to the pyloric junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the gastric mucosa of human subjects and of various mammals methylation was accepted as the main pathway of histamine catabolism. However, augmentation of gastric acid secretion by aminoguanidine, the strong inhibitor of diamine oxidase, indicated an influence of diamine oxidase activity on this secretory process. Therefore a careful reinvestigation of the occurrence of diamine oxidase activity was started from

J. Kusche; W. Lorenz; C.-D. Stahlknecht; A. Friedrich; A. Schmidt; K. Boo; G. Reichert

1978-01-01

48

Static magnetic field inhibits 5' nucleotidase activity in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric tissues.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of the present study is to investigate possible effects of static magnetic field (SMF) on 5' nucleotidase (5'NT-CD73) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric tissues in order to contribute to the elucidation of the anticancer activity of SMF. Cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric tissues removed from patients by surgical operations were used in the studies. SMF was created using two static magnets. Before and after treatment with SMF, 5'NT and XO activities in the tissue samples were measured. 5'NT activity was found to be lowered, but no significant change was observed in XO activity in the gastric tissues treated with the SMF. Our results suggest that SMF inhibits 5'NT enzyme in gastric tissues significantly. It is supposed that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, inhibition of purine catabolic activity due to inhibition of some key enzymes in the DNA turn-over like 5'NT might also play part in the anticancer activity of SMF. PMID:25372949

Durak, Zahide Esra; Büber, Süleyman; Kocao?lu, Ender Hilmi; Oztürk, Bahad?r

2014-11-01

49

Pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage: Importance of cyclooxygenase inhibition and gastric hypermotility  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the pathogenic mechanism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage, focusing on the relation between cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and various functional events. NSAIDs, such as indomethacin, at a dose that inhibits prostaglandin (PG) production, enhance gastric motility, resulting in an increase in mucosal permeability, neutrophil infiltration and oxyradical production, and eventually producing gastric lesions. These lesions are prevented by pretreatment with PGE2 and antisecretory drugs, and also via an atropine-sensitive mechanism, not related to antisecretory action. Although neither rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) nor SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) alone damages the stomach, the combined administration of these drugs provokes gastric lesions. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, decreases prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and causes gastric hypermotility and an increase in mucosal permeability. COX-2 mRNA is expressed in the stomach after administration of indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib. The up-regulation of indomethacin-induced COX-2 expression is prevented by atropine at a dose that inhibits gastric hypermotility. In addition, selective COX-2 inhibitors have deleterious influences on the stomach when COX-2 is overexpressed under various conditions, including adrenalectomy, arthritis, and Helicobacter pylori-infection. In summary, gastric hypermotility plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage, and the response, causally related with PG deficiency due to COX-1 inhibition, occurs prior to other pathogenic events such as increased mucosal permeability; and the ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs require the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2, the inhibition of COX-1 upregulates COX-2 expression in association with gastric hypermotility, and PGs produced by COX-2 counteract the deleterious effect of COX-1 inhibition. PMID:22611307

Takeuchi, Koji

2012-01-01

50

The Sum of Its Parts—Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation  

PubMed Central

During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural evidence for the importance of sensory stimulation in the process of satiation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01644539. PMID:24614074

Spetter, Maartje S.; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

2014-01-01

51

Association of Body Mass and Brain Activation during Gastric Distention: Implications for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGastric distention (GD), as it occurs during meal ingestion, signals a full stomach and it is one of the key mechanisms controlling food intake. Previous studies on GD showed lower activation of the amygdala for subjects with higher body mass index (BMI). Since obese subjects have dopaminergic deficits that correlate negatively with BMI and the amygdala is innervated by dopamine

Dardo Tomasi; Gene-Jack Wang; Ruiliang Wang; Walter Backus; Allan Geliebter; Frank Telang; Millar C. Jayne; Christopher Wong; Joanna S. Fowler; Nora D. Volkow

2009-01-01

52

Mycoplasma hyorhinis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Promotes Migration and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M.hyorhinis, M.hy) is associated with development of gastric and prostate cancers. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a protein complex controlling maturation of important pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18, is also involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis of various cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings To clarify whether M.hy promoted tumor development via inflammasome activation, we analyzed monocytes for IL-1? and IL-18 production upon M.hy challenge. When exposed to M.hy, human monocytes exhibited rapid and robust IL-1? and IL-18 secretion. We further identified that lipid-associated membrane protein (LAMP) from M.hy was responsible for IL-1? induction. Applying competitive inhibitors, gene specific shRNA and gene targeted mice, we verified that M.hy induced IL-1? secretion was NLRP3-dependent in vitro and in vivo. Cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, Ca2+ influx and ROS production were all required for the NLRP3 inflammasome activation by M.hy. Importantly, it is IL-1? but not IL-18 produced from macrophages challenged with M.hy promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Conclusions Our data suggest that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by M.hy may be associated with its promotion of gastric cancer metastasis, and anti-M.hy therapy or limiting NLRP3 signaling could be effective approach for control of gastric cancer progress. PMID:24223129

Yao, Xiaomin; Xing, Yue; Wang, Xun; Zhong, Jin; Meng, Guangxun

2013-01-01

53

Sensitivity and Specificity of Hypnosis Effects on Gastric Myoelectrical Activity  

PubMed Central

Objectives The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. Design Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrogastrogram (EGG) was recorded. At the end of the session, participants drank water until they felt full, in order to detect EGG-signal changes after ingestion of a true gastric load. During both conditions participants reported their subjective well-being, hunger and disgust at several time points. Results Imagining eating food induced subjective feelings of hunger and disgust as well as changes in the EGG similar to, but more pronounced than those seen with a real gastric water load during both hypnosis and relaxation conditions. These effects were more pronounced when imagining an appetizing meal than with an unappetizing meal. There was no significant difference between the hypnosis and relaxation conditions. Conclusion Imagination with and without hypnosis exhibits similar changes in subjective and objective measures in response to imagining an appetizing and an unappetizing food, indicating high sensitivity but low specificity. PMID:24358287

Enck, Paul; Weimer, Katja; Muth, Eric R.; Zipfel, Stephan; Martens, Ute

2013-01-01

54

Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism.  

PubMed Central

As various isoenzymes of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase exist and as the effect of sex and age on these enzymes is unknown, this study measured the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase at high and low ethanol concentrations in endoscopic biopsy specimens from a total of 290 patients of various ages and from 10 patients with chronic alcoholism. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase was also detected by immunohistological tests in biopsy specimens from 40 patients by the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody against class I alcohol dehydrogenase. A significant correlation was found between the immunohistological reaction assessed by the intensity of the colour reaction in the biopsy specimen and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase measured at 580 mM ethanol. While alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 16 mM ethanol was not significantly affected by age and sex, both factors influenced alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 580 mM ethanol. Young women below 50 years of age had significantly lower alcohol dehydrogenase activities in the gastric corpus and antrum when compared with age matched controls (SEM) (6.4 (0.7) v 8.8 (0.6) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001 and 6.0 (1.3) v 9.5 (1.3) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001). Over 50 years of age this sex difference was no longer detectable, as high Km gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity decreases with age only in men and not in women. In addition, extremely low alcohol dehydrogenase activities have been found in gastric biopsy specimens from young male alcoholics (2.2 (0.5) nmol/min/mg protein), which returned to normal after two to three weeks of abstinence. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the human stomach measured at 580 mM ethanol is decreased in young women, in elderly men, and in the subject with alcoholism. This decrease in alcohol dehydrogenase activity may contribute to the reduced first pass metabolism of ethanol associated with raised ethanol blood concentrations seen in these people. Images Figure 1 PMID:8244116

Seitz, H K; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A; Waldherr, R; Eckey, R; Agarwal, D P; Goedde, H W; von Wartburg, J P

1993-01-01

55

Activating Transcription Factor 4 Confers a Multidrug Resistance Phenotype to Gastric Cancer Cells through Transactivation of SIRT1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) in gastric cancer remains a major challenge to clinical treatment. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress response gene involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, the expression and function of ATF4 in gastric cancer MDR remains unknown. In this study, we investigate whether ATF4 play a role in gastric cancer MDR and its potential mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated that ATF4 overexpression confered the MDR phenotype to gastric cancer cells, while knockdown of ATF4 in the MDR variants induced re-sensitization. In this study we also showed that the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 was required for ATF4-induced MDR effect in gastric cancer cells. We demonstrated that ATF4 facilitated MDR in gastric cancer cells through direct binding to the SIRT1 promoter, resulting in SIRT1 up-regulation. Significantly, inhibition of SIRT1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a specific inhibitor (EX-527) reintroduced therapeutic sensitivity. Also, an increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and MDR1 expression level were found in ATF4-overexpressing cells. Conclusions/Significance We showed that ATF4 had a key role in the regulation of MDR in gastric cancer cells in response to chemotherapy and these findings suggest that targeting ATF4 could relieve therapeutic resistance in gastric cancer. PMID:22363646

Wang, Honghong; Xu, Wenjing; Hu, Hao; Wang, Jing; Xin, Jing; Gang, Yi; Sha, Sumei; Xu, Bin; Fan, Daiming; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun

2012-01-01

56

Proteinase activated-receptors-associated signaling in the control of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world and the second cause of cancer-related death. Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process, in which environmental and genetic factors interact to activate multiple intracellular signals thus leading to uncontrolled growth and survival of GC cells. One such a pathway is regulated by proteinase activated-receptors (PARs), seven transmembrane-spanning domain G protein-coupled receptors, which comprise four receptors (i.e., PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4) activated by various proteases. Both PAR-1 and PAR-2 are over-expressed on GC cells and their activation triggers and/or amplifies intracellular pathways, which sustain gastric carcinogenesis. There is also evidence that expression of either PAR-1 or PAR-2 correlates with depth of wall invasion and metastatic dissemination and inversely with the overall survival of patients. Consistently, data emerging from experimental models of GC suggest that both these receptors can be important targets for therapeutic interventions in GC patients. In contrast, PAR-4 levels are down-regulated in GC and correlate inversely with the aggressiveness of GC, thus suggesting a negative role of this receptor in the control of GC. In this article we review the available data on the expression and role of PARs in GC and discuss whether manipulation of PAR-driven signals may be useful for interfering with GC cell behavior. PMID:25232234

Sedda, Silvia; Marafini, Irene; Caruso, Roberta; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

2014-01-01

57

Activity of sap from Croton lechleri on rat vascular and gastric smooth muscles.  

PubMed

The effects of red sap from Croton lechleri (SdD), Euphorbiaceae, on vascular and gastric smooth muscles were investigated. SdD, from 10 to 1000 microg/ml, induced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in rat caudal arteries, which was endothelium-independent. In arterial preparations pre-constricted by phenylephrine (0.1 microM) or KCl (30 mM), SdD also produced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction. To study the mechanisms implicated in this effect we used selective inhibitors such as prazosin (0.1 microM), an antagonist of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, atropine (0.1 microM), an antagonist of muscarinic receptors, and ritanserin (50 nM), a 5-HT(2A) antagonist; none of these influenced vasoconstriction caused by SdD. Likewise, nifedipine (50 nM), an inhibitor of L-type calcium channels, did not modify the action of SdD. Capsaicin (100 nM), an agonist of vanilloid receptors, also did not affect vasoconstriction by SdD. We also investigated the action of SdD (10-1000 microg/ml) on rat gastric fundus; per se the sap slightly increased contractile tension. When the gastric fundus was pre-treated with SdD (100 microg/ml) the contraction induced by carbachol (1 microM) was increased, whereas that by KCl (60mM) or capsaicin (100 nM) were unchanged. The data shows that SdD increased contractile tension in a concentration-dependent way, both on vascular and gastric smooth muscles. The vasoconstriction is unrelated to alpha(1), M, 5-HT(2A) and vanilloid receptors as well as L-type calcium channels. SdD increased also contraction by carbachol on rat gastric fundus. Thus for the first time, experimental data provides evidence that sap from C. lechleri owns constricting activity on smooth muscles. PMID:19406630

Froldi, G; Zagotto, G; Filippini, R; Montopoli, M; Dorigo, P; Caparrotta, L

2009-08-01

58

Study of transcutaneous and intraluminal measurement of gastric electrical activity in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have reported measurements of the human electrogastrogram (EGG), both with intraluminal electrodes and with\\u000a improved noninvasive techniques. These methods provide information about the existence and frequency of gastric electrical\\u000a activity (GEA) which may aid in diagnosing tachygastria. However, none of these methods have provided information regarding\\u000a the direction and velocity of propagation of GEA. Such information could help

B. O. Familoni; Y. J. Kingma; K. L. Bowes

1987-01-01

59

Role of c-Src activity in the regulation of gastric cancer cell migration.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is associated with increased migration and invasion. In the present study, we explored the role of c-Src in gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. BGC-823 gastric cancer cells were used to investigate migration following treatment of these cells with the c-Src inhibitors, PP2 and SU6656. Migration and invasion were analyzed by wound healing and Transwell assays. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of MT1-MMP and VEGF-C, while the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 was monitored with gelatin zymography assay. Immunoprecipitation was used to detect interactions among furin, pro-MT1-MMP and pro-VEGF-C. MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression levels were inhibited by PP2 and SU6656 treatment, in accordance with decreased c-Src activity. Similarly, the zymography assay demonstrated that the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 was decreased following PP2 or SU6656 treatment. Blockade of c-Src also inhibited the invasive and migratory capacity of BGC-823 cells. Notably, c-Src interacted with furin in vivo, while interactions between furin and its substrates, pro-MT1-MMP and pro-VEGF-C, were decreased by c-Src inhibitors. In conclusion, the interaction among furin and pro-MT1-MMP or pro-VEGF-C or other tumor-associated precursor enzymes can be regulated by c-Src activity, thus reducing or changing the expression of these enzymes in order to reduce the development of gastric cancer, invasion and metastasis. PMID:24841138

Yang, Yun; Bai, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Jie; Wu, Guo-Cong; Zhang, Zhong-Tao

2014-07-01

60

Oxytocin ameliorates skin damage and oxidant gastric injury in rats with thermal trauma.  

PubMed

Transient splanchnic vasoconstriction following major burns causes oxidative and/or nitrosative damage in gastrointestinal tissues due to ischemia, which is followed by reperfusion injury. Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic nonapeptide, possesses antisecretory and antiulcer effects, facilitates wound healing and is involved in immune and inflammatory processes. To assess the possible protective effect of oxytocin (OT) against burn-induced gastric injury, Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300g) were randomly divided into three groups as control (n=8), OT-treated burn (n=8) and saline-treated burn (n=8) groups. Under anesthesia, the shaved dorsal skin of rats was exposed to 90 degrees C water for 10s to induce burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area in a standardized manner. Either oxytocin (5microg/kg) or saline was administered subcutaneously immediately after and at 24h following burn, and the rats were decapitated at 48h. Serum samples were assayed for TNF-alpha, and stomach was taken for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, DNA fragmentation rate (%) and histopathological examination. MDA and MPO were assayed for products of lipid peroxidation and as an index of tissue neutrophil infiltration, respectively. When compared to control group, burn caused significant increases in gastric MDA and MPO activity and increased microscopic damage scores at 48h (p<0.001). Oxytocin treatment reversed the burn-induced elevations in MDA and MPO levels and reduced the gastric damage scores (p<0.001, p<0.01), while TNF-alpha levels, which were increased significantly at 48thh after injury (p<0.001), were abolished with OT treatment (p<0.001). The results of this study suggest that oxytocin may provide a therapeutic benefit in diminishing burn-induced gastric inflammation by depressing tissue neutrophil infiltration and decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines, but requires further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in ameliorating the systemic effects of severe burn. PMID:17826914

I?eri, Sevgin Ozlem; Gedik, Ismail Ertu?rul; Erzik, Can; Uslu, Bahar; Arbak, Serap; Gedik, Nursal; Ye?en, Berrak C

2008-05-01

61

Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22016781

Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Risti?, Slavica; Radonji?, Nevena V.; Petronijevi?, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

2011-01-01

62

Gastroprotective activity of carvacrol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in rodents.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective activity of carvacrol, a monoterpene present in essential oils from several species of medicinal and aromatic plants, by using different models of acute gastric lesions in rodents and also evaluate possible mechanisms involved in this action. For this study, absolute ethanol-, acidified ethanol-, ischemia and reperfusion-, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced models of gastric lesions in mice and rats were used. The roles of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, catalase, nitric oxide (NO), ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels), and prostaglandins in carvacrol-induced gastroprotective effect were investigated. In addition, the effects of carvacrol on gastric secretion and mucus in pylorus-ligated rats were also determined. The results of the present study demonstrated that carvacrol promoted a marked gastroprotection in all models investigated, possibly mediated by endogenous prostaglandins, increase of mucus production, K(ATP) channels opening, NO synthase activation, and antioxidant properties. These findings markedly substantiate further studies to investigate the therapeutic potential of carvacrol as an effective gastroprotective agent and its safety profile in medicinal use. PMID:22739789

Oliveira, Irisdalva S; da Silva, Francilene V; Viana, Ana Flávia S C; dos Santos, Márcio R V; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Martins, Maria do Carmo C; Nunes, Paulo H M; Oliveira, Francisco de A; Oliveira, Rita de C M

2012-09-01

63

Effect of H. pylori status on gastric ulcer healing in patients continuing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy and receiving treatment with lansoprazole or ranitidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of pretreatment Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric ulcer healing rates in patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antisecretory medications.METHODS:This was a pooled, prospective analysis of two identical double blind, multicenter, parallel group studies. Six hundred ninety-two patients receiving NSAIDs and with endoscopy-documented gastric ulcers were enrolled from 90 North

Donald R Campbell; Marian M Haber; Eric Sheldon; Cyndy Collis; Nancy Lukasik; Bidan Huang; Jay L Goldstein

2002-01-01

64

Stratification and delineation of gastric cancer signaling by in vitro transcription factor activity profiling and integrative genomics.  

PubMed

Integrative functional genomic approaches are helpful in delineating the complex dysregulations in cancers. In the present study, in vitro activity profiling of 45 signaling pathway driven transcription factors in eight gastric cancer cell lines and direct comparison with genome-wide profiles of gastric tumors were performed and the integration resulted in the identification of three categories of factors/pathways: i) highly activated signaling pathways that stem from mutations are the critical oncogenic drivers, ii) constitutively activated stress responsive pathways which are activated not due to genetic alterations, and iii) consistently down-regulated nuclear receptor responsive factors. This functional profiling helps in discriminating therapeutic targets and signaling interactions. PMID:24462706

Periasamy, Jayaprakash; Muthuswami, Muthulakshmi; Rao, Divya Bhaskar; Tan, Patrick; Ganesan, Kumaresan

2014-05-01

65

Gastroprokinetic activity of nizatidine during the digestive state in the dog and rat.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to clarify a prokinetic activity of nizatidine (CAS 76963-41-2) during the digestive state as well as gastric emptying of a solid test meal in comparison with cimetidine (CAS 51481-61-9), famotidine (CAS 76842-35-6) and cisapride (CAS 81098-60-4). Intravenous administration of nizatidine (0.3-3 mg/kg) enhanced the motility of the gastric antrum and duodenum during the digestive state. With cimetidine (1-10 mg/kg) and famotidine (0.1-1 mg/kg) enhancement of gastric motility was observed only with the highest dose of cimetidine, and famotidine had no effect. Marked enhancement of gastric motility was observed with cisapride (0.1-0.5 mg/kg). After intraduodenal administration of nizatidine (10 and 20 mg/kg) and cisapride (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg), they also amplified the contractile activity of the gastric antrum. Gastric emptying of a solid test meal was accelerated by intraperitoneal administration of nizatidine (1-10 mg/kg) to the same extent as cisapride (0.1-1 mg/kg). In addition, even in a model of delayed gastric emptying induced by clonidine, nizatidine, like cisapride, improved the rate of gastric emptying. Neither cimetidine (3-30 mg/kg) nor famotidine (0.3-3 mg/kg) affected the gastric emptying of a solid meal or delayed gastric emptying. These results suggest that nizatidine enhanced gastric motility even during the digestive state, and accelerated gastric emptying of a solid meal, similar to cisapride. Furthermore, nizatidine improved clonidine-induced delayed gastric emptying. These prokinetic activities of nizatidine may by useful for the treatment of abdominal symptoms due to dysmotility and delayed gastric emptying in patients with gastritis and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). In comparison with famotidine and cimetidine, nizatidine may be different from other histamine H2-receptor antagonists and has unique properties other than its gastric antisecretory activity. PMID:10442211

Ueki, S; Matsunaga, Y; Yoneta, T; Tamaki, H; Itoh, Z

1999-07-01

66

RABEX-5 Is Upregulated and Plays an Oncogenic Role in Gastric Cancer Development by Activating the VEGF Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

RABEX-5, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-5, is implicated in tumorigenesis and in the development of certain human cancers. Here, we report that RABEX-5 promotes tumor growth and the metastatic ability of gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of RABEX-5 is significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues and is associated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis. In addition, targeted silencing of RABEX-5 reduced gastric cancer cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro via the induction of a G0/G1 phase arrest, and stimulated gastric cancer cell apoptosis. Knockdown of RABEX-5 also inhibited wound healing, migration and the invasive abilities of gastric cancer cells. The results of in vivo animal experiments were also consistent with these in vitro findings. Silencing of RABEX-5 led to decreased expression of VEGF. These results indicate that RABEX-5 is upregulated and plays an oncogenic role in gastric cancer development by activating the VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:25427001

Wang, Shuang; Lu, Aixia; Chen, Xiangming; Wei, Lin; Ding, Jiqiang

2014-01-01

67

Role of gastric antioxidant and anti-Helicobactor pylori activities in antiulcerogenic activity of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca).  

PubMed

Studies with plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) have indicated its ulcer protective and healing activities through its predominant effect on various mucosal defensive factors [Sanyal et.al, Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 149 (1964) 393; 155 (1965) 244]. Oxidative stress and Helicobactorpylori colonization are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. In the present study methanolic extract of plantain banana pulp (BE) was evaluated for its (i) antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2 hr cold restraint stress and (ii) anti-H.pylori activity in vitro. The extract (BE, 50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) showed significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric mucosal homogenates, where it reversed the increase in ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase values induced by stress. However it did not produce any change in catalase values, which was significantly decreased by stress. Further, in the in vitro study. BE (0.32-1,000 microg/ml) did not show any anti-H.pylori activity. The results suggest absence of anti-H. pyloric activity of methanolic extract of banana in vitro and its antioxidant activity may be involved in its ulcerprotective activity. PMID:12019769

Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Rao, C V

2001-07-01

68

Evaluation of the antipeptic ulcer activity of the leaf extract of Plantago lanceolata L. in rodents.  

PubMed

The effect of the leaf extract of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) on gastric secretion and cytoprotection was evaluated using different models of gastroduodenal ulcer, including acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer, indomethacin induced gastric ulcer, cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract was administered at 200?mg/kg and 400?mg/kg and 140?mg/kg and 280?mg/kg for mice and rats, respectively, and compared with vehicle or the standard, ranitidine (50 or 70?mg/kg) or misopristol (280??g/kg). In addition, activity of the mucilage (172?mg/kg) was also evaluated in acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer. Administration was done orally except in pylorus ligation, where the intraduodenal route was used. In all cases, higher doses of the extract provided better protection than lower doses and the mucilage, hinting at a dose-dependent effect. Whilst higher doses of the extract showed a better healing of the ulcer as well as protection in indomethacin and pylorus ligation models, activities of lesser magnitude than ranitidine were noted in the cysteamine model. Together these findings indicate that higher doses used in the present study provided an overall better protection against gastroduodenal ulcers than the standard drugs employed through antisecretory and cytoprotective mechanisms. PMID:21298726

Melese, Endale; Asres, Kaleab; Asad, Mohammed; Engidawork, Ephrem

2011-08-01

69

Expression of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator and Its Receptor in Gastric Fibroblasts and Effects of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Prostaglandin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In acute inflammatory condition, little is known about the expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in the gastric fibroblasts. To clarify the role of human gastric fibroblasts in acute inflammatory conditions such as gastric ulcer, the effects of interleukin (IL)-1ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a on the expression of uPA and uPAR, which were suggested

Jun-Ichi Iwamoto; Kimiko Takahashi; Yuji Mizokami; Toshiya Otsubo; Syuuhei Miura; Toshiaki Narasaka; Hiroki Takeyama; Takayuki Omata; Kouichi Shimokoube; Takeshi Matsuoka

2003-01-01

70

Convective washout reduces the antidiarrheal efficacy of enterocyte surface–targeted antisecretory drugs  

PubMed Central

Secretory diarrheas such as cholera are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We previously introduced the concept of antisecretory therapy for diarrhea using chloride channel inhibitors targeting the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel pore on the extracellular surface of enterocytes. However, a concern with this strategy is that rapid fluid secretion could cause convective drug washout that would limit the efficacy of extracellularly targeted inhibitors. Here, we developed a convection–diffusion model of washout in an anatomically accurate three-dimensional model of human intestine comprising cylindrical crypts and villi secreting fluid into a central lumen. Input parameters included initial lumen flow and inhibitor concentration, inhibitor dissociation constant (Kd), crypt/villus secretion, and inhibitor diffusion. We modeled both membrane-impermeant and permeable inhibitors. The model predicted greatly reduced inhibitor efficacy for high crypt fluid secretion as occurs in cholera. We conclude that the antisecretory efficacy of an orally administered membrane-impermeant, surface-targeted inhibitor requires both (a) high inhibitor affinity (low nanomolar Kd) to obtain sufficiently high luminal inhibitor concentration (>100-fold Kd), and (b) sustained high luminal inhibitor concentration or slow inhibitor dissociation compared with oral administration frequency. Efficacy of a surface-targeted permeable inhibitor delivered from the blood requires high inhibitor permeability and blood concentration (relative to Kd). PMID:23359285

Jin, Byung-Ju; Thiagarajah, Jay R.

2013-01-01

71

Reactive oxygen species activity and lipid peroxidation in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis: relation to gastric mucosal ascorbic acid concentrations and effect of H pylori eradication  

PubMed Central

Background—Helicobacter pylori is an independent risk factor for gastric cancer, and this association may be due to the bacterium causing reactive oxygen species mediated damage to DNA in the gastric epithelium. High dietary ascorbic acid intake may protect against gastric cancer by scavenging reactive oxygen species. ?Aims—To assess reactive oxygen species activity and damage in gastric mucosa in relation to gastric pathology and mucosal ascorbic acid level, and to determine the effect of H pylori eradication on these parameters. ?Patients—Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained for analysis from 161 patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia. ?Methods—Reactive oxygen species activity and damage was assessed by luminol enhanced chemiluminescence and malondialdehyde equivalent estimation respectively. Ascorbic acid concentrations were measured using HPLC. ?Results—Chemiluminescence and malondialdehyde levels in gastric mucosa were higher in patients with H pylori gastritis than in those with normal histology. Successful eradication of the bacterium led to decreases in both parameters four weeks after treatment was completed. Gastric mucosal ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations were not related to mucosal histology, but correlated weakly with reactive oxygen species activity (chemiluminescence and malodialdehyde levels). ?Conclusions—Data suggest that reactive oxygen species play a pathological role in H pylori gastritis, but mucosal ascorbic acid is not depleted in this condition. ?? Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; gastric cancer; reactive oxygen species; ascorbic acid PMID:9691912

Drake, I; Mapstone, N; Schorah, C; White, K; Chalmers, D; Dixon, M; Axon, A

1998-01-01

72

Aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits adenosine deaminase activity significantly in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate possible effects of aqueous taxus baccata extract on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous human tissues and to clarify mechanism(s) of its anticancer potential. Materials and Methods: Cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues were used in the study. The extracts were prepared in distilled water. Before and after treatment with the extracts, ADA activities in the tissue homogenates were measured. Results: ADA activity was found to be higher in gastric tissue compared with colon tissue, but no differences were found between ADA activities of cancerous and noncancerous tissues for both as well. In the plant extract studies, it was found that taxus extract significantly inhibited ADA activity both in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues. Conclusion: Our results suggest that aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits ADA activities in both gastric and colon tissues significantly. It is suggested that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, accumulated adenosine due to the inhibition of ADA enzyme might also play part in the anticancer properties of taxus species. PMID:24991094

Durak, Zahide Esra; Büber, Süleyman; Devrim, Erdinç; Kocao?lu, Hilmi; Durak, ?lker

2014-01-01

73

Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimFree radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects

José M. Alvarez-Suarez; Dragana Dekanski; Slavica Ristic; Nevena V. Radonjic; Natasa D. Petronijevic; Francesca Giampieri; Paola Astolfi; Ana M. González-Paramás; Celestino Santos-Buelga; Sara Tulipani; José L. Quiles; Bruno Mezzetti; Maurizio Battino; Irina V. Lebedeva

2011-01-01

74

TFF1 activates p53 through down-regulation of miR-504 in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The expression of TFF1 is frequently down-regulated in human gastric cancer whereas its knockout leads to the development of gastric adenomas and carcinomas in mouse models. The molecular mechanisms underlying the TFF1 tumor suppressor functions remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate, using colony formation assay and Annexin V staining, that reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cell models suppresses cell growth and promotes cell death. Furthermore, using a tumor xenograft mouse model of gastric cancer, we demonstrated that reconstitution of TFF1 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. The results from PG13-luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis indicated that TFF1 promotes the expression and transcription activity of the p53 protein. Further analysis using cycloheximide-based protein assay and quantitative real-time PCR data suggested that TFF1 does not interfere with p53 mRNA levels or protein stability. Alternatively, we found that the reconstitution of TFF1 down-regulates miR-504, a negative regulator of p53. Western blot analysis data demonstrated that miR-504 abrogates TFF1-induced p53 protein expression and activity. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate, for the first time, a novel mechanism by which the tumor suppressor functions of TFF1 involve activation of p53 through down-regulation of miR-504. PMID:25015107

Soutto, Mohammed; Chen, Zheng; Saleh, Mohamed A.; Katsha, Ahmed; Zhu, Shoumin; Zaika, Alexander; Belkhiri, Abbes; El-Rifai, Wael

2014-01-01

75

Notch4 promotes gastric cancer growth through activation of Wnt1/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers and lethal malignancies in the world. Discovering novel biomarkers that correlate with GC may provide opportunities to reduce the severity of GC. As one of Notch receptor family members in mammals, Notch4 plays an important role in carcinogenesis of several tumors. However, the precise function and mechanism of Notch4 in GC remain undefined. To address this question, we investigated whether Notch4 could be involved in GC progression. We found that Notch4 was activated by overexpressing exogenous intracellular domain of Notch4 (ICN4), and Notch4 activation promoted GC growth in vitro and in vivo, while Notch4 inhibition using ICN4 siRNA had opposite effects. In addition, Notch4 activation induced expression and activation of Wnt1, ?-catenin and downstream target genes, c-Myc and cyclin D1, in GC cells, while Notch4 inhibition had opposite effects. Moreover, ?-catenin depletion by siRNA attenuated cell proliferation induced by Notch4 activation. Therefore, our results revealed that Notch4 activates Wnt1/?-catenin signaling to regulate GC growth. PMID:25511451

Qian, Cuijuan; Liu, Fuqiang; Ye, Bei; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Yong; Yao, Jun

2015-03-01

76

A new bisphosphonate derivative, CP, induces gastric cancer cell apoptosis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the effects of a new derivative of bisphosphonates, [2-(6-aminopurine-9-yl)-1-hydroxy-phosphine acyl ethyl] phosphonic acid (CP), on human gastric cancer. Methods: Human gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, BGC-823, MKN-45, and MKN-28) and human colon carcinoma cell lines (LoVo and HT-29) were tested. Cell growth was determined using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry, Western blot, caspase activity assay and siRNA transfection were used to examine the mechanisms of anticancer action. Female BALB/c nude mice were implanted with SGC-7901 cells. From d6 after inoculation, the animals were injected with CP (200 ?g/kg, ip) or vehicle daily for 24 d. Results: CP suppressed the growth of the 6 human cancer cell lines with similar IC50 values (3239 ?mol/L). In SGC-7901 cells, CP arrested cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase. The compound activated caspase-9, increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Furthermore, the compound selectively activated ERK1/2 without affecting JNK and p38 in SGC-7901 cells. Treatment of SGC-7901 cells with the specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 or ERK1/2 siRNA hampered CP-mediated apoptosis. In the human gastric cancer xenograft nude mouse model, chronic administration of CP significantly retarded the tumor growth. Conclusion: CP is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of human carcinoma cells in vitro, and it also exerts significant inhibition on gastric cancer cell growth in vivo. CP induces human gastric cancer apoptosis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:24241351

Wang, Hai-jun; Liu, Yu; Fan, Li-qiao; Han, Cai-li; Jiang, Ye; Cheng, Shu-jie; Li, Yong

2013-01-01

77

Impact of antisecretory treatment on respiratory symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.  

PubMed

The effect of antisecretory treatment on extraesophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease was evaluated. Seventy-eight children presenting with typical and extraesophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent a multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII/pH). Children with a positive MII/pH were randomly treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine H(2) -receptor antagonists (H(2) RAs) during 3 months. At the end of the treatment period, all patients were recalled. A second treatment period of 3 months was given to those patients who were not symptom-free after 3 months. Thirty-five of the forty-one (85.4%) children with a pathologic MII/pH presented with extraesophageal symptoms and were treated with PPIs (omeprazole; n:19) or H(2) RAs (ranitidine; n:16) for 12 weeks. After 3 months, 11/19 (57.9%) PPI-treated patients had a complete resolution of symptoms; 6/8 nonresponders were treated with PPI for another 3 months and became all symptom-free. The other two underwent a Nissen fundoplication. Only 5/16 (31.2 %) patients treated with H(2) RAs had a complete resolution of symptoms after 3 months; 1/11 was treated again with H(2) RAs during 3 months, and 10/11 were changed to PPIs. In 3/10, a partial resolution of symptoms was achieved, while in 7/10, a complete remission was obtained (P < 0.05). Antisecretory reflux treatment improves extraesophageal reflux symptoms. The efficacy of PPIs is superior to that of H(2) RAs in these children. PMID:22236501

Ummarino, D; Miele, E; Masi, P; Tramontano, A; Staiano, A; Vandenplas, Y

2012-01-01

78

miR-30b, Down-Regulated in Gastric Cancer, Promotes Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth by Targeting Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with tumor development and progression. Our previous studies have revealed that H. pylori infection was able to induce the altered expression of miR-30b in gastric epithelial cells. However, little is known about the potential role of miR-30b in gastric cancer. Methods We analyzed the expression of miR-30b in gastric cancer cell lines and human gastric cancer tissues. We examined the effect of miR-30b mimics on the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro by flow cytometry (FCM) and caspase-3/7 activity assays. Nude mouse xenograft model was used to determine whether miR-30b is involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. The target of miR-30b was identified by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay and Western blot. Finally, we performed the correlation analysis between miR-30b and its target expression in gastric cancer. Results miR-30b was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and human gastric cancer tissues. Enforced expression of miR-30b promoted the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, and miR-30b could significantly inhibit tumorigenicity of gastric cancer by increasing the apoptosis proportion of cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was identified as the potential target of miR-30b, and miR-30b level was inversely correlated with PAI-1 expression in gastric cancer. In addition, silencing of PAI-1 was able to phenocopy the effect of miR-30b overexpression on apoptosis regulation of cancer cells, and overexpression of PAI-1 could suppressed the effect of promoting cell apoptosis by miR-30b, indicating PAI-1 is potentially involved in miR-30b-induced apoptosis on cancer cells. Conclusion miR-30b may function as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer by targeting PAI-1 and regulating the apoptosis of cancer cells. miR-30b could serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer. PMID:25170877

Zhu, En-Dong; Li, Na; Li, Bo-Sheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Mao, Xu-Hu; Guo, Gang; Zou, Quan-Ming; Xiao, Bin

2014-01-01

79

Sonic hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of rat gastric mucosal cells through ERK activation by elevating intracellular calcium concentration  

SciTech Connect

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced DNA synthesis in RGM-1 cells and elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). In addition, Shh as well as calcium ionophore A32187 rapidly activated ERK. However, Shh failed to activate ERK under calcium-free culture condition. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059 attenuated the DNA synthesis promoted by Shh. Moreover, when cells were pretreated with cyclopamine, Shh could not elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, activate ERK or promote DNA synthesis. On the other hand, although Shh induced Gli-1 nuclear accumulation in RGM-1 cells, Shh activated ERK even in cells pretreated with actinomycin D. These results indicate that Shh promotes the proliferation of RGM-1 cells through an intracellular calcium- and ERK-dependent but transcription-independent pathway via Patched/Smoothened receptor system.

Osawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan)]. E-mail: hohnishi@jichi.ac.jp; Takano, Koji [Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Noguti, Takasi [Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Mashima, Hirosato [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hoshino, Hiroko [Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Kita, Hiroto [Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Sato, Kiichi [Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Matsui, Hirofumi [Division of Gastroenterology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8576 (Japan); Sugano, Kentaro [Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan)

2006-06-02

80

Effects of Histamine H2Receptor Antagonists and a Proton Pump Inhibitor on the Mucosal Hydroxyproline Content of Ethanol-HCI-lnduced Gastric Lesions in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of different antisecretory agents (H2-receptor antagonists and a proton pump inhibitor) on collagen regeneration in rat gastric lesions induced by intragastric administration of 50% ethanol +0.15 N HC1 (EtOH-HCl). The lesion indices showed the highest value 30 min after administration of EtOH-HCl and a significantly decreased value 15 h later. The mucosal hydroxyproline concentration was significantly

T. Suzuki; Y. Tsukamoto; H. Goto; S. Hase; T. Arisawa; J. Asai

1992-01-01

81

AURKA regulates JAK2-STAT3 activity in human gastric and esophageal cancers.  

PubMed

Aurora kinase A is a frequently amplified and overexpressed gene in upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (UGCs). Using in vitro cell models of UGCs, we investigated whether AURKA can regulate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). Our data indicate that overexpression of AURKA in FLO-1 and AGS cells increase STAT3 phosphorylation at the Tyr705 site, whereas AURKA genetic depletion by siRNA results in decreased phosphorylation levels of STAT3 in FLO-1 and MKN45 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AURKA overexpression enhanced STAT3 nuclear translocation while AURKA genetic knockdown reduced the nuclear translocation of STAT3 in AGS and FLO-1 cells, respectively. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that AURKA expression induces transcriptional activity of STAT3. Pharmacological inhibition of AURKA by MLN8237 reduced STAT3 phosphorylation along with down-regulation of STAT3 pro-survival targets, BCL2 and MCL1. Moreover, by using clonogenic cells survival assay, we showed that MLN8237 single dose treatment reduced the ability of FLO-1 and AGS cells to form colonies. Additional experiments utilizing cell models of overexpression and knockdown of AURKA indicated that STAT3 upstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is mediating the effect of AURKA on STAT3. The inhibition of JAK2 using JAK2-specific inhibitor AZD1480 or siRNA knockdown, in presence of AURKA overexpression, abrogated the AURKA-mediated STAT3 activation. These results confirm that the AURKA-JAK2 axis is the main mechanism by which AURKA regulates STAT3 activity. In conclusion, we report, for the first time, that AURKA promotes STAT3 activity through regulating the expression and phosphorylation levels of JAK2. This highlights the importance of targeting AURKA as a therapeutic approach to treat gastric and esophageal cancers. PMID:24953013

Katsha, Ahmed; Arras, Janet; Soutto, Mohammed; Belkhiri, Abbes; El-Rifai, Wael

2014-12-01

82

Reduction in virus-neutralizing activity of a bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate by gastric acid and digestive enzymes.  

PubMed

Bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrates have been proposed for inducing passive immunity against various enteric pathogens. In vitro digestion studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of gastrointestinal secretions on the virus-neutralizing activity of a concentrate prepared from the colostrum of cows that were immunized with rotavirus. The proteolytic activity of human gastric and duodenal fluid specimens was used to design a two-stage in vitro digestion model with commercial enzymes for estimating the individual impact of pepsin, gastric acid, and select pancreatic enzymes on antirotavirus activity in bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrates. The rotavirus-neutralizing titer of concentrate was decreased by incubation with pepsin at pH 2, a pool of pancreatic enzymes at pH 7.5, or sequential digestion with pepsin (pH 2) and pancreatic enzymes (from initial titer of 55,210 to 2,030, 19,500, and 320, respectively). Reduction in rotavirus-neutralizing titer after gastric-phase digestion was primarily due to acidic conditions and not to proteolytic cleavage by pepsin. Although both trypsin and carboxypeptidase caused significant proteolysis of concentrate during duodenal-phase digestion, only trypsin caused a significant reduction in rotavirus-neutralizing titer. The extent of digestion was the same for concentrate suspended in water or skim milk. The results demonstrate that the biological activity of bovine milk antibodies is reduced by exposure to acid and trypsin in vitro and suggest that neutralization of both gastric acid and pancreatic trypsin may enhance the effectiveness and economic feasibility of passive oral immunoprophylaxis with bovine milk immunoglobulins. PMID:7815246

Petschow, B W; Talbott, R D

1994-08-01

83

Clinical impact of the HGF/MET pathway activation in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy.  

PubMed

In gastric cancer, available clinical studies focusing on the activated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway are limited to surgical and often heterogeneous series. MET copy number gain (CNG) and an activating truncation in the HGF promoter (deoxyadenosine tract element, DATE+) were studied in tumors of 95 patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy. Associations with overall survival (OS) and the pattern of metastatic disease were studied. Median OS was 9.7 months in 80 MET CNG <5 copies cases (MET-), and 6.4 months in 15 MET CNG was ?5 copies cases (MET+) (P=0.001). MET+ status confirmed the adverse prognostic effect in the multivariate model. A significantly different distribution of MET+/DATE+ and MET-/DATE- cases was observed between patients with and without peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). MET+ status confirms its adverse prognostic role in advanced gastric cancer patients. The activated MET/HGF axis seems to be associated with PC. These findings are relevant to the development of anti-MET/HGF compounds. PMID:24663077

Graziano, F; Catalano, V; Lorenzini, P; Giacomini, E; Sarti, D; Fiorentini, G; De Nictolis, M; Magnani, M; Ruzzo, A

2014-10-01

84

The stimulating effect of ghrelin on gastric motility and firing activity of gastric-distension-sensitive hippocampal neurons and its underlying regulation by the hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is an acylated peptide originally identified in the rat stomach as the endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) that promotes gastric motility. Our aims were to explore the effects of ghrelin on gastric-distension-sensitive neurons in the hippocampus and the potential for ghrelin to regulate gastric motility through the arcuate nucleus (Arc). Single-unit discharges in the hippocampus were recorded extracellularly, and gastric motility in conscious rats was monitored. The expression of GHSR-1a in the hippocampus was determined by PCR, Western blot and fluo-immunohistochemistry staining. Retrograde tracing and fluo-immunohistochemistry staining were used to determine ghrelin neuron projection. Ghrelin-Fluoro-Gold double-labelled neurons and GHSR-1a expression were observed in the Arc and hippocampus, respectively. There were gastric-distension-sensitive neurons in the hippocampus that could be excited by ghrelin or by electrical stimulation of the Arc. The excitatory effects could be blocked completely or partly by pretreatment with the ghrelin receptor antagonist [d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6. Gastric motility was significantly promoted by the administration of ghrelin into the hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner that could be completely abolished by [d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6. Electrical stimulation of the Arc could promote gastric motility as well. Nevertheless, these effects could be mitigated by pretreatment with [d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6. Electrical lesioning of the hippocampus diminished the excitatory effects on gastric motility that were induced by electrical stimulation the Arc. Our findings suggest that ghrelin plays an important role in promoting gastric motility via the hippocampus. The Arc may be involved in regulation of the influence of the hippocampus on gastric motility. PMID:24036593

Xu, Luo; Gong, Yanling; Wang, Hongbo; Sun, Xiangrong; Guo, Feifei; Gao, Shengli; Gu, Fang

2014-01-01

85

Effects of cimetidine on adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa stimulated by histamine, sodium fluoride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate.  

PubMed

Cimetidine, a recently developed histamine H2-receptor blocking agent has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rat, cat, dog and man. To study the mode of action of cimetidine the modification of stimulatory effects of histamine, sodium flouride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate by cimetidine on the adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa was studied. The effect of cimetidine was also compared to that of metiamide, an older histamine H2-receptor antagonist. The effect of cimetidine was qualitatively similar to that of metiamide, i.e. a selective blockade of histamine H2-receptors. Quantitatively cimetidine was about 10-fold more potent than metiamide. PMID:13313

Anttila, P; Westermann, E

1976-08-01

86

Dillapiole, isolated from Peperomia pellucida, shows gastroprotector activity against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Peperomia pellucida is a plant used in traditional medicine to treat gastric ulcers. Although this gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim herein was to identify the most active compound in the gastroprotective activity of P. pellucida using an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental rat model. A gastroprotective effect was observed when the hexane and dichloromethane extracts were tested, with the higher effect being obtained with the dichloromethane extract (82.3 ± 5.6%) at 100 mg/kg. Dillapiole was identified as the most active compound in this extract. Although there have been previous reports on dillapiole, this is the first on its gastroprotective activity. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 23.1, 56.1, 73.2 and 85.5% gastroprotection, respectively. The effect elicited by dillapiole at 100 mg/kg was not attenuated by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a prostaglandin synthesis blocker, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of dillapiole does not involve prostaglandins, NO or sulfhydryl groups. PMID:24064453

Rojas-Martínez, Raúl; Arrieta, Jesús; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Velázquez-Méndez, Antonio Magdiel; Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena

2013-01-01

87

Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells.  

PubMed

Both the endogenous antisecretory factor (AF) protein and peptide AF-16, which has a sequence that matches that of the active N-terminal region of AF, inhibit the increase in the epithelial transport of fluid and electrolytes induced by bacterial toxins in animal and ex vivo models. We conducted a study to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide AF-16 against the increase of transcellular passage and paracellular permeability promoted by the secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) in a cultured cellular model of the human intestinal epithelial barrier. Peptide AF-16 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the Sat-induced increase in the formation of fluid domes, in the mucosal-to-serosal passage of d-[1-(14)C]mannitol, and in the rearrangements in the distribution and protein expression of the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins ZO-1 and occludin in cultured human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. In addition, we show that peptide AF-16 also inhibits the cholera toxin-induced increase of transcellular passage and the Clostridium difficile toxin-induced effects on paracellular permeability and TJ protein organization in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. Treatment of cell monolayers by the lipid raft disorganizer methyl-?-cyclodextrin abolished the inhibitory activity of peptide AF-16 at the transcellular passage level and did not modify the effect of the peptide at the paracellular level. PMID:25534938

Nicolas, Valérie; Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

2015-03-01

88

Gastric dysrhythmias and nausea of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric dysrhythmias have been recorded from patients with a variety of nausea syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectric activity in women with and without nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 32 pregnant women gastric myoelectric activity was recorded for 30–45 min with cutaneous electrodes that yielded electrogastrograms (EGGs). Frequencies of the EGG waves

K. L. Koch; R. M. Stern; M. Vasey; J. J. Botti; G. W. Creasy; A. Dwyer

1990-01-01

89

Quercetin prevents oxidative stress and NF-kappaB activation in gastric mucosa of portal hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of quercetin on oxidative stress and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in an experimental model of portal hypertensive gastropathy induced by partial portal vein ligation (PPVL). Portal pressure was significantly elevated in PPVL rats. Transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were not significantly modified, indicating absence of liver injury. Histological analysis of gastric sections showed a lost of normal architecture, with edema and vasodilatation. The cytosolic concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the lipoperoxidation measurement by chemiluminiscence were significantly increased. Superoxide dismutase activity in gastric mucosa was significantly reduced. Portal hypertensive gastropathy induced a marked activation of NF-kappaB, accompanied by a decrease in IkappaB protein levels and a significant induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein. Administration of quercetin markedly alleviated histological abnormalities and inhibited oxidative stress and NF-kappaB activation. IkappaB decrease and induction of iNOS protein were partially prevented by quercetin. Quercetin treatment, by abolishing the NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway, may block the production of noxious mediators involved in the pathogenesis of portal hypertensive gastropathy. PMID:15476665

Moreira, Andrea J; Fraga, Christina; Alonso, María; Collado, Pilar S; Zetller, Claudio; Marroni, Claudio; Marroni, Norma; González-Gallego, Javier

2004-11-15

90

Palm vitamin E reduces catecholamines, xanthine oxidase activity and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the effects of Palm vitamin E (PVE) and ?-tocopherol (?-TF) supplementations on adrenalin, noradrenalin, xanthine oxidase plus dehydrogenase (XO?+?XD) activities and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS). Methods Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats (200-250?g) were randomly divided into three equal sized groups. The control group was given a normal diet, while the treated groups received the same diet with oral supplementation of PVE or ?-TF at 60?mg/kg body weight. After the treatment period of 28?days, each group was further subdivided into two groups with 10 rats without exposing them to stress and the other 10 rats were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours. Blood samples were taken to measure the adrenalin and noradrenalin levels. The rats were then sacrificed following which the stomach was excised and opened along the greater curvature and examined for lesions and XO?+?XD activities. Results The rats exposed to WIRS had lesions in their stomach mucosa. Our findings showed that dietary supplementations of PVE and ?-TF were able to reduce gastric lesions significantly in comparison to the stressed control group. WIRS increased plasma adrenalin and noradrenalin significantly. PVE and ?-TF treatments reduced these parameters significantly compared to the stressed control. Conclusions Supplementations with either PVE or ?-TF reduce the formation of gastric lesions. Their protective effect was related to their abilities to inhibit stress induced elevation of adrenalin and noradrenalin levels as well as through reduction in xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities. PMID:22639913

2012-01-01

91

TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF{beta} enhanced gastric cancer cell growth and ADAM inhibitors suppressed this effect. EGFR phosphorylation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were suppressed in ADAM17 knockdown cells. Conclusion: HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and EGFR transactivation from proHB-EGF shedding mediated by ADAM17 activated by TGF{beta} might be an important pathway of gastric cancer cell proliferation by TGF{beta}.

Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

2010-11-19

92

EGF receptor activation stimulates endogenous gastrin gene expression in canine G cells and human gastric cell cultures.  

PubMed Central

Gastrin release from the antral gastrin-expressing cell (G cell) is regulated by bombesin and luminal factors. Yet, these same extracellular regulators do not stimulate expression of the gene. Since the gastric mucosa expresses large quantities of EGF receptor ligands such as TGFalpha, we examined whether EGF receptor ligands stimulate gastrin gene expression in gastrin-expressing cell cultures. EGF receptor activation of primary cultures stimulated gastrin gene expression about twofold; whereas bombesin treatment of antral G cell cultures stimulated gastrin release but not gene expression. EGF and TGFalpha were weak stimulants of gastrin release. EGF receptor activation of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line stimulated gastrin gene expression nearly fourfold; and gastrin reporter constructs transfected into AGS cells were stimulated more than fourfold by EGF. EGF induction was conferred by the previously defined GC-rich gastrin EGF response element (gERE) element located at -68 to -53 bp upstream from the cap site since a mutation of the gERE element abolished both basal and EGF induction. Moreover, EGF treatment of AGS cells stimulated binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to this element. Collectively, these results demonstrate that gastrin gene expression and gastrin release are regulated by different signaling pathways: gene expression by EGF receptor activation and gastrin secretion by neuropeptides and luminal factors. PMID:9169507

Ford, M G; Valle, J D; Soroka, C J; Merchant, J L

1997-01-01

93

Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 2–6 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 µg/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words: ethyl 4-(3, 5-di-ter-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylamino) benzoate; toxicity; antioxidant; gastric-ulcer; anti-ulcer; histology; immunohistochemistry. PMID:24800807

Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

2014-01-01

94

Effects of unsaturated fatty acids on calcium-activated potassium current in gastric myocytes of guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of exogenous unsaturated fatty acids on calcium-activated potassium current [IK(Ca)] in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pigs. METHODS: Gastric myocytes were isolated by collagenase from the antral circular layer of guinea pig stomach. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record IK(Ca) in the isolated single smooth muscle cells with or without different concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), and oleic acid (OA). RESULTS: AA at concentrations of 2,5 and 10 ?mol/L markedly increased IK(Ca) in a dose-dependent manner. LA at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 ?mol/L also enhanced IK(Ca) in a dose-dependent manner. The increasing potency of AA, LA, and oleic acid (OA) on IK(Ca) at the same concentration (10 ?mol/L) was in the order of AA>LA>OA. AA (10 ?mol/L)-induced increase of IK(Ca) was not blocked by H-7 (10 ?mol/L), an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), or indomethacin (10 ?mol/L), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, and 17-octadecynoic acid (10 ?mol/L), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 pathway, but weakened by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (10 ?mol/L), an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway. CONCLUSION: Unsaturated fatty acids markedly increase IK(Ca), and the enhancing potencies are related to the number of double bonds in the fatty acid chain. The lipoxygenase pathway of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism is involved in the unsaturated fatty acid-induced increase of IK(Ca) in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pigs. PMID:15655819

Zheng, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiang-Lan; Jin, Zheng-Yuan; Sun, Jia-Bin; Li, Zai-Liu; Xu, Wen-Xie

2005-01-01

95

Evaluation of the gastroprotective activity of the extracts, fractions, and pure compounds obtained from aerial parts of Rubus imperialis in different experimental models.  

PubMed

Previous phytochemical studies carried out with Rubus imperialis Chum. Schl. (Rosaceae) have demonstrated the presence of triterpenes (niga-ichigoside F1 and 2?,3?,19?-trihydroxyursolic acid) in this species. The literature indicates that triterpenes are closely related to some pharmacological activities, including antiulcer activity. Therefore, in view of the previous promising results with this species, this work extends the phytochemical studies, as well as investigates its gastroprotective action in different models using rodents. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested using the following protocols in mice: ethanol/HCl and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced ulcer, acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer, ligature pylorus model, and free mucus quantification in mucosa. Isolated triterpenes were investigated in the ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. The results of this study show that R. imperialis extract (100, 250, or 500 mg) displays gastroprotective activity in the ethanol-induced ulcer model with a percentage of inhibition of gastric lesions of 70, 71, and 86 %, respectively. The extract also significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the indomethacin-induced ulcer. In this model, the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 41, 44, and 70 %, respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction of gastric juice volume and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH; however, gastric mucus production was not altered by treatment with the extract. It was also observed that the ethyl acetate fraction presented higher activity, leading to the isolation of niga-ichigoside F1 and 2?,3?-19-?-trihydroxyursolic acid, which presented antiulcer activity comparable to that of omeprazole, with an inhibition percentage of 98 and 99 %, respectively. These results demonstrate that R. imperialis extract and isolated compounds (niga-ichigoside F1 and 2?,3?-19-?-trihydroxyursolic acid) produce gastroprotective effects, and this activity seems, at least in part, to be related to antisecretory effects. PMID:24402081

Berté, Priscila Elisabeth; da Silva Lopes, Jhonny; Comandulli, Nicole Garbin; Rangel, Daniele Wolff; Monache, Franco Delle; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Niero, Rivaldo; de Andrade, Sergio Faloni

2014-04-01

96

Ziyuglycoside II-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells by regulating Bax/Bcl-2 expression and activating caspase-3 pathway  

PubMed Central

Ziyuglycoside II is an active compound of Sanguisorba officinalis L. that has anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antibiosis, and homeostasis properties. We report here on the anticancer effect of ziyuglycoside II on human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells. We investigated the effects of ziyuglycoside II on cell growth, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis of this cell line. Our results revealed that ziyuglycoside II could inhibit the proliferation of BGC-823 cells by inducing apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest, which was associated with regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Our study is the first to report the antitumor potential of ziyuglycoside II in BGC-823 gastric cancer cells. Ziyuglycoside II may become a potential therapeutic agent against gastric cancer in the future. PMID:23969976

Zhu, A.K.; Zhou, H.; Xia, J.Z.; Jin, H.C.; Wang, K.; Yan, J.; Zuo, J.B.; Zhu, X.; Shan, T.

2013-01-01

97

FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GC cells by regulating apoptotic signaling, which could be a promising therapeutic approach for gastric cancer.

Ma, Gui-Fen [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Yao, E-mail: shiyao_chen@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China) [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Zhi-Rong [Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing [Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Song, Dong-Li [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2013-01-11

98

Glutathione depletion impairs transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.  

PubMed Central

When primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells were exposed to heat (43 degree C), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or diamide, heat shock proteins (HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and HSC73) were rapidly synthesized. The extent of each HSP induction varied with the type of stress. Ethanol, H2O2, and diamide increased the syntheses of several other undefined proteins besides the HSPs. However, none of these proteins were induced by exposure to heat or the reagents, when intracellular glutathione was depleted to <10% of the control level by pretreatment with DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine. Gel mobility shift assay using a synthetic oligonucleotide coding HSP70 heat shock element showed that glutathione depletion inhibited the heat- and the reagent-initiated activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and did not promote the expression of HSP70 mRNA. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum against HSF1 demonstrated that the steady-state level of HSF1 was not changed in glutathione-depleted cells, but glutathione depletion inhibited the nuclear translocation of HSF1 after exposure to heat stress. These results suggest that intracellular glutathione may support early and important biochemical events in the acquisition by gastric mucosal cells of an adaptive response to irritants. PMID:8636403

Rokutan, K; Hirakawa, T; Teshima, S; Honda, S; Kishi, K

1996-01-01

99

Gastroprokinetic activity of nizatidine, a new H2-receptor antagonist, and its possible mechanism of action in dogs and rats.  

PubMed

We studied the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of a new H2-antagonist, nizatidine, in in vitro experiments and its gastroprokinetic action in the dog and rat in comparison with other H2-antagonists, neostigmine and cisapride. The IC50 of nizatidine for AChE was 6.7 x 10(-6) M, and this activity was reversible. The relative anti-AChE potency was in the following order: neostigmine > nizatidine > cimetidine > famotidine. The inhibition of AChE by nizatidine was noncompetitive, with a Ki value of 7.4 x 10(-6) M. Gastrointestinal (GI) motility was examined during the interdigestive state in dogs with chronically implanted force transducers. Nizatidine (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased the motor index in a dose-dependent manner. It was of interest that the contractile response of the GI tract to nizatidine was similar to the interdigestive migrating contractions-like activity. At the doses used in this study, neither cimetidine nor famotidine had a significant effect on the motor index. Neostigmine at a higher dose of 0.06 mg/kg and cisapride at 0.3 mg/kg were found to stimulate GI contractions. Gastric emptying was determined in rats given phenol red as a liquid test meal. Nizatidine (3 mg/kg, i.p., or above) significantly increased gastric emptying, whereas the other H2-antagonists had no such effect. The ED50 and ED90 values of nizatidine for inhibition of gastric acid secretion were 0.18 and 3.22 mg/kg in dogs, and 2.94 and 19.6 mg/kg in rats, respectively. These findings suggest that nizatidine stimulates GI contractions and accelerates gastric emptying at gastric antisecretory doses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8093722

Ueki, S; Seiki, M; Yoneta, T; Aita, H; Chaki, K; Hori, Y; Morita, H; Tagashira, E; Itoh, Z

1993-01-01

100

Inhibition of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase by chalcone derivatives, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin, from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi.  

PubMed

Two chalcone derivatives, xanthoangelol (1) and 4-hydroxyderricin (II) isolated from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi, inhibited pig gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase with IC50 values of 1.8 and 3.3 microM, respectively. The inhibition by I or II was competitive with respect to ATP and was non-competitive with respect to K+ I and II also inhibited K+, stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, with IC50 values of 1.3 and 3.5 microM, respectively. Proton transport in-vitro was inhibited by I or II, in a dose-dependent manner, 1 at 100 mg kg-1, i.p. significantly inhibited acid secretion and the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. These results suggest that the antisecretory effect of 1 is due to the inhibition of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase. PMID:1982146

Murakami, S; Kijima, H; Isobe, Y; Muramatsu, M; Aihara, H; Otomo, S; Baba, K; Kozawa, M

1990-10-01

101

Myorelaxant activity of 2- t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA) in guinea pig gastric fundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the mechanism whereby the antioxidant 2-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA) relaxes guinea pig gastric fundus smooth muscle. In circular smooth muscle strips, 10 ?M cyclopiazonic acid, a specific inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, induced a prolonged rise in tension which depended on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. BHA (pIC50=5.83), sodium nitroprusside (6.85), isoproterenol (7.69) and nifedipine (8.02), but not 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol

Fabio Fusi; Massimo Valoti; Georgi V. Petkov; Kiril K. Boev; Gian P. Sgaragli

1998-01-01

102

Piperine inhibits IL-1?-induced IL-6 expression by suppressing p38 MAPK and STAT3 activation in gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

Piperine, a kind of natural alkaloid found in peppers, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities, both in vitro and in vivo. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important cytokine that activates the signal transduction, promotes tumor cell metastasis, and induces malignancy, including in gastric cancer. However, the effects of piperine on IL-6 expression in gastric cancer cells have not yet been well defined. In this study, we investigated the effects of piperine on the IL-6 expression, and examined the underlying signaling pathways via RT-PCR, promoter studies and Western blotting in human gastric cancer TMK-1 cells. Our results showed that piperine inhibited interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-induced IL-6 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, piperine also inhibited IL-6 promoter activity. Experiments with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors and dominant negative mutant p38 MAPK indicated that p38 MAPK was essential for IL-6 expression in the TMK-1 cells. Additionally, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was also involved in the IL-1?-induced IL-6 expression in gastric cancer cells. Piperine inhibited IL-1?-induced p38 MAPK and STAT3 activation and, in turn, blocked the IL-1?-induced IL-6 expression. Furthermore, gastric cancer cells pretreated with IL-1? showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by treatment with IL-6 siRNA, piperine, and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and STAT3. These results suggest that piperine may exert at least part of its anti-cancer effect by controlling IL-6 expression through the suppression of p38 MAPK and STAT3. PMID:25234193

Xia, Yong; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Lian, Sen; Joo, Young Eun; Chay, Kee Oh; Kim, Kyung Keun; Jung, Young Do

2015-01-01

103

Reversal by NPY, PYY and 3-36 molecular forms of NPY and PYY of intracisternal CRF-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion in rats.  

PubMed Central

1. The Y receptor subtype involved in the antagonism by neuropeptide Y (NPY) of intracisternal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion was studied in urethane-anaesthetized rats by use of peptides with various selectivity for Y1, Y2 and Y3 subtypes: NPY, a Y1, Y2 and Y3 agonist, peptide YY (PYY), a Y1 and Y2 agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, a Y1 and Y3 agonist, NPY(3-36) and PYY(3-36), highly selective Y2 agonists and NPY(13-36) a weak Y2 and Y3 agonist. Peptides were injected intracisternally 10 min before intracisternal injection of CRF (10 micrograms) and gastric acid secretion was measured by the flushed technique for 1 h before and 2 h after pentagastrin-(10 micrograms kg-1 h-1, i.v.) infusion which started 10 min after CRF injection. 2. Intracisternal injection of CRF (10 micrograms) inhibited by 56% gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin. Intracisternal injection of NPY and PYY (0.1-0.5 microgram) did not influence the acid response to pentagastrin but blocked CRF-induced inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion. NPY(3-36) (0.5 microgram) and PYY(3-36) (0.25 and 0.5 microgram) also completely blocked the inhibitory action of CRF on pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion. 3. [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY (0.5-5 micrograms) and NPY(13-36) (0.5-5 micrograms) injected intracisternally did not modify gastric acid secretion induced by pentagastrin or CRF inhibitory action. 4. The sigma antagonist, BMY 14802 (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) did not influence the acid response to pentagastrin but prevented the antagonism by PYY(3-36) (0.5 microgram) of the CRF antisecretory effect. 5. These results show that both PYY and NPY and the 3-36 forms of PYY and NPY are equipotent in blocking central CRF-induced inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. The structure-activity profile suggests a mediation through Y2 receptor subtype and the involvement of sigma binding sites. PMID:8735621

Gué, M.; Junien, J. L.; Reeve, J. R.; Rivier, J.; Grandt, D.; Taché, Y.

1996-01-01

104

A PVP-extract fungal protein of Omphalia lapideacens and its antitumor activity on human gastric tumors and normal cells.  

PubMed

Omphalia lapidescens is an important medicinal fungus as well as traditional Chinese medicine used for disease treatment. It is mainly used as a vermifuge for anthelmintic therapy, but it has not been hitherto reported to possess antitumor activity. In this study, a purified bioactive protein in O. lapidescens (pPeOp) was obtained using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) followed by gel filtration chromatography. To evaluate the in vitro antitumor activity of pPeOp in human gastric tumor cells (MC-4 and SGC-7901) and normal cells (MC-1), MTT assay and FCM assay were used and the morphological changes, cell viability, cell death rate and cell apoptosis rate of MC-4, SGC-7901 and MC-1 cells were estimated. The results showed that pPeOp could significantly reduce the cell viability of MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 236.05 and 156.28 µg/ml, respectively. The morphological observation also indicated a similar result. In FCM assays, a significant increase of cell death rate and cell apoptosis rate of the tumor cells were observed, indicating probable necrosis-inducing effects and/or apoptosis-inducing effects of pPeOp. Importantly, there was no significant effect of pPeOp on MC-1 cells in each assay, showing that pPeOp has no adverse effects on the normal cells. In conclusion, pPeOp is a newly discovered bioactive protein in O. lapidescens and this is the first report on antitumor activity of such a fungal protein. This may provide a meaningful basis for developing a new protein drug for treatment against cancer, especially gastric cancer. PMID:21894437

Chen, Yi-Tao; Lu, Qun-Ying; Lin, Mei-Ai; Cheng, Dong-Qing; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Shan, Le-Tian

2011-12-01

105

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

106

Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) compared to omeprazole was studied on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract and a gel fraction isolated from the seeds showed significant ulcer protective effects. The cytoprotective effect of the seeds seemed to be not only due to the anti-secretory action but also to the effects on mucosal glycoproteins. The fenugreek seeds also prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation induced by ethanol presumably by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa thereby lowering mucosal injury. Histological studies revealed that the soluble gel fraction derived from the seeds was more effective than omeprazole in preventing lesion formation. These observations show that fenugreek seeds possess antiulcer potential. PMID:12127242

Pandian, R Suja; Anuradha, C V; Viswanathan, P

2002-08-01

107

Anti-tumor Activity of Ferulago angulata Boiss. Extract in Gastric Cancer Cell Line via Induction of Apoptosis.  

PubMed

Ferulago angulata Boiss. known in Iran as Chavir, has some bioactive compounds having antioxidant activity. Because of its antioxidant activities, it sounded Chavir extract can be a good candidate for finding chemopreventive agents having inductive apoptosis properties on cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxic effects and proapoptotic activities of Chavir's leaf and flower extracts were investigated on human adenocarcinoma gastric cell line (AGS). The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extract. Cytotoxic effects of the extract were performed by trypan blue and neutral red assays. For apoptosis detection, we used Annexin V staining, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays. The FRAP assay results showed that antioxidant activity of leaf extract was higher than flower extract. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of flower and leaf extracts changed coordinately, indicating the cytotoxicity of chavir extracts is due probably to induce apoptosis. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic effects of F. angulate Boiss. extracts on AGS cell line is close to some other plant extracts such as Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) and Scutellaria litwinowii. This is the first study on cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of chavir leaf and flower extracts against AGS cell line. The Further investigation can be identification of the agent(s) by which these effects is observed. PMID:25587323

Heidari, Shafagh; Akrami, Hassan; Gharaei, Roghaye; Jalili, Ali; Mahdiuni, Hamid; Golezar, Elham

2014-01-01

108

Anti-tumor Activity of Ferulago angulata Boiss. Extract in Gastric Cancer Cell Line via Induction of Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Ferulago angulata Boiss. known in Iran as Chavir, has some bioactive compounds having antioxidant activity. Because of its antioxidant activities, it sounded Chavir extract can be a good candidate for finding chemopreventive agents having inductive apoptosis properties on cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxic effects and proapoptotic activities of Chavir’s leaf and flower extracts were investigated on human adenocarcinoma gastric cell line (AGS). The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extract. Cytotoxic effects of the extract were performed by trypan blue and neutral red assays. For apoptosis detection, we used Annexin V staining, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays. The FRAP assay results showed that antioxidant activity of leaf extract was higher than flower extract. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis–inducing activity of flower and leaf extracts changed coordinately, indicating the cytotoxicity of chavir extracts is due probably to induce apoptosis. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic effects of F. angulate Boiss. extracts on AGS cell line is close to some other plant extracts such as Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) and Scutellaria litwinowii. This is the first study on cytotoxic and apoptosis–inducing effects of chavir leaf and flower extracts against AGS cell line. The Further investigation can be identification of the agent(s) by which these effects is observed. PMID:25587323

Heidari, Shafagh; Akrami, Hassan; Gharaei, Roghaye; Jalili, Ali; Mahdiuni, Hamid; Golezar, Elham

2014-01-01

109

Central nervous system effects of arachidonic acid, PGE2, PGF2 alpha, PGD2 and PGI2 on gastric secretion in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The effects of arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGF2 alpha, PGD2 and PGI2 on gastric secretion (acid, pepsin and volume) after intracerebroventricular administration were investigated in conscious, pylorus-ligated rats. Arachidonic acid 30-1000 micrograms had no effect on gastric secretion. PGE2 3 and 10 micrograms, reduced gastric secretion as measured 1 hour after injection, although the inhibition induced by 3 micrograms disappeared by 2 h. PGF2 alpha 10 and 30 micrograms, inhibited gastric secretion as measured after 1 h, whereas no change was observed in the gastric contents collected 2 h after 10 micrograms of PGF2 alpha. Intramuscular injection of 30 micrograms of PGF2 alpha had no effect on gastric secretion. Intracerebroventricular administration of 1-30 micrograms of PGD2 or PGI2 had no effect on gastric secretion. The results indicate that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha have a potent central antisecretory action in conscious, pylorus-ligated rats, whereas arachidonic acid, PGD2 and PGI2 do not have any central effects on gastric secretion. It is suggested that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha may be involved in the central nervous system control of gastric secretion. PMID:6360279

Puurunen, J.

1983-01-01

110

Gastric MALT lymphoma: a rarity.  

PubMed

Association of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection with gastric 'Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue' (MALT) lymphomas (MALTomas) is well established. In this study the frequency and characteristics of gastric MALToma over a period of 18 years was evaluated. During this period 24 patients with gastric MALToma were diagnosed; out of them, 13 (54.2%) had active H. Pylori infection. The mean and median age was 49.7 and 53.5 years. The male: female ratio was 17:7. The common presenting complaints were epigastric pain (n=10) and dyspepsia (n=9). Endoscopic findings revealed mild gastric hyperemia (n=16), superficial erosions (n=4) and superficial ulcers (n=4). It was concluded that the prevalence of gastric MALToma was very low in contrast to a high H. pylori gastritis in the Pakistani population. PMID:21419026

Pervez, Shahid; Ali, Naureen; Aaqil, Hina; Mumtaz, Khalid; Siddiq Ullah, Syed; Akhtar, Nake

2011-03-01

111

Primary gastric tuberculosis – report of 5 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric tuberculosis is rare, and usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis or an immunodeficient state. Here, we report five cases of gastric tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients without evidence of pulmonary involvement. Case presentation Three patients presented with gastric outlet obstruction that required surgery to relieve the obstruction as well as to confirm the diagnosis. The remaining two had involvement of gastroesophageal junction. All of them responded well to standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusion Though gastric tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered a possibility when patients present with gastric outlet obstruction or with endoscopic evidence of diffuse chronic inflammatory activity, particularly in areas endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:12703983

Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Patel, Nikhil D; Amarapurkar, Anjali D

2003-01-01

112

Anti-invasive activity of ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum through tightening of tight junctions and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activities in human gastric carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL) on the correlation between tightening of the tight junctions (TJs) and the anti-invasive activity in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells to elucidate further the possible anticancer mechanisms that G lucidum exerts. Within the concentrations of EGL that were not cytotoxic, EGL markedly inhibited the cell motility and invasiveness in a concentration-dependent manner. The activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in AGS cells were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with EGL, and this was correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins and the upregulation of the expression of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. The anti-invasive activity of EGL was also found to be associated with the increased tightness of the TJ, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance. Additionally, EGL repressed the levels of the claudin family members, which are major components of TJs that play a key role in the control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Furthermore, the levels of E-cadherin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, were inhibited by EGL treatment, however, those of snail, an epithelial to mesenchymal transition regulator and zinc finger transcription factor, were concentration-dependently increased in response to EGL treatment. Although further studies are needed, the present study indicates that TJs and MMPs are crucial targets of EGL-induced anti-invasiveness in human gastric cancer AGS cells. PMID:22196505

Jang, Kyung-Jun; Son, In-Seok; Shin, Dong Yeok; Yoon, Hyun-Min; Choi, Yung Hyun

2011-12-01

113

Cholinergic activation of a non-selective cation current in canine gastric smooth muscle is associated with contraction.  

PubMed

1. The effects of acetylcholine on membrane electrical properties of single smooth muscle cells dissociated from the circular layer of the canine gastric corpus were investigated using the nystatin perforated patch technique. Cells retained their ability to contract during recording, making it possible to correlate changes in membrane potential and membrane currents with contractions. 2. Acetylcholine caused depolarization from -59 +/- 8 mV to -18 +/- 7 mV (means +/- S.D., n = 12) with no generation of action potentials. The depolarization was associated with a membrane conductance increase, consistent with acetylcholine activating an inward current. In addition, acetylcholine caused contraction of cells to 58% of initial length. Both depolarization and contraction were reversible and were antagonized by atropine. 3. Under voltage clamp, acetylcholine activated inward current associated with increased current noise. The current-voltage relationship of the acetylcholine-induced current was studied at steady-state voltages and with voltage ramp commands. The inward current was largest between -40 and -20 mV and reversed direction to outward close to 0 mV (reversal potential, Erev = +3 +/- 9 mV). Reduction of external Na+ concentration to 21 mM shifted Erev to -42 +/- 5 mV, as predicted for a non-selective cation current. The conductance activated by acetylcholine (gACh) increased sigmoidally with depolarization, with about 2.5 nS activated at 0 mV. 4. Cells consistently contracted upon stimulation with acetylcholine, even when studied under voltage clamp at potentials as negative as -100 mV. This was consistent with muscarinic receptor activation causing release of Ca2+ from internal stores. When cells were bathed in Ca(2+)-free solutions, the first application of acetylcholine elicited normal inward current and contraction. Thereafter, both inward current and contractions were greatly diminished or absent, suggesting that the stores of Ca2+ had been depleted. 5. Caffeine caused reversible contraction and activation of inward current similar to that elicited by acetylcholine. 6. It is concluded that muscarinic stimulation of canine gastric smooth muscle cells involves activation of a non-selective cation conductance and is consistently accompanied by contraction. The release of Ca2+ from internal stores may be a common trigger for both events. PMID:1522514

Sims, S M

1992-04-01

114

Different patterns between mechanical and electrical activities: an approach to investigate gastric motility in a model of long-term diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The relationship between time-courses of mechanical and electrical events in longstanding diabetes was investigated in rats. Magnetic markers and electrodes were surgically implanted in the gastric serosa of male rats. Simultaneous recordings were obtained by AC biosusceptometry, electromyography and electrogastrography one, three and six months after injections of saline (control) or alloxan (diabetic). Frequency and amplitude of contraction, abnormal rhythmic index and half-bandwidth were obtained (ANOVA P < 0.05). Antral hypomotility and gastric motility instability were observed in the signal waveform of diabetic rats at the three time points of study. The mean frequency (4.4 ± 0.4 cpm) was strictly similar, but the mechanical and electrical correlation was lowest for diabetics groups. Decreases in mechanical amplitude were observed for all diabetic groups compared with control; also the ranges of frequency were much wider in diabetes. The half-bandwidth increased since the first month in mechanical recordings and only after the third month in electrical. In diabetic animals, about 40% of gastric activity was abnormal (against 12% in control) and may reach 60% in the sixth month of mechanical recordings. The multi-instrumental approach showed a more substantial deterioration in mechanical activity and created an integrative view of gastric motility for longstanding diabetic model. PMID:24345922

Marques, Rozemeire G; Americo, Madileine F; Spadella, Cesar T; Corá, Luciana A; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A

2014-01-01

115

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models. PMID:21160779

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

116

DACT2 is frequently methylated in human gastric cancer and methylation of DACT2 activated Wnt signaling.  

PubMed

Dapper, Dishevelled-associated antagonist of ?-catenin (DACT), is a key regulator of Wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study is to explore the epigenetic changes and the function ofDACT2 in human gastric cancer (GC). Eight human gastric cancer cell lines, 167 cases of primary gastric cancer and 8 cases of normal gastric mucosa were involved in this study. In addition, methylation Specific PCR (MSP), semi-quantitative RT-PCR, colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay, siRNA, immunofluorescence techniques and xenograft mice models were employed. The results indicate that DACT2 is frequently methylated in human primary gastric cancer (55.7%), and that methylation of DACT2 is associated with lost or reduction in its expression (X(2) test, P<0.01). We found that DACT2 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. Methylation of DACT2 is associated with tumor differentiation, invasion and intravascular cancerous emboli (X(2) test, P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.05). In gastric cancer patients treated with 5-FU and cisplatin, the five-year survival rates are higher in DACT2 methylated cases. DACT2 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells and suppresses gastric cancer xenografts in mice. Restoration of DACT2 expression inhibits both canonical and noncanonical WNT signaling in SGC7901 cells. Restoration of DACT2 expression sensitized gastric cancer cells to paclitaxel and 5-FU. In conclusion, DACT2 is frequently methylated in human gastric cancer and DACT2 expression is silenced by promoter region hypermethylation. DACT2 suppressed gastric cancer proliferation, invasion and metastasis by inhibiting Wnt signaling both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25520862

Yu, Yuanzi; Yan, Wenji; Liu, Xuefeng; Jia, Yan; Cao, Baoping; Yu, Yingyan; Lv, Youyong; Brock, Malcolm V; Herman, Jame G; Licchesi, Julien; Yang, Yunsheng; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

117

DACT2 is frequently methylated in human gastric cancer and methylation of DACT2 activated Wnt signaling  

PubMed Central

Dapper, Dishevelled-associated antagonist of ?-catenin (DACT), is a key regulator of Wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study is to explore the epigenetic changes and the function ofDACT2 in human gastric cancer (GC). Eight human gastric cancer cell lines, 167 cases of primary gastric cancer and 8 cases of normal gastric mucosa were involved in this study. In addition, methylation Specific PCR (MSP), semi-quantitative RT-PCR, colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay, siRNA, immunofluorescence techniques and xenograft mice models were employed. The results indicate that DACT2 is frequently methylated in human primary gastric cancer (55.7%), and that methylation of DACT2 is associated with lost or reduction in its expression (X2 test, P<0.01). We found that DACT2 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. Methylation of DACT2 is associated with tumor differentiation, invasion and intravascular cancerous emboli (X2 test, P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.05). In gastric cancer patients treated with 5-FU and cisplatin, the five-year survival rates are higher in DACT2 methylated cases. DACT2 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells and suppresses gastric cancer xenografts in mice. Restoration of DACT2 expression inhibits both canonical and noncanonical WNT signaling in SGC7901 cells. Restoration of DACT2 expression sensitized gastric cancer cells to paclitaxel and 5-FU. In conclusion, DACT2 is frequently methylated in human gastric cancer and DACT2 expression is silenced by promoter region hypermethylation. DACT2 suppressed gastric cancer proliferation, invasion and metastasis by inhibiting Wnt signaling both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25520862

Yu, Yuanzi; Yan, Wenji; Liu, Xuefeng; Jia, Yan; Cao, Baoping; Yu, Yingyan; Lv, Youyong; Brock, Malcolm V; Herman, Jame G; Licchesi, Julien; Yang, Yunsheng; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

118

Effects of the new H2-receptor antagonist 3-amino-4-[4- [4- (1-piperidinomethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]-cis-2-butenylamino]-3-cyclobutene-1, 2- dione hydrochloride on gastric acid secretion and ulceration.  

PubMed

The effect of 3-amino-4-[4-[4-(1-piperidinomethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]-cis- 2-butenylamino]-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione hydrochloride (IT-066), a new H2-receptor antagonist, on gastric acid secretion and on various experimental ulcers was investigated. IT-066 showed very potent and long lasting antisecretory action in pylorus ligated rats. The inhibitory potency of IT-066 given subcutaneously for gastric acid secretion was 1285 and 44 times higher than for cimetidine and famotidine, respectively. The duration of the inhibitory action of IT-066 was significantly longer than that of famotidine and cimetidine. In pylorus ligated rats, IT-066 showed almost 20 times higher potency than omeprazole with intraduodenal administration, and almost the same duration of action as omeprazole with one tenth the dose in oral administration. IT-066 showed a powerful protective effect on various experimental ulcer models. The potency of IT-066 administered subcutaneously was significantly higher compared with that of cimetidine, famotidine and omeprazole. IT-066 given orally also showed a more powerful antiulcer effect than cimetidine and omeprazole, and was comparable with that of famotidine in restraint and water immersion stress and cold-stress plus indometacin induced ulcer models in rats. These results suggest that IT-066 has powerful and long lasting antisecretory and antiulcer effects and is a useful antisecretory drug for treatment of peptic ulcer diseases. PMID:1971169

Muramatsu, M; Isobe, Y; Arai, I; Hirose-Kijima, H; Usuki-Ito, C; Nagai, H; Aihara, H; Otomo, S

1990-01-01

119

Functional neuroimaging of gastric distention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to measure brain activation during gastric distention as a way to investigate short-term satiety. We estimated\\u000a regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography (15O-water) during gastric balloon inflation and deflation in 18 healthy young women. The contrast between inflated minus deflated\\u000a conditions showed activation in the following four key regions that were identified a priori: dorsal

Elke Stephan; José V. Pardo; Patricia L. Faris; Boyd K. Hartman; Suck W. Kim; Emil H. Ivanov; Randy S. Daughters; Patricia A. Costello; Robert L. Goodale

2003-01-01

120

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide and gastric acid secretion in pregnant rats.  

PubMed

The effects of pregnancy on the basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and the level of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats were studied on pentobarbital-anaesthetized non-pregnant rats and rats in the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd week of gestation. Acid output was determined by titration of the gastric perfusate. Basal secretion was collected for 45 min before a 30 min infusion of pentagastrin (8 micrograms/ml/300 g body weight). Concentration of plasma GIP was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The immunoreactivity of GIP-like substance in the extract of the rat placenta collected from the rat at day 21 of gestation was examined by RIA. The biological activity of GIP-like substance in the rat placenta extract was tested by the reduction of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in male rats. The basal level of gastric secretion was higher in late pregnancy as compared with the non-pregnant rats. Pentagastrin induced a greater increase of gastric acid secretion in early but not late pregnant rats as compared with the non-pregnant animals. The basal and post-pentagastrin level of plasma GIP was higher in rats in late pregnancy. Both immunoreactivity and biological activity of GIP exist in the rat placenta extract. These results suggest that the normalization of gastric acid secretion in late pregnant rats is at least in part due to the production of GIP-like substance from placenta. PMID:7716131

Chen, T S; Yeh, G H; Pu, H F; Doong, M L; Lu, C C; Liu, S R; Young, T K; Ho, L T; Chang, F Y; Wang, P S

1995-01-01

121

The activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) promotes gastric cancer cell alteration of cellular morphology related to cell motility and invasion.  

PubMed

Cell motility proceeds by cycles of edge protrusion, adhesion and retraction. Whether these functions are coordinated by biochemical or biomechanical processes is unknown. Tumor invasion and metastasis is directly related to cell motility. We showed that stimulation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can trigger an array of responses that would promote tumor cell growth and invasion. Thus, we examined aspects of PAR1 activation related to cell morphological change that might contribute to cell motility. We established a PAR1 stably transfected MKN45 gastric cancer cell line (MKN45/PAR1). We examined morphological changes, Rho family activation and overexpression of cytoskeletal protein in cells exposed to PAR1 agonists (?-thrombin and TFLLR-NH2). MKN45/PAR1 grows with an elongated and polarized morphology, extending pseudopodia at the leading edge. However, in the presence of PAR1 antagonist, MKN45/PAR1 did not show any changes in cell shape upon addition of either ?-thrombin or TFLLR-NH2. Activated PAR1 induced RhoA and Rac1 phosphorylation, and subsequent overexpression of myosin IIA and filamin B which are stress fiber components that were identified by PMF analysis of peptide mass data obtained by MALDI-TOF/MS measurement. Upon stimulation of MKN45/PAR1 for 24 h with either ?-thrombin or TFLLR-NH2, the distribution of both myosin IIA and filamin B proteins shifted to being distributed throughout the cytoplasm to the membrane, with more intense luminescence signals than in the absence of stimulation. These results demonstrate that PAR1 activation induces cell morphological change associated with cell motility via Rho family activation and cytoskeletal protein overexpression, and has a critical role in gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:23242308

Fujimoto, Daisuke; Hirono, Yasuo; Goi, Takanori; Katayama, Kanji; Matsukawa, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Akio

2013-02-01

122

Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

2014-02-21

123

Immunotherapy in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

2014-01-01

124

SIRT1 counteracted the activation of STAT3 and NF-?B to repress the gastric cancer growth  

PubMed Central

Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) possesses apparently dual roles in regulation of tumor. Previous reports have documented the crosstalk between SIRT1 with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) signaling in leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In this study, the purpose was to survey the regulatory effects of SIRT1 on gastric cancer (GC) cells (AGS and MKN-45) and the relationships between SIRT1 and activation of STAT3 and NF-?B in GC cells. We found the SIRT1 activator (resveratrol RSV) contributed to the repression of viability and increase of senescence, which were rescued by SIRT1 inhibitor (nicotinamide NA) and SIRT1 depletion by CCK-8 assay and SA-?-gal assay respectively. Further study found SIRT1 activation (RSV supplement) not only inhibited the activation of STAT3 including STAT3 mRNA level, c-myc mRNA level phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) proteins and acetylizad STAT3 (acSTAT3) proteins, but also repression of pNF-?B p65 and acNF-?B p65. NA reversed the effects of RSV. In addition, either RSV or NA application could not change the cellular viability and senescence in MKN-45 cells with STAT3 knockdown or NF-?B knockdown. Overall, our findings suggested SIRT1 activation could induced the loss of viability and increases of senescence in GC in vitro. Moreover, our observations revealed SIRT1 displayed growth inhibitory activity in GC cells highly associated with causing repression of activation of STAT3 and NF-?B proteins via deacetylation.

Lu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Qiming; Yang, Yuxia; Liu, Jingping; Ma, Xin

2014-01-01

125

Combination of novel HER2-targeting antibody 1E11 with trastuzumab shows synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer.  

PubMed

The synergistic interaction of two antibodies targeting the same protein could be developed as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and gastric cancer patients, and HER2-targeted antibody therapy using trastuzumab is effective in many of these patients. Nonetheless, improving therapeutic efficacy and patient survival is important, particularly in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here, we describe the development of 1E11, a HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody showing increased efficacy in a highly synergistic manner in combination with trastuzumab in the HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines NCI-N87 and OE-19. The two antibodies bind to sub-domain IV of the receptor, but have non-overlapping epitopes, allowing them to simultaneously bind HER2. Treatment with 1E11 alone induced apoptosis in HER2-positive cancer cells, and this effect was enhanced by combination treatment with trastuzumab. Combination treatment with 1E11 and trastuzumab reduced the levels of total HER2 protein and those of aberrant HER2 signaling molecules including phosphorylated HER3 and EGFR. The synergistic antitumor activity of 1E11 in combination with trastuzumab indicates that it could be a novel potent therapeutic antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers. PMID:25306393

Ko, Bong-Kook; Lee, Sook-Yeon; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Persson, Helena; Rockberg, Johan; Borrebaeck, Carl; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Uhlen, Mathias; Lee, Jong-Seo

2015-02-01

126

Gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc solid dispersions against absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions is mediated by enhancement of antioxidant activity and endogenous PGE2 production and attenuation of NO production.  

PubMed

Zinc plays a key role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity, while alcohol dependency can lead to low zinc status. Complexes containing zinc have been reported to have better ability to protect gastric mucosa than the compounds alone. In this study, taurine zinc [Zn(NH3CH2CH2SO3)2] solid dispersions (SDs) were synthesized and investigated in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Gastric ulcer index; gastric mucosa malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production; and serum nitric oxide (NO) were assessed and histological analysis of the gastric mucosa tissue was performed. Taurine zinc (100, 200 mg/kg) SDs protected rat gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury. Moreover, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc SDs was accompanied by a decrease in serum NO and significant increase in gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). When indomethacin, a non-selective COX inhibitor was administered before the last dose of taurine zinc, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was weakened. Furthermore, taurine zinc (200 mg/kg) SDs protected against ulceration more significantly than the same dose of taurine alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between taurine and zinc. These results indicate taurine zinc protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced damage by elevating antioxidants, decreasing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. The gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was also partially mediated by endogenous PGE2 production. PMID:25041839

Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

2014-10-01

127

Pb(2+) induced IL-8 gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases and the transcription factor, activator protein 1, in human gastric carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Divalent lead (Pb(2+) ) is a common industrial pollutant epidemiologically associated with gastric cancers. Pb(2+) was found to promote tumorigenesis, which may include interleukin (IL)-8, a pro-inflammatory chemokine that promotes angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Given that the gastrointestinal tract is a major route of Pb(2+) exposure, we investigated the ability of Pb(2+) to induce IL-8 expression in gastric carcinoma cells and its underlying mechanism. At a concentration of 0.1 ?M, Pb(2+) induced IL-8 gene activation in gastric carcinoma AGS cells. Using a IL-8 promoter-deletion analysis, transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) was identified as a necessary component of Pb(2+) -induced IL-8 gene activation. Upregulation of the IL-8 gene was abrogated by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, and partially suppressed by the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, AG1478 and PD153035. Furthermore, c-Jun protein expression was induced in cells treated with Pb(2+) , and overexpression of c-Jun enhanced Pb(2+) -induced IL-8 activation. Collectively, our findings highlight the pivotal roles of AP-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in signal transduction of Pb(2+) -induced IL-8 gene activation. These molecules may be potential therapeutic targets for Pb(2+) -related inflammation leading to stomach carcinogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 315-322, 2015. PMID:24106166

Lin, Ying-Chi; Wei, Po-Li; Tsai, Yao-Ting; Wong, Jhen-Hong; Chang, Che-Mai; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Hou, Ming-Feng; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Chang, Wei-Chiao

2015-03-01

128

Tob1 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells by activating Smad4 and inhibiting ?-catenin signaling  

PubMed Central

Transducer of ErbB-2.1 (Tob1), a tumor suppressor protein, is inactivated in a variety of cancers including stomach cancer. However, the role of Tob1 in gastric carcinogenesis remains elusive. The present study aimed to investigate whether Tob1 could inhibit gastric cancer progression in vitro, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. We found differential expression of Tob1 in human gastric cancer (MKN28, AGS and MKN1) cells. The overexpression of Tob1 induced apoptosis in MKN28 and AGS cells, which was associated with sub-G1 arrest, activation of caspase-3, induction of Bax, inhibition of Bcl-2 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, Tob1 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, which were reversed in MKN1 and AGS cells transfected with Tob1 siRNA. Overexpression of Tob1 in MKN28 and AGS cells induced the expression of Smad4, leading to the increased expression and the promoter activity of p15, which was diminished by silencing of Tob1 using specific siRNA. Tob1 decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) in MKN28 and AGS cells, resulting in the reduced protein expression and the transcriptional activity of ?-catenin, which in turn decreased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4), urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and peroxisome proliferator and activator receptor-? (PPAR?). Conversely, silencing of Tob1 induced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3?, and increased the expression of ?-catenin and its target genes. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the overexpression of Tob1 inhibits gastric cancer progression by activating Smad4- and inhibiting ?-catenin-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:22710759

KUNDU, JUTHIKA; WAHAB, S.M. RIAJUL; KUNDU, JOYDEB KUMAR; CHOI, YOON-LA; ERKIN, OZGUR CEM; LEE, HUN SEOK; PARK, SANG GYU; SHIN, YOUNG KEE

2012-01-01

129

Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the methanol root bark extract of Cochlospermum planchonii (Hook f).  

PubMed

Cochlospermum planchonii (Hook f) is a common medicinal plant used in Nigeria traditional medicine for treatment of different ailments including ulcers. The anti ulcer activity of the root bark methanol extract of Cochlospermum planchonii was evaluated using different [ethanol, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), cold/restraint stress and pyloric ligation/histamine - induced ulcers and acid production] ulcerogenic models in rats at the doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight using cimetidine (100 mg/kg) as a standard reference drug. The different doses of the extract and the reference drug significantly (p < 0.01) decreased all the ulcer parameters in a dose dependent manner in all the models used. The total number of ulcers were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. The ulcer index was significantly (p < 0.004) reduced by the extract. Similarly, the percentage ulcer preventive index was also increased from 0% in the negative control up to 93.2% at the dose of 1000 mg/kg, while the percentage ulcer severity was dose dependently reduced by the extract. Furthermore, the extract significantly (p < 0.02) decreased free gastric HCl and total gastric acid. In conclusion, Cochlospermum planchonii methanolic root bark extract showed significant antiulcer activity in this study which may be as a result of its cytoprotective, antioxidant or antisecretory properties. PMID:24311856

Ezeja, Maxwell I; Anaga, Aruh O

2013-01-01

130

Antioxidant activity and ultrastructural changes in gastric cancer cell lines induced by Northeastern Thai edible folk plant extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Phytochemical products have a critical role in the drug discovery process. This promising possibility, however, necessitates the need to confirm their scientific verification before use. Hence, this study aims to evaluate (1) the antioxidant activity, (2) cytotoxicity potential, and (3) the effect on ultrastructural alteration in gastric cancer cell lines through exposure to fractions of three local Northeastern Thai edible plants. Methods Plants, Syzygium gratum, Justicia gangetica and Limnocharis flava were extracted with ethyl acetate, and each crude extract analysed for their total phenolics content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activity was assessed using the ABTS system. The extracts were then assayed for cytotoxicity on two gastric cancer cell lines Kato-III and NUGC-4, and compared with Hs27 fibroblasts as a control using the MTT assay. The cell viability (%), IC50 values, as well as the ultrastructural alterations were evaluated after treatment with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The total phenolic values of the ethyl acetate extracts were well correlated with the antioxidant capacity, with extracted product of S. gratum displaying the highest level of antioxidant activity (a 10-fold greater response) over J. gangetica and L. flava respectively. Exposure of S. gratum and J. gangetica extracts to normal cell lines (Hs27) resulted in marginal cytotoxicity effects. However, through a dose-dependent assay S. gratum and J. gangetica extracts produced cytotoxicological effects in just over 75 percent of Kato-III and NUGC-4 cell lines. In addition, apoptotic characteristic was shown under TEM in both cancer cell lines with these two extracts, whereas characteristics of autophagy was found in cell lines after post exposure to extracts from L. flava. Conclusions From these three plants, S. gratum had the highest contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. All of them found to contain compound(s) with cytotoxicity in vitro on cancer cells but not on normal cell lines as resolved in tissue culture and ultrastructural analysis. This is the first report to show the effect on cellular alteration as apoptosis of an ethyl acetate extract of S. gratum and J. gangetica. Further studies are now focused on individual isolates and their function, prioritizing on S. gratum and J. gangetica for the development of novel therapeutics and combatants against cancer. PMID:23497063

2013-01-01

131

Resistin-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression through Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of p38 MAPK/ NF?B signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) (CXC chemokine ligand-12)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the carcinogenesis of human gastric cancer, where it stimulates angiogenesis and favors metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs. In addition, resistin is suggested to be an important link between obesity and the development of gastric cancer. Resistin has identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. A limited number of studies have investigated the association of resistin and SDF-1 with gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which resistin influences the expression of SDF-1 in gastric carcinoma cells. Results Human gastric cancer cell lines were exposed to doses of resistin; SDF-1 expression and secretion levels were then determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to clarify molecular changes. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by a competitive antagonist inhibited resistin-induced SDF-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated that activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is critical for resistin-induced SDF-1 expression mediated by TLR4. The promoter activity and transcription factor enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that resistin induced expression of SDF-1 mediated by NF-?B in gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of p38 MARK activation blocked the SDF-1-induced expression and the SDF-1 promoter activity in the cancer gastric cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that inhibition of p38 MARK activation also blocked the resistin-increased NF-?B-DNA-binding activity. Conclusions Resistin-induced SDF-1 upregulation by activation of TLR4, p38 MARK and NF-?B may explain a new role of resistin in the link of obesity and gastric cancer. PMID:24929539

2014-01-01

132

Rhizoma Pinelliae trypsin inhibitor separation, purification and inhibitory activity on the proliferation of BGC-823 gastric adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate and purify Rhizoma Pinelliae trypsin inhibitor (RPTI), determine its N-terminal amino acid sequence and evaluate its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of poorly differentiated BGC-823 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. RPTI was separated and purified from a 40% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate of crude protein extract of Pinellia ternata tuber using affinity chromatography with trypsin as the ligand. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of RPTI was determined using the Edman degradation method. The inhibitory effect of RPTI on BGC-823 cell proliferation was detected in vitro using the MTT method and in vivo in tumour-bearing mice. The purified RPTI showed a single band under SDS-PAGE, its molecular weight was 14 kDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was DPVVDG. RPTI inhibited trypsin activity, with an inhibition ratio of 1:6.78 (mass). RPTI significantly inhibited the proliferation of BGC-823 cells in vitro. The IC50 of RPTI was 16.96 ?g/ml within 48 h after treatment and 9.61 ?g/ml within 72 h after treatment. Subcutaneous injection of RPTI around the tumour significantly inhibited BGC-823 tumour growth in mice. The tumour inhibitory effect was concentration- and dose-dependent. RPTI did not significantly influence the spleen coefficient of the mice. In conclusion, RPTI is a serine proteinase inhibitor with antitumour activity. PMID:24944630

Zu, Guohong; Wang, Houwei; Wang, Jie; Dou, Yan; Zhao, Weichong; Sun, Yuping

2014-07-01

133

Anticancer activity of resveratrol on implanted human primary gastric carcinoma cells in nude mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the apoptosis of implanted primary gastric cancer cells in nude mice induced by resveratrol and the relation between this apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 and bax. METHODS: A transplanted tumor model was established by injecting human primary gastric cancer cells into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice. Resveratrol (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg) was directly injected beside tumor body 6 times at an interval of 2 d. Then changes of tumor volume were measured continuously and tumor inhibition rate of each group was calculated. We observed the morphologic alterations by electron microscope, measured the apoptotic rate by TUNEL staining method, detected the expression of apoptosis-regulated genes bcl-2 and bax by immunohistoch-emical staining and PT-PCR. RESULTS: Resveratrol could significantly inhibit carcinoma growth when it was injected near the carcinoma. An inhibitory effect was observed in all therapeutic groups and the inhibition rate of resveratrol at the dose of 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg was 10.58%, 29.68% and 39.14%, respectively. Resveratrol induced implanted tumor cells to undergo apoptosis with apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes of chromatin condensation, chromatin crescent formation, nucleus fragmentation. The inhibition rate of 0.2 mL of normal saline solution, 1 500 mg/kg DMSO, 500 mg/kg resveratrol, 1000 mg/kg resveratrol, and 1500 mg/kg resveratrol was 13.68±0.37%, 13.8±0.43%, 48.7±1.07%, 56.44±1.39% and 67±0.96%, respectively. The positive rate of bcl-2 protein of each group was 29.48±0.51%, 27.56±1.40%, 11.86±0.97%, 5.7±0.84% and 3.92±0.85%, respectively by immunohistochemical staining. The positive rate of bax protein of each group was 19.34±0.35%, 20.88±0.91%, 40.02±1.20%, 45.72±0.88% and 52.3±1.54%, respectively by immunohistochemical staining. The density of bcl-2 mRNA in 0.2 mL normal saline solution, 1500 mg/kg DMSO, 500 mg/kg resveratrol, 1000 mg/kg resveratrol, and 1500 mg/kg resveratrol decreased progressively and the density of bax mRNA in 0.2 mL normal saline solution, 1500 mg/kg DMSO, 500 mg/kg resveratrol, 1000 mg/kg resveratrol, and 1500 mg/kg increased progressively with elongation of time by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol is able to induce apoptosis of transplanted tumor cells. This apoptosis may be mediated by down-regulating apoptosis-regulated gene bcl-2 and up-regulating the expression of apoptosis-regulated gene bax. PMID:15633232

Zhou, Hai-Bo; Chen, Juan-Juan; Wang, Wen-Xia; Cai, Jian-Ting; Du, Qin

2005-01-01

134

Effects of IY-81149, a newly developed proton pump inhibitor, on gastric acid secretion in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of IY-81149 (2-[[(4-methoxy-3-methyl)-2- pyridinyl]methyl-sulfinyl]-5-(1H-pyrol-1-yl)-1H-benzimidazole, CAS 172152-36-2), a newly developed proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on gastric acid secretion were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In rabbit parietal cell preparation, IY-81149 irreversibly inhibited H+/K(+)-ATPase in dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of pump inhibitory activity of 6.0 x 10(-6) mol/l and that of omeprazole (CAS 73590-58-6) was 1 x 10(-4) mol/l at pH 7.4. On cumulation of 14C-aminopyrine in histamine stimulated parietal cells, the IC50 of IY-81149 was 9.0 x 10(-9) mol/l and that of omeprazole was 1.9 x 10(-8) mol/l. The inhibition rates of IY-81149 and omeprazole at a concentration of 1 x 10(-9) mol/l in human parietal cells were 137% and 64%, respectively. In pylorus-ligated rats, IY-81149 showed a 2-3 times stronger inhibitory activity than omeprazole against gastric acid secretion. The ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole administered intraduodenally was 1.6 mg/kg and 3.8 mg/kg. In the case of oral administration, the ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole was 1.94 mg/kg and 5.64 mg/kg, respectively. But after 24 h administration, the anti-secretory activity of IY-81149 was lower than that of omeprazole at all doses tested. In anesthetized rats, IY-81149 dose-dependently increased gastric pH which was lowered by histamine infusion. In the case of i.v. injection, the ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole was 1.2 and 1.4 mg/kg and in the case of i.d. administration, the ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole was 3.9 and 4.1 mg/kg, respectively. IY-81149 also significantly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion. Its ED50 was 2.1 mg/kg and that of omeprazole was 3.5 mg/kg with i.d. administration. In the case of i.v. injection, IY-81149 was equipotent to omeprazole. IY-81149 also inhibited gastric acid secretion strongly in fistular rats. The ED50 of IY-81149 administered intraduodenally was 0.43 mg/kg and that of omeprazole was 0.68 mg/kg. In Heidenhain pouch dogs, the acid output was completely blocked at 0.3 mg/kg, 135 min after i.v. administration. Omeprazole showed a similar effect as IY-81149. The histamine induced increase of acid output in the Heidenhain pouch dog was blocked by 71% 150 min after oral administration of enteric-coated IY-81149 at a dose of 3 mg/kg, and omeprazole showed similar effects. In conclusion, IY-81149 revealed the characteristics as a strong proton pump inhibitor, and its potency against gastric acid secretion was superior to that of the reference drug, omeprazole. PMID:11304936

Kwon, D; Chae, J B; Park, C W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, E J; Huh, I H; Kim, D Y; Cho, K D

2001-01-01

135

Role of amplification in phospholipase C?2 activation in modulation of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori: effect of ghrelin.  

PubMed

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes are crucial elements of signal transduction pathways that provide a common link of communication integrating specific receptor responses to a variety of hormones, growth factors, and bacterial endotoxins with the intended intracellular targets. Here, we examined the involvement of PLC in modulation of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori LPS by peptide hormone, ghrelin. We show that stimulation of gastric mucosal cells with the LPS leads to the activation and membrane translocation of the ?2 isoform of PLC, phosphorylated on Tyr as well as Ser, while the effect of ghrelin is reflected in the translocation and phosphorylation of membrane-associated PLC?2 on Tyr mainly. Moreover, we demonstrate that PLC?2 phosphorylation on Tyr remains under the control of the Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFK-PTKs), and is intimately linked to PLC?2 membrane localization, while the LPS-induced phosphorylation of membrane-recruited PLC?2 on Ser displays dependence on protein kinase C? (PKC?) and leads to the amplification in PLC?2 activation. Thus, our findings link the extent of H. pylori-elicited gastric mucosal inflammatory involvement to the PKC?-mediated amplification in PLC?2 activation through phosphorylation on Ser. PMID:25362585

Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

2015-02-01

136

Fixed feeding potentiates interdigestive gastric motor activity in rats: importance of eating habits for maintaining interdigestive MMC.  

PubMed

Endogenous ghrelin regulates the occurrence of interdigestive gastric phase III-like contractions in rats. However, the fasted motor pattern is not as regular and potent in humans and dogs. We hypothesize that eating habits play an important role in maintaining a regular interdigestive gastric contractions. We studied the effect of fixed-feeding regimen on interdigestive gastric contractions and plasma acyl ghrelin levels. The fixed-fed rats were trained to the assigned meal feeding regimen, once daily at 12:00 PM to 4:00 PM for 14 days. Free-fed rats were maintained with free access to food. As ghrelin regulates gastric emptying as well, solid gastric emptying was also studied in fixed-fed rats and free-fed rats. In free-fed rats, two of six rats did not show interdigestive gastric phase III-like contractions. In contrast, phase III-like contractions were observed in all rats 14 days after starting the fixed-feeding regimen. The maximal amplitude of phase III-like contractions significantly increased from 8.4 +/- 0.6 to 16.3 +/- 1.8 g (n = 6, P < 0.05) 14 days after the start of the fixed feeding. Fasted and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased after 14 days of fixed feeding. Solid gastric emptying was significantly accelerated in fixed-fed rats (72.1 +/- 4.2%) compared with that of free-fed rats (58.7 +/- 2.7%, n = 6, P < 0.05). Our present findings suggest that fixed feeding increases plasma ghrelin levels, potent interdigestive contractions, and acceleration of gastric emptying. PMID:18174270

Ariga, Hajime; Imai, Kenji; Chen, Cindy; Mantyh, Christopher; Pappas, Theodore N; Takahashi, Toku

2008-03-01

137

CD49fhigh Cells Retain Sphere-Forming and Tumor-Initiating Activities in Human Gastric Tumors  

PubMed Central

Identification of gastric tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is essential to explore new therapies for gastric cancer patients. There are reports that gastric TICs can be identified using the cell surface marker CD44 and that they form floating spheres in culture, but we could not obtain consistent results with our patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) cells. We thus searched for another marker for gastric TICs, and found that CD49fhigh cells from newly-dissected gastric cancers formed tumors with histological features of parental ones while CD49flow cells did not when subcutaneously injected into immunodeficient mice. These results indicate that CD49f, a subunit of laminin receptors, is a promising marker for human gastric TICs. We established a primary culture system for PDTX cells where only CD49fhigh cells could grow on extracellular matrix (ECM) to form ECM-attaching spheres. When injected into immunodeficient mice, these CD49fhigh sphere cells formed tumors with histological features of parental ones, indicating that only TICs could grow in the culture system. Using this system, we found that some sphere-forming TICs were more resistant than gastric tumor cell lines to chemotherapeutic agents, including doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and doxifluridine. There was a patient-dependent difference in the tumorigenicity of sphere-forming TICs and their response to anti-tumor drugs. These results suggest that ECM plays an essential role for the growth of TICs, and that this culture system will be useful to find new drugs targeting gastric TICs. PMID:24015244

Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Seol, Hyang Sook; Shimada, Shu; Funasaka, Chikako; Baba, Kanako; Kim, Ji Hun; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Mi Jeung; Kato, Keiji; Inokuchi, Mikito; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kojima, Kazuyuki; Kim, Woo Ho; Jang, Se Jin; Yuasa, Yasuhito

2013-01-01

138

Antiulcer effect of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae: activation of cell proliferation in gastric mucosa during the healing process.  

PubMed

Tabebuia avellanedae (syn. Handroanthus impetiginosus) is popularly known as 'ipê-roxo' and has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory and in the treatment of ulcers, bacterial and fungal infections. This study evaluated the gastric ulcer healing property of the ethanolic extract (EET) of barks from Tabebuia avellanedae and investigated the mechanisms that may underlie this effect. Rats were treated with EET (twice a day for 7 days) after induction of chronic gastric ulcers by 80% acetic acid. Following treatment, histological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in gastric ulcer tissues. Oral administration of EET (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the gastric lesion induced by acetic acid in 44 and 36%, respectively. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated a contraction of gastric ulcer size, increase of mucus layer (periodic acid-Schiff stained mucin-like glycoproteins) and cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry) in animals treated with EET (100 and 300 mg/kg). The results demonstrate that EET significantly accelerates healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats through increase of mucus content and cell proliferation, indicating a potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer diseases. PMID:22969019

Pereira, Isabela Tiemy; Burci, Lígia Moura; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

2013-07-01

139

Detection of ouabain-insensitive H(+)-transporting, K(+)-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity in rat gastric glands by cerium-based cytochemistry.  

PubMed

We employed a modification of our previously reported cerium-based cytochemical method for ouabain-sensitive, K-dependent p-nitrophenylphosphatase (Na-K ATPase) activity to detect ouabain-insensitive, K-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K-pNPPase) activity in rat gastric glands. Biochemically, the enzyme activity of gastric glands incubated in a medium containing 50 mM Tricine buffer (pH 7.5), 50 mM KCl, 10 mM MgCl2, 2 mM CeCl3, 2 mM p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP), 2.5 mM levamisole, 10 mM ouabain, and 0.00015% Triton X-100, was optimal at pH 7.5-8.0 and decreased above pH 8.5. The amount of p-nitrophenol after incubation increased linearly in proportion to the amount of tissue in the medium. The enzyme activity was inhibited by omeprazole, sodium flouride (NaF), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Heat-treated specimens had no enzyme activity. The enzyme activity increased with addition of K ions up to the concentration of 50 mM, and became constant above 50 mM. Cytochemically, the parietal cells of the gastric glands reacted positively for ouabain-insensitive K-pNPPase activity. Intense reaction was observed at the microvilli of the luminal surface and the intracellular canaliculi. The tubulovesicular system showed weak enzyme activity. The reaction products were found as fine, granular, electron-dense deposits in the cytoplasm just beneath the plasma membrane. The ouabain-insensitive K-pNPPase activity detected in this study appears, therefore, to be associated with that of H-transporting, K-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (H-K ATPase). PMID:2174937

Kobayashi, T; Seguchi, H

1990-12-01

140

Type II cGMP?dependent protein kinase inhibits RhoA activation in gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

Small GTPase RhoA is a key signaling component regulating cell migration and stress fiber formation. Previous studies have shown that RhoA activity is regulated by protein kinases, such as cAMP?dependent protein kinase (PKA) and type I cGMP?dependent protein kinase (PKGI), which phosphorylate the protein. This study was designed to investigate the effect of type II cGMP?dependent protein kinase (PKGII) on RhoA activity. Cells of the human gastric cancer line AGS were infected with adenoviral constructs bearing the PKGII cDNA in order to increase its endogenous expression, and were treated with 8?pCPT?cGMP to activate the PKGII enzyme. A transwell assay was performed to measure the migratory activity of the treated cells, and immunofluorescent microscopy was used to observe the formation of stress fibers. The phosphorylation of RhoA was detected by western blotting, and the activity of RhoA was measured by a pull?down assay. Co?immunoprecipitation (co?IP) was performed to detect binding of PKGII to RhoA. Glutathione S?transferase (GST)?fused fragments of RhoA and PKGII were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to investigate the domains required for the binding. The results showed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) treatment increased the migration and the formation of stress fibers in AGS cells and that this effect was RhoA?dependent. An increase in PKGII activity, not only inhibited LPA?induced migration and stress fiber formation, but also suppressed LPA?induced activation of RhoA. PKGII caused serine 188 (Ser188) phosphorylation of RhoA, but not the phosphorylation of the mutant RhoA Ser188A, and therefore had no inhibitory effect on the activity of the mutant protein. Co?IP results showed that there is direct binding of PKGII to RhoA. The GST pull?down assay showed that the fragment containing RhoA amino acid residues 1?44 and the N?terminal fragment of PKGII containing amino acid residues 1?176 are required for the binding between the two proteins. These results suggested that PKGII inhibits RhoA activity by binding to this small GTPase and causing phosphorylation at its Ser188 site. PMID:24549567

Wang, Ying; Chen, Yongchang; Li, Yueying; Lan, Ting; Qian, Hai

2014-04-01

141

N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 promotes tumor inflammatory angiogenesis through JNK activation and autocrine loop of interleukin-1? by human gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was significantly correlated with tumor angiogenesis and malignant progression together with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. However, the underlying mechanism for the role of NDRG1 in the malignant progression of gastric cancer remains unknown. Here we examined whether and how NDRG1 could modulate tumor angiogenesis by human gastric cancer cells. We established NU/Cap12 and NU/Cap32 cells overexpressing NDRG1 in NUGC-3 cells, which show lower tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Compared with parental NU/Mock3, NU/Cap12, and NU/Cap32 cells: 1) induced higher tumor angiogenesis than NU/Mock3 cells accompanied by infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages in mouse dorsal air sac assay and Matrigel plug assay; 2) showed much higher expression of CXC chemokines, MMP-1, and the potent angiogenic factor VEGF-A; 3) increased the expression of the representative inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?; 4) augmented JNK phosphorylation and nuclear expression of activator protein 1 (AP-1). Further analysis demonstrated that knockdown of AP-1 (Jun and/or Fos) resulted in down-regulation of the expression of VEGF-A, CXC chemokines, and MMP-1, and also suppressed expression of IL-1? in NDRG1-overexpressing cell lines. Treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) resulted in down-regulation of JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation, and the expression of VEGF-A, CXC chemokines, and MMP-1 in NU/Cap12 and NU/Cap32 cells. Finally, administration of IL-1ra suppressed both tumor angiogenesis and infiltration of macrophages by NU/Cap12 in vivo. Together, activation of JNK/AP-1 thus seems to promote tumor angiogenesis in relationship to NDRG1-induced inflammatory stimuli by gastric cancer cells. PMID:23846687

Murakami, Yuichi; Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Uba, Manami; Ureshino, Hiroki; Kawahara, Akihiko; Abe, Hideyuki; Izumi, Hiroto; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

2013-08-30

142

Influence of sumatriptan on gastric fundus tone and on the perception of gastric distension in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIn animals, activation of 5-HT1 like receptors causes a relaxation of the gastric fundus through the activation of intrinsic inhibitory neurones.AIMSTo investigate the effect of sumatriptan, an agonist at enteric neuronal 5-HT1receptors, on fasting fundus tone and sensitivity to gastric distension in man.METHODSA gastric barostat was used to study the effect of placebo and sumatriptan, 6 mg subcutaneously, on basal

J Tack; B Coulie; A Wilmer; A Andrioli; J Janssens

2000-01-01

143

Expression of ST3GAL4 Leads to SLex Expression and Induces c-Met Activation and an Invasive Phenotype in Gastric Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Sialyl-Lewis X (SLex) is a sialylated glycan antigen expressed on the cell surface during malignant cell transformation and is associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis. The increased expression of sialylated glycans is associated with alterations in the expression of sialyltransferases (STs). In this study we determined the capacity of ST3GAL3 and ST3GAL4 sialyltransferases to synthesize the SLex antigen in MKN45 gastric carcinoma cells and evaluated the effect of SLex overexpression in cancer cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. The activation of tyrosine kinase receptors and their downstream molecular targets was also addressed. Our results showed that the expression of ST3GAL4 in MKN45 gastric cancer cells leads to the synthesis of SLex antigens and to an increased invasive phenotype both in vitro and in the in vivo CAM model. Analysis of phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptors showed a specific increase in c-Met activation. The characterization of downstream molecular targets of c-Met activation, involved in the invasive phenotype, revealed increased phosphorylation of FAK and Src proteins and activation of Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA GTPases. Inhibition of c-Met and Src activation abolished the observed increased cell invasive phenotype. In conclusion, the expression of ST3GAL4 leads to SLex antigen expression in gastric cancer cells which in turn induces an increased invasive phenotype through the activation of c-Met, in association with Src, FAK and Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA GTPases activation. PMID:23799130

Gomes, Catarina; Osório, Hugo; Pinto, Marta Teixeira; Campos, Diana; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.

2013-01-01

144

A cyclic GMP-dependent housekeeping Cl- channel in rabbit gastric parietal cells activated by a vasodilator ecabapide.  

PubMed Central

1. The membrane potential of rabbit gastric parietal cells is dominated by a Cl- channel with a subpicosiemens single channel conductance in the basolateral membrane. The effects of 3-[[[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]carbamoyl]amino-N-methylbenzamide++ + (DQ-2511: ecabapide), a vasodilator, on the opening of this Cl-1 channel, the cyclic GMP content and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of parietal cells were investigated by whole-cell patch-clamp technique, enzyme immunoassay and Fura 2-fluorescence measurement. 2.Ecabapide stimulated the opening of the Cl-1 channel as determined by the reversal potential. This stimulation was concentration-dependent, and its EC50 value was 0.2 microM. Both the basal and ecabapide-induced openings of the channel were inhibited by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB, 500 microM), a Cl- channel blocker. Another Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid (500 microM) was much less effective. 3. The power spectra of the currents before and after the addition of ecabapide (10 microM) were analysed. Both spectra contained only one Lorentzian (1/f2) component. 4. 6-Anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583; 5 microM) which prevents activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, significantly inhibited both the basal and ecabapide (10 microM)-induced openings of the Cl- channel. 5. Ecabapide (0.01-100 microM) concentration-dependently elevated the cyclic GMP content in the parietal cell-rich suspension. The EC50 value was 0.2 microM. 6. In single Fura 2-loaded parietal cells, ecabapide (10-100 microM) did not increase [Ca2+]i. 7. These results indicate that ecabapide stimulates an intracellular production of cyclic GMP in the parietal cell without increasing [Ca2+]i, and leads to an activation of the housekeeping Cl- channel. PMID:8982506

Sakai, H.; Ikari, A.; Kumano, E.; Takeguchi, N.

1996-01-01

145

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? upregulates galectin-9 and predicts prognosis in intestinal-type gastric cancer.  

PubMed

The importance of PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) in gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. We investigated the role of PPAR? in GC cell lines and an animal model, and its prognostic significance of PPAR? in GC patients. We controlled PPAR? and galectin-9 expression by using siRNAs and lentiviral constructs. Interaction between PPAR? and galectin-9 was evaluated using luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. PPAR? expression in GCs was determined by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and survival analysis was done. Overexpression of PPAR? was accompanied by increased galectin-9. Enhanced PPAR? or galectin-9 expression increased E-cadherin expression; decreased expression of N-cadherin, fibronectin, snail, twist and slug and reduced cell invasion and migration. PPAR? bound to the galectin-9 promoter region. Galectin-9 activity increased in PPAR?-overexpressing cells but decreased in PPAR? siRNA-treated cells. In a zebrafish xenograft model, the number of migrated cancer cells and number of fish with AGS cells in the tail vein were reduced in PPAR?-overexpressing GC cells. PPAR? was expressed in 462 of the 688 patients (69.2%) with GC. In 306 patients with intestinal-type GC, those with PPAR?-positive tumors had lower overall and cancer-specific mortalities than those with PPAR?-negative tumors. PPAR? expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall and GC-specific mortality in patients with intestinal-type GC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.81). PPAR? inhibits cell invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through upregulation of galectin-9 in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24976296

Cho, Soo-Jeong; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Lee, Jun Ho; Shin, Ji-Young; Park, JuRi; Bae, Young-Ki; Choi, Il Ju; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo

2015-02-15

146

Enzymatic sulfation of gastric mucous glycoprotein in rat--changes in glycoprotein sulfotransferase activity with stress and anti-ulcer agent, sofalcone  

SciTech Connect

Enzymatic sulfation of mucous glycoprotein (GP) was studied in gastric mucosa of rat. After rat stomach was incubated with (/sup 35/S)-sulfate, incorporation of radioactivity into gastric mucosal APS (adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate), PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) and endogenous GPs could be detected. The degree of sulfation of endogenous GPs was highest in the macromolecular GP (peak I) and lowest in the low molecular GP (peak III). By using a crude preparation of GP sulfotransferase from rat gastric mucosa, the transfer of (/sup 35/S)-sulfate from (/sup 35/S)-PAPS into macromolecular mucous GP was determined as being the activity of sulfotransferase. The activity of GP sulfotransferase was mainly distributed in the microsomal fraction, and was proportional to the incubation time, substrate (mucous GP) concentration and (/sup 35/S)-PAPS concentration. The enzyme activity was significantly higher in the corpus than that in the antral mucosa. The activity of GP sulfotransferase was significantly decreased at 6 h and was significantly increased at 12 h after the stress load, compared with that of the non-stressed condition. Anti-ulcer agent, sofalcone, increased the GP sulfotransferase activity under the stressed condition. On the other hand, cimetidine showed a significant inhibitory effect under the same condition. Changes in the GP sulfotransferase activity with stress and anti-ulcer agents were consistent with those in the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)-sulfate into macromolecular mucous GP. These results suggest the importance of GP sulfotransferase as a key enzyme regulating the sulfation of mucous GP.

Murakami, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Aihara, H.; Honda, A.; Mori, Y.

1987-07-01

147

Calcium carbonate breath test for non-invasive estimation of gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Gastric acid measurement is useful in assessing the effectiveness of antisecretory drugs, however, the conventional tests involve invasive nasogastric intubation. Orally administered ¹³C-labeled calcium carbonate (Ca¹³CO?) reacts with gastric acid to produce ¹³C-labeled carbon dioxide (¹³CO?), which is then excreted in the breath. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Ca¹³CO3 breath test for estimating gastric acid secretion in human noninvasively. First, the Ca¹³CO? breath test and the measurement of pooled gastric acid under a fasting condition were performed in 6 healthy volunteers to evaluate the correlation between the two parameters. Next, endoscopic gastric acid collection and the Ca¹³CO? breath test were performed on different days after pentagastrin injection in 20 subjects to evaluate the correlation between the tests and the reproducibility. Finally, the same studies were repeated in 4 subjects before and after 1-week rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, administration. The maximum CO? concentration (Cmax) correlated very well with the amount of pooled gastric acid (r = 0.95), suggesting that Ca¹³CO? breath test values well reflected the fasting intragastric acidity. The ¹³CO? concentration after pentagastrin injection correlated well with pentagastrin-stimulated maximal acid output (r = 0.79 at 20 min). The reproducibility of the Ca¹³CO? breath test under pentagastrin-stimulation was good (coefficient of variation = 0.11). Rabeprazole administration markedly reduced the values of the Ca¹³CO? breath test, suggesting that it can sensitively assess the efficacy of rabeprazole. The Ca¹³CO? breath test can potentially be a useful method for non-invasive estimation for gastric acid secretion in human. PMID:24670370

Shinkai, Hirohiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Maejima, Ryuhei; Endo, Hiroyuki; Ara, Nobuyuki; Asano, Naoki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2014-01-01

148

Postprandial biliary and pancreatic secretion during profound inhibition of gastric secretion in humans.  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the effect of profound inhibition of gastric secretion by an H2 antagonist on postprandial gastric emptying of acid and chyme, and on bile acid and pancreatic enzyme secretion under physiological conditions in humans. Six subjects were studied before and while they were given famotidine (40 mg). This study combined a continuous intestinal perfusion technique using 14C-polyethylene glycol (14C-PEG) as duodenal recovery marker, with intermittent sampling of gastric content using PEG 4000 as meal marker. During the three hour study, the area under the curve for gastric acid output decreased from mean (SEM) 88.9 (7.6) mmol for those not receiving treatment, to 21.2 (2.7) mmol for subjects receiving famotidine (p < 0.01). The corresponding values for the rate of acid delivery into the duodenum decreased from 65.2 (11.9) to 16.6 (2.9) mmol (p < 0.05), and those for the rate of gastric emptying of chyme remained unchanged for the group receiving no treatment and during famotidine (1040 (200) v 985 (160) ml respectively, NS). Duodenal bile acid and trypsin output remained unchanged (area under the curve, 457 (128) v 373 (86) umol/kg and 5022 (565) v 5058 (400) IU/kg respectively, NS) receiving no treatment and during famotidine. It is concluded that profound inhibition of postprandial gastric acid secretion by anti-secretory drugs is not accompanied by changes in biliary and pancreatic secretion, mainly because the gastric emptying of chyme is unaffected. PMID:8244151

Lanzini, A; Facchinetti, D; Pigozzi, M G; Wuhrer, A; Saleri, A

1993-01-01

149

Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats  

SciTech Connect

Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

1988-01-01

150

Component analysis and structure identification of active substances for anti-gastric ulcer effects in Radix Astragali by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study provided a comprehensive component analysis and structure identification of active substances for the anti-gastric ulcer effects of Radix Astragali. The data were generated by organically combining the results from in vivo pharmacodynamic experiments, a cell growth-promoting assay, structure identification, content determination, fingerprinting, and correlation analyses. The fingerprints from high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and from HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD) from 95% ethanol extracts of Radix Astragali (ERA) were determined using HPLC-DAD-ELSD. The structures of 16 compounds were identified using ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The contents of these 16 compounds were simultaneously determined in a single run using HPLC-DAD-ELSD. The strength of the anti-ulceration effect of each of the 16 compounds was correlated to its content in the HPLC spectrum using gray relation statistics. The sequence of the contribution from each of the 16 compounds to the anti-gastric ulcer effect was determined. The results showed that ononin, astragalosideIII, and astragalosideIV contributed most to the observed anti-gastric ulcer effects and that these three compounds also exhibited strong growth-promoting effects in cultured GES-1 cells. The results of this study can be used to evaluate the quality of Radix Astragali and to provide a theoretical foundation for its further study. PMID:24780704

Liu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Liang-Gong; Liang, Jing; Guo, Long; Yang, Ying-Lai; Hu, Fang; Zhu, Rui-Juan; Feng, Shi-Lan

2014-06-01

151

Relative efficacies of gastric proton-pump inhibitors on a milligram basis: desired and undesired SH reactions. Impact of chirality.  

PubMed

Gastric proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are prodrugs. Their acid activation at pH 1.0 inside the canaliculus of a parietal cell should be fast relative to their serum elimination rate. Actually, all PPIs display chemical activation half-lives at pH 1.0 of a few minutes at the most, while being eliminated from serum with a half-life of about 1 h. This is the main reason they show similar antisecretory efficacies on a milligram basis. It is in line with about 5% to 15% higher healing rates in GERD, DU and GU when 40 mg is compared to 20 mg of either omeprazole or pantoprazole. The comparably large biological variation between patient samples explains why some studies show statistically significant differences between the two doses, while others do not. However, it would matter to the individual patient if s/he was the one additionally healed by a 40 mg dose within a defined treatment period. Chemical activation of PPI prodrugs is unwanted in weakly acidic tissue compartments such as lysosomes or secretory granules. However, the ratio of the serum elimination half-life (availability at the target) to the chemical activation half-life at a critical pH 5.0 is reversed only with pantoprazole. when compared to pH 1.0 (i.e. the ratio is < 1 at pH 5.0 and > 1.0 at pH 1.0). This is the basis of the high pH selectivity of pantoprazole. In contrast, rabeprazole is activated at pH 5.0 almost as quickly as it is at pH 1.0 and much faster than it is eliminated from serum. This unwanted reactivity of rabeprazole at pH 5.0 does not contribute to the antisecretory action at pH 1.0 and results in poor pH selectivity. Omeprazole and lansoprazole lie in between, as they are activated, at pH 5.0, about as quickly as they are eliminated from serum. The above activation rates refer to room temperature. At 37 degrees C. the activation rates of all PPIs further increase, by about the same factor of between 3 and 4. This renders their differential pH selectivities even more critical for drug safety. Biological consequences have been reported in the literature. It has been claimed that a dose of 40 mg of the S-enantiomer of omeprazole (esomeprazole) results in 10%-15% higher healing rates in GERD patients, compared to 20 mg omeprazole racemate. The same difference is found when the two doses of omeprazole racemate are compared to each other. This is not surprising, as the chiral PPI prodrug is converted by acid into an achiral cyclic sulfenamide which only then reacts with the proton pump. There is therefore no pharmacodynamic argument in favour of any single enantiomer formulation of any PPI. Moreover, potential pharmacokinetic differences between the enantiomers seem to be of little if any importance in the patient. PMID:11768559

Kromer, W

2001-01-01

152

Epigenetic regulation of Delta-Like1 controls Notch1 activation in gastric cancer  

E-print Network

The Notch signaling pathway drives proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell fate, and maintenance of stem cells in several tissues. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling has been described in several tumours and ...

Piazzi, Giulia

153

?-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Helicobacter pylori-Induced Oncogene Expression and Hyperproliferation by Suppressing the Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Gastric Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as ?-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. ?-Lipoic acid (?-LA), a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ?-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits), activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-?B, AP-1), expression of oncogenes (?-catenin, c-myc), and nuclear localization of ?-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, ?-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-?B and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by ?-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:25210229

Byun, Eunyoung; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Hyeyoung

2014-01-01

154

In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1–2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4–7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4–7. Groups 3–7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. Conclusion Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2). PMID:23724090

Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.; Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Hadi, Hamid A.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

2013-01-01

155

Acidic Digestion in a Teleost: Postprandial and Circadian Pattern of Gastric pH, Pepsin Activity, and Pepsinogen and Proton Pump mRNAs Expression  

PubMed Central

Two different modes for regulation of stomach acid secretion have been described in vertebrates. Some species exhibit a continuous acid secretion maintaining a low gastric pH during fasting. Others, as some teleosts, maintain a neutral gastric pH during fasting while the hydrochloric acid is released only after the ingestion of a meal. Those different patterns seem to be closely related to specific feeding habits. However, our recent observations suggest that this acidification pattern could be modified by changes in daily feeding frequency and time schedule. The aim of this study was to advance in understanding the regulation mechanisms of stomach digestion and pattern of acid secretion in teleost fish. We have examined the postprandial pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and mRNA expression for pepsinogen and proton pump in white seabream juveniles maintained under a light/dark 12/12 hours cycle and receiving only one morning meal. The pepsin activity was analyzed according to the standard protocol buffering at pH 2 and using the actual pH measured in the stomach. The results show how the enzyme precursor is permanently available while the hydrochloric acid, which activates the zymogen fraction, is secreted just after the ingestion of food. Results also reveal that analytical protocol at pH 2 notably overestimates true pepsin activity in fish stomach. The expression of the mRNA encoding pepsinogen and proton pump exhibited almost parallel patterns, with notable increases during the darkness period and sharp decreases just before the morning meal. These results indicate that white seabream uses the resting hours for recovering the mRNA stock that will be quickly used during the feeding process. Our data clearly shows that both daily illumination pattern and feeding time are involved at different level in the regulation of the secretion of digestive juices. PMID:22448266

Yúfera, Manuel; Moyano, Francisco J.; Astola, Antonio; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

2012-01-01

156

Inhibition of gastric emptying.  

PubMed

In studies aimed at defining the role of amylin in glucose control, elevations of postprandial glucose concentration were blunted in subjects infused with the human amylin analog, pramlintide (Kolterman et al., 1995, 1996). An effect similar to blunt glucose excursions was observed by Brown and others during infusions of amylin in dogs trained to drink glucose (Brown et al., 1994). The effect of pramlintide in humans was present when glucose was administered orally, but not when administered intravenously, suggesting that the effect was due to a deceleration of glucose uptake from the meal, rather than an acceleration of its metabolism (Kolterman et al., 1995). Since amylin did not affect the rate of glucose transit across exteriorized gut loops (Young and Gedulin, 2000), it was proposed that blunting of postprandial glucose profiles could reflect effects on gastric emptying. Rates of gastric emptying have been determined using three different approaches: (1) by measurement of remnant dye found in acutely excised stomachs, (2) by the systemic appearance of labels that are not significantly absorbed until they leave the stomach (e.g., labeled glucose, acetaminophen, 13C-labeled volatiles), and (3) by following the passage of radiolabeled meal components scintigraphically, with a gamma-camera. Amylin and/or pramlintide were shown to potently inhibit gastric emptying by the first method in animals (Clementi et al., 1996; Young et al., 1995a, 1996b), by the second method in animals (Gedulin et al., 1995; Young et al., 1995a, 1996a) and in humans, including those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (Burrell et al., 2003b; Hücking et al., 2000; Kong et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2000; Vella et al., 2002), and by scintigraphy in patients with type 1 diabetes (Kong et al., 1997, 1998) and in nondiabetic subjects (Samsom et al., 2000). Depending upon dose, responses ranged from a slowing of emptying rate (e.g., by approximately 50%) to a complete cessation. In rats, amylin was 15-fold more potent on a molar basis than glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and 20-fold more potent than cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) for inhibition of gastric emptying (Young et al., 1996b). It was the most potent mammalian peptide of 21 tested for this action (Gedulin et al., 1996b). Amylin inhibition of gastric emptying appears to be mediated by a central mechanism (Clementi et al., 1996; Dilts et al., 1997; Young et al.,2000). An intact vagus nerve (Jodka et al., 1996) and an intact area postrema (Edwards et al., 1998) are required for the effect. In rats that underwent total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or surgical ablation of the area postrema, amylin was no longer effective at inhibiting gastric emptying (Edwards et al.,1998). The effect of amylin and amylin agonists (including pramlintide) to inhibit gastric emptying was reversed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia (Gedulin and Young, 1998; Gedulin et al., 1997b,c,d; Young et al., 1996a). This suggests the existence of a glucose-sensitive "fail-safe" mechanism that safeguards against severe hypoglycemia; nutrients ingested in response to the hunger that accompanies hypoglycemia can pass rapidly through the stomach for immediate digestion and absorption, unimpaired by the physiological restraint of amylin that would normally prevail at normal glucose concentrations. It seems likely that amylinergic control of gastric emptying is mediated via neurons in the area postrema shown in brain slices to be activated by amylin, and inhibited by low glucose (Riediger et al., 1999). Such neurons have been proposed to mediate glucoprivic gut reflexes (Adachi et al., 1995). PMID:16492543

Young, Andrew

2005-01-01

157

GNAS mutation as an alternative mechanism of activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type.  

PubMed

Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type (GAFG) is a rare variant of gastric tumor. We have recently reported the frequent accumulation of ?-catenin in GAFGs and showed that approximately half of the cases studied harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC, leading to the constitutive activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. However, the mechanisms of Wnt signaling activation in the remaining cases are unknown. Accumulating evidence showed that the activating mutation in GNAS promotes tumorigenesis via the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway or the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Therefore, we analyzed the mutations in GNAS (exons 8 and 9) and in KRAS (exon 2) in 26 GAFGs. Immunohistochemistry revealed nuclear ?-catenin expression in 22 of 26 GAFGs, and 10 (38.5%) of 26 cases harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC. Activating mutations in GNAS were found in 5 (19.2%) of 26 GAFGs, all of which harbored R201C mutations. Activating mutations in KRAS were found in 2 (7.7%) of 26 GAFGs, and both of these also contained GNAS activating mutations. Four of 5 cases with GNAS mutation showed nuclear ?-catenin expression, and presence of GNAS mutation was associated with ?-catenin nuclear expression (P = .01). Furthermore, 3 of these 4 cases did not harbor mutations in CTNNB1, APC, or AXINs, suggesting that mutations in the Wnt component genes and those in GNAS occur almost exclusively. These results suggest that GNAS mutation might occur in a small subset of GAFG as an alternative mechanism of activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:25288233

Nomura, Ryosuke; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Yasuhiro; Lee, Se-Yong; Watanabe, Sumio; Yao, Takashi

2014-12-01

158

Clinical significance of serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in gastric cancer: potential as a serum biomarker.  

PubMed

Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) can stimulate cancer cell proliferation and migration. The present study evaluated the clinical significance of serum TARC in gastric cancer (GC). We measured serum TARC, macrophage-derived chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and stem cell factor (SCF) levels using a chemiluminescent immunoassay along the GC carcinogenesis (normal, high-risk, early GC [EGC] and advanced GC [AGC]) in both training (N = 25 per group) and independent validation datasets (90 normal, 30 high-risk, 50 EGC and 50 AGC). Serum levels were compared among groups using one-way analysis of variance. To evaluate the diagnostic potential of serum TARC for GC, receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression analyses were performed. Correlations between serum TARC and GC clinicopathological features were analyzed using Spearman's correlation. In the training dataset, serum TARC correlated with serum MDC, MCP-1 and SCF. However, only serum TARC and SCF were significantly higher in cancer groups than non-cancer groups (P < 0.001). In the validation dataset, serum TARC also increased along the GC carcinogenesis; the AGC group (167.2 ± 111.1 ng/mL) had significantly higher levels than the EGC (109.1 ± 67.7 ng/mL), the high-risk (66.2 ± 47.7 ng/mL) and the normal (67.5 ± 36.2 ng/mL) groups (Bonferroni, all P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression demonstrated the remarkable diagnostic potential of serum TARC as a single marker (72.0% sensitivity and 71.1% specificity; cutoff point, 0.37; logistic regression) and in a multiple-marker panel (72.6% sensitivity and 88.2% specificity; cutoff point, 0.54). Spearman's correlation showed that serum TARC was closely correlated with tumor size (?s = 0.227, P = 0.028), T-stage (?s = 0.340, P = 0.001), N-stage (?s = 0.318, P = 0.002) and M-stage (?s = 0.346, P = 0.001). Serum TARC is a promising serum biomarker for GC. PMID:25154912

Lim, Jong-Baeck; Kim, Do-Kyun; Chung, Hye Won

2014-10-01

159

A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model  

PubMed Central

Background The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich.) Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.)Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants. Methods A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants. Results The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. Both the individual plant extracts and the mixed extracts of 5 plants exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against four G-ve bacteria. Despite Ozoroa insignis being toxic to mice at doses above 1000 mg/kg body wt, the other plant extracts and the combined extract of the 5 plants were tolerated by mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt. The brine shrimp test results showed the same pattern of toxicity with Ozoroa insignis being the most toxic (LC50?=?10.63 ?g/ml). Phytochemical tests showed that the combined extract of the five plants contained tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant activity. Conclusion The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s. PMID:23031266

2012-01-01

160

Preventive Effect of the Flavonoid, Wogonin, Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antitumor activities in various cell types, possesses a gastric cytoprotective effect was investigated in an ethanol-induced gastric damage model in rats. Ethanol administration alone induced evident gastric damage including gastric hemorrhages and edema, while this gastric damage was significantly

Soojin Park; Ki-Baik Hahm; Tae-Young Oh; Joo-Hyun Jin; Ryowon Choue

2004-01-01

161

A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

Savrikar, Shriram S; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B; Shukla, Vinay J

2010-04-01

162

Crocin triggers the apoptosis through increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase activation in human gastric adenocarcinoma, AGS, cells.  

PubMed

We previously showed the anticancer property of crocin, a carotenoid isolated and purified from saffron against chemical-induced gastric and breast cancer in rats. In this study, the mechanism of crocin action was investigated in the gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells in comparison with human normal fibroblast skin cells (HFSF-PI3). Crocin revealed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect against an AGS cell line, as determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Crocin-induced apoptosis was evidenced by flow cytometry and measuring caspase activity. The increased sub-G1 population and activated caspases in the treated AGS cells confirmed its anticancer effect. Expression of both Bax and Bcl-2 was determined using a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot in these cells before and after treatment with crocin. Apoptosis was significantly stimulated as indicated by increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio after crocin treatment. All of the above-mentioned parameters remained normal in HFSF-PI3 treated with crocin. These data are providing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the crocin-induced apoptosis in the AGS cells, rendering it as the potential anticancer agent. PMID:23347444

Hoshyar, Reyhane; Bathaie, S Zahra; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

2013-02-01

163

The gastric precancerous cascade.  

PubMed

Invasive gastric carcinoma is preceded by a cascade of precancerous lesions. The first recognized histologic change is active chronic inflammation, which may persist as such: non-atrophic chronic gastritis (no gland loss), or advance to multifocal atrophic gastritis (MAG), the first real step in the precancerous cascade. The following steps are: intestinal metaplasia (first "complete" and then "incomplete"); dysplasia, first low grade and then high grade (equivalent to "carcinoma in situ"). The following step is invasive carcinoma, which is thought to be associated with degradation of the intercellular matrix. PMID:22188910

Correa, Pelayo; Piazuelo, M Blanca

2012-01-01

164

Overexpression of activated leukocute cell adhesion molecule in gastric cancer is associated with advanced stages and poor prognosis and miR-9 deregulation.  

PubMed

Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been identified as a novel potential molecular marker of human tumors. The present study aimed to assess ALCAM as a prognostic marker for gastric cancer (GC), and to explore the mRNA deregulation underlying the abnormal expression of ALCAM. The mRNA and protein expression of ALCAM in GC and adjacent non?tumor tissues from 66 patients with GC were analyzed. The association between miR?9 and ALCAM mRNA expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum soluble ALCAM (sALCAM) was analyzed by ELISA in 72 patients with GC, 82 patients with gastric precancerous lesions and 73 controls. ALCAM and sALCAM levels were associated with certain clinicopathological variables, including overall survival. Compared with the non?tumor tissues, the expression of ALCAM mRNA in the GC tissues was significantly upregulated (P=0.013). The expression of miR?9 was reduced and inversely correlated with ALCAM mRNA levels in GC tissues and cell lines. The ALCAM mRNA level was reduced following ectopic overexpression of miR?9 in SGC?7901 human gastric cancer cells. The rates of membranous and cytoplasmic expression of ALCAM in GC tissues were 59.1 and 48.48%, respectively, and the serum sALCAM levels were significantly elevated in patients with GC. Elevated ALCAM mRNA, membranous ALCAM expression in GC tissues and high sALCAM levels are associated with advanced tumor stage, lymphatic invasion and shorter overall survival duration. The results of the current study indicated that membranous ALCAM expression and high serum sALCAM levels are independent prognostic markers of poor survival for patients with GC, and that the overexpression of ALCAM may be due to the downregulation of miR?9. PMID:25395097

Ye, Min; Du, Yan-Lei; Nie, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Jie; Li, Ying-Fei

2015-03-01

165

Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity  

PubMed Central

Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

2013-01-01

166

Prostaglandin Analogous and Antioxidant Activity Mediated Gastroprotective Action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. Flower Methanolic Extract against Chemically Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect and recognize the basic mechanism of action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. flowers. T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME) was screened for antiulcer activity versus aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses—125, 250, and 500?mg/kg—orally using misoprostol as a standard. Besides histopathological examination, seven parameters, that is, ulcer index, total protein, nonprotein sulphhydryls, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, were estimated. In addition to HPLC profiling, GC-MS analysis and electrospray ionization—high resolution mass spectral (ESI-HRMS) analysis of crude TDFME were carried out in an attempt to identify known phytochemicals present in the extract on the basis of m/z value. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, mucin, and nonprotein sulphhydryls, while they revealed a reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also demonstrated the protective effect. Though all the doses of TDFME exhibited gastroprotective function, higher doses were found to be more effective. Mass spectral analysis gave a few characteristic m/z values suggesting the presence of a few known indole alkaloids, while HPLC profiling highlighted the complexity of the extract. TDFME was found to exhibit its gastroprotective effect through antioxidant mechanism and by enhancing the production of gastric mucous. PMID:24350249

Mat Jais, Abdul Manan; Afreen, Adiba

2013-01-01

167

Effect of the chloroform extract of Tanacetum vulgare and one of its active principles, parthenolide, on experimental gastric ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

This study examines the anti-ulcerogenic activity of a chloroform extract of Tanacetum vulgare and purified parthenolide, the major sesquiterpene lactone found in the extract. Gastric ulcers induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol to rats were reduced dose-dependently by oral pretreatment of animals with the chloroform extract (2.5-80 mg kg(-1)) or parthenolide (5-40 mg kg(-1)). When administered 30 min before challenge with the alcohol the protection ranged between 34 and 100% for the extract and 27 and 100% for parthenolide. When the products were administered orally 24 h before treatment with ethanol, 40 mg kg(-1) of the extract and of the lactone reduced the mean ulcer index from 4.8+/-0.3 for control animals to 1.4+/-0.2 and 0.5+/-0.1, respectively. The products also prevented alcohol-induced reduction of the number of sulphydryl groups within the gastric mucosa (50.6+/-2.3 microg (mgprotein)(-1) for normal animals compared with 17.7+/-3.0 microg (mg protein)(-1) for alcohol-treated animals). Administration of the extract (80 mg kg(-1)) or parthenolide (40 mg kg(-1)) 24 h before ethanol treatment restored the numbers of mucosal -SH groups to values near those found for normal animals. These results suggest that the products assayed, in particular parthenolide, might find therapeutic application, although further work is required to establish their profit/risk ratio. PMID:10217322

Tournier, H; Schinella, G; de Balsa, E M; Buschiazzo, H; Mañez, S; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P

1999-02-01

168

micro-Opioid receptor stimulation in the medial subnucleus of the tractus solitarius inhibits gastric tone and motility by reducing local GABA activity.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of altering mu-opioid receptor (MOR) activity in the medial subnucleus of the tractus solitarius (mNTS) on several gastric end points including intragastric pressure (IGP), fundus tone, and the receptive relaxation reflex (RRR). Microinjection of the MOR agonist [d-Ala(2),MePhe(4),Gly(ol)(5)]enkephalin (DAMGO; 1-10 fmol) into the mNTS produced dose-dependent decreases in IGP. Microinjection of the endogenous MOR agonists endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (20 fmol) into the mNTS mimicked the effects of 10 fmol DAMGO. Microinjection of 1 and 100 pmol DAMGO into the mNTS produced a triphasic response consisting of an initial decrease, a transient increase, and a persistent decrease in IGP. The increase in IGP appeared to be due to diffusion to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The effects of 10 fmol DAMGO in the mNTS were blocked by vagotomy and by blockade of MORs, GABA(A) receptors, and ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mNTS. The RRR response was abolished by bilateral microinjection of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone into the mNTS and reduced by intravenous administration of naltrexone. Our data demonstrate that 1) activation of MORs in the mNTS with femtomole doses of agonist inhibits gastric motility, 2) the mechanism of MOR effects in the mNTS is through suppression of local GABA activity, and 3) blockade of MORs in the mNTS prevents the RRR response. These data suggest that opioids play an important role in mediating a vagovagal reflex through release of an endogenous opioid in the mNTS, which, in turn, inhibits ongoing local GABA activity and allows vagal sensory input to excite second-order mNTS neurons. PMID:20489046

Herman, Melissa A; Alayan, Alisa; Sahibzada, Niaz; Bayer, Barbara; Verbalis, Joseph; Dretchen, Kenneth L; Gillis, Richard A

2010-08-01

169

Epigenetic silencing of DACH1 induces the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by activating TGF-? signalling  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common malignancy in males and the fifth most common malignancy in females worldwide. DACH1 is frequently methylated in hepatic and colorectal cancer. To further understand the regulation and mechanism of DACH1 in GC, eight GC cell lines, eight cases of normal gastric mucosa, 98 cases of primary GC and 50 cases of adjacent non-tumour tissues were examined. Methylation-specific PCR, western blot, transwell assay and xenograft mice were used in this study. Loss of DACH1 expression correlated with promoter region methylation in GC cells, and re-expression was induced by 5-Aza-2?-deoxyazacytidine. DACH1 is methylated in 63.3% (62/98) of primary GC and 38% (19/50) of adjacent non-tumour tissues, while no methylation was found in normal gastric mucosa. Methylation of DACH1 correlated with reduced expression of DACH1 (P < 0.01), late tumour stage (stage III/IV) (P < 0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). DACH1 expression inhibited epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis by inhibiting transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signalling and suppressed GC cell proliferation through inducing G2/M phase arrest. The tumour size is smaller in DACH1-expressed BGC823 cell xenograft mice than in unexpressed group (P < 0.01). Restoration of DACH1 expression also sensitized GC cells to docetaxel. These studies suggest that DACH1 is frequently methylated in human GC and expression of DACH1 was controlled by promoter region methylation. DACH1 suppresses GC proliferation, invasion and metastasis by inhibiting TGF-? signalling pathways both in vitro and in vivo. Epigenetic silencing DACH1 may induce GC cells' resistance to docetaxel. PMID:24912879

Yan, Wenji; Wu, Kongming; Herman, James G; Brock, Malcolm V; Zhou, Yusen; Lu, Youyong; Zhang, Zhiqian; Yang, Yunsheng; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

170

Gastric sarcoidosis: rare presentation of a rare disease.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal sarcoidosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. Most of the cases are represented by gastric involvement. We describe a patient with previous systemic sarcoidosis who presented with non-specific abdominal complaints. The workup showed the unusual combination of isolated active gastric sarcoidosis and quiescent activity of the disease elsewhere. We briefly review the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of gastric sarcoidosis. We hope to increase awareness about this rare disease. PMID:25435277

Vanderhulst, Julien

2014-12-01

171

Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

1991-01-01

172

Control of Gastric H,K-ATPase Activity by Cations, Voltage and Intracellular pH Analyzed by Voltage Clamp Fluorometry in Xenopus Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Whereas electrogenic partial reactions of the Na,K-ATPase have been studied in depth, much less is known about the influence of the membrane potential on the electroneutrally operating gastric H,K-ATPase. In this work, we investigated site-specifically fluorescence-labeled H,K-ATPase expressed in Xenopus oocytes by voltage clamp fluorometry to monitor the voltage-dependent distribution between E1P and E2P states and measured Rb+ uptake under various ionic and pH conditions. The steady-state E1P/E2P distribution, as indicated by the voltage-dependent fluorescence amplitudes and the Rb+ uptake activity were highly sensitive to small changes in intracellular pH, whereas even large extracellular pH changes affected neither the E1P/E2P distribution nor transport activity. Notably, intracellular acidification by approximately 0.5 pH units shifted V0.5, the voltage, at which the E1P/E2P ratio is 50?50, by ?100 mV. This was paralleled by an approximately two-fold acceleration of the forward rate constant of the E1P?E2P transition and a similar increase in the rate of steady-state cation transport. The temperature dependence of Rb+ uptake yielded an activation energy of ?90 kJ/mol, suggesting that ion transport is rate-limited by a major conformational transition. The pronounced sensitivity towards intracellular pH suggests that proton uptake from the cytoplasmic side controls the level of phosphoenzyme entering the E1P?E2P conformational transition, thus limiting ion transport of the gastric H,K-ATPase. These findings highlight the significance of cellular mechanisms contributing to increased proton availability in the cytoplasm of gastric parietal cells. Furthermore, we show that extracellular Na+ profoundly alters the voltage-dependent E1P/E2P distribution indicating that Na+ ions can act as surrogates for protons regarding the E2P?E1P transition. The complexity of the intra- and extracellular cation effects can be rationalized by a kinetic model suggesting that cations reach the binding sites through a rather high-field intra- and a rather low-field extracellular access channel, with fractional electrical distances of ?0.5 and ?0.2, respectively. PMID:22448261

Dürr, Katharina L.; Tavraz, Neslihan N.; Friedrich, Thomas

2012-01-01

173

Combining Molecular Targeted Drugs to Inhibit Both Cancer Cells and Activated Stromal Cells in Gastric Cancer1  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed that PDGF plays a role in promoting progressive tumor growth in several cancers, including gastric cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts, pericytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells in stroma express high levels of PDGF receptor (PDGF-R); cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells do not. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that increases the production of proteins that stimulate key cellular processes such as cell growth and proliferation, cell metabolism, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we examined the effects of PDGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor (nilotinib) and mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) on tumor stroma in an orthotopic nude mice model of human gastric cancer. Expression of PDGF-B and PDGF-R? mRNAs was associated with stromal volume. Treatment with nilotinib did not suppress tumor growth but significantly decreased stromal reactivity, lymphatic invasion, lymphatic vessel area, and pericyte coverage of tumor microvessels. In contrast, treatment with everolimus decreased tumor growth and microvessel density but not stromal reactivity. Nilotinib and everolimus in combination reduced both the growth rate and stromal reaction. Target molecule-based inhibition of cancer-stromal cell interaction appears promising as an effective antitumor therapy. PMID:24403861

Onoyama, Mieko; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Yuge, Ryo; Shinagawa, Kei; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru; Chayama, Kazuaki

2013-01-01

174

Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

175

Swedish Adjustable Gastric Banding: a Preliminary Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The authors have been performing bariatric surgery for 15 years; since February 1992 they have carried out laparoscopic\\u000a gastric banding (LGB) with a silastic band. Good experience with the LGB combined with everyday laparoscopic activity in their\\u000a institution persuaded them to try laparoscopic placement of the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB). Methods: The surgical\\u000a procedure is the same as

A. Catona; L. La Manna; A. La Manna Mfl; C. Sampiero

1997-01-01

176

S100A8 and S100A9 Promotes Invasion and Migration through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent NF-?B Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

S100A8 and S100A9 (S100A8/A9) are low-molecular weight members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. Recent studies have reported S100A8/A9 promote tumorigenesis. We have previously reported that S100A8/A9 is mostly expressed in stromal cells and inflammatory cells between gastric tumor cells. However, the role of environmental S100A8/A9 in gastric cancer has not been defined. We observed in the present study the effect of S100A8/A9 on migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. S100A8/A9 treatment increased migration and invasionat lower concentrations that did not affect cell proliferation and cell viability. S100A8/A9 caused activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was not affected by the NF-?B inhibitor Bay whereas activation of NF-?B was blocked by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, indicating that S100A8/A9-induced NF-?B activation is mediated by phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. S100A8/A9-induced cell migration and invasion was inhibited by SB203580 and Bay, suggesting that activation of p38 MAPK and NF-?B is involved in the S100A8/A9 induced cell migration and invasion. S100A8/A9 caused an increase in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP12 expression, which were inhibited by SB203580 and Bay. S100A8/A9-induced cell migration and invasion was inhibited by MMP2 siRNA and MMP12 siRNA, indicating that MMP2 and MMP12 is related to the S100A8/A9 induced cell migration and invasion. Taken together, these results suggest that S100A8/A9 promotes cell migration and invasion through p38 MAPK-dependent NF-?B activation leading to an increase of MMP2 and MMP12 in gastric cancer. PMID:23456298

Kwon, Chae Hwa; Moon, Hyun Jung; Park, Hye Ji; Choi, Jin Hwa; Park, Do Youn

2013-01-01

177

Primary Gastric Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

We report a case of primary gastric malignant melanoma that was diagnosed after curative resection but initially misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as a polypoid lesion with central ulceration located in the upper body of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and the final pathologic evaluation led to the diagnosis of primary gastric malignant melanoma without a primary lesion detected in the body. To the best of our knowledge, primary gastric malignant melanoma is extremely rare, and this is the first case reported in our country. According to the literature, it has aggressive biologic activity compared with adenocarcinoma, and curative resection is the only promising treatment strategy. In our case, the patient received an early diagnosis and underwent curative gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy, and no recurrence was noted for about two years. PMID:25580362

Cho, Jun-Min; Lee, Chang Min; Jang, You-Jin; Park, Sung-Soo; Park, Seong-Heum; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Chong-Suk; Lee, Ju-Han

2014-01-01

178

Pb(2+) induces gastrin gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transcription factor activator protein 1 in human gastric carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Divalent lead ions (Pb(2+) ) are toxic environmental pollutants known to cause serious health problems in humans and animals. Absorption of Pb(2+) from air, water, and food takes place in the respiratory and digestive tracts. The ways in which absorbed Pb(2+) affects cell physiology are just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting to analyze cultures of human gastric carcinoma cells exposed to 10 ?M lead nitrate. We found that Pb(2+) induces gastrin hormone gene transcription and translation in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that activator protein 1 (AP1) was necessary for gastrin gene transcription in cells exposed to Pb(2+) . MitogIen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the Pb(2+) -induced increase in messenger RNA. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 reduced both transcription and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells exposed to Pb(2+) also increased production of c-Jun protein, a component of AP1, and over-expression of c-Jun enhanced activation of the gastrin promoter. In sum, the findings suggest the EGFR-ERK1/2-AP1 pathway mediates the effects of Pb(2+) on gastrin gene activity in cell culture. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 129-136, 2015. PMID:23765435

Chan, Chien-Pin; Tsai, Yao-Ting; Chen, Yao-Li; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Joseph T; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Shiurba, Robert; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Chiao

2015-02-01

179

Vection-induced gastric dysrhythmias and motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gastric electrical and mechanical activity during vection-induced motion sickness was investigated. The contractile events of the antrum and gastric myoelectric activity in healthy subjects exposed to vection were measured simultaneously. Symptomatic and myoelectric responses of subjects with vagotomy and gastric resections during vection stimuli were determined. And laboratory based computer systems for analysis of the myoelectric signal were developed. Gastric myoelectric activity was recorded from cutaneous electrodes, i.e., electrogastrograms (EGGs), and antral contractions were measured with intraluminal pressure transducers. Vection was induced by a rotating drum. gastric electromechanical activity was recorded during three periods: 15 min baseline, 15 min drum rotation (vection), and 15 to 30 min recovery. Preliminary results showed that catecholamine responses in nauseated versus symptom-free subjects were divergent and pretreatment with metoclopramide HC1 (Reglan) prevented vection-induced nausea and reduced tachygastrias in two previously symptomatic subjects.

Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

1986-01-01

180

KDM5B is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is required for gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. KDM5B (also known as JARID1B) is a newly identified histone demethylase that regulates chromatin structure or gene expression by removing methyl residues from trimethylated lysine 4 on histone H3. Recent observations have shown oncogenic activity of KDM5B. However, the role of KDM5B in gastric cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of KDM5B in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting, and qRT-PCR were used to measure the levels of KDM5B in gastric cancer cell lines, 45 pairs of gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. KDM5B and shKDM5B were transfected into gastric cancer cells to investigate its role on regulating cell proliferation which was measured by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell’s migration and invasion were measured by Transwell and Matrigel analysis in vitro. PCNA expression was measured by immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemical analysis. The in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis assays were performed in SCID mice. In clinical gastric cancer samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly up-regulated in cancer lesions compared with paired normal gastric tissues. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in gastric cancer cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth and metastasis in vitro. An in vivo assay showed that KDM5B not only dramatically promoted gastric cancer cell xenograft formation and growth but also promoted gastric cancer cell metastasis in a liver metastasis model. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted gastric cancer metastasis via regulation of the Akt pathway. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in gastric cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer management.

Wang, Zhenran; Tang, Fang; Qi, Guangying; Yuan, Shengguang; Zhang, Guangyu; Tang, Bo; He, Songqing

2015-01-01

181

Comparison between gastric emptying of digestible and indigestible solids in diabetic patients.  

PubMed

We measured simultaneously gastric emptying of digestible and indigestible solids in 10 normal subjects and in 14 insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that in both diabetics and in controls the gastric emptying of digestible and indigestible solids occurs during the same phase of gastric motor activity, i.e. during the post-prandial period. However, gastric emptying of both digestible and indigestible solids is delayed in diabetic patients compared to controls. PMID:2075788

Brogna, A; Catalano, F; Mangiameli, A; Monello, S; Ferrara, R; Bucceri, A M; Marletta, A

1990-01-01

182

Treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

2014-01-01

183

Ramucirumab for gastric cancer.  

PubMed

In recent years, various molecular target agents have been investigated for gastric cancer. VEGF is one of the most potent angiogenic factors and is a signaling molecule secreted by many solid tumors. High VEGF expression is one of the characteristic features of gastric carcinomas, thus targeting VEGF is considered a promising strategy for gastric cancer. Ramucirumab, an anti-VEGF receptor antibody, has proven to be effective for previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Details of ramucirumab, including two pivotal Phase III studies, will be discussed in this review. Ramucirumab, with or without chemotherapy, improved survival in gastric cancer after previous systemic chemotherapy, thus becoming the standard of care for this patient population. Optimal timing of ramucirumab use and adequate biomarkers for patient selection as well as mechanism of resistance should be explored in future research. PMID:25431958

Shitara, Kohei; Ohtsu, Atsushi

2015-02-01

184

Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

2013-01-01

185

Molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) and the role of TFF1 in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric carcinoma and its molecular biological mechanism underlying gastric mucosa protection. METHODS: The molecular forms of TFF1 in normal gastric mucosa were observed by Western blot. The expression of TFF1 in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) was also assayed by immunohistochemical method. The average positive AO was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software. RESULTS: Three patterns of TFF1 were found in normal gastric mucosa: monomer, dimmer, and TFF1 compound whose molecular weight is about 21 kDa. The concentration of TFF1 compound was the highest among these three patterns. TFF1 was expressed mainly in epithelial cytoplasm of the mucosa in gastric body and antrum, especially around the nuclei. The closer the TFF1 to the lumen, the higher the expression of TFF1. The expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue of gastric carcinoma (0.51 ± 0.07) was higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (0.44 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was positively related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma was, the weaker the expression of TFF1. No TFF1 was expressed in poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in moderately-well differentiated adenocarcinoma (0.45 ± 0.07) was a little lower than that in normal mucosa (P > 0.05). The expression of TFF1 in gastric mucosa with atypical hyperplasia (0.57 ± 0.03) was significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.001). No TFF1 was expressed in intestinalized gastric mucosa. There was no statistically significant difference between the expressions of TFF1 in gastric mucosa around the intestinalized tissue (0.45 ± 0.07) and normal gastric mucosa (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: TFF1 is expressed mainly in epithelial cytoplasm of the mucosa in gastric body and antrum. Its main pattern is TFF1 compound, which may have a greater biological activity than monomer and dimer. The expression of TFF1 in peripheral mucosa of gastric ulcer is higher than that in mucosa 5 cm beyond the ulcer, indicating that TFF1 plays an important part in protection and restitution of gastric mucosa. The expression of TFF1 is increased in peripheral tissues of gastric carcinoma and gastric mucosa with atypical hyperplasia, but is decreased in cancer tissues, implying that TFF1 may be related to suppression and differentiation of carcinoma. The weaker expression of TFF1 in poorly-differentiated carcinoma may be related to the destruction of glands and cells in cancer tissues and the decrease in secretion of TFF1. PMID:17143957

Ren, Jian-Lin; Luo, Jin-Yan; Lu, Ya-Pi; Wang, Lin; Shi, Hua-Xiu

2006-01-01

186

Small Molecule R1498 as a Well-Tolerated and Orally Active Kinase Inhibitor for Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Gastric Cancer Treatment via Targeting Angiogenesis and Mitosis Pathways  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases play important roles in tumor development and progression. Lots of kinase inhibitors have entered into market and show promising clinical benefits. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule, well-tolerated, orally active kinase inhibitor, R1498, majorly targeting both angiogenic and mitotic pathways for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and gastric cancer (GC). A series of biochemical and cell-based assays indicated that the target kinase cluster of R1498 included Aurora kinases and VEGFR2 et al. R1498 showed moderate in vitro growth inhibition on a panel of tumor cells with IC50 of micromole range. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of R1498 was evaluated on a panel of GC and HCC xenografts in a parallel comparison with another multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. R1498 demonstrated superior efficacy and toxicity profile over sorafenib in all test models with >80% tumor growth inhibition and tumor regression in some xenogratfts. The therapeutic potential of R1498 was also highlighted by its efficacy on three human GC primary tumor derived xenograft models with 10–30% tumor regression rate. R1498 was shown to actively inhibit the Aurora A activity in vivo, and decrease the vascularization in tumors. Furthermore, R1498 presented good in vivo exposure and therapeutic window in the pharmacokinetic and dose range finding studies. Theses evidences indicate that R1498 is a potent, well-tolerated, orally active multitarget kinase inhibitor with a unique antiangiogenic and antiproliferative profile, and provide strong confidence for further development for HCC and GC therapy. PMID:23755206

Zhang, Chao; Wu, Xihan; Zhang, Meifang; Zhu, Liangcheng; Zhao, Rong; Xu, Danqing; Lin, Zhaohu; Liang, Chungen; Chen, Taiping; Chen, Li; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Joe; Qin, Ning; Zhang, Xiongwen

2013-01-01

187

Gastric conduit perforation.  

PubMed

As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized. PMID:25133156

Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

2014-08-16

188

Dietary monosodium glutamate enhances gastric secretion.  

PubMed

Dietary L-glutamate (Glu), an amino acid abundant in many foodstuffs in a free form, is able to modulate physiological functions in the stomach, including secretion and motility. Recently, specific receptors for Glu were identified in the apical membrane of chief cells in the lower region of fundic glands and in the somatostatin-secreting D-cell fraction of the gastric mucosa. This Glu-sensing system in the stomach is linked to activation of the vagal afferents. Among 20 kinds of amino acid, luminal Glu alone activated the vagal afferents in the stomach through a paracrine cascade led by nitric oxide and followed by serotonin (5-HT). In dogs with Pavlov pouches, found that supplementation of an amino acid-rich diet lacking Glu with monosodium Glu (MSG) enhanced the secretion of acid, pepsinogen, and fluid. However, MSG did not affect these secretions induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet and it had no effect on basal secretion when MSG was applied alone without the diet. Enhancement of gastric secretion by MSG was abolished by blockage of the gastric afferents using intra-gastric applied lidocaine. This effect of MSG was due in part to stimulation of 5-HT(3) receptors in the gastric mucosa. PMID:20224184

Khropycheva, Raisa; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio; Zolotarev, Vasiliy

2009-01-01

189

Gallic acid inhibits gastric cancer cells metastasis and invasive growth via increased expression of RhoB, downregulation of AKT/small GTPase signals and inhibition of NF-?B activity  

SciTech Connect

Our previous study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of gallic acid (GA) for controlling tumor metastasis through its inhibitory effect on the motility of AGS cells. A noteworthy finding in our previous experiment was increased RhoB expression in GA-treated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of RhoB expression on the inhibitory effects of GA on AGS cells. By applying the transfection of RhoB siRNA into AGS cells and an animal model, we tested the effect of GA on inhibition of tumor growth and RhoB expression. The results confirmed that RhoB-siRNA transfection induced GA to inhibit AGS cells’ invasive growth involving blocking the AKT/small GTPase signals pathway and inhibition of NF-?B activity. Finally, we evaluated the effect of GA on AGS cell metastasis by colonization of tumor cells in nude mice. It showed GA inhibited tumor cells growth via the expression of RhoB. These data support the inhibitory effect of GA which was shown to inhibit gastric cancer cell metastasis and invasive growth via increased expression of RhoB, downregulation of AKT/small GTPase signals and inhibition of NF-?B activity. Thus, GA might be a potential agent in treating gastric cancer. Highlights: ? GA could downregulate AKT signal via increased expression of RhoB. ? GA inhibits metastasis in vitro in gastric carcinoma. ? GA inhibits tumor growth in nude mice model.

Ho, Hsieh-Hsun [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chi-Sen [Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Division of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wei-Chi [Division of Gastroenterology, Jen-Ai Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Jen-Ai Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liao, Sheng-You [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wea-Lung [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chau-Jong, E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

2013-01-01

190

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester modulates Helicobacter pylori-induced nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from honeybee hives (honeybee resin), has anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-bacterial properties. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CAPE on Helicobacter pylori-induced NF-?B and AP-1 in the gastric epithelial cell line AGS. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to measure NF-?B- and AP-1-DNA binding activity. Western blotting was used to detect I?B-? and COX-2 expression in AGS cells cocultured with H. pylori. The antiproliferative effect of CAPE was measured by MTT assay. Our results showed that caffeic phenethyl ester inhibits H. pylori-induced NF-?B and AP-1 DNA-binding activity in a dose (0.1–25??g?ml?1?0.35–88??M) and time- (15–240?min) dependent manner in AGS cells. Maximum inhibition by CAPE was observed at concentrations of 25??g ml?1 (?88??M) CAPE prevented H. pylori- and cytokine-induced degradation of I?B-? protein. Pretreatment of AGS cells with CAPE also blocked cytokine- and mitogen-induced NF-?B and AP-1 expression. Furthermore, CAPE suppressed H. pylori-induced cell proliferation and production of the cytokines TNF-? and IL-8. In addition, CAPE blocked H. pylori-induced COX-2 expression. The inhibition of such transcription by CAPE could result in suppression of many genes during H. pylori-induced inflammation, and also provide new insights into the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties of CAPE. PMID:16247412

Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Windle, Henry J; Homasany, Basma S El; Sabra, Kamal; Kelleher, Dermot

2005-01-01

191

Effect of Purified Lipopolysaccharides from Strains of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis on Acid Secretion in Mouse Gastric Glands In Vitro  

PubMed Central

As a bacterial product, Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can originate in close proximity to parietal cells, but the role of this uniquely structured endotoxin on acid secretion has not been fully investigated and remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the direct effect of purified LPS (tested range, 0.1 to 100 ?g/ml) from various strains of H. pylori and from one Helicobacter felis strain on histamine- and carbachol-stimulated acid secretion in vitro using mouse gastric glands and the accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine. In addition, we investigated whether H. pylori LPS can interfere with two native antisecretory substances, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and somatostatin, which may contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. Except for the LPS from H. pylori SS1 (Sydney strain), which gave a statistically significant increase in both histamine- and carbachol-stimulated acid output (38 and 24%, respectively; P < 0.05), no effect of the tested LPS was observed on acid secretion. H. pylori LPS purified from a patient isolate did not affect the potency or the efficacy of the inhibitory dose response curve to PGE2 or somatostatin. Bacterial interstrain variation in the direct stimulatory effect of Helicobacter-derived LPS on acid secretion was observed, which probably reflects the molecular structure of LPS and the potential to contribute to virulence. Importantly, the data showed that H. pylori LPS did not have any direct antisecretory properties. It can be speculated that the acid stimulatory properties of LPS from H. pylori SS1 may contribute to the gastric damage observed in the mouse model of H. pylori infection. PMID:11349056

Padol, Ireneusz T.; Moran, Anthony P.; Hunt, Richard H.

2001-01-01

192

Antidiabetic and antiulcer effects of extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in mild diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been reported to increase propensity to peptic ulceration through its effect both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. Seeds of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) have been reported to have both antidiabetic as well as ulcer protective effects. The present study evaluates the antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of dried seed kernel of Eugenia jambolana (EJE) and its comparative effect on gastric ulceration and acid-pepsin secretion with standard antisecretory FL-blocker. Ranitidine and antidiabetic glibenclamide with a premise that Eugenia jambolana may show better ulcer healing effects by promoting defensive or reducing offensive mucosal factors in mild diabetes (MD) rats. MD was produced in adult rats by administration of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, ip). EJE was given orally in the doses of 100-400 mg/kg for 10 days and in the dose of 200 mg/kg for 30 days respectively to study its dose- and time-dependent effects on various diabetic parameters like blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, insulin level and glycosylated hemoglobin. For ulcer protective and gastric secretion studies, EJE (200 mg/kg) was given orally for 10 days against 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS)-, 4 h pylorus ligation (PL), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h)--and 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h)-induced gastric ulcers and offensive acid-pepsin secretion after 4 h PL with co-occurring MD in rats. EJE showed dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose level in MD rats. Blood glucose level remained stable in mild diabetic rats from 3rd day onwards after streptozotocin administration (taken as 1st day for treatment) and EJE (200 mg/kg) showed anti-hyperglycemic effect on 10th day of its administration. Further, EJE in the above dose also decreased cholesterol level with little or no effect on triglycerides level and reversed the decrease and increase in insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin level near to the normal level as observed alter 30 days treatment in MD rats. MD rats exhibited an increased propensity to gastric ulceration induced by CRS, ASP, EtOH and PL and caused increase in acid-pepsin secretion. EJE was not only effective in reversing the increased propensity to ulceration in diabetic rats but also decreased the acid-pepsin output better than glibenclamide. The ulcer protective effect of Eugenia jambolana seems to be due to its antidiabetic and gastric antisecretory effects. PMID:20112817

Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

2009-01-01

193

Occupation and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

2003-01-01

194

Capsaicin and Gastric Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation.The

M. N. Satyanarayana

2006-01-01

195

Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2012-01-01

196

Helicobacter pylori and interleukin-8 in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major etiological factor in the development of gastric cancer. Large-scale epidemiological studies have confirmed the strong association between H. pylori infection and both cancer development and progression. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is overexpressed in gastric mucosa exposed to H. pylori. The expression of IL-8 directly correlates with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer. IL-8 is multifunctional. In addition to its potent chemotactic activity, it can induce proliferation and migration of cancer cells. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms of IL-8 signaling associated with gastric cancer. The relationship between IL-8 and H. pylori is discussed. We also summarize the current therapeutics against IL-8 in gastric cancer. PMID:24363509

Lee, Ko Eun; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Xia, Yong; Park, Jung Sun; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Choi, Seok Yong; Jung, Young Do

2013-01-01

197

Gastric Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Regulates Ghrelin Production and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate food intake. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular fuel sensor critical for cellular energy homeostasis. Here we showed the reciprocal relationship of gastric mTOR signaling and ghrelin during changes in energy status. mTOR activity was down-regulated, whereas gastric preproghrelin and circulating ghrelin were increased by fasting. In db/db mice, gastric mTOR signaling was enhanced, whereas gastric preproghrelin and circulating ghrelin were decreased. Inhibition of the gastric mTOR signaling by rapamycin stimulated the expression of gastric preproghrelin and ghrelin mRNA and increased plasma ghrelin in both wild-type and db/db mice. Activation of the gastric mTOR signaling by l-leucine decreased the expression of gastric preproghrelin and the level of plasma ghrelin. Overexpression of mTOR attenuated ghrelin promoter activity, whereas inhibition of mTOR activity by overexpression of TSC1 or TSC2 increased its activity. Ghrelin receptor antagonist d-Lys-3-GH-releasing peptide-6 abolished the rapamycin-induced increment in food intake despite that plasma ghrelin remained elevated. mTOR is therefore a gastric fuel sensor whose activity is linked to the regulation of energy intake through ghrelin. PMID:19406939

Xu, Geyang; Li, Yin; An, Wenjiao; Li, Shenduo; Guan, Youfei; Wang, Nanping; Tang, Chaoshu; Wang, Xian; Zhu, Yi; Li, Xiaoying; Mulholland, Michael W.; Zhang, Weizhen

2009-01-01

198

Endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. However the proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) at diagnosis is increasing. Endoscopic treatment for EGC is actively performed worldwide in cases meeting specific criteria. Endoscopic mucosal resection can treat EGC with comparable results to surgery for selected cases. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) increases the en bloc and complete resection rates and reduces the local recurrence rate. ESD has been performed with expanded indication and is expected to be more widely used in the treatment of EGC through the technological advances in the near future. This review will describe the techniques, indications and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for EGC. PMID:24782609

Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae J.

2014-01-01

199

S-benzyl-cysteine-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade through the p53 pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.  

PubMed

S-benzyl-cysteine (SBC) is a structural analog of S-allylcysteine (SAC), which is one of the major water- soluble compounds in aged garlic extract. In this study, anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of SBC action were investigated and compared these with those of SAC using human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. SBC significantly suppressed the survival rate of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activities of SBC were stronger than those of SAC. Flow cytometry revealed that SBC induced G2-phase arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. SBC-treatment dramatically induced the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 whilst hardly affecting caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, Western blotting indicated that SBC-induced apoptosis was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of p53, Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, this study suggested that SBC exerts cytotoxic activity involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24377536

Sun, Hua-Jun; Meng, Lin-Yi; Shen, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Liu, Hong-Rui

2013-01-01

200

Gastric wall tension determines perception of gastric distention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The primary mechanism that originates symptoms in response to gastric distention remains undefined. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, whether intragastric volume, pressure, or wall tension, determines perception of gastric distention. Methods: Healthy subjects underwent increasing gastric distentions (2-minute duration at 5-minute intervals) either at fixed pressure levels using a conventional barostat (n

Eleonora Distrutti; Fernando Azpiroz; Alfredo Soldevilla

1999-01-01

201

Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

In type-2 diabetes, the overall incretin effect is reduced. The present investigation was designed to compare insulinotropic actions of exogenous incretin hormones (gastric inhibitory peptide [GIP] and glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] [7-36 amide]) in nine type-2 diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose 7.8 mmol/liter; hemoglobin A1c 6.3 +/- 0.6%) and in nine age- and weight-matched normal subjects. Synthetic human GIP (0.8 and 2.4 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), GLP-1 [7-36 amide] (0.4 and 1.2 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), and placebo were administered under hyperglycemic clamp conditions (8.75 mmol/liter) in separate experiments. Plasma GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] concentrations (radioimmunoassay) were comparable to those after oral glucose with the low, and clearly supraphysiological with the high infusion rates. Both GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] dose-dependently augmented insulin secretion (insulin, C-peptide) in both groups (P < 0.05). With GIP, the maximum effect in type-2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (by 54%; P < 0.05) than in normal subjects. With GLP-1 [7-36 amide] type-2 diabetic patients reached 71% of the increments in C-peptide of normal subjects (difference not significant). Glucagon was lowered during hyperglycemic clamps in normal subjects, but not in type-2 diabetic patients, and further by GLP-1 [7-36 amide] in both groups (P < 0.05), but not by GIP. In conclusion, in mild type-2 diabetes, GLP-1 [7-36 amide], in contrast to GIP, retains much of its insulinotropic activity. It also lowers glucagon concentrations. PMID:8423228

Nauck, M A; Heimesaat, M M; Orskov, C; Holst, J J; Ebert, R; Creutzfeldt, W

1993-01-01

202

Gastroprotective activities of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) on the growth of the stomach cancer AGS cell line and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seeds have long been used to treat warts, chapped skin, rheumatism, and neuralgia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Recently, studies demonstrated its anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antitumor, and antiallergic activities. In the present study, we first report the gastroprotective effects of dehulled adlay (DA) seeds, which consist of bran (AB) and endosperm (AE). The DA ethanolic extract (DAE) was prepared, along with the AB and AE ethanolic extracts (ABE and AEE), and the inhibitory effects of these extracts were tested on the AGS gastric cancer cell line. Results indicated that the ABE showed better antiproliferative activity, and 19 compounds were purified from AB in a further phenolic-compound-guided separation. Among the isolated compounds, caffeic and chlorogenic acids significantly suppressed the growth of AGS cells. In addition, the antiulcer activity of DA was examined in an indomethacin-induced gastric lesion model. The ulcer index (UI) and oxidative biomarkers in animals decreased, while the non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups were elevated when given DA. This is the first investigation of antiulcer activity of adlay, and we demonstrated that the antioxidative-active phenolic acids in DA contribute to some portion of the gastroprotective effects. PMID:21517098

Chung, Cheng-Pei; Hsia, Shih-Min; Lee, Ming-Yi; Chen, Hong-Jhang; Cheng, Faiwen; Chan, Lu-Chi; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Yun-Lian; Chiang, Wenchang

2011-06-01

203

Neoplastic autovagotomy causing gastric stasis.  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic autovagotomy causing atonic gastric stasis is extremely rare. Two cases are reported in which marked gastric stasis was complicated by a bezoar and a gastric volvulus respectively. Both cases were associated with a left hilar bronchial carcinoma, and malignant invasion of the vagus nerve may have been the underlying cause. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:482188

Thomas, W. E.; Fletcher, M. S.

1979-01-01

204

Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss

In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

2005-01-01

205

Attenuation of cold restraint stress-induced gastric lesions by an olive leaf extract.  

PubMed

Olive leaf extract (OLE) possesses, among other, antioxidative properties, but whether it influences gastroprotection against stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. In this study we investigated the protective effect of OLE, a natural antioxidant, on gastric mucosal damage induced by cold restraint stress (CRS) in rats. Three different doses of commercial OLE EFLA((R)) 943 were applied intragastrically (i.g.) 30 min prior to stress induction. Macroscopic gastric lesions were evaluated and ulcer index (UI) was calculated. Histological evidence of gastric mucosal lesions was also obtained. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in gastric mucosa. The effects of applied OLE on gastric mucosal lesions, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activity were compared with effects of i.g. pretreatment of reference drug, ranitidine. CRS caused severe gastric lesions in all non-pretreated animals, and this finding was confirmed histologicaly. Pretreatment with OLE (40, 80 and 120 mg.kg(-1)), as well as with ranitidine (50 mg.kg(-1)), significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated stress-induced gastric lesions. Treatment with 80 mg.kg(-1) of OLE was the most effective in prevention of rise in gastric MDA level and decrease in CAT and SOD activity. The results obtained indicate that OLE possesses gastroprotective activity against CRS-induced gastric lesions in rats, possibly related to its antioxidative properties. PMID:19893091

Dekanski, Dragana; Jani?ijevi?-Hudomal, Snezana; Risti?, Slavica; Radonji?, Nevena V; Petronijevi?, Natasa D; Piperski, Vesna; Mitrovi?, Dusan M

2009-01-01

206

Gastric cancer is associated with NOS2 -954G\\/C polymorphism and environmental factors in a Brazilian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer can progress from a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection that activates the inflammatory response of the host. Therefore, polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), have been implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of NOS2

Yvana C Jorge; Marcia C Duarte; Ana E Silva

2010-01-01

207

Chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

Gastric anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the gastric mucosal penetration of the Anisakis larvae ingested with raw fish. Acute gastric anisakiasis is diagnosed by the endoscopic visualization of Anisakis larvae along with mucosal edema, erythema, hemorrhage, and/or an ulcer, whereas chronic anisakiasis is often observed as a localized tumor commonly occurring in the submucosal layer, and is characterized by eosinophilic granuloma with edema and embedded Anisakis larvae on pathological examination of surgical specimens. We report here a case of chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer, which is a rare clinical manifestation of this condition. PMID:24851229

Kang, Dong Baek; Park, Won Cheol

2014-01-01

208

Eradication of gastric cancer is now both possible and practical.  

PubMed

In 1994, Helicobacter pylori was declared a human carcinogen. Evidence has now accumulated to show that at least 95% of gastric cancers are etiologically related to H. pylori. An extensive literature regarding atrophic gastritis and its effects on acid secretion, gastric microflora, and its tight association with gastric cancer has been rediscovered, confirmed, and expanded. Methods to stratify cancer risk based on endoscopic and histologic findings or serologic testing of pepsinogen levels and H. pylori testing have been developed producing practical primary and secondary gastric cancer prevention strategies. H. pylori eradication halts progressive mucosal damage. Cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will essentially prevent subsequent development of gastric cancer. For all, the age-related progression in cancer risk is halted and likely reduced as eradication reduces or eliminates mucosal inflammation and reverses or reduces H. pylori-associated molecular events such aberrant activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, double strand DNA breaks, impaired DNA mismatch repair and aberrant DNA methylation. Those who have developed atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy however retain some residual risk for gastric cancer which is proportional to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Primary and secondary cancer prevention starts with H. pylori eradication and cancer risk stratification to identify those at higher risk who should also be considered for secondary cancer prevention programs. Japan has embarked on population-wide H. pylori eradication coupled with surveillance targeted to those with significant remaining risk. We anticipate that countries with high gastric cancer burdens will follow their lead. We provide specific recommendations on instituting practical primary and secondary gastric cancer prevention programs as well identifying research needed to make elimination of gastric cancer both efficient and cost effective. PMID:23876852

Shiotani, Akiko; Cen, Putao; Graham, David Y

2013-12-01

209

Effects of prostaglandin E2 on disease activity, gastric secretion and intestinal permeability, and morphology in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

The effects of oral natural prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on symptoms, disease activity, and gastrointestinal functions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied in an open pilot trial. Twelve patients, six taking and six not taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), received 1 mg natural PGE2 three times a day for six weeks. The treatment was tolerated well and the only side effect noted was slightly looser stools in three patients. Half of the patients reported subjective improvement and none had aggravation of symptoms. The Ritchie articular index and several biochemical inflammation markers decreased and were significantly reduced at the end of the treatment period. The thickness of the small intestinal mucosa increased during the PGE2 treatment. The intestinal permeability pattern, measured by urinary excretion of polyethylene glycols (PEG 400), differed between the patients taking and not taking NSAIDs. The initially high urinary PEG 400 excretion values in the patients taking NSAIDs decreased and the initially low excretion values in patients not taking NSAIDs increased during the PGE2 treatment. The jejunal contents became sterile in 5/6 patients not taking NSAIDs and remained sterile in 1/6 patients taking NSAIDs at the end of the treatment. The treatment period was associated with a reduction of lactobacilli in patients not treated with NSAIDs. Thus the treatment appeared to decrease disease activity and to improve small intestinal functions in patients with RA, findings that need confirmation in a controlled trial. PMID:3166369

Henriksson, A E; Tagesson, C; Uribe, A; Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Nord, C E; Gullberg, R; Johansson, C

1988-01-01

210

Involvement of membrane-type bile acid receptor M-BAR/TGR5 in bile acid-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinases in gastric carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Bile acids, which have been implicated in gastrointestinal-tract cell carcinogenesis, share properties with tumor promoters in that both affect signal transduction pathways responsible for cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that EGFR-ERK1/2 is activated following treatment of AGS human gastric carcinoma cells with bile acids. EGFR phosphoactivation is ligand-dependent, since treatment of cells with HB-EGF antisera or CM197 (a selective inhibitor of HB-EGF) markedly inhibits deoxycholate (DC)-promoted activation. Membrane-type bile acid receptor (M-BAR)/TGR5 is a recently identified G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In AGS cells, siRNAs that target M-BAR suppress DC-induced phosphorylation of EGFR. Furthermore, introduction of siRNAs targeting ADAM17 transcripts resulted in suppression of DC-induced activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. These results suggest that in AGS cells, DC transactivates EGFR through M-BAR- and ADAM/HB-EGF-dependent mechanisms.

Yasuda, Hiroshi [Division of Gastroenterology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, 1-30 Fujigaoka, Yokohama 227-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: hiroshi-yasuda@showa-university-fujigaoka.gr.jp; Hirata, Shuko [Division of Gastroenterology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, 1-30 Fujigaoka, Yokohama 227-8501 (Japan); Inoue, Kazuaki [Division of Gastroenterology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, 1-30 Fujigaoka, Yokohama 227-8501 (Japan); Mashima, Hirosato [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Yoshiba, Makoto [Division of Gastroenterology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, 1-30 Fujigaoka, Yokohama 227-8501 (Japan)

2007-03-02

211

Cadmium induces urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and the cell invasiveness of human gastric cancer cells via the ERK-1/2, NF-?B, and AP-1 signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Cadmium exposure has been linked to human cancers, including stomach cancer. In this study, the effects of cadmium on urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in human gastric cancer cells and the underlying signal transduction pathways were investigated. Cadmium induced uPAR expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cadmium also induced uPAR promoter activity. Additionally, cadmium induced the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the activation of c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK). A specific inhibitor of MEK-1 (PD98059) inhibited cadmium-induced uPAR expression, while JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant-negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) also prevented cadmium-induced uPAR promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift studies showed that sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-?B and activator protein-1 (AP-1) were involved in cadmium-induced uPAR transcription. Suppression of the cadmium-induced uPAR promoter activity by a mutated-type NF-?B-inducing kinase and I-?B and an AP-1 decoy oligonucleotide confirmed that the activation of NF-?B and AP-1 are essential for cadmium-induced uPAR upregulation. Cells pretreated with cadmium showed markedly enhanced invasiveness and this effect was partially abrogated by uPAR-neutralizing antibodies and by inhibitors of ERK-1/2, NF-?B, and AP-1. These results suggest that cadmium induces uPAR expression via ERK-1/2, NF-?B, and AP-1 signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates cell invasiveness in human gastric cancer AGS cells. PMID:25069788

Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Xia, Yong; Lian, Sen; Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Do Hyun; Joo, Young Eun; Chay, Kee-Oh; Kim, Kyung Keun; Jung, Young Do

2014-10-01

212

Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

2014-01-01

213

Performance of microbial phytases for gastric inositol phosphate degradation.  

PubMed

Microbial phytases catalyze dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thereby potentially releasing chelated iron and improving human iron absorption from cereal-based diets. For this catalysis to take place in vivo, the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. This study compares the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability, activity retention, and extent of dephosphorylation of phytic acid in a simulated low-pH/pepsin gastric environment and examines secondary protein structural changes at low pH via circular dichroism. The Peniophora lycii phytase was found to be the most thermostable, but the least robust enzyme in gastric conditions, whereas the Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytases proved to be most resistant to gastric conditions. The phytase from Citrobacter braakii showed intermediate robustness. The extent of loss of secondary structure at low pH correlated positively with the extent of activity loss at low pH. PMID:25562369

Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S

2015-01-28

214

Dysfunctions of the stomach with gastric ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer were studied simultaneously in seven patients with strictly defined type 1 gastric ulcer (single benign ulcer above the incisura of the stomach) and in six healthy controls. After ingestion of an ordinary solid-liquid meal, patients with gastric ulcer demonstrated gastric hyposecretion of acid, pepsin, and water; delayed gastric emptying of solids with

Laurence J. Miller; Juan-R. Malagelada; George F. Longstreth; Vayliang W. Go

1980-01-01

215

Models of gastric emptying.  

PubMed Central

Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

Stubbs, D F

1977-01-01

216

Gastric cancer: overview.  

PubMed

This review provides a state of the art description of gastric cancer etiology, the infectious agent, host factors, the precancerous cascade, clinical aspects, and prevention strategies. The biology of Helicobacter pylori, the primary causative agent, is discussed as well as the environmental factors that may modulate its effects. PMID:23639637

Correa, Pelayo

2013-06-01

217

Gastric bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Breathing problems Heart attack or stroke during or after surgery Infection, including in the cut, lungs (pneumonia), bladder, or kidney There are a number of risks for any weight-loss surgery. ... also risks that are more likely after gastric bypass surgery.

218

Study of Mimusops elengi bark in experimental gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Mimusops elengi (Sapotaceae) against experimental gastric ulcers. The 50% alcoholic extract of Mimusops elengi (Ext E) and its different fractions namely ethyl acetate (Ext E1), n-butanol (Ext E2), methanol (Ext E3) and aqueous (Ext E4) were studied (p.o.) against ethanol-induced gastric damage. Ext E1 was also studied in ethanol-induced, pylorus-ligated and water-immersion plus stress-induced gastric ulcer models. Ranitidine HCl (80 mg kg(-1)) was used as a reference standard. In ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model, pantoprazole (20 mg kg(-1)) was also used as a reference standard. Ext E1 tested in mice up to the dose of 5000 mg kg(-1) (p.o.) did not produce any sign of toxicity. Ext E at the doses of 50, 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) and its different fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) showed reduction in gastric ulceration (P < 0.05). Ext E1 at the doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) showed dose-dependent inhibition of gastric lesions against ethanol-induced gastric damage. In 19 h pylorus-ligated animals, Ext E1 at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) doses showed significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.05). Significant reduction was also observed in total acidity, volume of gastric acid secretion, total acid output and pepsin activity (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. Besides, Ext E1 showed increase in the mucosal glycoproteins that was evident from significant rise in total carbohydrates to protein ratio (TC:PR ratio) (P < 0.05), which is an indication of mucin activity. Ext E1 also showed protection against water-immersion plus stress-induced gastric lesions that was evident from dose-dependent decrease in ulcer index (P < 0.05), score for intensity (P < 0.05) and total lesion area (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. It can be concluded from our study that Ext E1 possesses anti-ulcer activity against experimental gastric ulcers. The mechanism of anti-ulcer activity can be attributed to decrease in gastric acid secretory activity along with strengthening of mucosal defensive mechanisms. PMID:14611897

Shah, Payal J; Gandhi, Mitesh S; Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, Sunita S; Santani, Devdas

2003-12-01

219

Allicin induces apoptosis of the MGC-803 human gastric carcinoma cell line through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/caspase-3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is one of the most common forms of malignant tumor, and the development of anti?gastric cancer drugs with minimal toxicity is of clinical importance. Allicin is extracted from Allium sativum (garlic). Recent research, including clinical experiments, has shown that garlic has anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of allicin on the MGC?803 human gastric carcinoma cell line, and to further explore the possible mechanisms of its tumor suppressor effects. The effects of allicin on the MGC?803 cells were initially examined using an 3?(4,5?dimethylthiazol?2?yl)?2,5?diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hoechst staining was also used, in order to demonstrate the impact of allicin on MGC?803 cell apoptosis. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to determine the abnormal expression levels of apoptosis?associated proteins, following the treatment of MGC?803 cells with allicin. Western blotting was also used to investigate the specific mechanisms underlying allicin?induced apoptosis of MGC?803 cells. The rate of MGC?803 apoptosis was significantly increased, when the concentration and treatment time of allicin were increased. Hoechst staining detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis, and enhanced expression levels of cleaved caspase 3 were determined by western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of p38 were increased when the MGC?803 cells were treated with allicin. The results of the present study suggest that allicin may inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of MGC?803 human gastric carcinoma cells, and this may partially be achieved through the enhanced expression of p38 and cleaved caspase 3. PMID:25523417

Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhu, Yong; Duan, Wei; Feng, Chen; He, Xuan

2015-04-01

220

Cre-loxP-mediated bax gene activation reduces growth rate and increases sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in human gastric cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulation of apoptosis may be closely related to the development of cancer and its chemoresistance. Overexpression of Bax, an inducer of apoptosis, has led to increased cell death in a variety of cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bax overexpression in two gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-28 and MKN-45, using a Cre-loxP-mediated inducible expression system.

Koga Komatsu; Susumu Suzuki; Tooru Shimosegawa; Jun-ichi Miyazaki; Takayoshi Toyota

2000-01-01

221

A phase II study of capecitabine and docetaxel combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capecitabine and docetaxel have considerable single-agent activity in gastric cancer with distinct mechanisms of action and no overlap of key toxicities. A synergistic interaction between these two drugs is mediated by taxane-induced upregulation of thymidine phosphorylase. We investigated the activity and the feasibility of capecitabine and docetaxel combination chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer (AGC). From September

Y H Park; B-Y Ryoo; S-J Choi; H-T Kim

2004-01-01

222

Gastric Migration and Strangulation After Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of gastric strangulation 6 months after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The 45-year-old\\u000a woman presented to our emergency department with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Initial upper gastrointestinal\\u000a studies after emergency department presentation showed no flow through the gastric band and an unusual air\\/fluid level just\\u000a above the band, not communicating with the proximal pouch. The

Gwenyth Fischer; Jonathan A. Myers; Wendy Huang; Vafa Shayani

2008-01-01

223

[Multidisciplinary therapy for gastric cancer with liver metastasis].  

PubMed

Gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM) is the leading cause of death in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Multiple metastasis was common in GCLM and usually complicated with lesions outside the liver, especially peritoneal metastasis. Most of liver metastasis lesions could not be resected radically. Currently, main treatments for GCLM included radical operation, palliative resection of gastric cancer, ablation of metastatic lesions, intervention and systemic chemotherapy. Based on the current progress in the treatment for GCLM and our clinical experience, the general status of patients, the type of gastric cancer and the degree of liver metastasis should be analyzed, and a cooperative multidisciplinary team (MDT) should be applied to conduct and to choose active and suitable comprehensive treatment for GCLM patients based on individualized therapy principle. PMID:24577759

Chen, Lin; Xi, Hongqing; Shen, Weisong

2014-02-01

224

Controlling on-demand gastric acidity in obese subjects: a randomized, controlled trial comparing a single dose of 20 mg rabeprazole and 20 mg omeprazole  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is associated with a risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The pharmacodynamic efficacy of proton pump inhibitors has not been specifically evaluated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the antisecretory response to a single oral dose of 20 mg rabeprazole, 20 mg omeprazole and placebo in obese subjects. Methods Gastric pH was monitored for 24 hours on three separate occasions in eighteen H. pylori-negative, asymptomatic obese subjects. Subjects were given omeprazole, rabeprazole or placebo in a randomized order and in a double-blind fashion. The main analysis criterion was 24-h percent of time post dose with intragastric pH above 3; secondary criteria were percentage of time above pH 4, median pH, [H+] concentrations and nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). Results were analyzed using linear mixed models and Wilks test comparing variances. Results 24-h median [IQ] percentages of time with gastric pH above 3 and 4 were higher with rabeprazole than omeprazole (46 [37–55] vs. 30 [15–55] %, 9 [5-11] % for placebo) but the differences did not reach statistical significance (p?=?0.11 and 0.24, respectively). Median acid concentrations were significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole and placebo (22 [14–53] vs. 54 [19–130] and 95 [73–170] mmoles/l, p?gastric antisecretory response to a single dose of rabeprazole and omeprazole was strong and not significantly different between drugs despite a significantly more homogeneous response with rabeprazole. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01136317 PMID:25027286

2014-01-01

225

Gastric bezoars: treatment and prevention.  

PubMed

Gastric bezoars may occur in the normal stomach as a result of ingestion of various objects which do not pass through the pylorus. Most gastric bezoars occur as a complication of previous gastric surgery in which there is a loss of normal pyloric function, hypoperistalsis, and low gastric acidity. They may also occur as a complication of cimetidine therapy. Symptoms include epigastric fullness, regurgitation, nausea and vomiting, and epigastric pain. A simple treatment utilizing an ordinary Teledyne Water Pik jet stream through a gastroscope is described to break up a large phytobezoar. This method is probably the treatment of choice and should be used more widely. PMID:6720657

Rider, J A; Foresti-Lorente, R F; Garrido, J; Puletti, E J; Rider, D L; King, A H; Bradley, S P

1984-05-01

226

Gastric cancer review  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

Carcas, Lauren Peirce

2014-01-01

227

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We introduced open adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB) for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution\\u000a in 1991. It was done in a prospective study comparing ASGB with vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) with regard to weight loss.\\u000a After 200 cases of open ASGB and 210 VBG procedures and the encouraging weight loss results, we started laparoscopic placement\\u000a of the

Mitiku Belachew; Marc Legrand; Vernon Vincent; Michel Lismonde; Nicole Le Docte; Veronique Deschamps

1998-01-01

228

Malnutrition after gastric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of excessive weight loss following gastric surgery. Twelve weight-stable and six weight-losing postoperative subjects were studied. The weight-losing subjects had lesser body mass based upon anthropometric measurements. All weight-losing subjects and six weight-stable subjects excreted excess breath hydrogen after a standard meal. The quantities of hydrogen excreted by the weight-losing subjects and

Donald P. Kotler; Deborah Sherman; Stephen R. Bloom; Peter R. Holt

1985-01-01

229

Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.  

PubMed

We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of the NIS gene was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland. PMID:25448256

Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

2014-11-18

230

Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review.  

PubMed

Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

2014-12-01

231

Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review  

PubMed Central

Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

2014-01-01

232

Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

Zabrodin, O. N.

1980-01-01

233

[Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].  

PubMed

Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

Trefilov, A B

2002-04-01

234

HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of gastric cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful development of safe and highly effective nanoprobes for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer is a great challenge. Herein we reported for the first time that anti-?-subunit of ATP synthase antibody, HAI-178 monoclonal antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles, was successfully used for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer. A total of 172 specimens of gastric cancer tissues were collected, and the expression of ?-subunit of ATP synthase in gastric cancer tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry method. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and conjugated with HAI-178 monoclonal antibody, and the resultant HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (HAI-178-FMNPs) were co-incubated with gastric cancer MGC803 cells and gastric mucous GES-1 cells. Gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models were established, were injected with prepared HAI-178-FMNPs via tail vein, and were imaged by magnetic resonance imaging and small animal fluorescent imaging system. The results showed that the ?-subunit of ATP synthase exhibited high expression in 94.7% of the gastric cancer tissues. The prepared HAI-178-FMNPs could target actively MGC803 cells, realized fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of in vivo gastric cancer, and actively inhibited growth of gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles have a great potential in applications such as targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo early gastric cancer cells in the near future.

Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Zhang, Lingxia; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Yutian; Wang, Kan; Li, Chao; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Ni, Jian; Cui, Daxiang

2014-05-01

235

Improved gastric emptying in diabetic rats by irbesartan via decreased serum leptin and ameliorated gastric microcirculation.  

PubMed

Diabetic gastroparesis (DG) is a common clinical complication of diabetes mellitus. Leptin may cause delayed gastric emptying in the central and peripheral pathways. Microcirculatory disturbances in the stomach make gastric smooth muscles and nerves hypoxic-ischemic, thereby impairing gastric motility. Irbesartan is an angiotensin II (ATII) receptor blocker that indirectly decreases serum leptin levels and improves blood vessel endothelia. This study examined the effect of irbesartan on DG and its relationship with serum leptin levels and microcirculatory disturbances of the stomach. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes and were then treated with or without 0.012 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) irbesartan by gavage. After six weeks of treatment, the gastric evacuation rate (GER) was measured using phenol red. Serum leptin levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Endothelin (ET) in the stomach tissue was examined using a radioimmunoassay, whereas chemical colorimetry was used to measure the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity of stomach tissues. The mRNA expression of the ATII receptor (AT1R) was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with irbesartan significantly increased the GER of diabetic rats and reduced the serum leptin levels, as well as decreased the ET content and AT1R mRNA expression in the stomach (P<0.05). Changes in the cNOS activity after irbesartan intervention were not significant (P>0.05), whereas iNOS activity was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Irbesartan can alleviate hyperglycemia-induced delayed gastric emptying, which is associated with decreased serum leptin levels and improved microcirculation in the stomach. PMID:25222222

He, L; Sun, Y; Zhu, Y; Ren, R; Zhang, Y; Wang, F

2014-01-01

236

Antitumor Activity of Di-n-Butyl-(2,6-Difluorobenzohydroxamato)Tin(IV) against Human Gastric Carcinoma SGC-7901 Cells via G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Di-n-butyl-(2,6-difluorobenzohydroxamato)Tin(IV) (DBDFT), a potential antitumor agent against malignancies, exhibited high activities both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment with DBDFT against Human Gastric Carcinoma (SGC-7901) cells induced a concentration and time-dependent cell accumulation in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle with a parallel depletion of the percentage of cells in G0/G1, the cell apoptosis was observed by characteristic morphological changes and AnnexinV/PI dual-immunofluorescence staining. Fluorescence quantitative FQ- PCR and western blot results showed that G2/M-phase arrest was correlated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21, Chk2 and CyclinB1, whereas the expressions of other G2/M regulatory check-point protein, Cdc2, and feedback loop protein Cdc25C were obviously down-regulated in a p53-independent manner after the SGC-7901 cells were treated with DBDFT (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 µmol·L?1) compared with the control. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 as well as the activation of caspase-3 were observed, which indicated that DBDFT treatment triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway with an increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, resulting in mitochondrial membrane potential loss and caspase-9 activation in DBDFT treated SGC-7901 cells. In summary, the results illustrated the involvement of multiple signaling pathways targeted by DBDFT in mediating G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells, which suggested that DBDFT might have therapeutic potential against gastric carcinoma as an effective compound. PMID:24643073

Yunlan, Li; Juan, Zheng; Qingshan, Li

2014-01-01

237

Hindbrain Glucoprivation Effects on Gastric Vagal Reflex Circuits and Gastric Motility in the Rat Are Suppressed by the Astrocyte Inhibitor Fluorocitrate  

PubMed Central

Fasting and hypoglycemia elicit powerful gastrointestinal contractions. Whereas the relationship between utilizable nutrient and gastric motility is well recognized, the explanation of this phenomenon has remained incomplete. A relatively recent controversial report suggested that astrocytes in the dorsal hindbrain may be the principal detectors of glucoprivic stimuli. Our own studies also show that a subset of astrocytes in the solitary nucleus (NST) is activated by low glucose. It is very likely that information about glucopenia may directly impact gastric control because the hindbrain is also the location of the vago-vagal reflex circuitry regulating gastric motility. Our in vivo single unit neurophysiological recordings in intact rats show fourth ventricular application of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) inhibits NST neurons and activates dorsal motor nucleus (DMN) neurons involved in the gastric accommodation reflex. Additionally, as shown in earlier studies, either systemic insulin or central 2-DG causes an increase in gastric motility. These effects on motility were blocked by fourth ventricle pretreatment with the astrocyte inactivator fluorocitrate. Fluorocitrate administered alone has no effect on gastric-NST or -DMN neuron responsiveness, or on gastric motility. These results suggest that glucoprivation-induced increases in gastric motility are dependent on intact hindbrain astrocytes. PMID:25100584

Viard, Edouard; Rogers, Richard C.

2014-01-01

238

Increase in gastric acid-induced afferent input to the brainstem in mice with gastritis.  

PubMed

Acid challenge of the gastric mucosa is signaled to the brainstem. This study examined whether mild gastritis due to dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS) or iodoacetamide (IAA) enhances gastric acid-evoked input to the brainstem and whether this effect is related to gastric myeloperoxidase activity, gastric histology, gastric volume retention or cyclooxygenase stimulation. The stomach of conscious mice was challenged with NaCl (0.15 M) or HCl (0.15 and 0.25 M) administered via gastric gavage. Two hours later, activation of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Gastritis was induced by DSS (molecular weight 8000; 5%) or IAA (0.1%) added to the drinking water for 7 days. Relative to NaCl, intragastric HCl increased the number of c-Fos protein-expressing cells in the NTS. Pretreatment with DSS or IAA for 1 week did not alter the c-Fos response to NaCl but significantly enhanced the response to HCl by 54 and 74%, respectively. Either pretreatment elevated gastric myeloperoxidase activity and induced histological injury of the mucosal surface. In addition, DSS caused dilation of the gastric glands and damage to the parietal cells. HCl-induced gastric volume retention was not altered by IAA but attenuated by DSS pretreatment. Indomethacin (5 mg/kg) failed to significantly alter HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS of control, DSS-pretreated and IAA-pretreated mice. We conclude that the gastritis-evoked increase in the gastric acid-evoked c-Fos expression in the NTS is related to disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier, mucosal inflammation, mucosal acid influx and enhanced activation of the afferent stomach-NTS axis. PMID:17303342

Holzer, P; Wultsch, T; Edelsbrunner, M; Mitrovic, M; Shahbazian, A; Painsipp, E; Bock, E; Pabst, M A

2007-03-30

239

Toll-like receptors TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 on gastric carcinoma cells: An implication for interaction with Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the human stomach Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by the gastric epithelium interact with Helicobacter pylori and mediate production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines during H. pylori infection. This results in chronic active gastritis, the background from which gastric carcinoma arises via the epithelial precursor lesions, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Therefore, the question is arising whether gastric carcinoma cells are

Bernd Schmaußer; Mindaugas Andrulis; Simon Endrich; Hans-Konrad Müller-Hermelink; Matthias Eck

2005-01-01

240

Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

2013-01-01

241

Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rare in childhood, gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology: congenital absence of intraperitoneal visceral attachments. We report an unusual case of a patient who presented with three episodes of intractable vomiting and abdominal mass but no abdominal pain. A diagnosis could not be made until the third episode because the gastric volvulus resolved each time on

Simon C. Kao; Kathleen D. Sanders; John Lawrence

1998-01-01

242

Protein synthesis inhibitors and gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

The involvement of de novo protein synthesis in acid secretion by the in vitro bullfrog gastric mucosa was examined using the inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin. Both inhibitors reduced [3H]leucine incorporation by more than 90%. The inhibition of protein synthesis had no influence on spontaneous acid secretion nor did it effect secretory stimulation by histamine, carbachol, pentagastrin, or theophylline. Oxygen consumption by nonstimulated and theophyllinestimulated tissues was shown to be independent of protein synthesis. The dramatic morphological changes observed in oxyntic cells during a transition from rest to active secretion persisted in cycloheximide-and puromycin-treated tissues. Stereological analysis of the apical membrane surface area density failed to demonstrate any quantitative influence of protein synthesis inhibition. These studies quantitatively confirm that protein synthesis is not required for the biochemical and morphological events involved in acid secretion by the in vitro frog gastric mucosa. PMID:305378

Carlisle, K S; Reagan, C R; Hersey, S J

1978-03-01

243

Gastric accommodation assessed by ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Gastric accommodation is important for the under-standing of the pathophysiology in functional dyspepsia and is also relevant for symptom generation in other disorders. The term gastric accommodation has at least three different meanings: The accommodation process, the accommodation reflex, and the accommodation response. The gastric accommodation process is a complex phenomenon that describes how the size of the gastric compartment changes in response to a meal. The electronic barostat is considered the gold standard in assessing gastric accommodation. Imaging methods, including MRI, SPECT, and ultrasonography may also be used, particularly in patients who are stress-responsive, e.g. functional dyspepsia patients, as a non-invasive and less stress-inducing method is favourable. Ultrasonography satisfies these criteria as it does not by itself distort the physiological response in stress-responsive individuals. PMID:16718805

Gilja, Odd Helge; Lunding, Johan; Hausken, Trygve; Gregersen, Hans

2006-01-01

244

MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications. PMID:18932273

Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

2008-01-01

245

Analysis of cell damage and proliferation in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric mucosa from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, a cause of multifocal atrophic gastritis, is considered an important factor related to the evolution of the human gastric mucosa from normal to intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. We examined cell proliferation and both double and single strand DNA damage in situ in 35 patients undergoing gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma with HP-infected gastric mucosa by immunolocalization of Ki-67, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and in situ nick translation. We also studied the distribution of intraepithelial neutrophils by elastase immunolocalization. HP infection was confirmed in all cases by serum anti-HP antibodies, ureas testing, and histopathological examination. HP-infected gastric mucosa was classified according to the degree of inflammation and intestinal metaplasia. Ki-67, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated labeling, in situ nick translation, and intraepithelial neutrophil indices all increased with the progression of gastritis and were highest in glands with incomplete intestinal metaplasia. All indices were lowest in gastric glands with complete intestinal metaplasia. Significant positive correlations were observed among these markers. Increased proliferative activity in HP-associated chronic gastritis in response to cell damage or injury was clearly demonstrated, suggesting that both HP-associated toxins and intraepithelial neutrophils are important in HP-related gastric epithelial injury. Increased cell turnover associated with incomplete intestinal metaplasia may result in DNA instability and subsequent development of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma in HP-infected mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9284831

Yabuki, N.; Sasano, H.; Tobita, M.; Imatani, A.; Hoshi, T.; Kato, K.; Ohara, S.; Asaki, S.; Toyota, T.; Nagura, H.

1997-01-01

246

Phytohaemagglutinin inhibits gastric acid but not pepsin secretion in conscious rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a kidney bean lectin, is known for its binding capability to the small intestinal surface. There has been no data available, however, on the biological activity of PHA in the stomach. Recent observations indicate that PHA is able to attach to gastric mucosal and parietal cells. Therefore, we examined whether PHA affects gastric acid and pepsin secretion in

Krisztina Kordás; Gábor Szalmay; Susan Bardocz; Árpád Pusztai; Gábor Varga

2001-01-01

247

The protective effect and action mechanism of Vaccinium myrtillus L. on gastric ulcer in mice.  

PubMed

Vaccinium myrtillus L. anthocyanoside (VMA) is used as a folk medicine to treat diseases related to gastric ulcers in northern Europe. However, the effects of VMA and its detailed mechanism on gastric ulcer have not been investigated sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of VMA on gastric mucosal damage in a murine gastric ulcer model. First the effects of VMA on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice were investigated. Then, the levels of lipid peroxide in murine stomach homogenates were measured to investigate the antioxidative effects of VMA. In addition, the free radical scavenging activity of VMA and its main anthocyanidins were evaluated by electron spin resonance measurement. Oral administration of VMA (10, 30 and 100?mg/kg) significantly protected gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Furthermore, VMA inhibited lipid peroxide levels in a concentration-dependent manner and showed high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical (·O(2) (-) ) and the hydroxyl radical (·OH). Anthocyanidins also showed scavenging activity against the ·O(2) (-) , while only delphinidin showed high scavenging activity against the ·OH. These findings indicate that the protective effects of VMA on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury may be partially due to the antiperoxidative effects of anthocyanidins. PMID:21290441

Ogawa, Kenjirou; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junji; Kobayashi, Saori; Hara, Hideaki

2011-08-01

248

Facilitation of gastric motility induced by portal infusion of hyper- and hypotonic solution in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the portal infusion of hyper- and hypotonic solution on gastric motility in rats were investigated. The infusion of hypertonic saline into the portal vein (portal infusion) elicited a significant enhancement of gastric contractile activity. The portal infusion of water also produced this enhancement. However, the portal infusion of isotonic saline showed no significant enhancement; nor did the

Motoi Kobashi; Masatoshi Mizutani; Akira Adachi

1998-01-01

249

Diagnosis and treatment of gastric motility disorders.  

PubMed

A disorder of gastric motility should be suspected in patients with chronic vomiting. Imaging studies are used to confirm delayed gastric emptying, the most common form of a gastric motility disorder. Other causes of chronic vomiting, for example, metabolic or endocrine disorders, other abdominal disorders, mechanical causes of gastric obstruction, and lower gastrointestinal tract disease, are then ruled out. If no underlying cause is determined, a functional disorder of gastric emptying is presumptively diagnosed. Treatment consists of dietary management and gastric prokinetic agents. Cisapride is the drug of choice for treating delayed gastric emptying followed by erythromycin and ranitidine or nizatidine. PMID:10202795

Hall, J A; Washabau, R J

1999-03-01

250

Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 ?mol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

2013-12-01

251

Electrical bioimpedance and other techniques for gastric emptying and motility evaluation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to identify non-invasive, inexpensive, highly sensitive and accurate techniques for evaluating and diagnosing gastric diseases. In the case of the stomach, there are highly sensitive and specific methods for assessing gastric motility and emptying (GME). However, these methods are invasive, expensive and/or not technically feasible for all clinicians and patients. We present a summary of the most relevant international information on non-invasive methods and techniques for clinically evaluating GME. We particularly emphasize the potential of gastric electrical bioimpedance (EBI). EBI was initially used mainly in gastric emptying studies and was essentially abandoned in favor of techniques such as electrogastrography and the gold standard, scintigraphy. The current research evaluating the utility of gastric EBI either combines this technique with other frequently used techniques or uses new methods for gastric EBI signal analysis. In this context, we discuss our results and those of other researchers who have worked with gastric EBI. In this review article, we present the following topics: (1) a description of the oldest methods and procedures for evaluating GME; (2) an explanation of the methods currently used to evaluate gastric activity; and (3) a perspective on the newest trends and techniques in clinical and research GME methods. We conclude that gastric EBI is a highly effective non-invasive, easy to use and inexpensive technique for assessing GME. PMID:22368782

Huerta-Franco, María Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Flores-Hernández, Corina; Morales-Mata, Ismael

2012-01-01

252

Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade prevents gastric ulcers during cold-restraint stress.  

PubMed

Cold-restraint stress reduces gastric blood flow and produces acute gastric ulcers. We studied the role of Angiotensin II (Ang II) on gastric blood flow and gastric ulceration during stress. Spontaneously hypertensive rats, a stress-sensitive strain, were pretreated for 14 days with the AT(1) receptor antagonist candesartan before cold-restraint stress. AT(1) blockade increased gastric blood flow 40% to 50%; prevented gastric ulcer formation by 70% to 80%; reduced the increase in adrenomedullary epinephrine and TH mRNA without preventing the stress-induced increase in adrenal corticosterone; decreased the stress-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and adhesion protein ICAM-1 in arterial endothelium, and neutrophil infiltration in the gastric mucosa; and decreased PGE(2) content. AT(1) receptor blockers prevent stress-induced ulcerations by a combination of gastric blood flow protection, decreased sympathoadrenal activation, anti-inflammatory effects with reduction in TNF-alpha, and ICAM-1 expression, leading to reduced neutrophil infiltration while maintaining the protective glucocorticoid effects and PGE(2) release. Ang II has a crucial role, through stimulation of AT(1) receptors, in the production and progression of stress-induced gastric injury, and AT(1) receptor antagonists could be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:15240390

Bregonzio, C; Armando, I; Ando, H; Jezova, M; Baiardi, G; Saavedra, J M

2004-06-01

253

Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1) mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with

Carla Oliveira; Gianpaolo Suriano; Paulo Ferreira; Paulo Canedo; Pardeep Kaurah; Rita Mateus; Ana Ferreira; António C Ferreira; Maria Oliveira; Céu Figueiredo; Fátima Carneiro; Gisela Keller; David Huntsman; José Machado; Raquel Seruca

2004-01-01

254

Sonic Hedgehog Pathway Contributes to Gastric Cancer Cell Growth and Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is commonly activated in gastrointestinal cancer. However, our understanding of the Shh pathway in gastric cancer remains limited. Here we examined the effects of cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of the Shh signaling pathway, on cell growth and proliferation in gastric primary cancer cells GAM-016 and the MKN-45 cell line. The results showed that the Shh signaling molecules SHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, and GLI2 were intact and activated in both types of cells. Furthermore, we observed that cyclopamine inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. An in vivo study using NOD/SCID mouse xenografts demonstrated that cyclopamine significantly prevented tumor growth and development. Our study indicated that Shh signaling pathway could promote gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumor development, and blocking this pathway may be a potential strategy in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24804165

Wan, Jianhua; Zhou, Ji; Zhao, Hailong; Wang, Mei; Wei, Zhuanqin; Gao, Hongyan

2014-01-01

255

Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action  

PubMed Central

Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101) on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-?B, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-?B translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25610477

Kang, Jung-Woo; Yun, Nari; Han, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Sun-Mee

2014-01-01

256

Analysis of gastric emptying data  

SciTech Connect

How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.

Elashoff, J.D.; Reedy, T.J.; Meyer, J.H.

1982-12-01

257

Characterization of sonic hedgehog inhibition in gastric carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Aberrant activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays an important role in gastric cancer. The exact mechanisms defining how the Shh pathway promotes tumorigenesis or regulates its downstream targets remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of inhibiting the Shh signaling pathway in gastric cancer AGS cells was examined. It was identified that the Shh antagonist, cyclopamine, inhibited cancer proliferation, migration and invasion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, it was revealed that several key targets that are activated by the Shh signaling pathway, Gli1 and CXCR4, were downregulated at an RNA and protein level by cyclopamine. The results from the present study may be of benefit in facilitating the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat gastric cancer in human patients. PMID:24765141

BAI, RUXUE; ZHAO, HONGCHUAN; ZHANG, XIANG; DU, SHIYU

2014-01-01

258

RNA interference targeting raptor inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in gastric cancer. The biologic function of mTORC1 in gastric carcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of mTORC1 function by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of raptor substantially inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by concomitant downregulation of activator protein-1 and upregulation of Smad2/3 transcriptional activities. In addition, the expression of cyclin D{sub 3} and p21{sup Waf1}, which stabilizes cyclin D/cdk4 complex for G{sub 1}-S transition, was reduced by raptor knockdown. In conclusion, disruption of mTORC1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through multiple pathways. This discovery may have an implication in the application of mTORC1-directed therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Wu, William Ka Kei; Lee, Chung Wa [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)] [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Cho, Chi Hin [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China) [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Francis Ka Leung [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)] [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Yu, Jun, E-mail: junyu@cuhk.edu.hk [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)] [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu, E-mail: joesung@cuhk.edu.hk [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

2011-06-10

259

Role of Gastric Acid in Stomal Ulcer after Gastric Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathogenetic mechanisms of stomal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are unclear. In order to study\\u000a the role of gastric acid, we measured acidity in the proximal pouch using a pH-sensitive probe. Methods: 6 patients (5 females,\\u000a mean age 45 years old at time of operation) with endoscopically confirmed stomal ulcer, were studied 2 to 6 years after

Jakob Hedberg; Hans Hedenström; Sven Nilsson; Magnus Sundbom; Sven Gustavsson

2005-01-01

260

Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

2015-01-01

261

Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H+/K+-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer.

Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

2015-01-01

262

MTA2 promotes gastric cancer cells invasion and is transcriptionally regulated by Sp1  

PubMed Central

Background MTA2 gene belongs to metastasis associated family, and is highly expressed in some solid tumors, including gastric cancer. Its biological function in gastric cancer is currently undefined. Methods Metastasis-associated tumor gene family 2 (MTA2) and transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression were detected in 127 gastric cancer samples by immunohistochemistry staining. SGC-7901 and AGS gastric cancer cell lines transfected by MTA2 shRNA was used for biological function investigation. Binding and regulation activities of Sp1 on MTA2 promoter were investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter gene. Results The expression rate of MTA2 in gastric cancer tissues was 55.9% (71/127), and its expression was closely related to the depth of tumor invasion, lymph nodes metastasis, and TNM staging. MTA2 knockdown in human SGC-7901 and AGS gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited migration and invasion in vitro, and disrupted structure of cytoskeleton. MTA2 knockdown also attenuated xenografts growth and lung metastasis in nude mice model. MTA2 expression was positively correlated with transcription factor Sp1 in gastric cancer tissues (r?=?0.326, P?activity of MTA2 promoter could be enhanced by Sp1 overexpression. Conclusions MTA2 knockdown impairs invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells, and attenuates xenografts growth in vivo. Sp1 regulates MTA2 expression at transcriptional level. PMID:24010737

2013-01-01

263

Does Helicobacter pylori infection increase gastric sensitivity in functional dyspepsia?  

PubMed Central

The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia is debated. It is known that a substantial fraction of dyspeptic patients manifest a low discomfort threshold to gastric distension. This study investigated the symptomatic pattern in 27 H pylori positive and 23 H pylori negative patients with chronic functional dyspepsia, and potential relations between infection and gastric hyperalgesia. Specific symptoms (pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating/fullness, early satiety) were scored from 0 to 3 for severity and frequency (global symptom scores: 0-15). The mechanical and perceptive responses to gastric accommodation were evaluated with an electronic barostat that produced graded isobaric distensions from 0 to 20 mm Hg in 2 mm Hg steps up to 600 ml. Gastric compliance (volume/pressure relation) and perception (rating scale: 0-10) were quantified. Standard gastrointestinal manometry and recorded phasic pressure activity at eight separate sites during fasting and postprandially were also assessed. H pylori positive and H pylori negative patients manifested similar severity and frequency of specific symptoms and global symptom scores (mean (SEM)) (severity: 9.5 (2.0) v 9.0 (2.1); frequency: 10.8 (2.0) v 9.7 (2.2)). No differences were seen either in gastric compliance (53 (4) ml/mm Hg v 43 (3) ml/mm Hg) or in gastric perception of distension (slope: 0.50 (0.05) v 0.53 (0.06)). Postprandial antral motility was significantly decreased in H pylori positive patients (two hours motility index: 10.4 (0.6) v 12.6 (0.5); p < 0.05). It is concluded that H pylori infected patients with functional dyspepsia present no distinctive symptoms by comparison with H pylori negative counterparts and H pylori infection is associated with diminished postprandial antral motility but it does not increase perception of gastric distension. PMID:7672680

Mearin, F; de Ribot, X; Balboa, A; Salas, A; Varas, M J; Cucala, M; Bartolomé, R; Armengol, J R; Malagelada, J R

1995-01-01

264

Genomic profile analysis of diffuse-type gastric cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Stomach cancer is the third deadliest among all cancers worldwide. Although incidence of the intestinal-type gastric cancer has decreased, the incidence of diffuse-type is still increasing and its progression is notoriously aggressive. There is insufficient information on genome variations of diffuse-type gastric cancer because its cells are usually mixed with normal cells, and this low cellularity has made it difficult to analyze the genome. Results We analyze whole genomes and corresponding exomes of diffuse-type gastric cancer, using matched tumor and normal samples from 14 diffuse-type and five intestinal-type gastric cancer patients. Somatic variations found in the diffuse-type gastric cancer are compared to those of the intestinal-type and to previously reported variants. We determine the average exonic somatic mutation rate of the two types. We find associated candidate driver genes, and identify seven novel somatic mutations in CDH1, which is a well-known gastric cancer-associated gene. Three-dimensional structure analysis of the mutated E-cadherin protein suggests that these new somatic mutations could cause significant functional perturbations of critical calcium-binding sites in the EC1-2 junction. Chromosomal instability analysis shows that the MDM2 gene is amplified. After thorough structural analysis, a novel fusion gene TSC2-RNF216 is identified, which may simultaneously disrupt tumor-suppressive pathways and activate tumorigenesis. Conclusions We report the genomic profile of diffuse-type gastric cancers including new somatic variations, a novel fusion gene, and amplification and deletion of certain chromosomal regions that contain oncogenes and tumor suppressors. PMID:24690483

2014-01-01

265

Gastric tissue biopsy and culture  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal results may be due to: Gastric cancer Gastritis, when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Saunders; 2010:chap 40. Lee EL, Feldman M. Gastritis and gastropathies. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ...

266

CK2? phosphorylates DBC1 and is involved in the progression of gastric carcinoma and predicts poor survival of gastric carcinoma patients.  

PubMed

CK2? has diverse effects on the tumorigenesis owing to its kinase activity, which phosphorylates various proteins involved in tumorigenesis. We, therefore, investigated the expression and role of CK2? in the phosphorylation of deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) in gastric carcinomas. We used 187 gastric carcinomas and human gastric cancer cells to investigate the roles and relationship between CK2? and DBC1 in gastric carcinomas. Positive expression of CK2? and phospho-DBC1 predicted shorter overall survival and relapse-free survival by univariate analysis. Especially, CK2? expression was an independent prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma patients. In gastric carcinoma cells, CK2? was bound to DBC1 and phosphorylated DBC1. The phosphorylation of DBC1 by CK2? was evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation of CK2? and DBC1 in a GST pull-down assay, an in vitro kinase assay, and immunofluorescence staining. Inhibition of both CK2? and DBC1 decreased proliferation and invasive activity of cancer cells. Decreased migration and invasive activity was associated with a downregulation of MMP2, MMP9 and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. A mutation at the phosphorylation site of DBC1 also downregulated the signals related with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our study demonstrated that CK2? is an independent prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma patients and is involved in tumorigenesis by regulating the phosphorylation of DBC1. In addition, the blocking of CK2? and DBC1 inhibited the proliferation and invasive potential of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, our study suggests that CK2?-DBC1 pathway might be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24962073

Bae, Jun Sang; Park, See-Hyoung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Kwon, Keun Sang; Kim, Chan Young; Lee, Hun Ku; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Ho Sung; Lee, Ho; Moon, Woo Sung; Chung, Myoung Ja; Sylvester, Karl G; Jang, Kyu Yun

2015-02-15

267

In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Identified stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type gastric cancer. •In silico pathway scanning identified estrogen-? signaling is a putative regulator of SLSGS in gastric cancer. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. -- Abstract: Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-? signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya, E-mail: sathiyapandi@gmail.com; Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

2013-10-04

268

Cyclic AMP and gastric secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports have appeared in the literature implicating cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion (1-4). Although no direct correlation has yet been established between the intracellular levels of the cyclic nucleotide and gastric secretion in vivo, the generally accepted view is that elevated intracellular levels of cyclic AMP possibly trigger increased levels of acid

M. Samir Amer

1972-01-01

269

Gastric colonization with Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapted a rat model of gastrointestinal candidiasis for studies of in vivo gastric colonization withCandida albicans. Whereas normal rats cleared a single intragastric inoculum of 5×106C. albicans from the stomach within 4 hours, rats pretreated with chloramphenicol and gentamicin achieved stable gastric colonization for at least 5 days after administration of this inoculum. We next used this model to

Ronald A. Greenfield; Wnedy A. Joyce

1993-01-01

270

Gene methylation in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

2013-09-23

271

Endovascular Management of Gastric Varices.  

PubMed

Bleeding from gastric varices is a major complication of portal hypertension. Although less common than bleeding associated with esophageal varices, gastric variceal bleeding has a higher mortality. From an endovascular perspective,transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) to decompress the portal circulation and/or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are utilized to address bleeding gastric varices. Until recently, there was a clear medical cultural divide between the strategy of decompressing the portal circulation (TIPS creation, for example) and transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices. However, the practice of BRTO is gaining acceptance in the United States and its practice is spreading rapidly. Recently, the American College of Radiology has identified BRTO to be a viable alternative to TIPS in particular anatomical and clinical scenarios. However, the anatomical and clinical applications of BRTO were not defined beyond the conservative approach of resorting to BRTO in non-TIPS candidates. The article discusses the outcomes of BRTO and TIPS for the management of gastric varices individually or in combination. Definitions, endovascular technical concepts and contemporary vascular classifications of gastric variceal systems are described in order to help grasp the complexity of the hemodynamic pathology and hopefully help define the pathology better for future reporting and lay the ground for more defined stratification of patients not only based on comorbidity and hepatic reserve but on anatomy and hemodynamic classifications. PMID:25438286

Saad, Wael E

2014-11-01

272

Malignant gastric lymphoma with spontaneous perforation.  

PubMed

Malignant gastric lymphoma, accounting only for 1% of primary gastric carcinoma, is usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Toyota et al reported that 37% of gastric perforations involved malignancy, generally gastric carcinoma. Fukuda et al found that less than 5% of malignant gastric lymphomas perforate. While it is relatively well known that perforations often take place during chemotherapy, they are rare in patients not receiving chemotherapy. To our knowledge, spontaneous perforation is rare in gastric malignant lymphoma, having been reported in the Japanese literature only 26 times, including this case, in the last 25 years. PMID:23329705

Shimada, Satoko; Gen, Tokichi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

273

Malignant gastric lymphoma with spontaneous perforation  

PubMed Central

Malignant gastric lymphoma, accounting only for 1% of primary gastric carcinoma, is usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Toyota et al reported that 37% of gastric perforations involved malignancy, generally gastric carcinoma. Fukuda et al found that less than 5% of malignant gastric lymphomas perforate. While it is relatively well known that perforations often take place during chemotherapy, they are rare in patients not receiving chemotherapy. To our knowledge, spontaneous perforation is rare in gastric malignant lymphoma, having been reported in the Japanese literature only 26 times, including this case, in the last 25?years. PMID:23329705

Shimada, Satoko; Gen, Tokichi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

274

[Protective activity of S-PT84, a heat-killed preparation of Lactobacillus pentosus, against oral and gastric candidiasis in an experimental murine model].  

PubMed

The effect of S-PT84, a heat-killed preparation of Lactobacillus pentosus on growth of Candida albicans was examined in vitro and in vivo. The mycelial growth was effectively inhibited by S-PT84 and seemed to bind to the hyphae. We assessed the potential of S-PT84 for treatment of oral and gastric candidiasis using a murine model. When 2 mg of S-PT84 was administered three times into the oral cavity of orally Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the tongue was improved on day 2. When 50 ?l and 200 ?l of S-PT84 (10 mg/ml) were administered three times into the oral cavity (0.5 mg × 3) and the stomach (2 mg × 3) of the same mouse model, the number of viable Candida cells in the stomach was reduced significantly on day 2. These findings suggest the possibility that S-PT84 has potential as a food ingredient supporting anti-Candida treatment, especially for Candida infection in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25231227

Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae; Ono, Yoshiko; Izumo, Takayuki; Ida, Masayuki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Abe, Shigeru

2014-01-01

275

Reflex gastric motor inhibition caused by intraperitoneal bradykinin: antagonism by Hoe 140, a bradykinin antagonist.  

PubMed

Bradykinin (BK) has been reported to have mixed excitatory/inhibitory effects on gastrointestinal motility. The present study examined the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of gastric motor activity caused by intraperitoneal administration of BK. Gastric motor activity was measured by recording the intragastric pressure (IGP) of phenobarbital-anesthetized rats via a transesophageal catheter. To facilitate the study of inhibitory influences, gastric motility was stimulated by neurokinin A (NKA), which on intravenous injection evoked reproducible gastric contractions as measured by a rise of IGP. Intraperitoneal injection of BK (0.1-10 nmol) inhibited the NKA-induced increase in IGP in a dose-dependent manner, and the effect of epigastric administration of BK was not significantly different from that of intraperitoneal administration. The inhibitory effect of intraperitoneal BK on gastric motility was due to an effect on BK2 receptors because it was blocked by prior intraperitoneal injection of the BK2 antagonist Hoe 140. The specificity of this BK antagonist was demonstrated by its inability to antagonize the effect of intraperitoneal hydrochloric acid (HCl), which, like BK, inhibited the NKA-induced gastric contractions. Because the BK- and HCl-induced inhibition of the NKA-induced rise of IGP was abolished by acute removal of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex, but left unaltered by acute bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, it is inferred that intraperitoneal BK inhibits gastric motor activity via activation of an autonomic reflex that involves prevertebral ganglia. PMID:1337375

Holzer, P

1992-01-01

276

Enhanced expression of long noncoding RNA CARLo-5 is associated with the development of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The identification of cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs and the investigation of their molecular and biological functions are vital for understanding the molecular biology and progression of cancer. The CARLo-5, a newly identified long non-coding RNA, was found to be upregulated in colon cancer. However, little is known about its role in gastric cancer. In the present study, a great upregulation of CARLo-5 was observed in gastric cancer compared to paired adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of CARLo-5 in gastric cancer cell lines significantly inhibited the cell proliferation via inducing G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, ERK/MAPK pathway was found to be inactivated in the gastric cells after CARLo-5 knockdown. These results indicated that CARLo-5 might serve as a pro-oncogenic lncRNA that promotes proliferation of gastric cancer and activates the ERK/MAPK pathway. PMID:25674211

Zhang, Yan; Ma, Mingzhe; Liu, Weiyong; Ding, Wenping; Yu, Honggang

2014-01-01

277

Effects of mosapride citrate, a 5-HT4-receptor agonist, on gastric distension-induced visceromotor response in conscious rats.  

PubMed

Mosapride citrate (mosapride), a prokinetic agent with 5-HT(4)-receptor agonistic activity, is known to enhance gastric emptying and alleviate symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). As hyperalgesia and delayed gastric emptying play an important role in the pathogenesis of FD, we used in this study balloon gastric distension to enable abdominal muscle contractions and characterized the visceromotor response (VMR) to such distension in conscious rats. We also investigated the effects of mosapride on gastric distension-induced VMR in the same model. Mosapride (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited gastric distension-induced VMR in rats. However, itopride even at 100 mg/kg failed to inhibit gastric distension-induced VMR in rats. Additionally, a major metabolite M1 of mosapride, which possesses 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonistic activity, inhibited gastric distension-induced VMR. The inhibitory effect of mosapride on gastric distension-induced visceral pain was partially, but significantly inhibited by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT(4)-receptor antagonist. This study shows that mosapride inhibits gastric distension-induced VMR in conscious rats. The inhibitory effect of mosapride is mediated via activation of 5-HT(4) receptors and blockage of 5-HT(3) receptors by a mosapride metabolite. This finding indicates that mosapride may be useful in alleviating FD-associated gastrointestinal symptoms via increase in pain threshold. PMID:21521930

Seto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naoyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

278

Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions  

PubMed Central

The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

2012-01-01

279

Gastric motility functional study based on electrical bioimpedance measurements and simultaneous electrogastrography.  

PubMed

For some time now, the research on gastric motility and function has fallen behind in the amount of research on gastric endocrine, exocrine secretion, and gastric morphology. In this paper, a noninvasive method to study gastric motility was developed, taking bioimpedance measurements over the gastric area simultaneously with the electrogastrography (EGG). This is based on the concept of observing and analyzing simultaneously the intrinsic electrical gastric activity (basic electric rhythm) and the mechanical gastric activity. Additionally, preliminary clinical studies of healthy subjects and subjects with functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastritis were carried out. The impedance gastric motility (IGM) measurements of the healthy and FD subjects were compared, along with the studies of the FD subjects before treatment and after one week and three weeks of treatment. We also compared IGM measurements of healthy subjects and subjects with erosive gastritis, along with the studies of the subjects with erosive gastritis before treatment and after one week of treatment. Results show that FD subjects have poor gastric motility (P<0.01). After a week of treatment, the gastric motility of FD subjects was not yet improved although the EGG had returned to normal by this time. By three weeks of treatment, the regular IGM rhythm returned in FD subjects. There was a significant difference of IGM parameters between the gastritis and healthy subjects (P<0.05). The EGG rhythm of the gastritis subjects returned to normal at one week post-treatment, while IGM parameters showed a trend to improvement (P>0.05), These results suggest the possibility of clinic application of the proposed method. PMID:22135147

Li, Zhang-Yong; Ren, Chao-Shi; Zhao, Shu; Sha, Hong; Deng, Juan

2011-12-01

280

Function and subsets of dendritic cells and natural killer cells were decreased in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells initiate specific immune responses against tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and the subsets of the DC and NK cells and the cytokines level of DC and NK cells from cancer tissue and peripheral blood in the gastric cancer patients. Cytotoxicity of DC and NK was determined using the Cytotox non-radioactive assay. The cytotoxic activity of DC or NK isolated from cancer tissue and peripheral blood was attenuated in gastric cancer patients. CD11c, CD80, CD83, CD16, CD57 and CD69 were decreased in the cancer tissue and peripheral blood in the gastric cancer patients. CD86, CCR7 and CD59 were no significance in the cancer tissue and peripheral blood from gastric cancer patients. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-2, T-bet and IL-15R? levels were decreased in DC and NK from the gastric cancer tissue and peripheral blood in the gastric cancer patients. IL-15 and IL-15R? level were no significance in DC and NK in the gastric cancer tissue and peripheral blood in the gastric cancer patients. These results indicate that the cytotoxic activity and subsets and cytokines of DC and NK cells in the cancer tissue and peripheral blood in the gastric cancer patients were decreased. The decrease of subsets content and cytokines of DC and NK may contribute to a decrease in the function of DC and NK in the tissue and peripheral blood in the gastric cancer patients. PMID:25550889

Chen, Jianping; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Jingting; Zhuang, Yun; He, Wei

2014-01-01

281

Synthesis, spectroscopic and DFT structural characterization of two novel ruthenium(III) oxicam complexes. In vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric damaging activities.  

PubMed

The reactions of ruthenium(III) chloride trihydrate with piroxicam (H2PIR) and tenoxicam (H2TEN), two widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, afforded [Ru(III)Cl2(H2PIR)(HPIR)],·1, and [Ru(III)Cl2(H2TEN)(HTEN)],·2. Both compounds were obtained as pure green solids through purification via flash column chromatography. Characterizations were accomplished through UV-vis and IR spectroscopy, potentiometry and HPLC. Quantum mechanics and density functional computational methods were applied to investigate their respective molecular structures. The experimental and computational results are in agreement with a pseudo-octahedral coordination where the two chlorido ligands are in trans positions (apical) and the two trans-N,O chelating oxicam ligands occupy the equatorial sites. Both compounds revealed an acceptable solubility and stability profile upon dissolution in a standard buffer at physiological pH. Nonetheless, the addition of biologically occurring reducing agents caused spectral changes. The two complexes manifested a poor reactivity with the model proteins cytochrome c and lysozyme: no evidence for adduct formation was indeed obtained based on a standard ESI MS analysis; in contrast, some significant reactivity with serum albumin was proved spectrophotometrically. Remarkably, both study compounds revealed pronounced anti-edema effects in vivo suggesting that the pharmacological actions of the ligands are mostly retained; in addition, they were less irritating than piroxicam on the gastric mucosa when the coordination compounds and free oxicam were administered at the same overall molar concentration of the ligand. Overall, the present results point out that ruthenium coordination may represent an effective strategy to improve the pharmacological properties of oxicam drugs reducing their undesired side effects. PMID:24518539

Tamasi, Gabriella; Bernini, Caterina; Corbini, Gianfranco; Owens, Natalie F; Messori, Luigi; Scaletti, Federica; Massai, Lara; Giudice, Pietro Lo; Cini, Renzo

2014-05-01

282

Effects of aging and gastric lipolysis on gastric emptying of lipid in liquid meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Lipid delays gastric emptying, and aging is associated with changes in gastric motor function and transit. However, little\\u000a is known about the effect of lipid on gastric emptying time in the elderly. To determine the effect of aging on lipid gastric\\u000a emptying, we used electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to study gastric emptying of liquid meals with or without lipid

Yasuyuki Nakae; Hatsumi Onouchi; Mieko Kagaya; Takaharu Kondo

1999-01-01

283

Prognostic study of gastric cancer without serosal invasion: reevaluation of the definition of early gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Early gastric cancer, a term defined by Japanese researchers in the 1960s, is equivalent to pT1 tumor stage regardless of nodal status. Recently, there were suggestions to exclude node-positive pT1 gastric cancer from this entity and to consider node-negative pT2 gastric cancer as early gastric cancer.Study Design:A survival analysis was conducted of 294 patients who underwent resection for gastric cancers

Chia-Siu Wang; Swei Hsueh; Tzu-Chieh Chao; Long-Bin Jeng; Yi-Yin Jan; Shin-Cheh Chen; Tsann-Long Hwang; Pang-Chi Chen; Miin-Fu Chen

1997-01-01

284

Multifactorial Etiology of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gastric cancer is associated with several factors including geographical location, diet, and genetic background of the host. However, it is evident that infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is crucial for the development of the disease. Virulence of the bacteria is also important in modulating the risk of the disease. After infection, H. pylori gains access to the gastric mucosa and triggers the production of cytokines that promote recruitment of inflammatory cells, probably involved in tissue damage. Once the infection is established, a cascade of inflammatory steps associated with changes in the gastric epithelia that may lead to cancer is triggered. H. pylori-induced gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastric cancer have been the focus of extensive research aiming to discover the underlying mechanisms of gastric tissue damage. This research has led to the association of host genetic components with the risk of the disease. Among these is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes, including cytokine genes, which are able to differentially modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines and then modulate the risk of gastric cancer. Interestingly, the frequency of some of these SNPs is different among populations and may serve as a predictive factor for gastric cancer risk within that specific population. However, the role played by other genetic modifications should not be minimized. Methylation of gene promoters has been recognized as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation without changing the primary structure of the DNA. Most DNA methylation occurs in cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotide, but it can also be found in other DNA bases. DNA methyltransferases add methyl groups to the CpG dinucleotide, and when this methylation level is too high, the gene expression is turned off. In H. pylori infection as well as in gastric cancer, hypermethylation of promoters of genes involved in cell cycle control, metabolism of essential nutrients, and production of inflammatory mediators, among others, has been described. Interestingly, DNA changes like SNPs or mutations can create CpG sites in sequences where transcription factors normally sit, affecting transcription. In this chapter, we review the literature about the role of SNPs and methylation on H. pylori infection and gastric cancer, with big emphasis to the H. pylori role in the development of the disease due to the strong association between both. PMID:22359309

Zabaleta, Jovanny

2013-01-01

285

Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

2014-01-01

286

Dietary free amino acids and the gastric phase of digestion.  

PubMed

In the stomach, pre-absorptive perception of food constituents is of particular importance in maintaining secretion and motility that matches the quantity and quality of nutrients. Products of food protein hydrolysis, free amino acids and short peptides, are the most potent chemical stimulants of the gastric phase of digestion. They are recognized by a variety of extracellular receptors belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, which are expressed by gastric mucosal exocrine and endocrine cells. Enteroendocrine G and D cells are likely the first level of integration of amino-acid-induced signals influencing a balance of endocrine activation and inhibition of gastric functions. This review focuses mainly on the physiological significance of dietary L-glutamate (Glu) in control of the gastric phase of digestion. The Glu signaling system in the stomach is linked to activation of the vagal afferents. In contrast to other natural amino acids, luminal Glu activates a paracrine cascade led by nitric oxide and followed by serotonin (5-HT), interacting in turn with 5- HT3 receptors on the afferent endings in the sub-mucosal layer. Glu, the only amino acid regularly ingested in a free form, enhances secretory and gastroprokinetic responses to protein- and amino-acid-rich diets but has no effect when applied alone or with carbohydrates. Possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23886390

Zolotarev, Vasiliy A

2014-01-01

287

Acute measles gastric infection.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 44-year-old man who was referred for gastroscopy because of abdominal pain. During endoscopy, inflammatory changes of the antrum and corpus mucosa were clearly visible, and biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus mucosa were taken. At histology, routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed characteristics indicative of so-called ex-Helicobacter pylori-gastritis that had developed after antibiotic treatment 2 years ago. Additional large, bizarre inclusion bodies and clusters of multinucleated giant cells were located in the surface epithelium and within the lamina propria. These giant cells had an appearance similar to that of Warthin-Finkeldey cells, which can be found during the prodromal phase of measles infection. Anti-measles virus immunochemistry showed a strong positivity for measles virus antigen within the giant cells. Based on these results, the final diagnosis of morbilliform gastritis was made. To our knowledge, no case of measles gastritis has been described in the literature. Our case report confirms the systemic character of measles virus infection and confirms that measles viral replication can involve the gastric mucosa in addition to the conjunctiva, lung, and intestina. PMID:11176076

Vieth, M; Dirshmid, K; Oehler, U; Helpap, B; von Luckner, A G; Stolte, M

2001-02-01

288

Curcumin-induced histone acetylation inhibition improves stress-induced gastric ulcer disease in rats.  

PubMed

Curcumin is known to possess anti?inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+?ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin?induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+?ATPase ? subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+?ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress?induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti?ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin?induced inhibition of the H+, K+?ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress?induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+?ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+?ATPase ? subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+?ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+?ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease. PMID:25405899

He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian

2015-03-01

289

Role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer initiation and progression  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Due to its intricate initiation and progression mechanisms, early detection and effective treatment of gastric cancer are difficult to achieve. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterized as a fundamental process that is critical for embryonic development, wound healing and fibrotic disease. Recent evidence has established that aberrant EMT activation in the human stomach is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis and tumor progression. EMT activation endows gastric epithelial cells with increased characteristics of mesenchymal cells and reduces their epithelial features. Moreover, mesenchymal cells tend to dedifferentiate and acquire stem cell or tumorigenic phenotypes such as invasion, metastasis and apoptosis resistance as well as drug resistance during EMT progression. There are a number of molecules that indicate the stage of EMT (e.g., E-cadherin, an epithelial cell biomarker); therefore, certain transcriptional proteins, especially E-cadherin transcriptional repressors, may participate in the regulation of EMT. In addition, EMT regulation may be associated with certain epigenetic mechanisms. The aforementioned molecules can be used as early diagnostic markers for gastric cancer, and EMT regulation can provide potential targets for gastric cancer therapy. Here, we review the role of these aspects of EMT in gastric cancer initiation and development. PMID:24833870

Peng, Zhao; Wang, Chen-Xiao; Fang, Er-Hu; Wang, Guo-Bin; Tong, Qiang

2014-01-01

290

Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not affect the aspirin-induced reduction in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content; however, it did ameliorate the aspirin-induced increases in mucosal activity of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels. In the next experiment, high and low doses of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were used instead of ginger powder in the same experimental model to examine their roles in the anti-ulcer mechanism of ginger. Both 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced aspirin induced ulcer formation, mucosal iNOS and plasma TNF-? and IL-1? levels. In conclusion, ginger powder prevents the aspirin induced gastric ulcer formation by reducing mucosal iNOS activity and the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines but does not affect gastric juice or acid production or mucosal PGE2 content. This protective effect of ginger powder against gastric ulcers may be attributable to both gingerol and shogaol. PMID:24031124

Wang, Zhongzhi; Hasegawa, Junichi; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

291

Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.  

PubMed

The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-?B in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-?B signalling pathway. PMID:24300194

Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

2014-02-01

292

beta-Catenin/Wnt signaling regulates expression of the membrane type 3 matrix metalloproteinase in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Activation of Wnt signaling through beta-catenin dysregulation occurs in numerous human tumors, including gastric cancer. The specific consequences of Wnt signaling in gastric cancer, however, are not well characterized. This study shows that the introduction of mutant beta-catenin into gastric cancer cell lines by adenoviral infection enhances invasiveness and proliferation and up-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family member membrane type 3 MMP (MT3-MMP). Up-regulation of MT3-MMP is critical to the invasive phenotype as shown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies. Immunohistochemical staining also showed that MT3-MMP was highly expressed in gastric cancers with activating beta-catenin mutations. These observations suggest that Wnt activation may contribute to gastric cancer progression by increasing the invasiveness of neoplastic cells in the stomach via up-regulation of MT3-MMP expression. PMID:16651426

Lowy, Andrew M; Clements, Wilson M; Bishop, John; Kong, Ling; Bonney, Tera; Sisco, Karena; Aronow, Bruce; Fenoglio-Preiser, Cecilia; Groden, Joanna

2006-05-01

293

Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6?h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600?mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-? and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

2012-01-01

294

[Ménétrier's disease and gastric carcinoma].  

PubMed

The authors report 4 cases of Menetrier's disease associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and one case of low-grade dysplasia. The patients (3 men and 2 women) were aged between 53 and 81 years. In three cases the diagnosis was established by histological examination of the exicised tumor; in one case it was based on microbiopsy specimen; and in another case on a gastric tissue specimen. The authors review the anatomo-clinical features of this association and raise the problem of the relationship between Menetrier's disease, dysplasia and cancer. PMID:16238281

Sâadia, Bouraoui; Salna, Ben Haha-Bellil; Mohamed, Jouili; Amina, Mekni; Aida, Ayadi; Latifa, Ouertani; Mohamed, Moncef Zitouna; Slim, Haouet

2005-08-01

295

The effect of thalidomide on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice: Involvement of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Excessive ethanol ingestion causes gastric mucosal damage through the inflammatory and oxidative processes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of thalidomide on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice. The animals were pretreated with vehicle or thalidomide (30 or 60mg/kg, orally), and one hour later, the gastric mucosal injury was induced by oral administration of acidified ethanol. The animals were euthanized one hour after ethanol ingestion, and gastric tissues were collected to biochemical analyzes. The gastric mucosal lesions were assessed by macroscopic and histopathological examinations. The results showed that treatment of mice with thalidomide prior to the administration of ethanol dose-dependently reduced the gastric ulcer index. Thalidomide pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6], malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, thalidomide significantly inhibited ethanol-induced nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in gastric tissue. Histological observations showed that ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was attenuated by thalidomide pretreatment. It seems that thalidomide as an anti-inflammatory agent may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced mucosal damage by inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and reducing the production of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in gastric tissue. PMID:25478868

Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

2015-01-01

296

Ulcer healing properties of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal defensive factors.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been reported to cause an increase in offensive and decrease in defensive gastric mucosal factors, the imbalance of which can cause ulceration and delay the ulcer healing. Eugenia jambolana has been documented to have both antidiabetic and antiulcer activities. The present study evaluates the effects of ethanolic extract of E. jambolana on gastric ulcer healing and on rat gastric mucosal defensive factors in gastric ulcer with co-occurring diabetes. E. jambolana extract was administered orally in the dose of 200 mg/kg once daily for 10 days. E. jambolana extract increased mucin secretion, mucosal glycoprotein and glutathione levels and decreased the lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats. Its treatment also reversed the decrease in life span of gastric mucosal cells as indicated by decreased cell shedding in the gastric juice but found to have no effect on cell proliferation, indicating enhanced defensive status. E. jambolana extract was effective in reversing the delayed healing of gastric ulcer in diabetic rats near to the normal level. E. jambolana showed better ulcer healing effect than glibenclamide, because of its both antihyperglycemic and mucosal defensive actions. It could thus, be a better choice for treating gastric ulcers co-occurring with diabetes. PMID:19810572

Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

2009-01-01

297

Gastric cancer in Italy.  

PubMed

Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis. PMID:1742542

Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

1991-01-01

298

Helicobacter pylori HP(2-20) induces eosinophil activation and accumulation in superficial gastric mucosa and stimulates VEGF-alpha and TGF-beta release by interacting with formyl-peptide receptors.  

PubMed

Eosinophils participate in the immune response against Helicobacter pylori, but little is known about their role in the gastritis associated to the infection. We recently demonstrated that the Hp(2-20) peptide derived from H. pylori accelerates wound healing of gastric mucosa by interacting with N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) expressed on gastric epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether eosinophils play a role in the repair of gastric mucosa tissue during H. pylori infection. Immuno-histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect eosinophils in gastric mucosal biopsies. Eosinophil re-distribution occurred in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients: their density did not change in the deep mucosal layer, whereas it increased in the superficial lamina propria just below the foveolar epithelium; eosinophils entered the epithelium itself as well as the lumen of foveolae located close to the area harboring bacteria, which in turn were also engulfed by eosinophils. The H. pylori-derived peptide Hp(2-20) stimulated eosinophil migration through the engagement of FPR2 and FPR3, and also induced production of VEGF-A and TGF-beta, two key mediators of tissue remodelling. We also demonstrate that Hp(2-20) in vivo induced eosinophil infiltration in rat gastric mucosa after injury brought about by indomethacin. This study suggests that eosinophil infiltrate could modulate the capacity of gastric mucosa to maintain or recover its integrity thereby shedding light on the role of eosinophils in H. pylori infection. PMID:24067461

Prevete, N; Rossi, F W; Rivellese, F; Lamacchia, D; Pelosi, C; Lobasso, A; Necchi, V; Solcia, E; Fiocca, R; Ceppa, P; Staibano, S; Mascolo, M; D'Argenio, G; Romano, M; Ricci, V; Marone, G; De Paulis, A

2013-01-01

299

Gastric dysrhythmias and the current status of electrogastrography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Myoelectrical activity recorded simultaneously from mucosal, serosal, and cutaneous electrodes has confirmed that the 3-cpm signal from such electrodes reflects gastric slow-wave activity. Now, the observation that patients with unexplained nausea and vomiting may have very rapid slow-wave frequencies (tachygastrias) and very slow, slow-wave frequencies (bradygastrias) suggests that electrogastrography, a reliable and noninvasive technique, may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with upper abdominal symptoms and gastroparesis.

Koch, K. L.

1989-01-01

300

Evidence for the gastric cytoprotective effect of centrally injected agmatine.  

PubMed

Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) exerts cytoprotective action in several tissues, such as in the brain, heart or kidneys, but there is still controversy over the effects of agmatine on the gastric mucosa. The aim of the present study was to reveal the potential gastroprotective action of agmatine by using an acid-independent ulcer model to clarify which receptors and peripheral factors are involved in it. Gastric mucosal damage was induced by acidified ethanol. Mucosal levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and somatostatin were determined by radioimmunoassay. For analysis of gastric motor activity the rubber balloon method was used. It was found that agmatine given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 0.044-220 nmol/rat) significantly inhibited the development of ethanol-induced mucosal damage, while in the case of intraperitoneal injection (0.001-50mg/kg i.p.) it had only a minor effect. The central gastroprotective action of agmatine was completely antagonized by mixed alpha2-adrenoceptor and imidazoline I1 receptor antagonists (idazoxan, efaroxan), but only partially by yohimbine (selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and AGN 192403 (selective I1 receptor ligand, putative antagonist). It was also inhibited by the non-selective opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone and the selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole, but not by ?-funaltrexamine and nor-Binaltorphimine (selective ?- and ?-opioid receptor antagonists, respectively). Furthermore, the effect of agmatine was antagonized by bilateral cervical vagotomy and by pretreatment with indomethacin and NG-nitro-l-arginine. Agmatine also reversed the ethanol-induced reduction of gastric mucosal CGRP and somatostatin content, but did not have any significant effect on gastric motor activity. These results indicate that agmatine given centrally induces gastric cytoprotection, which is mediated by central imidazoline I1 receptors, alpha2-adrenoceptors and ?-opioid receptors. Activation of these receptors induces the release of different mucosal protective factors, such as NO, prostaglandins, CGRP and somatostatin by a vagal-dependent mechanism. Alterations of gastric motility are not likely to contribute to the observed protective effect. PMID:25171957

Zádori, Zoltán S; Tóth, Viktória E; Fehér, Ágnes; Philipp, Kirsch; Németh, József; Gyires, Klára

2014-09-01

301

Remote ischemic postconditioning protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effects of remote ischemic postconditioning (RIP) against limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced gastric mucosal injury. METHODS: Gastric IR was established in male Wistar rats by placing an elastic rubber band under a pressure of 290-310 mmHg on the proximal part of both lower limbs for 3 h followed by reperfusion for 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h. RIP was performed using three cycles of 30 s of reperfusion and 30 s of reocclusion of the femoral aortic immediately after IR and before reperfusion for up to 24 h. Rats were randomly assigned to receive IR (n = 36), IR followed by RIP (n = 36), or sham treatment (n = 36). Gastric tissue samples were collected from six animals in each group at each timepoint and processed to determine levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Additional samples were processed for histologic analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Blood samples were similarly collected to determine serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-10. RESULTS: The pathologic changes in gastric tissue induced by IR were observed by light microscopy. Administration of RIP dramatically reduced the gastric damage score after 6 h of reperfusion (5.85 ± 0.22 vs 7.72 ± 0.43; P < 0.01). In addition, RIP treatment decreased the serum activities of LDH (3.31 ± 0.32 vs 6.46 ± 0.03; P < 0.01), CK (1.94 ± 0.20 vs 4.54 ± 0.19; P < 0.01) and the concentration of TNF-? (53.82 ± 0.85 vs 88.50 ± 3.08; P < 0.01), and elevated the concentration of IL-10 (101.46 ± 5.08 vs 99.77 ± 4.32; P < 0.01) induced by IR at 6 h. Furthermore, RIP treatment prevented the marked elevation in MDA (3.79 ± 0.29 vs 6.39 ± 0.81) content, XOD (7.81 ± 0.75 vs 10.37 ± 2.47) and MPO (0.47 ± 0.05 vs 0.82 ± 0.03) activities, and decrease in SOD (4.95 ± 0.32 vs 3.41 ± 0.38; P < 0.01) activity in the gastric tissue as measured at 6 h. CONCLUSION: RIP provides effective functional protection and prevents cell injury to gastric tissue induced by limb IR via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. PMID:25071347

Wang, Tao; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Chen, Xin-Nian; Zhu, An-Xiang; Wu, Bo-Hua

2014-01-01

302

Regulation of CRADD-caspase 2 cascade by histone deacetylase 1 in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

CRADD, also referred as RAIDD, is an adaptor protein that could interact with both caspase 2 and RIP that can promote apoptosis once activated. HDAC inhibitors are promising anti-cancer agents by inducing apoptosis of various cancer cells. In this study, we found that CRADD was induced by TSA (trichostatin A) to activate caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. CRADD was downregulated in gastric cancer and the restoration of its expression suppressed the viability of gastric cancer cells. HDAC1 was responsible for its downregulation in gastric cancer since HDAC1 siRNA upregulated CRADD expression and HDAC1 directly bound to the promoter of CRADD. Therefore, the high expression of HDAC1 can downregulate CRADD to confer gastric cancer cells the resistance to caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. HDAC inhibitors, potential anti-cancer drugs under investigation, can promote caspase 2-dependent apoptosis by inducing the expression of CRADD. PMID:25360218

Shen, Qi; Tang, Wanfen; Sun, Jie; Feng, Lifeng; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

2014-01-01

303

Gastric emptying of combined liquid-solid meals in healed duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

The gastric emptying rates of combined liquid and solid radioisotopically labeled meals in 47 healed duodenal ulcer subjects and 17 healthy control subjects are compared. No significant differences were found between the groups in emptying slopes and the emptying half-times or in the percent retention values at any of the counting intervals for either the liquid or solid meals. These results are compatible with the observation that the rapid gastric emptying in many patients with duodenal ulcer is associated with the disease and that healing results in a return to normal gastric emptying rates. However, since gastric emptying rates during active ulceration were not determined in our patients, a more definitive interpretation awaits a study comparing emptying rates obtained during and after healing of active ulceration in the same patient.

Moore, J.G.; McIntyre, B.; Alazraki, N.

1985-12-01

304

Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80  

PubMed Central

The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80). Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion development 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Increases in the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO; an index of neutrophil infiltration) and xanthine oxidase (XO) and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an index of lipid peroxidation) and decreases in the contents of hexosamine (a marker of gastric mucus) and adherent mucus, which occurred in gastric mucosal tissues after C48/80 treatment, were significantly attenuated by ginsenoside Re. The elevation of Bax expression and the decrease in Bcl2 expression after C48/80 treatment were also attenuated by ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated all these changes 3 h after C48/80 treatment. These results indicate that orally administered ginsenoside Re protects against C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats, possibly through its stimulatory action on gastric mucus synthesis and secretion, its inhibitory action on neutrophil infiltration, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue. PMID:24748832

Lee, Sena; Kim, Myung-Gyou; Ko, Sung Kwon; Kim, Hye Kyung; Leem, Kang Hyun; Kim, Youn-Jung

2013-01-01

305

Stem cells in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were first identified in acute myeloid leukemia and subsequently in a large array of solid tumors, play important roles in cancer initiation, dissemination and recurrence. CSCs are often transformed tissue-specific stem cells or de-differentiated transit amplifying progenitor cells. Several populations of multipotent gastric stem cells (GSCs) that reside in the stomach have been determined to regulate physiological tissue renewal and injury repair. These populations include the Villin+ and Lgr5+ GSCs in the antrum, the Troy+ chief cells in the corpus, and the Sox2+ GSCs that are found in both the antrum and the corpus. The disruption of tumor suppressors in Villin+ or Lgr5+ GSCs leads to GC in mouse models. In addition to residing GSCs, bone marrow-derived cells can initiate GC in a mouse model of chronic Helicobacter infection. Furthermore, expression of the cell surface markers CD133 or CD44 defines gastric CSCs in mouse models and in human primary GC tissues and cell lines. Targeted elimination of CSCs effectively reduces tumor size and grade in mouse models. In summary, the recent identification of normal GSCs and gastric CSCs has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular etiology of GC and will aid in the development of effective therapies to treat patients. PMID:25574084

Zhao, Yue; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Ning

2015-01-01

306

Products of neutrophil metabolism increase ammonia-induced gastric mucosal damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that ammonia is involved in the pathophysiology ofHelicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosal damage.Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic active gastritis is characterized by an invasion of neutrophils. We investigated the interrelationship among hypochlorous acid (oxidant produced by neutrophil), ammonia (product ofHelicobacter pylori urease), and monochloramine (product of ammonia and hypochlorous acid) in the development of gastric mucosal damage in rats.

Motonobu Murakami; Kensuke Asagoe; Hiroshi Dekigai; Sigeru Kusaka; Hiroshi Saita; Toru Kita

1995-01-01

307

64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

2015-01-09

308

Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5?mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200?mg/kg) was administered to rats 2?h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000?mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2012-01-01

309

Rac1 is correlated with aggressiveness and a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Rac1 is a member of the Rho GTPase family. Rac1 activity is critical in regulating cytoskeleton organization and thus, modulates a diverse spectrum of cellular functions in normal and malignant cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression pattern and clinical significance of Rac1, as well as the role of Rac1 in gastric cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. The expression of Rac1 in human gastric cancer was explored by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of Rac1 expression with the clinicopathological characteristics and the survival of patients were analyzed by Pearson's Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier analyses, respectively. Rac1 overexpression cell model was used to examine in vitro and in vivo effects of Rac1 in cell growth, migration and invasion. Rac1 was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues and correlated with differentiation, local invasion, lymph node metastasis and Lauren's classification. Rac1 expression in gastric cancer predicted shorter survival. Overexpression of Rac1 in gastric cancer cells dramatically induced Rac1 activation and rendered a more aggressive phenotype such as increased cell growth and migration/invasion in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting Rac1 activity by specific inhibitor abrogated the effects of Rac1 on the malignant phenotype. Our clinical findings demonstrated that Rac1 was well correlated with aggressiveness and a negative prognostic factor. In addition, our data on experimental cell models supported the fundamental role of Rac1 in gastric cancer. Given its pivotal role in gastric tumorigenesis and progression, Rac1 can serve as a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer. PMID:25585795

Ji, Jun; Feng, Xiaojing; Shi, Min; Cai, Qu; Yu, Yingyan; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhang, Jun

2015-03-01

310

Development and validation of a stability indicating method for seven novel derivatives of lamivudine with anti-HIV and anti-HBV activity in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids.  

PubMed

A simple micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) method has been developed and validated for use in stability indicating studies of lamivudine and its carbonate derivatives with proved activity against human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B viruses (HIV and HBV, respectively), in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids samples. The optimized method involves a C18 column thermostated at 30°C, UV detection at 272 nm, a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and a micellar mobile phase composed by 0.15M sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) - 4% (v/v) 1-butanol - 0.01 M KH2PO4-Na2HPO4 (pH 7), using zidovudine (AZT) as internal standard. Validation under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guideline of the analytical parameters include: linearity (r(2)>0.9996), LODs (1.6 × 10(-7)-6.9 × 10(-6)M) and LOQ (1 × 10(-5)M), intra (0.02-1.48%) and inter-day precision (0.04-1.66%) expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), and robustness parameters (less than 1.98%). Using this method, recoveries ranging from 92.9 to 119% were obtained for the eight substances. Thus, this method provides a simple, sensitive, accurate and precise assay for the determination of all compounds that can be readily adaptable to routine use by clinical laboratories with standard equipment. In addition, we evaluated the stability of carbonates of lamivudine in buffer pH 1.2 and 6.8; SGF (pH 1.2) and SIF one (pH 6.8), all as indicated in United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 32. Finally, this chromatographic method was applied to stability studies which resulted in all the compounds following a pseudo-first-order kinetics, and in the determination of its kinetic constant and half-life time. PMID:23454677

Gualdesi, María S; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Briñón, Margarita C; Raviolo, Mónica A

2013-05-01

311

Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer, and the lectins MPL and VVA can be used as biomarkers. PMID:24833877

Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

2014-01-01

312

Laparoscopic gatrojejunostomy for palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in unresectable gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Gastric bypass through laparotomy is required traditionally when gastric outlet obstruction occurs secondary to\\u000a a disease process (e.g., unresectable cancer). The recent trend toward minimally invasive procedures has led us to apply laparoscopic\\u000a bypass surgery for gastric obstruction caused by unresectable advanced gastric cancer. Methods: From March 1998 to February\\u000a 2000, 78 gastrojejunostomies (GJ) (45 open [OGJ] and 33

Y.-B. Choi

2002-01-01

313

Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

2014-01-01

314

Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

2010-01-01

315

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system L heteromeric amino acid transporter comprised of the LAT2-4F2hc dimer. Here we address the potential role of the system L amino acid transporter in gastric acid secretion by parietal cells in freshly isolated rat gastric glands. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of 4F2-LAT2 amino acid transporters in rat parietal cells. In addition, mRNA was detected for the B(0)AT1, ASCT2, and ATB(0+) amino acid transporters. Intracellular pH measurements in parietal cells showed histamine-induced and omeprazole-sensitive H+-extrusion which was enhanced by about 50% in the presence of glutamine or cysteine (1 mM), two substrates of system L amino acid transporters. BCH, a non-metabolizable substrate and a competitive inhibitor of system L amino acid transport, abolished the stimulation of acid secretion by glutamine or cysteine suggesting that this stimulation required the uptake of amino acids by system L. In the absence of histamine glutamine also stimulated H+-extrusion, whereas glutamate did not. Also, phenylalanine was effective in stimulating H+/K+-ATPase activity. Glutamine did not increase intracellular Ca2+ levels indicating that it did not act via the recently described amino acid modulated Ca2+-sensing receptor. These data suggest a novel role for heterodimeric amino acid transporters and may elucidate a pathway by which protein-rich diets stimulate gastric acid secretion. PMID:16308696

Kirchhoff, Philipp; Dave, Mital H; Remy, Christine; Kosiek, Ortrud; Busque, Stephanie M; Dufner, Matthias; Geibel, John P; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

2006-03-01

316

[Effect of gastric banding on pharmacotherapy: not much known].  

PubMed

Following placement of gastric banding, the time that medication remains in the proximal part of the stomach may increase variably. This can lead to problems with oral administration of enteric coated or controlled-release preparations. Problems can be avoided by changing over to another form ofa dministration or sometimes by changing to another active compound. The placement of a gastric band changes the size of the stomach opening and the volume of the functional part of the stomach. Other than oral tablets, alternative formulations of medication, such as liquid or rectal forms are not always available, sometimes the only solution for giving some medication is to ground the tablet finely into powder for oral administration. For tablets with enteric coating or controlled release changing to normal tablets is not always perceivable. Patients should receive adequate instructions for intake and information on their therapy so that they do not fail to comply with treatment if tablets have a nasty taste after being ground into powder. The fat and water balance of both obese patients and patients who are losing weight is not usually known. Patients who have gastric banding should have medication dosages especially for medication with a narrow therapeutic index followed under strict supervision and have regular blood tests so that any necessary dosage adjustments can be made. At present little data are available to provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of gastric banding on pharmacotherapy. The potential consequences ofgastric banding on pharmacotherapy, together with the increasing frequency of gastric banding surgery, emphasize the need for further research in this field. PMID:17557666

Wilting, I; van den Bemt, P M L; Brenninkmeijer, S J; Spooren, P F M J; Siemons, A A; Egberts, A C G

2007-05-19

317

Starvation Injury after Gastric Reduction for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Gastric reduction operations are designed to control body weight by establishing a small, meal-size juxtaesophageal,\\u000a gastric pouch that empties into the jejunum (gastric bypass) or the larger portion of the stomach (gastroplasty). If the outlet\\u000a of the pouch is too small, a patient may be limited to ingesting clear liquids. Vomiting then occurs if heavier liquids or\\u000a normal foods

Edward E. Mason

1998-01-01

318

Gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Recent developments in treatment modalities for gastric cancer have allowed the selection of a variety of treatments, and\\u000a this has resulted in some confusion in daily practice. The Japan Gastric Cancer Association issued the first edition of Gastric cancer treatment guidlelines in March, 2001 to provide a common basis of understanding of the extent of disease and selection of

Toshifusa Nakajima

2002-01-01

319

Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis  

SciTech Connect

Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis.

Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

1983-12-01

320

Knockdown of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor U inhibits growth and motility of gastric cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor U (PTPRU) has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in colon cancer by dephosphorylating ?-catenin and reducing the activation of ?-catenin signaling. Here, we investigate the expression of PTPRU protein in gastric cancer cell lines, gastric cancer tissues and respective adjacent non-cancer tissues and find that the 130kDa nuclear-localized PTPRU fragment is the main PTPRU isoform in gastric cancer cells, whereas the full-length PTPRU is relatively lowly expressed. The level of the 130kDa PTPRU is higher in gastric cancer tissues than in adjacent non-cancer tissues. Knockdown of endogenous PTPRU in gastric cancer cells using lentivirus-delivered specific shRNA results in the attenuation of cell growth, migration, invasion and adhesion. Knockdown of PTPRU also inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of ?-catenin as well as levels of focal adhesion proteins and lysine methylation of histone H3. These results indicate that PTPRU is required for gastric cancer progression and may serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25337216

Liu, Yongjie; Zhu, Zhichuan; Xiong, Zhiqi; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Zelan; Qiu, Jiangfeng

2014-01-01

321

Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice  

SciTech Connect

Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-?B expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-?B expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

2013-10-01

322

Minimally invasive surgery in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer has rapidly gained popularity due to the early detection of early gastric cancer. As advances in instruments and the accumulation of laparoscopic experience increase, laparoscopic techniques are being used for less invasive but highly technical procedures. Recent evidence suggests that the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer are comparable to those of conventional open surgery. However, these results should be confirmed by large-scale multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25339802

Son, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

2014-01-01

323

Benign epithelial gastric polyps--frequency, location, and age and sex distribution.  

PubMed

Prospective investigation has been undertaken with the aim to study the frequency, location and age and sex distribution of various histological types of benign gastric epithelial polyps. Histological type--adenomatous, hyperplastic and fundic gland polyps--was diagnosed on the basis of at least three histological samples taken from the polyp. Biopsy samples were also taken from the antrum and the body of the stomach so that gastritis could be graded and classified, and the presence of H. pylori could be determined by histology. All 6,700 patients, who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a one-year period, participated in this study. Among them 42 benign gastric epithelial polyp were found in 31 patients: adenomatous gastric polyps in 7 patients, hyperplastic gastric polyp in 21 and fundic gland polyp in 3 patients. All patients with hyperplastic polyps had chronic active superficial gastritis, whereas most of the patients with adenomatous polyps had a chronic atrophic gastritis with high prevalence of intestinal metaplasia. Among 21 patients with hyperplastic gastric polyps, 16 (76%) patients were positive for H. pylori infection in contrast to only 2 patients (29%) with adenomatous gastric polyps and 1 patient (33%) with fundic gland polyp. Presented data indicates that hyperplastic gastric polyps are the most common and they are associated with the presence of chronic active superficial gastritis and concomitant H. pylori infection. Adenomatous polyps are rarer and they tend to be associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Fundic gland polyp is the rarest type of gastric polyps. PMID:12137323

Ljubici?, N; Kujundzi?, M; Roi?, G; Bani?, M; Cupi?, H; Doko, M; Zovak, M

2002-06-01

324

Helicobacter pylori Promotes Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Gastric Cancer by Downregulating Programmed Cell Death Protein 4 (PDCD4)  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found in the stomach, is assumed to be associated with carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis in digestive diseases. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is an oncogenic protein of H. pylori that is encoded by a Cag pathogenicity island related to the development of gastric cancer. The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the main biological event in invasion or metastasis of epithelial cells. H. pylori may promote EMT in human gastric cancer cell lines, but the specific mechanisms are still obscure. We explored the underlying molecular mechanism of EMT induced by H. pylori CagA in gastric cancer. In our article, we detected gastric cancer specimens and adjacent non-cancerous specimens by immunohistochemistry and found increased expression of the EMT-related regulatory protein TWIST1 and the mesenchymal marker vimentin in cancer tissues, while programmed cell death factor 4 (PDCD4) and the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression decreased in cancer specimens. These changes were associated with degree of tissue malignancy. In addition, PDCD4 and TWIST1 levels were related. In gastric cancer cells cocultured with CagA expression plasmid, CagA activated TWIST1 and vimentin expression, and inhibited E-cadherin expression by downregulating PDCD4. CagA also promoted mobility of gastric cancer cells by regulating PDCD4. Thus, H. pylori CagA induced EMT in gastric cancer cells, which reveals a new signaling pathway of EMT in gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:25144746

Yu, Han; Zeng, Jiping; Liang, Xiuming; Wang, Wenfu; Zhou, Yabin; Sun, Yundong; Liu, Shili; Li, Wenjuan; Chen, Chunyan; Jia, Jihui

2014-01-01

325

A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals. PMID:1019075

Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T

1976-11-01

326

Studies on the gastric mucosal microcirculation. 2. Helicobacter pylori water soluble extracts induce platelet aggregation in the gastric mucosal microcirculation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background—The exact mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection results in gastric mucosal injury are unclear. ?Aims—To assess in vivo whether H pylori extracts could initiate an inflammatory response in the rat gastric mucosal microcirculation. ?Methods—Extracts of H pylori, Escherichia coli, or distilled water were administered topically to the gastric mucosa of anaesthetised animals. Fluorescence in vivo microscopy assessed macromolecular leakage of labelled albumin from mucosal vessels, leucocyte adherence/rolling, and platelet activity for 90minutes. ?Results—H pylori induced increases (p<0.001) in adherent platelet thrombi and circulating platelet emboli after five and 15minutes respectively. Adherent platelet thrombi (mean of four per field of view) remained significantly increased throughout the experiment, but circulating emboli (maximum of five at 30minutes) decreased with time. Leucocyte adherence did not occur although early transient rolling was observed. An 11% increase (p<0.02) in albumin leakage occurred after five minutes only. The induction of platelet aggregation was only observed following H pylori administration. ?Conclusion—This in vivo study demonstrated the ability of H pylori extracts to promote platelet aggregation within gastric mucosal microvessels. Recruitment of leucocytes was not observed. The results suggest that the early events associated with H pylori infection are platelet aggregation with perhaps subsequent leucocyte recruitment by activated platelets. ?? Keywords: gastric mucosal microcirculation; Helicobacter pylori; fluorescence in vivo microscopy; platelet aggregation; leucocytes PMID:9462206

Kalia, N; Jacob, S; Brown, N; Reed, M; Morton, D; Bardhan, K

1997-01-01

327

Innervation of the human gastric wall.  

PubMed Central

The intrinsic innervation of the human gastric wall was studied by means of (1) demonstration of the acetylcholinesterase activity, (2) fluorescence microscopy, and (3) electron microscopy. The cholinergic innervation was rich: in the mucosa, a dense three dimensional network consisting of single delicate varicose acetylcholinesterase-positive axons and small nerve fascicles was observed in close relation to the gastric glands. In the submucosa, large nerve trunks and densely woven plexuses mainly consisting of single varicose axons (obviously perivascular plexuses)) were seen. In the muscularis external, a small-meshed net consisting of single varicose axons and nerve fascicles was observed. The ganglia of the myenteric plexus were small and scattered irregularly between and within the muscle layers. Most of the nerve cells exhibited moderate to intense acetylcholinesterase activity. In the serosa, only a few nerves were observed. By fluorescence microscopy, an abundance of brightly yellow fluorescing irregularly fusiform enterochromaffin cells was observed in the epithelial lining of the antral glands. The parietal cells of the fundic glands exhibited a granular, yellow to orange autofluorescence. Fluorescing axons were seen in intimate relation to some enterochromaffin cells, whereas most enterochromaffin cells and parietal cells did not receive any direct functional adrenergic innervation. In the other tissue layers, only a few fluorescing nerves were seen. The main ultrastructural characteristics of the intrinsic innervation of the mucosa were: (1) 'Innervation fasciculée'; (2) the axons were unmyelinated; (3) two main types of nerve terminals were identified according to their vesicle population(s): (a) nerve terminals containing only clear vesicles, (b) nerve terminals containing clear vesicles and large dense-cored vesicles. Most of the axons and nerve terminals within the nerve fascicles were acetylcholinesterase-positive. The nerve terminals were separated from the gastric glands (and the parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells of their epithelial lining) by a considerable gap so that it seems unlikely that the gastric glands, parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells receive a direct innervation in the sense of synaptic neurotransmission; the transmitter substance must diffuse across a wide gap. In contrast, the endocrine cells were in close contact with the parietal cells and chief cells, and occasional membrane specialization (desmosomes) reinforce the assumption that (also) direct local humoral interaction may be possible. In addition, a large number of mast cells was observed in the lamina propria, many lying as close to glandular cells (parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells) as were the nearest nerve terminals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs. 4-6 Figs. 7(a) and 7(b) Figs. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Figs. 18-19 Figs. 20-21 PMID:7216913

Kyösola, K; Rechardt, L; Veijola, L; Waris, T; Penttilä, O

1980-01-01

328

Molecular Integrative Clustering of Asian Gastric Cell Lines Revealed Two Distinct Chemosensitivity Clusters  

PubMed Central

Cell lines recapitulate cancer heterogeneity without the presence of interfering tissue found in primary tumor. Their heterogeneous characteristics are reflected in their multiple genetic abnormalities and variable responsiveness to drug treatments. In order to understand the heterogeneity observed in Asian gastric cancers, we have performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on 18 Asian gastric cell lines. Hierarchical clustering and single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis were performed on the aCGH data together with public gene expression data of the same cell lines obtained from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. We found a large amount of genetic aberrations, with some cell lines having 13 fold more aberrations than others. Frequently mutated genes and cellular pathways are identified in these Asian gastric cell lines. The combined analyses of aCGH and expression data demonstrate correlation of gene copy number variations and expression profiles in human gastric cancer cells. The gastric cell lines can be grouped into 2 integrative clusters (ICs). Gastric cells in IC1 are enriched with gene associated with mitochondrial activities and oxidative phosphorylation while cells in IC2 are enriched with genes associated with cell signaling and transcription regulations. The two clusters of cell lines were shown to have distinct responsiveness towards several chemotherapeutics agents such as PI3 K and proteosome inhibitors. Our molecular integrative clustering provides insight into critical genes and pathways that may be responsible for the differences in survival in response to chemotherapy. PMID:25343454

Choong, Meng Ling; Tan, Shan Ho; Tan, Tuan Zea; Manesh, Sravanthy; Ngo, Anna; Yong, Jacklyn W. Y.; Yang, Henry He; Lee, May Ann

2014-01-01

329

Bile acid increases expression of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase, in gastric cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of bile acid on the expression of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which is a major enzyme involved in histamine production, and gene expression of gastric transcription factors upon cooperative activation. METHODS: HDC expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and promoter assay in human gastric precancerous tissues, normal stomach tissue, and gastric cancer cell lines. The relationship between gastric precancerous state and HDC expression induced by bile acid was determined. The association between the expression of HDC and various specific transcription factors in gastric cells was also evaluated. MKN45 and AGS human gastric carcinoma cell lines were transfected with farnesoid X receptor (FXR), small heterodimer partner (SHP), and caudal-type homeodomain transcription factor (CDX)1 expression plasmids. The effects of various transcription factors on HDC expression were monitored by luciferase-reporter promoter assay. RESULTS: Histamine production and secretion in the stomach play critical roles in gastric acid secretion and in the pathogenesis of gastric diseases. Here, we show that bile acid increased the expression of HDC, which is a rate-limiting enzyme of the histamine production pathway. FXR was found to be a primary regulatory transcription factor for bile acid-induced HDC expression. In addition, the transcription factors CDX1 and SHP synergistically enhanced bile acid-induced elevation of HDC gene expression. We confirmed similar expression patterns for HDC, CDX1, and SHP in patient tissues. CONCLUSION: HDC production in the stomach is associated with bile acid exposure and its related transcriptional regulation network of FXR, SHP, and CDX1. PMID:24415870

Ku, Hye Jin; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Hyeong Hoe; Park, Hee Ju; Cheong, Jae Hun

2014-01-01

330

Characterization and Functional Properties of Gastric Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells from Children, Adults, and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from children, adults, and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory T (TEM) phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>70%) or expressed CD103 alone (~20%). Gastric LPMC CD4+ T cells also either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>35%) or expressed at least one of these markers. Thus, gastric LPMC CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had the characteristics of TRM cells. Gastric CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells produced multiple cytokines (IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, IL-17A, MIP-1?) and up-regulated CD107a upon stimulation. However, marked differences were observed in their cytokine and multi-cytokine profiles when compared to their PBMC TEM counterparts. Furthermore, gastric CD8+ TRM and CD4+ TRM cells demonstrated differences in the frequency, susceptibility to activation, and cytokine/multi-cytokine production profiles among the age groups. Most notably, children’s gastric TRM cells responded differently to stimuli than gastric TRM cells from adults or the elderly. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of gastric TRM, which exhibit diverse functional characteristics in children, adults, and the elderly. PMID:24995010

Booth, Jayaum S.; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Patil, Seema; Kader, Howard A.; Safta, Anca M.; Czinn, Steven J.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

2014-01-01

331

Ursolic acid inhibits the invasive phenotype of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related mortality in patients with gastric cancer. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound derived from medicinal herbs, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects in various cancer cell systems. However, to the best of our knowledge, the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid on the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells has yet to be reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ursolic acid on the invasiveness of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells. Ursolic acid efficiently induced apoptosis, possibly via the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and the proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was increased by the administration of ursolic acid. In addition, ursolic acid significantly suppressed the invasive phenotype of the SNU-484 cells and significantly decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, indicating that MMP-2 may be responsible for the anti-invasive activity of ursolic acid. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ursolic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells; therefore, ursolic acid may have a potential application as a chemopreventive agent to prevent the metastasis of gastric cancer or to alleviate the process of metastasis.

KIM, EUN-SOOK; MOON, AREE

2015-01-01

332

Palliative radiation therapy for primary gastric melanoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary gastric melanoma is an exceedingly rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleeding). Prior reports of primary gastric melanoma have mostly been treated with surgery with utilization of radiation therapy being unreported. Radiation therapy has been used to palliate bleeding of other cancers including lung, bladder, cervix, and more recently primary gastric cancers. Case presentation This case documents an 87-year-old male who presented with fatigue and melena, and was found to have severe anemia. Endoscopy with biopsy revealed an isolated focus of melanoma. After discharge, he presented two days later and was found to have continued bleeding. Because he was deemed a poor surgical candidate he elected to undergo palliative radiation therapy for bleeding control. Discussion The diagnosis of primary verses metastatic melanoma is a topic of debate. Case reports of patients with no known extra-gastric primary have undergone surgical treatment with varying outcomes. Patients with metastatic gastric melanoma have relied on chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery, with radiation being used in the palliative setting. The use of radiation to control bleeding in other cancers including primary gastric adenocarcinoma has been previously studied. This case documents the utilization of radiation therapy in bleeding due to primary gastric melanoma. Conclusions Radiation therapy can provide adequate bleeding palliation in patients with primary gastric melanoma. PMID:24490048

Slater, Jason M.; Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry D.

2014-01-01

333

Simple atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric carcinoma was detected nine, 10, 18, and 21 years after the biopsy diagnosis of atrophic gastritis in four patients of a group of 40. The gastritis was presumed to be of the simple type. Tests of vitamin B12 absorption in three patients gave normal results, no gastric autoantibodies were detected in the two patients tested, in all patients histological

I. R. Walker; R. G. Strickland; B. Ungar; I. R. Mackay

1971-01-01

334

Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

335

TNF-?/TNFR1 signaling promotes gastric tumorigenesis through induction of Noxo1 and Gna14 in tumor cells.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic inflammation that contributes to gastric tumorigenesis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) is a proinflammatory cytokine, and polymorphism in the TNF-? gene increases the risk of gastric cancer. We herein investigated the role of TNF-? in gastric tumorigenesis using Gan mouse model, which recapitulates human gastric cancer development. We crossed Gan mice with TNF-? (Tnf) or TNF-? receptor TNFR1 (Tnfrsf1a) knockout mice to generate Tnf-/- Gan and Tnfrsf1a-/- Gan mice, respectively, and examined their tumor phenotypes. Notably, both Tnf-/- Gan mice and Tnfrsf1a-/- Gan mice showed similar, significant suppression of gastric tumor growth compared with control Tnf+/+ or Tnfrsf1a+/+ Gan mice. These results indicate that TNF-? signaling through TNFR1 is important for gastric tumor development. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation experiments showed that TNF-? expressed by BM-derived cells (BMDCs) stimulates the TNFR1 on BMDCs by an autocrine or paracrine manner, which is important for gastric tumor promotion. Moreover, the microarray analysis and colony formation assay indicated that NADPH oxidase organizer 1 (Noxo1) and Gna14 are induced in tumor epithelial cells in a TNF-?-dependent manner, and have an important role in tumorigenicity and tumor-initiating cell property of gastric cancer cells. Accordingly, it is possible that the activation of TNF-?/TNFR1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment promotes gastric tumor development through induction of Noxo1 and Gna14, which contribute to maintaining the tumor cells in an undifferentiated state. The present results indicate that targeting the TNF-?/TNFR1 pathway may be an effective preventive or therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:23975421

Oshima, H; Ishikawa, T; Yoshida, G J; Naoi, K; Maeda, Y; Naka, K; Ju, X; Yamada, Y; Minamoto, T; Mukaida, N; Saya, H; Oshima, M

2014-07-17

336

The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats.  

PubMed

Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H2S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1?], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35 ± 9.8 mm(2)); increased levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, and MDA (2311 ± 302.3 pg/mL, 901.9 ± 106.2 pg/mL, 121.1 ± 4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1 ± 3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3 ± 21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-?-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77 ± 5.3 mm(2)); reduced TNF-?, IL-1?, and MDA formation (1502 ± 150.2 pg/mL, 632.3 ± 43.4 pg/mL, 78.4 ± 7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7 ± 2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9 ± 40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. PMID:23969974

Nicolau, L A D; Silva, R O; Damasceno, S R B; Carvalho, N S; Costa, N R D; Aragão, K S; Barbosa, A L R; Soares, P M G; Souza, M H L P; Medeiros, J V R

2013-08-01

337

The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H2S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1?], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm2); increased levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-?-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm2); reduced TNF-?, IL-1?, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. PMID:23969974

Nicolau, L.A.D.; Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D.; Aragão, K.S.; Barbosa, A.L.R.; Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P.; Medeiros, J.V.R.

2013-01-01

338

Discovery, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel pyrrole derivatives as highly selective potassium-competitive acid blockers.  

PubMed

To discover a gastric antisecretory agent more potent than existing proton pump inhibitors, novel pyrrole derivatives were synthesized, and their H(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities and inhibitory action on histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats were evaluated. Among the compounds synthesized, compound 17a exhibited selective and potent H(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity through reversible and K(+)-competitive ionic binding; furthermore, compound 17c exhibited potent inhibitory action on histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats and Heidenhain pouch dogs. PMID:22579619

Nishida, Haruyuki; Hasuoka, Atsushi; Arikawa, Yasuyoshi; Kurasawa, Osamu; Hirase, Keizo; Inatomi, Nobuhiro; Hori, Yasunobu; Sato, Fumihiko; Tarui, Naoki; Imanishi, Akio; Kondo, Mitsuyo; Takagi, Terufumi; Kajino, Masahiro

2012-06-15

339

Gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Gomphrena celosioides on indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in Wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Context: Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders. A number of studies have been carried out to determine the efficacy of herbal medicines in the treatment of gastric ulcer. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of methanol extract of Gomphrena celosioides (GC) in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into eight groups, methanol extract of GC was administered orally, for seven consecutive to five groups. On the 7th day, indomethacin was administered to induce gastric ulceration. Gastric secretions were collected and analyzed. Results: Animals pretreated with GC extract showed a significant reduction in ulcer score, ulcer index, gastric volume, and gastric total acidity in indomethacin-induced ulcer models in a dose dependent manner when compared to the ulcerated control group. Conclusion: The study revealed gastroprotective activity of the extract in dose-dependent manner. Methanol extract of the leaves of GC was significantly effective in protecting the gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced ulcers at all the dose level studied.

Oluwabunmi, Ige Janet; Abiola, Tijani

2015-01-01

340

Manual Acupuncture and Laser Acupuncture for Autonomic Regulations in Rats: Observation on Heart Rate Variability and Gastric Motility  

PubMed Central

This study focused on the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) and manual acupuncture (MA) at different acupoints on gastric motility and heart rate variability (HRV) simultaneously to elucidate the site specific effects of acupoints and the correlation between changes of gastric motility and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Gastric motility and HRV were recorded before and during MA or LA. Stimulating PC-6 or ST-36 significantly enhanced gastric motility, while BL-21 caused no changes. In contrast, MA or LA at CV-12 significantly suppressed gastric motility. Stimulating PC-6 or ST-36 significantly increased heart rate (HR), while CV-12 or BL-21 induced no significant changes of HR. Stimulating PC-6 significantly increased LF/HF, while ST-36, CV-12, or BL-21 induced no significant effects. These results indicated that there was acupoint specificity in the effects of acupuncture on gastric motility and HRV. The stimulatory effect of MA and LA at PC-6 and ST-36 on HR was associated with sympathetic activity. The stimulatory effect of MA or LA at PC-6 or ST-36 on gastric motility was associated with vagal activity. Laser needle can be used as an alternative stimulation therapy. PMID:24348694

Yang, Zhao-Kun; Wu, Mei-Ling; Xin, Juan-Juan; He, Wei; Su, Yang-Shuai; Shi, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Hu, Ling; Jing, Xiang-Hong

2013-01-01

341

Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

1982-03-01

342

Gastric acid secretion: Changes during a century.  

PubMed

The advances in knowledge of gastric physiology within the past century have been the most exciting and important in this area of interest for many decades. The aim of this presentation consists of a comprehensive review of the extensive recent literature on this topic in order to highlight milestones in the field of gastric physiology, in particular in gastric acid secretion, gastric pathophysiology, acid-related diseases and use of acid regulatory drugs. Moreover, in the 21st century there have been many epidemiologic changes as well as a decrease of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer together with an increase of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the related increase of pomp proton inhibitor wide use. PMID:25439063

Di Mario, Francesco; Goni, Elisabetta

2014-12-01

343

Detection and location of Helicobacter pylori in human gastric carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To define the infection status of Helicobacter pylori in 109 patients with gastric cancers and H pylori localization in gastric carcinoma tissues in South China. METHODS: The incidence of H pylori infection in gastric carcinomas was estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), simultaneously; both morphological features and the localization of H pylori in gastric carcinomas

Yun-Lian Tang; Run-Liang Gan; Bi-Hua Dong; Ri-Chen Jiang; Rong-Jun Tang

2005-01-01

344

Molecular events in gastric carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer represents an important problem for the public health, being one of the main causes of mortality. At present, it represents the second cause of mortality due to cancer, after the bronchopulmonary cancer in men and the fourth cause of mortality in women. Important progresses have been made in the last couple of years in determining the neoplastic etiopathogenesis, but it cannot be affirmed that the genetic mutations chain, which leads to the appearance of the malignant cell, has been fully understood. PMID:25408758

Mahu, C; Purcarea, A P; Gheorghe, C M; Purcarea, M R

2014-09-15

345

Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer  

SciTech Connect

Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

1981-01-01

346

Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

Singh, Shree Ram

2013-01-01

347

The Traditional Japanese Medicine Rikkunshito Promotes Gastric Emptying via the Antagonistic Action of the 5-HT3 Receptor Pathway in Rats  

PubMed Central

The traditional Japanese medicine rikkunshito ameliorates the nitric oxide-associated delay in gastric emptying. Whether rikkunshito affects gastric motility associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin: 5-HT) receptors or dopamine receptors is unknown. We examined the effects of rikkunshito on the delay in gastric emptying induced by 5-HT or dopamine using the phenol red method in male Wistar rats. 5-HT (0.01–1.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.) dose dependently delayed gastric emptying, similar to the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide (0.01–1.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.). Dopamine also dose dependently delayed gastric emptying. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.04–4.0?mg?kg?1) and rikkunshito (125–500?mg?kg?1) significantly suppressed the delay in gastric emptying caused by 5-HT or 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide. Hesperidin (the most active ingredient in rikkunshito) suppressed the 5-HT-induced delayed gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner, the maximum effect of which was similar to that of ondansetron (0.4?mg?kg?1). The improvement obtained by rikkunshito or ondansetron in delaying gastric emptying was completely blocked by pretreatment with atropine. Rikkunshito appears to improve delay in gastric emptying via the antagonistic action of the 5-HT3 receptor pathway. PMID:19861508

Tominaga, K.; Kido, T.; Ochi, M.; Sadakane, C.; Mase, A.; Okazaki, H.; Yamagami, H.; Tanigawa, T.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Oshitani, N.; Arakawa, T.

2011-01-01

348

MYC, FBXW7 and TP53 copy number variation and expression in Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background MYC deregulation is a common event in gastric carcinogenesis, usually as a consequence of gene amplification, chromosomal translocations, or posttranslational mechanisms. FBXW7 is a p53-controlled tumor-suppressor that plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle exit and reentry via MYC degradation. Methods We evaluated MYC, FBXW7, and TP53 copy number, mRNA levels, and protein expression in gastric cancer and paired non-neoplastic specimens from 33 patients and also in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. We also determined the invasion potential of the gastric cancer cell lines. Results MYC amplification was observed in 51.5% of gastric tumor samples. Deletion of one copy of FBXW7 and TP53 was observed in 45.5% and 21.2% of gastric tumors, respectively. MYC mRNA expression was significantly higher in tumors than in non-neoplastic samples. FBXW7 and TP53 mRNA expression was markedly lower in tumors than in paired non-neoplastic specimens. Moreover, deregulated MYC and FBXW7 mRNA expression was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis and tumor stage III-IV. Additionally, MYC immunostaining was more frequently observed in intestinal-type than diffuse-type gastric cancers and was associated with MYC mRNA expression. In vitro studies showed that increased MYC and reduced FBXW7 expression is associated with a more invasive phenotype in gastric cancer cell lines. This result encouraged us to investigate the activity of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in both cell lines. Both gelatinases are synthesized predominantly by stromal cells rather than cancer cells, and it has been proposed that both contribute to cancer progression. We observed a significant increase in MMP-9 activity in ACP02 compared with ACP03 cells. These results confirmed that ACP02 cells have greater invasion capability than ACP03 cells. Conclusion In conclusion, FBXW7 and MYC mRNA may play a role in aggressive biologic behavior of gastric cancer cells and may be a useful indicator of poor prognosis. Furthermore, MYC is a candidate target for new therapies against gastric cancer. PMID:24053468

2013-01-01

349

Inhibition of gastric secretion in treatment of pancreatic insufficiency.  

PubMed Central

The content of pancreatic enzymes in the duodenum was studied in two patients with pancreatic achylia after a standard meal supplemented with commercial pancreatic extract. Gastric transit of the enzymes, with appearance of near-normal amounts in the duodenal contents, occurred only after inhibition of gastric secretion and buffering of residual gastric acid with antacids. Gastric inhibition and neutralisation of acid are therefore necessary for the satisfactory treatment of patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency but normal gastric function. PMID:13906

Saunders, J H; Drummond, S; Wormsley, K G

1977-01-01

350

IL-22 Negatively Regulates Helicobacter pylori-Induced CCL20 Expression in Gastric Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human gastric mucosa and causes various gastric diseases. H. pylori infection induces the production of inflammatory chemokine CCL20 in gastric mucosa and leads to gastric inflammation. Given that the IL-22/IL-22R axis plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis and inflammation of epithelial cells at barrier surfaces, we investigated the effect of IL-22 on CCL20 expression induced by H. pylori. We demonstrated that H. pylori infection of the gastric epithelia-derived AGS cells significantly induced CCL20 expression and the induction was inhibited by IL-22. Functional analysis of the CCL20 promoter revealed that the H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression required the activation of NF-?B, and that IL-22 inhibited the induction by attenuating NF-?B activation. Knockdown of endogenous STAT3 by either short interfering RNAs or a short hairpin RNA significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of IL-22. Furthermore, STAT3 phosphorylation elicited by IL-22 was crucial for the inhibition of H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression. Consistent with the in vitro data showing that IL-22 negatively regulated H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression in gastric epithelial cells, studies on the tissue sections from patients with H. pylori infection also revealed an inverse association of IL-22 expression and CCL20 expression in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that IL-22 plays a role in the control of overproduction of the inflammatory chemokine and thus may protect the gastric mucosa from inflammation-mediated damage. PMID:24824519

Chen, Jia-Perng; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Liao, Fang

2014-01-01

351

The role of oxygen radicals in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions induced in mice by feeding-restriction stress.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of oxygen radicals in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions induced by psychological stress, we exposed 3-mo-old C3H mice to feeding-restriction stress for 1 to 5 days. Serial changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the gastric mucosa, together with O2- production by macrophages, were measured. The stress increased the plasma cortisol level and started to produce acute gastric lesions (AGL) on the 2nd day. Before the development of AGL, the activity of superoxide dismutase in the gastric mucosa had already decreased and the ability of O2- production by macrophages was enhanced from the 1st day. This suggests that oxygen radicals play some role in the development of AGL induced by the stress. PMID:2595306

Nakamura, K; Aoike, A; Rokutan, K; Hosokawa, T; Koyama, K; Kawai, K

1989-01-01

352

CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

2014-01-01

353

Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

Schirmer, B D

1989-01-01

354

Quantitative assessment model for gastric cancer screening  

PubMed Central

AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66 patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food, etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD). RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%. Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory. It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer. PMID:15655813

Chen, Kun; Yu, Wei-Ping; Song, Liang; Zhu, Yi-Min

2005-01-01

355

Recognition of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing cancer from normal gastric tissue. In our study, a total of 236 Raman spectra of mucosa from 43 gastric cancer patients were obtained by NIR Raman spectroscopy system with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. After pretreatment, a comparison of the Raman spectra between cancer and normal tissues occurred. It was found that the gastric cancerous mucosa showed lower intensities at around 748, 944, and 1520cm-1, while higher at 807 and 1661cm-1, compared with normal tissue. And there was only one peak at 1022cm-1 in the spectra of normal mucosa, while there were two peaks at 1022 and 1052cm-1 in the spectra of cancerous mucosa. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify Raman spectra between cancer and normal gastric tissues. A sensitivity of 88.2%, a specificity of 91.9%, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.3% were achieved for discriminating gastric cancer from normal tissues with a Radial Basic Function (RBF) SVM algorithm. The experimental results show that Raman spectra differed significantly between cancerous and normal gastric tissue, which provides the experimental basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy technology. And RBF SVM algorithm can give the well generalized classification performance for the samples, which expands the application of mathematical algorithms in the classification.

Xu, Ming; Ma, Jun; Qu, Yefei; Mao, Weizheng; Zheng, Ronger

2009-08-01

356

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

357

Her2+ and b-HCG Producing Undifferentiated Gastric Adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old Hispanic female with a history of anemia, schizoaffective disorder, and psychosis was admitted for anemia associated with fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, night sweats, weight loss, and abdominal and lower back pain for the past two months. On routine management, she was found to have a positive serum b-HCG of 80.4 (0-5?mIU/mL) but the patient denied any sexual activity in her life. During her admission, U/S of the pelvis was noncontributory. CT angiogram of the chest was significant for prominent mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes, diffusely thickened stomach suggesting gastric malignancy with multiple hypoenhancing lesions in the liver and diffuse lytic lesions in the spine and sacrum suspicious for metastatic disease. The MRI of the abdomen confirmed the CT angiogram findings. After these findings, EGD was performed which showed lesions in the antrum, body of the stomach, fundus, and cardia on the lesser curvature of the stomach body correlating with carcinoma. The biopsy was positive for Her2, b-HCG producing poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent one successful round of chemotherapy with Taxotene, Cisplatin, and 5-FU for Stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:25349615

Eivaz-Mohammadi, Sahar; Gonzalez-Ibarra, Fernando; Abdul, Waheed; Tarar, Omer; Malik, Khurram; Syed, Amer K

2014-01-01

358

Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

Kay?l?o?lu, Selami Ilgaz; Akyol, Cihangir; Esen, Ebru; Cans?z-Ersöz, Cevriye; Kocaay, Ak?n F?rat; Genç, Volkan; Kepenekçi, ?lknur; Demirer, Seher

2014-01-01

359

Effects of exogenous nesfatin-1 on gastric distention-sensitive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and gastric motility in rats.  

PubMed

Nesfatin-1 is a novel brain-gut peptide identified in several brain regions associated with feeding and gastrointestinal function. Our study explored the effects of nesfatin-1 in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) on the activity of gastric distention (GD)-sensitive neurons, gastric motility, and the potential regulation mechanisms by the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Following retrograde injection of fluorogold (FG) into the DMV, we found that nesfatin-1/FG dual-labeled neurons were detected in the CNA, which indicates that some of the nesfatin-1-immunoreactive neurons arising from the DMV may project to the CNA. Single unit discharges in the CNA were recorded extracellularly, and gastric motility was monitored by implantation of a force transducer into the stomach of conscious rats. These results showed that nesfatin-1 administration to the CNA excited most of the GD-excitatory neurons, inhibited GD-inhibitory neurons, and dose-dependently reduced gastric motility. All of the above effects induced by nesfatin-1 could be partially blocked by pretreatment with the melanocortin 3/4 receptors antagonist, SHU9119. Electrical stimulation of the DMV excited the majority of the nesfatin-1-responsive GD neurons in the CNA. Additionally, pretreatment with an anti-NUCB2/nesfatin-1 antibody in the CNA increased the firing rate of nesfatin-1-responsive GD-inhibitory neurons but decreased the firing rate in nesfatin-1-responsive GD-excitatory neurons following electrical stimulation of the DMV. Finally, a subdiaphragmatic vagotomy eliminated the diminished gastric motility induced by nesfatin-1 injection. Taken together, these findings suggest that nesfatin-1 regulates the activity of GD-sensitive neurons and gastric motility via the melanocortin pathway in the CNA. Furthermore, the DMV may be involved in this regulatory pathway. PMID:25220707

Wang, Qiaoling; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Gao, Shengli; Li, Zhiling; Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo

2014-10-17

360

Epigenetic silencing of miR-210 increases the proliferation of gastric epithelium during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection  

PubMed Central

Persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) elicits chronic inflammation and aberrant epithelial cell proliferation, which increases the risk of gastric cancer. Here we examine the ability of microRNAs to modulate gastric cell proliferation in response to persistent Hp infection and find that epigenetic silencing of miR-210 plays a key role in gastric disease progression. Importantly, DNA methylation of the miR-210 gene is increased in Hp-positive human gastric biopsies as compared with Hp-negative controls. Moreover, silencing of miR-210 in gastric epithelial cells promotes proliferation. We identify STMN1 and DIMT1 as miR-210 target genes and demonstrate that inhibition of miR-210 expression augments cell proliferation by activating STMN1 and DIMT1 . Together, our results highlight inflammation-induced epigenetic silencing of miR-210 as a mechanism of induction of chronic gastric diseases, including cancer, during Hp infection. PMID:25187177

Kiga, Kotaro; Mimuro, Hitomi; Suzuki, Masato; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Kobayashi, Taira; Sanada, Takahito; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Iwasaki, Yuka W.; Kayo, Hiroyuki; Fukuda-Yuzawa, Yoko; Yashiro, Masakazu; Fukayama, Masashi; Fukao, Taro; Sasakawa, Chihiro

2014-01-01

361

Diabetes and gastric cancer: the potential links.  

PubMed

This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be explored for the clarification of the association between diabetes and gastric cancer. PMID:24587649

Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

2014-02-21

362

Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference  

PubMed Central

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation. PMID:21734019

Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R.; Spector, Alan C.; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

363

Alternative Technique for Creation of a Proximal Gastric Pouch in Laparoscopic Adjustable Silicone Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (LASGB) has become a widely used procedure for the treatment\\u000a of morbid obesity. The original operation, as described by Kuzmak, has been subjected to modifications. Construction of a\\u000a proximal gastric pouch is an important part of the operation. Until now, we used the technique of Niville. Since this was\\u000a often complicated by gastric bleeding

Anne Cardon; Frido Berrevoet; Uwe Hesse; Bernard de Hemptinne

1999-01-01

364

Effects of Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding on Glucose Kinetics and Gut Hormone Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Bariatric surgery markedly improves glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes even before any significant weight loss is achieved. Procedures that involve bypassing the proximal small bowel, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), are more efficient than gastric restriction procedures such as gastric banding (GB).Objective:To evaluate the effects of RYGBP and GB on postprandial glucose kinetics and gastro-intestinal hormone

Frédérique Rodieux; Vittorio Giusti; David A. D'Alessio; Michel Suter; Luc Tappy

2008-01-01

365

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings of gastric lymphoma: Comparisons with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in numerous malignant tumors, including gastric lymphoma, is well-established. However, there have been few studies with regard to the 18F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to characterize the 18F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma, which were compared with those of gastric cancer. Prior to treatment, 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed on 24 patients with gastric lymphoma and 43 patients with gastric cancer. The 18F-FDG PET/CT pattern of gastric wall lesions was classified as one of three types: Type I, diffuse thickening of the gastric wall with increased FDG uptake infiltrating more than one-third of the total stomach; type II, segmental thickening of the gastric wall with elevated FDG uptake involving less than one-third of the total stomach; and type III, local thickening of the gastric wall with focal FDG uptake. The incidence of the involvement of more than one region of the stomach was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma than in those with gastric cancer. Gastric FDG uptake was demonstrated in 23 of the 24 patients (95.8%) with gastric lymphoma and in 40 of the 43 patients (93.0%) with gastric cancer. Gastric lymphoma predominantly presented with type I and II lesions, whereas gastric cancer mainly presented with type II and III lesions. The maximal thickness was larger and the maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma compared with those with gastric cancer. A positive correlation between the maximal thickness and SUVmax was confirmed for the gastric cancer lesions, but not for the gastric lymphoma lesions. There was no difference in the maximal thickness and SUVmax of the gastric wall lesions between the patients without and with extragastric involvement, for gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer. Overall, certain differences exist in the findings between gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer patients on 18F-FDG PET/CT images, which may contribute to the identification of gastric lymphoma. PMID:25202405

WU, JIANG; ZHU, HONG; LI, KAI; WANG, XIN-GANG; GUI, YI; LU, GUANG-MING

2014-01-01

366

Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers  

PubMed Central

Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers. However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:16718845

Gallo, Amy; Cha, Charles

2006-01-01

367

Gastric mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the predominant entity within the primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Helicobacter pylori represents the decisive pathogenetic factor for gastric MALT lymphoma. The goal of treating gastric MALT lymphoma should be complete cure. The first choice of treatment is H pylori eradication. Patients with histologically persistent residual lymphoma after successful H pylori eradication and normalization of endoscopic findings should be managed by a watch-and-wait strategy. Patients who do not respond to H pylori eradication should be referred for radiation or chemotherapy. PMID:23639646

Fischbach, Wolfgang

2013-06-01

368

L-745,337: a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 elicits antinociception but not gastric ulceration in rats.  

PubMed

L-745,337 [5-methanesulphonamido-6-(2,4-difluorothiophenyl)-1-indan one] a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor reversed hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan in rats without causing gastric ulceration at doses 100 times those causing antinociception. In contrast, piroxicam and indomethacin produced ulcerations at antinociceptive doses. These findings demonstrate that L-745,337 possesses antinociceptive activity but has a reduced liability for gastric ulceration. PMID:7760984

Boyce, S; Chan, C C; Gordon, R; Li, C S; Rodger, I W; Webb, J K; Rupniak, N M; Hill, R G